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Sample records for jujube ziziphus jujube

  1. Micropropagation of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba

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    A. Khazaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba is one of the most important fruit trees in Asia which has been planted from 3,000 years ago in China for medicinal purposes. Jujube belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. The Jujube fruit is used in fresh and dry forms. The fruit is full of vitamin C and has anticancer and medicinal effects. This tree can grow on salty and dry lands in Iran. Therefore, increasing the cultivation area of Jujube can be effective for soil conservation. In the last 20years, cultivation of Jujube is is considerable in Iran specially in the South Khorasan Province and 98 % of total production of Jujube in Iran belongs to this province. The low rate of seed germination and low production of shootlets are the most important problems in Jujube proliferation, so micropropagation of this plant through tissue culture was considered. Materials and methods: In this study, Cangan ecotype of Jujube was used for multiple shoot regeneration. At the end of May, apical buds of shoots were cut from mature trees of the Research Collection of Jujube at Sarbishe, Birjand, South Khorasan Province in Iran. The buds were disinfected with 70% ethanol for 1 min and 2% sodium hypoclorite for 25 min. Then the buds were rinsed with distilled water for 25 min completely. Apical buds were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L in combination with IBA or NAA (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/L. After one month, the shoots with 3-5 cm length were transferred to rooting media (1/2 MS + IBA or IAA : 0.5, 2, 5, 10 mg/L. The data were recorded after shooting and rooting and were analysed in the facorial experiment. Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis and mean comparisons showed that there are differences between different levels of IBA and BA alone for the number of shoots and their length (P

  2. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

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    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  3. Floral Biology of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. I: The Formation of Microspores and Development of Male Gametes

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    Feng Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujube Mill is an economically important fruit tree, cultivated on marginal lands on a commercial scale, especially in China. In order to elucidate the microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis formation in Chinese jujube, a cultivar named ‘Lizao’ was employed for microscopy analysis. The results are showed that ‘Lizao’ was four ventricles in each anther and the anther wall was 4 to 5 layers. Its primary anther wall consisted of the epidermis, 1-2 layers endothecium, middle and glandular tapetum layers. The development of the anther wall conformed to the basic type. The meiosis in the microspore mother cells were belonged to a simultaneous type and most of the microspores were arranged in a tetrahedron shape in the tetrads. In the later May, the shape of pollen was a triangular germination vale with three germinal furrow and the mature pollen was of 2-cell type. Floral emergence and development lasted for 1 months-from later April to later May. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the Z. jujube ‘Lizao’, suggesting that microsporogensis development may not be factors in the low seed production in the Z. jujube. This study provides the basis for understanding the biological mechanism regulating sexual reproduction, thus expanding the prospects for Z. jujube breeding programs and for further molecular and genetic studies of this species.

  4. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Iranian Jujube Ecotypes (Ziziphus spp. Using RAPD Molecular Marker

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    S Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is a valuable medicinal plant which is important in Iranian traditional medicines. Although the regional plants such as jujube play an important role in our economy, but they are forgotten in research and technology. Considering the economic and medicinal importance of jujube, the first step in breeding programs is determination of the genetic diversity among the individuals. 34 ecotypes of jujube, which have been collected from eight provinces of Iran, were used in this study. The genetic relationships of Iranian jujube ecotypes were analyzed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker. Six out of 15 random decamer primers applied for RAPD analysis, showed an informative polymorphism. According to clustering analysis using UPGMA's methods, the ecotypes were classified into two major groups at the 0.81 level of genetic similarity. The highest value of similarity coefficient (0.92 was detected between Mazandaran and Golestan ecotypes and the most genetic diversity was observed in ecotypes of Khorasan-Jonoubi. The affinity of Khorasan-Jonoubi and Esfahan ecotypes indicated a possible common origin for the variation in these areas. Results indicated that RAPD analysis could be successfully used for the estimation of genetic diversity among Ziziphus ecotypes and it can be useful for further investigations.

  5. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  6. Antitumor activity of aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujube fruit in breast cancer:An in vitro and in vivo study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reyhane Hoshyar; Zabihollah Mohaghegh; Nihad Torabi; Aliyeh Abolghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate various therapeutic effects of medicinal plant Ziziphus jujube (Z. jujube), such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Methods: The present study was conducted to assess the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Z. jujube fruit on the proliferation of breast cancer cells by MTT assay and the antioxidant by FRAP, haematological and biochemical alterations caused by NMU-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into five groups, control group A (n=10), Z. jujube control group B (n=10), NMU control group C (n=15), Z. jujube treatment group D (n=15) and Z. jujube prevention group E (n=15). At the end of the experimental period, all the animals were euthanized and blood was collected by heart puncture. Results:The Z. jujube revealed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against an MDA-MB-468 cell line and its treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased the total antioxidant capacity when compared to the NMU control group C. Z. jujube exhibited a preventive effect against anaemia, lymphocytosis and neutrophilia in group D and group E, when compared to group C. Biochemical analyses showed normal levels of enzymes of the liver in the Z. jujube treated groups: B, D and E rats, whereas NMU control group C showed significant (P<0.05) decreases in ALT, AST, albumin and total protein levels, and significant (P<0.05) increases in ALP and LDH. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the Z. jujube ameliorates the adverse effects of NMU carcinogenesis and could be useful for treating mammary tumours in humans.

  7. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

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    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-12-12

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  8. Immunomodulating and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide conjugates from the fruits of Ziziphus Jujube on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome rats.

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    Chi, Aiping; Kang, Chenzhe; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Liang; Guo, Huanhuan; Li, Hong; Zhang, Kunru

    2015-05-20

    To detect the treatment effect of the fruits of Ziziphus Jujube in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Jujube polysaccharide conjugates (JPC) were isolated from the fruits of Z. Jujube. General physicochemical properties of JPC were analyzed. A four-week rats CFS model was established and JPC were orally administrated, the behavior experiments were conducted after CFS. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were elevated and T lymphocyte proliferation, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and natural killer (NK) cells activity were analyzed. JPC markedly improved behaviors of CFS rats, also decreased MDA levels in serum, and elevated T lymphocyte proliferation, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and natural killer (NK) cells activities. This suggests that JPC can improve the immune system and antioxidant activity of CFS rats and might be regarded as a biological response modifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

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    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  10. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process

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    Sheng Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba, a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic diversity in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill..

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    Siqi Wang

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n = 2× = 24, Rhamnaceae is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba 'Dongzao' using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87% primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for 'Dongzao'. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars.

  12. Comparison of drip, pipe and surge spring root irrigation for Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. fruit quality in the Loess plateau of China.

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    Qing-Han Gao

    Full Text Available Loess Plateau is a typical rain-fed farming region, facing the threat of drought. Irrigation method is among the most important factors affecting jujube quality. This study investigated the response of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lizao quality to three different irrigation methods (drip-, pipe- and surge spring root irrigation combining two water levels (20 m(3/hm(2 and 120 m(3/hm(2. The effects of the trials were evaluated by taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of jujubes and the antioxidant activity. Concomitant to this, the concentration of some taste-related (viz. glucose, fructose, TSS and malic acid and health-related compounds/parameters (viz. catechin and epicatechin were generally much greater in jujube fruit treated with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2. Different irrigation treatments had no significant effects on antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and proanthocyanidins (except for pipe irrigation 20 m(3/hm(2. The best compromise between quality and irrigation of jujube fruit was achieved with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2.

  13. De novo assembly and characterization of the fruit transcriptome of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Using 454 pyrosequencing and the development of novel tri-nucleotide SSR markers.

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    Yingyue Li

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is an economically important deciduous tree that has high therapeutic value and health benefits. However, a lack of sequence data and molecular markers have constrained genetic and breeding studies for better fruit quality and other traits in Chinese jujube. In this study, two combined cDNA libraries of 'Dongzao' fruit representing the early and late stages of fruit development were constructed and sequenced on the 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. In total, 1,124,197 reads were generated and then de novo assembled into 97,479 unigenes. A total of 52,938 unigenes were homologous to genes in the NCBI non-redundant sequence database. A total of 33,123 unigenes were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms, and 16,693 unigenes were classified into 319 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The results showed that the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway was the main pathway for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in Chinese jujube. The number of differentially expressed genes between the two stages of fruit development was 1,764, among which 974 and 790 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. Furthermore, 9,893 sequences were identified containing SSRs. 93 primer pairs designed from the sequences with a tri-nucleotide repeat showed successful PCR amplification and could be validated in Chinese jujube accessions and Z. mauritiana Lam and Z. acidojujuba as well, of which 71 primer pairs were polymorphic. The obtained transcriptome provides a most comprehensive resource currently available for gene discovery and the development of functional markers in Z. jujuba. The newly developed microsatellite markers could be used in applications such as genetic linkage analysis and association studies, diversity analysis, and marker-assisted selection in Chinese jujube and related species.

  14. Studies of stirred jujube yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑强强; 薛菊兰; 刘亚丽; 秦婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Jujube is a delicious sweet fruits, with the functions of anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-aging, reducing blood pressure, improving immunity and so on [1]. Yogurt is a kind of high nutritional value and special flavor drinks. Its protein is easily digested and absorbed, especial y calcium. In this experiment, dry jujube and fresh milk as the main material to obtain solidified yoghurt. Then researched how the amounts of solidified yoghurt, sugar, jujube slurry to effect the yogurt quality. The results showed that: the best proportion of stirred yogurt: jujube slurry 15%, sugar 4%and yoghurt85%.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on some physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba var vulgaris) fruit

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    Najafabadi, Najmeh Shams; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Esfahani, Zohreh Hamidi

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the protection of bioactive compounds and a safe alternative method for preservation of processed fruits and fruit juices has recently increased significantly throughout the world. There is a distinct lack of information on the profile of bioactive compounds in jujube fruit (e.g. organic acids, anthocyanins, and water-soluble vitamins) and their changes during processing (e.g. gamma irradiation). Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at different doses (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 kGy) on some physicochemical properties and the bioactive compounds of jujube fruit was investigated. The total soluble solids (TSSs) values remained unaffected at various doses, while the level of total acidity (TA) showed a slight increase at doses ≥ 2.5 kGy (p ≤ 0.05). Irradiation up to 2.5 kGy caused a significant increase in the total monomeric anthocyanin and the total phenolic content (about 12% and 6%, respectively), but a significant decrease was observed in both parameters immediately after irradiation at 5 kGy. Moreover, irradiation treatment caused a significant decrease in L* value and a significant increase in a* and b* values (P ≤ 0.05); however, changes of color were slight until the dose of 5 kGy. Gamma irradiation up to 2.5 kGy had no significant effect on the concentration of malic, citric and succinic acids, while the level of ascorbic acid decreased significantly at all irradiation doses (0-5 kGy). Cyanidin-3, 5-diglucoside was determined as the major anthocyanin in the jujube fruit studied (about 68%), which was reduced significantly when 5 kGy of irradiation was applied (degradation percentage: 27%). The results demonstrated that vitamins C, B2 and B1 are the most water-soluble vitamins in jujube fruit, respectively. Vitamins C and B1 content significantly decreased at all applied doses (0-5 kGy), whereas B2 content at doses ≤ 2.5 kGy was not significantly affected. The results of this study indicate that gamma irradiation at

  16. Short-Term Effects of Oral Feeding Jujube Ziziphus Solution before a Single Session of Circuit Resistance Exercise on Apoptosis of Human Neutrophil

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    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was the effect of short-term use of edible solution of jujube one week before a single session of circuit resistance exercise on neutrophil apoptosis of male students of physical education. 14 young male volunteer students were divided into two groups of placebo (n=7, aged 24.50±2.50, height 171.17±1.70, and weight 67.51±4.92 and jujube solution (n=7, aged 25.25±1.31, height 179.75±3.63, weight 74.07±5.78 at random, performing one circuit resistance exercise (9 moves/stops, 30 seconds for each exercise, 3 nonstop sets with a 3-minute active recession between sets, 10-14 repetitions, and an intensity of 70% maximum repetition. Subjects received placebo and jujube solutions (0.5 g/kgbody weight in 2.5cc of distilled water as long as 7 days at certain times and double-blind. Blood samples were collected 30 minutes before, immediately, and 2 hours after the exercise for separation and counting the number of neutrophils, and neutrophil apoptosis was determined through AnexinV-FITC kit and flow cytometric method. The results indicated the significant response of initial apoptosis neutrophils to one course of activity by jujube group. However, different responses were observed between two groups of placebo and jujube during the recession after training. Unlike placebo group, the response was significantly lower with a greater decrease after training in jujube group. However, necrosis/delayed apoptosis neutrophils significantly increased in placebo group after 2 hours, while this change was not observed in jujube group. At the end of a 2-hour recession, delayed apoptosis neutrophils significantly decreased in both placebo and jujube groups. The present findings indicate that one-session resistance activity is not very effective after pretreatment with jujube solution during one week. Perhaps this useful effect of jujube can be explained by existing glucose compounds and amino acids which could provide neutrophils with

  17. The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.

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    Liu, Meng-Jun; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Qing-Le; Liu, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Rui; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ping; Dai, Li; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Xian-Song; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Lin, Min-Juan; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Ying-Ying; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Bin; Ma, Yong; Jian, Jian-Bo; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Zan; Sun, Xue-Chao; Wei, Yan-Li; Yu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Sheng-Guang; He, Rong-Jun; Guang, Xuan-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yue-Yang; Luo, Long-Hai

    2014-10-28

    The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.

  18. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  19. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea.

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    Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-06-22

    Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit

  20. Identification of marker compounds for Japanese Pharmacopoeia non-conforming jujube seeds from Myanmar.

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    Oshima, Naohiro; Zaima, Kazumasa; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Hamato, Akane; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kang, Dong Hyo; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi; Maruyama, Takuro

    2015-01-01

    Jujube seed is a crude drug defined as the seed of Ziziphus jujuba Miller var. spinosa Hu ex H.F. Chou (Rhamnaceae) in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP). Most of the jujube seed in the Japanese markets is imported from China, with the rest obtained from other Asian countries. Here we confirmed the botanical origins of jujube seeds from both China and Myanmar by a DNA sequencing analysis. We found that the botanical origins of the crude drugs from China and Myanmar were Z. jujuba and Z. mauritiana, respectively. Although the jujube seed from China conforms to the JP, that from Myanmar does not. A method for discriminating jujube seeds from China and Myanmar using a chemical approach is thus desirable, and here we sought to identify a compound specific to Z. jujuba. Jujuboside A (1) was identified as a compound specific to Z. jujuba. To establish a purity test of Jujube Seed in the JP against Z. mauritiana, we fractionated the extract of Z. mauritiana seeds and identified frangufoline (2) and oleanolic acid (4) as the marker compounds specific to Z. mauritiana. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the latter compound was useful for testing by TLC analysis. The established TLC conditions were as follows: chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:EtOAc:HCOOH = 10:5:1; developing length, 7 cm; visualization, diluted sulfuric acid; R f value, 0.43 (oleanolic acid).

  1. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. under a Variety of Conditions.

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    Jiaodi Bu

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1, Histone-H3 (His3, and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH, and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions.

  2. Study on the Quality Control of Chinese Jujube Wine Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-shan; CHEN Jin-ping; LI Hui-yun

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation processes were studied,with an aim of improving the quality of Chinese jujube wine.Results showed the quality of the wine made from fresh Chinese jujube and dried Chinese jujube were similar,but wine made from excessively dried Chinese jujube showed decreased quality.The reducing sugar content in Chinese jujube juice extracted by pectic enzymes was higher than the reducing sugar content extracted by hot water,however,methanol content in wine extracted by pectic enzymes also increased.Therefore the hot water extraction method is recommended for fermentation of Chinese jujube wine.Fermentation using vacuum concentrated Chinese jujube juice was more effective than that using filtered juice readjusted to 20% soluble solid content .(SSC) with sucrose or glucose.The inoculation of 0.3% Saccharomyces ellipsodieus Strain was suitable for fermentation of Chinese jujube wine.Fermentation was carried out at 21-25℃.The concentration of SO2 in wine affected fermentation time and the optimum additional amount was 40 mg L-1.Post fermentation storage in oak barrel improved the quality of Chinese jujube wine,as did 4.5% diatomite filtration.

  3. “金丝4号”枣大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育%Sporogenesis and gametophytes development in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv.‘jinsi No.4’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹锋; 袁德义; 段经华; 廖婷; 冯延芝; 高超

    2013-01-01

    为探明枣有性生殖过程中是否存在生殖障碍,以“金丝4号”枣为试材,采用石蜡切片技术,对其大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育过程进行了观察.结果表明:“金丝4号”枣花药为4室,花药壁4~5层,分别为表皮、1~2层药室内壁、中层和腺质绒毡层,花药壁的发育属于基本型;小孢子母细胞胞质分裂为同时型,四分体排列多为正四面体;花粉为三角形,具3个萌发孔,3沟,成熟花粉为2-细胞型;大孢子母细胞经减数分裂中期、后期、末期形成的四分体大孢子呈线型排列,合点端的功能大孢子经过3次有丝分裂,最后形成7细胞8核胚囊;倒生胚珠,双珠被,厚珠心,蓼型胚囊.%In order to test whether there was any obstacle of reproduction in the process of sexual reproduction,the microsporogenesis,megasporogensis and development of male and female gametophytes in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ were observed by paraffin section technique.The results show that each anther in Z.jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ has four cells,anther wall is from four to five layers,which are the epidermis,1-2 layers of endothecium,middle layer and glandular tapetum layers,and the development of anther wall is of basic type.The meiosis in the microspore mother cells is belonged to simultaneous type,and the most of the tetrads are arranged in a regular tetrahedron shape.The shape of pollen is triangular with three germination pores and three furrows,and the ripened pollen is of 2-cell type.The megaspores in tetrad are in a linear arrangement,which form from megaspore mother cell through middle period,later period and end period of meiosis.After three times mitosis,the functional megaspore at chalazal end forms a embryo sac with seven cells and eight nucleus.The ovule is anatropous,two integuments,crassinucellate.The development of embryo sac is belong to Polygonum type.

  4. Thin-Layer Drying Characteristics and Modeling of Chinese Jujubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Kang Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of jujubes in a convective dryer was established under controlled conditions of temperature and velocity. The drying process took place both in the accelerating rate and falling rate period. We observed that higher temperature reduced the drying time, indicating higher drying rates of jujubes. The experimental drying data of jujubes were used to fit ten different thin-layer models, then drying rate constants and coefficients of models tested were determined by nonlinear regression analysis using the Statistical Computer Program. As for all the drying models, the Weibull distribution model was superior and best predicted the experimental values. Therefore, this model can be used to facilitate dryer design and promote efficient dryer operation by simulation and optimization of the drying processes. The volumetric shrinkable coefficient of jujubes decreased as the drying air temperature increased.

  5. Plant density affects light interception and yield in cotton grown as companion crop in young jujube plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, D.; Zhang, L.; Liu, Jianguo; Han, S.; Wang, Q.; Evers, J.B.; Liu, Jun; Werf, van der W.; Li, L.

    2014-01-01

    Tree-crop mixturesmayincreaseyieldandrevenueespeciallyduringtheearlyyearsoftreeplantations. Jujube isgrownwidelyinChinafortheirfruits,andcottonisgainingpopularityasanunderstorycropin young jujubeplantations.Thereisaneedforinformationonproductivityandoptimalplantingdensities of cottoninthesemixedsyst

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of drought stress responsive abscisic acid-stress-ripening (Asr 1) gene from wild jujube, Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Yadav, Radha; Tarafdar, Avijit; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Kumar, Kanika; Sivalingam, Palaiyur Nanjappan

    2016-08-01

    Drought is a calamitous abiotic stress hampering agricultural productivity all over the world and its severity is likely to increase further. Abscisic acid-stress-ripening proteins (ASR), are a group of small hydrophilic proteins which are induced by abscisic acid, stress and ripening in many plants. In the present study, ZnAsr 1 gene was fully characterized for the first time from Ziziphus nummularia, which is one of the most low water forbearing plant. Full length ZnAsr 1 gene was characterised and in silico analysis of ZnASR1 protein was done for predicting its phylogeny and physiochemical properties. To validate transcriptional pattern of ZnAsr 1 in response to drought stress, expression profiling in polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced Z. nummularia seedlings was studied by RT-qPCR analysis and heterologous expression of the recombinant ZnAsr1 in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the complete open reading frame of ZnAsr 1 is 819 bp long encoding a protein of 273 amino acid residues, consisting of a histidine rich N terminus with an abscisic acid/water deficit stress domain and a nuclear targeting signal at the C terminus. In expression studies, ZnAsr 1 gene was found to be highly upregulated under drought stress and recombinant clones of E. coli cells expressing ZnASR1 protein showed better survival in PEG containing media. ZnAsr1 was proven to enhance drought stress tolerance in the recombinant E.coli cells expressing ZnASR1. The cloned ZnAsr1 after proper validation in a plant system, can be used to develop drought tolerant transgenic crops.

  7. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  8. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  9. Effects of pruning intensity on jujube transpiration and soil moisture of plantation in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhenyi; Wang, Xing; Wang, Youke; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Xinguang; Chen, Dianyu

    2017-01-01

    In order to ease soil desiccation and prevent ecological deterioration in the Loess Plateau, where jujube (Zizyphus jujube MIll) is widely cultivated as a drought tolerant plant, four pruning intensities (PI), from PI-1 (light) to PI-4 (heavy) were set up based on total length of secondary branches to study the effects of pruning on transpiration and soil moisture in jujube plantations. Furthermore, growth indexes were regularly monitored to estimate jujubes biomass. Sap flow, meteorological and soil moisture conditions were monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP), weather station (RR-9100) and the combination of time domain transmission (TDT) technology and neutron moisture gauges (CNC503B), respectively. The results showed that daily actual transpiration of jujube was positively correlated with leaf biomass. Compared with PI-1, jujube transpiration during growth period under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 dropped by 11.1%, 29.2%, and 47.9%, respectively. On the contrary, annual water storage under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 increased by 6.29 mm, 25.78 mm and 34.74 mm while water use efficiency increased by 5.1%, 15.7% and 24.2%, respectively. Overall, increase in pruning intensity could significantly reduce water consumption of jujube and improve soil moisture in jujube plantations.

  10. Enhancing the Organoleptic and Functional Properties of Jujube by a Quick Aging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Min-Ah; Kim, Jung-Seok; Park, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2013-01-01

    Black jujube was made by aging dried jujube and its physiochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The moisture and sugar contents were increased depending on the period of aging times and the pH was reduced thereby increasing acidity. The color of black jujube extract was changed from red to black resulting in decreases of Hunter color values L, a and b. As the aging progressed, sucrose was decomposed by increasing glucose and fructose, indicating higher contents of the total reducing sugars. Among the six different types of organic acids extracted from dried jujube, the levels of oxalic acid and citric acid were increased as the aging progressed. The total polyphenol contents in ethanol and water extracts of dried jujube were 7.74 and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. The water extract of black jujube aged for 48 hr contained the highest polyphenol contents at 16.82 mg/g. The 5’-hydroxymethylfurfural (5’-HMF) contents of black jujube extract significantly increased by longer aging times, and contained higher contents in the ethanol extract than water extract. The ethanol extract of black jujube showed the highest 5’-HMF content with 338.89 mg% after aging for 3 days. Also, IC50 values of black jujube aged for 72 hr evaluated by DPPH and ABTS radical assays were 0.54 and 0.59 mg/mL, respectively. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of black jujube at the concentration of 3.33 mg/mL (ethanol extract) increased from 65 to 80 % after aging for 72 hr. PMID:24471110

  11. Accumulation properties of mineral elements in two types of Chinese jujube%两种枣树矿质营养元素累积特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁智; 张计峰

    2011-01-01

    为探明枣树矿质营养元素的累积分配特征,以3年生骏枣树和灰枣树为试材,采用彻底刨根、分解取样的方法,研究了生物量的构成特点、各器官矿质元素含量和累积分配特性.结果表明,骏枣树总干质量为2694.3g/plant,其中营养器官占68.0%,分别比灰枣高27.6%和21.9%.其N、P、K、Ca、Mg总累积量为33.91、3.43、22.20、31.25和5.53g/plant,分别比灰枣树高50.1%、22.5%、24.7%、51.0%和88.7%.其中,N主要分配到叶片和果实,P、K主要分配到果实和叶片,Ca、Mg主要分配到叶片和主干;新生营养器官N、P、K的吸收比例为1:0.063~0.083:0.41~0.46,果实N、P、K的吸收比例为1:0.19~0.20:1.34~1.48.每生产1000kg干质量骏枣需吸收N 32.83、P 3.41、K 23.14、Ca 29.06、Mg 5.32kg;灰枣需吸收N20.53、P 2.66、K 17.71、Ca 18.01、Mg 2.49kg.骏枣生产单位干质量果实需吸收的养分比灰枣多,养分利用效率比灰枣低.骏枣树养分在叶片中的分配率显著高于灰枣树,在果实中的分配率则显著低于灰枣树.%The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in Chinese jujube ( Ziziphus jujube Mill.) and to establish a reasonable fertilization protocol.Field experiments were conducted to analyze the composition of the characteristics of biomass, mineral elements content and its accumulation in different parts of Junzao jujube and Huizao jujube trees that were about 3 years old.The total dry biomass of Junzao jujube was 2694.3 g/plant of which the vegetative organs accounted for 68.0%; these values were 27.6% and 21.9% higher, respectively, than those of Huizao jujube.The nitrogen (N) content was highest in the leaves followed by the fine roots.The phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents were highest in the fruit followed by the leaves, and lowest in the trunk.The calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) contents were highest in the leaves followed by the

  12. 枣抑制消减cDNA文库构建与分析%Construction and analysis of suppression subtractive cDNA library in Chinese date (Ziziphus jujube)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琦琦; 段经华; 冯延芝; 李芳东; 张琳

    2016-01-01

    Z. jujube shows some special characters of flowering and fruit bearing. In order to obtain genes involved in blossom development, two suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using developing blossoms of‘Jinsi No.4’ as tester and leaves as driver. The recombination rates of the SSH libraries from Z. jujube’s flowers and leaves were 92.05% and 90.26%, with the length of inserted fragments ranged from 200 to 2 000 bp, and mainly focusing on 1 000 bp. A total of 1 000 positive clones were randomly selected from the SSH libraries ofZ. jujube’s flowers and leaves respectively for DNA sequencing and assembled. Consequently, 43 contigs, 53 singletons, 73 ORFs, 96 unigenes and 20 annotated sequences were obtained from SSH library ofZ. jujube’s flowers. Forty-ifve contigs, 41 singletons, 70 ORFs, 86 unigenes and 23 annotated sequences were obtained from SSH library ofZ. jujube’s leaves, and the annotated sequences could be divided into six groups.%枣树具有独特的开花结果特性,为获得枣花发育基因,以金丝4号枣不同发育时期的花蕾和同时期的叶片cDNA互为试验方和驱动方,利用抑制消减杂交技术分别构建了枣花和枣叶抑制消减杂交cDNA文库(SSH文库)。枣花和枣叶SSH文库重组率分别是92.05%和90.26%,插入片段长度均介于200~2000 bp之间,主要集中于1000 bp左右。分别从枣花和枣叶SSH文库中随机挑选1000个阳性克隆进行DNA测序、组装拼接,结果显示枣花SSH文库中获得96条unigene,其中contigs 43个,singletons 53个,96条unigene预测得到73个ORF,经过同源比对分析获得有注释的序列20条,按功能分为7类;枣叶SSH文库中获得86条unigene,其中contigs 45个,singletons 41个,86条unigene预测得到70个ORF,经过同源比对分析获得有23条注释的序列,按功能分为6类。

  13. Effects of Dense Phase-CO2 Treatments on Microflora, Enzymes and Browning of Chinese Winter Jujube Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese winter jujube juice was treated with Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD to inactivate microorganisms, Polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity, Peroxidase (POD activity and control browing. The effect of varying pressures (5 to 30 MPa and different treatment time (0 to 50 min on the amount of natural microorganisms, PPO activity, POD activity and browning degree were measured. After experiment, the inactivation of natural microorganisms, PPO activity and POD activity exposed to DPCD were significantly increased with increasing pressure. Treated jujube juice had lower browning degree than untreated jujube juice. The experimental results showed that the DPCD treatment can be regarded as a good pretreatment means for winter jujube juice processing.

  14. 灵武长枣醋加工工艺的研究%Processing technology of Lingwu long jujube vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小波; 贺晓光; 方海田

    2011-01-01

    Lingwu long jujube vinegas was produced by acetic fermentation using fresh Lingwu long jujube as main raw material. The jujube was crashed and juiced after the seed was removed. After alcohol fermentation, the jujube juice was adjusted to suit acetic fermentation by acetic acid bacteria. The optimum acetic fermentation parameters of Lingwu long jujube vinegar were determined by orthogonal tests as follows: inoculum of acetic acid bacteria was 12%, alcohol content of jujube juice was 8°, fermentation temperature was (30±1)℃, and time was 15d. Under above conditions, the total acid content of Lingwu long jujube vinegar was 4.301g/100mL. No additive was added in the jujube vinegar. The jujube vinegar was healthy with unique flavor and nutrients of Lingwu long jujube. The market prospect of the jujube vinegar is broad.%以鲜灵武长枣为主要原料,经过去核、破碎、榨汁、酒精发酵后,调整发酵醪至适合醋酸菌发酵范围,通过正交实验确定枣醋醋酸发酵的最佳工艺参数为醋酸菌接种量12%,发酵醪酒精含量80,温度(30±1)℃,时间15d,此工艺条件下枣醋总酸含量可达4.301g/100mL.该枣醋不添加任何添加剂,既有灵武长枣独特的枣香味和营养成分,又具有食醋的保健功能,市场发展空间较大.

  15. 红枣奶片的研制%Preparation of Jujube Milk Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟华; 向延菊; 宋勇

    2016-01-01

    以红枣和脱脂奶粉为主要原料,研究红枣奶片的制作工艺。以感官评定为指标进行单因素对比试验和L9(34)正交优化试验,结果表明,红枣奶片的最佳调味配方为:脱脂奶粉的添加量为40%、浓缩红枣汁的添加量为15%、绵白糖的添加量为13%、木薯淀粉的添加量为9%,制得的奶片具有红枣的香味和牛奶香味,口感细腻柔滑。同时,设计了一套产品包装。%The processing technique of jujube milk tablets was studied with jujube and skim milk powder as the main raw materials. The single factor test and the L9(34) orthogonal experiment were conducted by investigating physical characteristics of jujube milk tablets. The results as follows:the optimum recipe of jujube milk tablets were skim milk powder for 40%, concentrated jujube juice for 15%, soft white sugar for 13%, cassava starch for 9%. The jujube milk tablets were mouth feel silky with jujube fragrance and milk flavor. At the same time, a set of product packages were designed.

  16. Wild jujube polysaccharides protect against experimental inflammatory bowel disease by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Li, Zhike; Li, Jian; Li, Xiaofei; Xiang, Jin; Ding, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Dietary polysaccharides provide various beneficial effects for our health. We investigated the protective effects of wild jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou) sarcocarp polysaccharides (WJPs) against experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function. Colitis was induced in rats by the intrarectal administration of TNBS. We found that WJPs markedly ameliorated the colitis severity, including less weight loss, decreased disease activity index scores, and improved mucosal damage in colitis rats. Moreover, WJPs suppressed the inflammatory response via attenuation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MPO activity in colitis rats. And then, to determine the effect of WJPs on the intestinal barrier, we measured the effect of WJPs on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-conjugated dextran permeability in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α. We further demonstrated that the alleviation of WJPs to colon injury was associated with barrier function by assembly of tight junction proteins. Moreover, the effect of WJPs on TER was eliminated by the specific inhibitor of AMPK. AMPK activity was also up-regulated by WJPs in Caco-2 cell stimulation with TNF-α and in colitis rats. This study demonstrates that WJPs protect against IBD by enabling enhanced intestinal barrier function involving the activation of AMPK.

  17. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Alcoholic Fermentation and Qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-na; LIU Meng-chen; ZHU Shu-hua; ZHOU Jie; WANG Ming-lin

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on alcoholic fermentation and the qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube during storage, and explores the action mechanisms of browning and softening of fruits to provide theoretical proofs for using NO in the storage of Chinese Winter Jujube. Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were fumigated with different concentrations of NO gas (0, 10, 20, 30 μL L-1) under anaerobic conditions and stored at 22 ± 1 ℃ and 4 ± 1 ℃. The changes in appearance qualities, the contents of pyruvate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated. The contents of pyruvate, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were significantly reduced, and the peak of pyruvate content was delayed by 20 μL L-1 NO. The activities of ADH and LDH in 20 μL L-1 NO treated fruits were also significantly inhibited. However, the alcoholic fermentation and softening of Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were promoted by 30 μL L-1 NO during storage. The results indicated that 20 μL L-1 NO could mitigate the injury of ethanol on Chinese Winter Jujube and effectively delay the browning and softening of fruits during storage.

  18. [Absorption and utilization of different applied nitrogen forms by winter jujube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong; Peng, Fu-tian; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-yan

    2007-06-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the absorption and utilization of applied urea N, Gly N and Glu N by two years old winter jujube. The results showed that all of the three N forms could be absorbed by the winter jujube, but the absorption rate of Gly N and Glu N was less than that of urea N. Taking the absorption rate of urea N as 100%, the relative absorption rate of Gly N and Glu N by jujube leaves was 28.88% and 11.73%, respectively, and the absorbed N was mainly allocated to the leaves and neonatal branches. Jujube roots could absorb 50.48% of Gly N and 42.72% of Glu N. The transaminase activity and soluble protein content in jujube leaves were increased after the application of these three N forms, but the leaf nitrate reductase activity was enhanced significantly by urea N, decreased by Gly N, and less affected by Glu N. Compared with urea N, amino acid N could significantly increase the number of colored fruits and their colored area, as well as the content of fruit soluble solid matter.

  19. Simultaneous determination of rhamnose, xylitol, arabitol, fructose, glucose, inositol, sucrose, maltose in jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) extract: comparison of HPLC–ELSD, LC–ESI–MS/MS and GC–MS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Shihao; Wang, Hui; Xie, Jianping; Su, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Jujube extract is commonly used as a food additive and flavoring. The sensory properties of the extract, especially sweetness, are a critical factor determining the product quality and therefore affecting consumer acceptability...

  20. Study of the Key Processing Technique for Series Jujube Products%红枣系列产品加工关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颉; 王贞强; 牟建楼; 孙剑锋; 刘亚琼

    2012-01-01

    以红枣为主要原料,研究干红枣酒、枣醋、枣粉、枣汁和红枣白兰地酿造关键技术,提出干红枣酒酿造工艺流程,解决了枣汁浸提过程中能耗过大,产品甲醇含量超标的难题;建立了干红枣酒高级醇含量和感官质量的关系,为干红枣酒质量控制提供了理论依据.通过研究筛选出适合枣醋工业化生产用的酒精酵母Y-2009和醋酸菌B-2009,解决了枣醋酿造没有专用菌种的难题,提出适合工业化生产用的枣醋酿造关键技术和工艺流程.通过研究枣汁浸提工艺,食品添加剂种类和用量以及喷雾干燥工艺参数对枣粉质量的影响,提出枣粉加工关键技术流程,解决了高粘稠物料喷雾干燥时挂壁的难题,提高了喷雾干燥的集粉率;通过研究得到枣粉喷雾干燥的适宜工作曲线,为产品质量追溯和工艺技术改进提供可靠依据.通过研究不同发酵条件和不同菌种对红枣白兰地产品质量的影响,提出红枣白兰地酿造工艺流程.依托该项目开发了干红枣酒、枣醋、枣粉、枣汁和红枣白兰地产品.%Jujube was been as main experimental material in this article, the key fermentation technique of jujube dry wine, jujube vinegar, jujube powder, jujube juice and jujube brandy were study. Fermentative process of jujube wine was brought, problem of high energy -consumption during extract of jujube juice and exceed the standard of methanol content in productswere solved, and the relation between the higher ethanol content and sensory quality was set up, the result provided theory basis for quality control of jujube dry wine. Alcohol yeast Y-2009 and acetic acid bacteria B-2009 adapted for industrial production of jujube vinegar were screen out, and the key technique adapted for industrial production of jujube vinegar was put forward. The effects of extractiong technology, types and dosages of food additive of jujube juice, and spray drying process parameters on the

  1. Effect of water deficit and domestic storage on the procyanidin profile, size, and aggregation process in pear-jujube (Z. jujuba) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, J; Cruz, Z N; Rodríguez, P; Galindo, A; Díaz-Baños, F G; García de la Torre, J; Ferreres, F; Medina, S; Torrecillas, A; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2013-07-03

    No information exists on the proanthocyanidin content of pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruit, their polymeric types and sizes, and their self-aggregation, or on the effect of different water deficit levels during the fruit maturation period on these compounds. Two trimers, two tetramers, and six B type procyanidin pentamers were identified and quantified for the first time. Water deficit increased the content of procyanidins of low molecular mass, improving their potential bioavailability and possible physiological effects on human health. The tendency of procyanidins to self-aggregate was similar in the edible portion and pit, and was not affected by water deficit. The procyanidin content of fruit from well watered trees increased during domestic cold storage, whereas the fruits from trees suffering severe water stress lost some of their procyanidin content.

  2. [Effects of inter-row economic crop planting on soil moisture in a rain-fed jujube orchard in loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Qiang; Zhao, Xi-ning; Gao, Xiao-dong; Li, Lu-sheng; Li, Hong-chen; Sun, Wen-hao

    2016-02-01

    Soil moisture variation in dryland sloping jujube. orchard was investigated after introducing two economic crops, i.e., feed Brassica napus (JR) and Hemerocallis fulva (JH) planted between jujube rows. Jujube tree without inter-row crop was set as control (CK). The results showed that mean soil moisture for JR and JH in the 0-180 cm soil layer increased by 6.2% and 10.1% compared with CK, respectively. Soil moisture changed mainly in the 0-60 cm soil layer in growth stage of Jujube trees. Soil moisture in JR and JH treatments significantly increased in the 0-60 cm soil layer, which could meet the demand in water resource of jujube plantation. The water consumption of jujube trees also mainly concentrated in the 0-60 cm soil layer. There was a significant decay exponential relationship between the soil moisture in the 0-20 cm layer and the drought duration after rainfall. During the 18-day dry period after rain, the soil moisture contents of JR and JH were apparently higher than that of CK. In conclusion, the jujube-crop intercropping system improved the soil moisture condition. It was an effective measure to overcome the seasonal drought in jujube orchards on the loess hilly region.

  3. The Content of Potassium Ion in Jujube Honey and the Influences of Jujube Honey for Honeybees%枣花蜜中钾离子含量以及枣花蜜对蜜蜂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫华; 申晋山; 郭媛; 张云毅; 邵有全

    2012-01-01

    通过对枣花蜜及其他蜜样中钾离子含量的测定及其饲喂试验,研究枣花蜜对蜜蜂的影响.结果表明,8个蜜样中,槐花蜜的钾含量最低;采自临猗、太谷和临县的枣花蜜的钾离子含量比这3个试验点的枣花花蜜的钾离子含量高;除槐花蜜外,7个蜜样之间都没有显著差异(P>0.05).饲喂枣花蜜、槐花蜜和山花蜜的试验发现,槐花蜜饲喂蜜蜂后的死亡率最低,饲喂枣花蜜后蜜蜂死亡率是饲喂槐花蜜后的1.97倍,饲喂槐花蜜的蜜蜂死亡率与饲喂枣花蜜和山花蜜的蜜蜂死亡率之间差异显著(P<0.05).3个试验点枣花花蜜的饲喂结果表明,临县试验点蜜蜂死亡率最高,是太谷试验点的1.48倍;饲喂枣花花蜜的蜜蜂死亡率为饲喂枣花蜜的1.47倍.由此可见,枣花期蜜蜂死亡不但与枣花蜜中的钾离子含量有关,而且还可能与枣花蜜中的其他成分有关.%Based on determination of potassium ion content in jujube honey and other honey samples, and feeding experiment of jujube honey, the influences of jujube honey for honeybees were studied. The resulls showed that: the content of potassium in Sophorae honey was the lowest among all samples. Potassium ion content of the jujube honey collected from Linyi, Taigu and Linxian counties were all higher than those of jujube nectar collected from these three sites, but there were no significant differences between these three (P> 0.05). The feeding tests of Sophorae honey, jujube honey and wild honey were found that the honeybees had the lowest mortality after Sophorae honey feeding, the honeybees mortality after jujube honey feeding is 1.97 time of its mortality, and the mortality after Sophorae honey feeding and other had significant difference (P< 0.05). The feedings result of three sites showed that there were the highest death rates of honeybees after jujube nectar feeding from the Linxian site, is 1.48 times higher than that in the Taigu site. The

  4. Multiplex-PCR for Identification of Two Species in Genus Hishimonus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Jujube Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaodong; Wang, He; Tao, Wanqiang; Wang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qiuling; Zhang, Minzhao; Guo, Li; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-10-01

    The insect family Cicadellidae includes economically important vectors of plant pathogens. Hishimonus sellatus (Uhler) transmits jujube witches'-broom (JWB). Currently, H. sellatus and Hishimonus lamellatus Cai et Kuoh are observed to co-occur at the same locality on jujube. H. lamellatus is now suspected to be a JWB vector. As such, correct identification of Hishimonus species present in vineyards is essential for epidemiological surveys. However, traditional identification of Hishimonus by morphology is limited to the adult male. We provide a comprehensive description of morphological and molecular tools for discriminating between H. sellatus and H. lamellatus, for use in identification and monitoring of the two Hishimonus species and studies of their plant hosts. A rapid and inexpensive method is introduced to identify H. sellatus and H. lamellatus occurring in jujube orchards. This method is based on amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, using PCR with multiplexed, species-specific primers. The reliability of this new method has been tested on different populations from different sites in Beijing region of China.

  5. Optimization for Ultrasound-microwave Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Jujube Waste using Response Surface Methodology

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    Fengqi Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of conditions for Jujube pectin extraction was investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Extraction parameters which are employed in this study are Liquid-Solid Ratio (LSR (5-15, pH (1.5-2.5, ultrasonic time (10-20 min and microwave irradiation time (40-60 s and they were optimized using a four factor three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD coupled with desirability function methodology. The results showed that, all the process variables have significant effect on the yield of pectin. The satisfactory conditions for Jujube pectin extraction were obtained as follows: 10.03 mL/g of LSR, 1.97 of pH of sulfuric, 17.66 min of ultrasonic time and 52.73 s of microwave irradiation time. Among the studied factors, microwave irradiation time had the greatest influence on yield. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of Jujube pectin was 1.95±0.06%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  6. Antioxidant properties of jujube honey and its protective effects against chronic alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Du, Bing; Wang, Yuan; Gao, Hui; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Jianbin; Feng, Fan

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant potential of jujube honey, one of the most widely consumed honeys in China, has never been determined fully. In this study, jujube honey from six geographical origins in China was analyzed for individual phenolic acid, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant effect in chronic alcohol-related hepatic disease in mice. The results showed that jujube honey from Linxian of Shanxi province contained higher phenol levels, exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and protective effects against DNA damage. Treatment with jujube honey (Shanxi Linxian) for 12 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation, reduced the impact of alcoholism on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also inhibited the generation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lowered the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The study indicates that jujube honey exerts potent antioxidant activity and significant protection in hepatic disorders associated with chronic alcoholism. The protective effect is attributed to its antioxidant mechanisms and inhibition of oxidative degradation of lipids.

  7. VALORIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD OF THE JUJUBE SHELL: APPLICATION TO THE REMOVAL OF CATIONIC DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

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    N. EL MESSAOUDI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the powder of jujube shell (raw and modified was tested for removing crystal violet (CVfrom aqueous solution. The biosorbents were characterized by FTIR, SEM and pHZPC analysis.The biosorption behavior was studied in batch experiments such as biosorbent mass, contact time, temperature, initial dye pH, biosorbent particles size and initial dye concentration. The removal efficiency of crystal violet attained 95.84% and 98.16 %, using 0.2g of raw jujube shell (JS of and 0.1g of modified jujube shell with sodium hydroxide (NMJS, respectively. The obtained results indicate the endothermic nature of biosorption and that the biosorption system studied belongs to the second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data of the biosorption process fitted very well to Langmuir model. The maximum biosorption monolayer capacities of crystal violet on raw and modified jujube shell were found to be 59.84 mg/g and 288.18 mg/g at 50°C, respectively. Thus, the raw jujube shell treatment with base is very effective and greatly improves the dye adsorption capacity.

  8. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC.

  9. Study on the fermentation technology of jujube wine%大枣果酒发酵工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂颖

    2016-01-01

    Based on jujube processing conditions of single factor test was determined for the preparation of the optimal process of jujube juice; by using the orthogonal experimental design, the optimal fermentation condition; finaly jujube wine by fermentation, precipitation is rich in nutrients, with beauty, promote metabolism and other effects.%本文通过对大枣不同处理条件的单因素试验,确定出制备枣汁的最佳工艺;用正交试验设计出合理的发酵工艺条件;最终大枣酒经发酵、沉淀后富含营养成分、具有美容养颜,促进新陈代谢等功效。

  10. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Jongho; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-08-01

    Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and walnut shells were selected as raw materials. Carbonization and steam activation were performed in a fixed-bed laboratory electric furnace. To obtain the highest iodine number, the optimum conditions for producing activated carbon from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 2 hr and 1.5 hr (carbonization at 700 degrees C) followed by 1 hr and 0.5 hr (activation at 1000 degrees C), respectively. The surface area and iodine number of activated carbon made from jujube seeds and walnut shells were 1,477 and 1,184 m2/g and 1,450 and 1,200 mg/g, respectively. A pore-distribution analysis revealed that most pores had a pore diameter within or around 30-40 angstroms, and adsorption capacity for surfactants was about 2 times larger than the commercial activated carbon, indicating that waste-based activated carbon can be used as alternative. Implications: Wastes discharged from agricultural and food industries results in a serious environmental problem. A method is proposed to convert food-processing wastes such as jujube seeds and walnut shells into high-grade granular activated carbon. Especially, the performance of jujube seeds as activated carbon is worthy of close attention. There is little research about the application ofjujube seeds. Also, when compared to two commercial carbons (Samchully and Calgon samples), the results show that it is possible to produce high-quality carbon, particularly from jujube seed, using a one-stage, 1,000 degrees C, steam pyrolysis. The preparation of activated carbon from food-processing wastes could increase economic return and reduce pollution.

  11. 枣树裂果防治技术研究综述%Research Summary on Preventive Measures for Jujube Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓娟

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, jujube fruit cracking problem is very serious.From breeding crack resistance jujube cultivars, jujube cultivation measures, jujube fruit cracking research reagents and jujube shelter cultivation four aspects were intro-duced in recent years of Chinese jujube and crack preventive measures induding spraying nutriene solution, exogenous hor-mone, liguid protective film, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of jujube fruit cracking.%近年来,红枣裂果问题十分严重。笔者从选育枣树抗裂品种方面介绍了枣树的防裂措施,从灌溉、施肥、套袋、整形修剪4方面介绍了枣树综合栽培防裂措施,从喷施营养液、外源激素、液体保护膜3方面介绍了枣果实防裂试剂的研究,最后介绍了枣树避雨栽培防裂技术,旨在为防治枣树裂果提供理论依据。

  12. The effect of the MeJA treatment and the scale insect attack on the volatile of the jujube trees%MeJA处理和蚧虫危害对枣树挥发物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩莎; 张艳峰; 薛皎亮; 杜仙当; 谢映平

    2012-01-01

    The jujube tree, Ziziphusjujv.be Mill, is one of the most important economic fruits in north China. Japanese wax scale, Cer-oplastes japonicus Green, is a destructive pest in the jujube orchard. This paper studied (he changes of the volatile of the jujube trees that were induced with Methyl-Jasmonic (MeJA) , an exogenous signaling material, or were attacked by adults of the scale insect, C. japonicus. The headspace volatile trapping instrument was used to collect volatiles from jujube trees. The chemical components of the collected volatiles were analyzed using chromatography/mass spectroscopy ( GC/MS). The results showed that the volatile substances were changed both in the components and in emission quantity when the jujube trees treated with MeJA or damaged by the scale insect. 22 components were examined from the volatile samples from the MeJA-treated jujube tree, and their emission quantity was 37347 ng/ h. Meanwhile, 24 components were determined in the volatiles from the scale insect-damaged jujube trees, and their emission quantity reached 54292 ng/h. In comparison, 14 compounds were detected only in the volatiles of I he health trees (as control) , and the total e-mission quantity was 18611 ng/h. The difference reached the significant level either between the MeJA-treated section and the control section or between the scale insect-damaged section and the control section. In which, the increases of terpenoid, alcohol and ester compounds are significant in plant'Ls induced chemical defense. These compounds were considered to associate with the natural enemy recruitment in the biological pest control.%枣树(Ziziphus jujube Mill)是中国北方的一种重要经济林木.日本龟蜡蚧(Ceroplastes japonicus Green)是枣园的一种破坏性天敌.研究了外源茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)处理和日本龟蜡蚧雌成虫危害后与对照健康枣树相比挥发物的变化.枣树挥发物的收集采用顶空收集法,并使用气相色

  13. 枣黑斑病研究%Research on Jujube Black Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李夏鸣; 郭黄萍; 胡增丽

    2009-01-01

    通过连续3年的病果致病菌分离和病原菌回接试验,结果证明,引起枣果实黑斑病的致病菌是Alternmia tettuissima(rr)Wiltsh和Alternaria sp,属弱寄生菌;由于使用GA增加产量,降低了叶果比,果实营养不良导致免疫力下降是黑斑病发生的内因;8月下旬多雨引起的果实生理紊乱症(皱胴病)是黑斑病发生的重要诱因;成熟期遇雨是黑斑病发生的必要条件.%After three-year tests on separation of pathogenic fungus in diseased jujube fruits and field-inoculation of fungi separated, Alternaria tenuissima (Fr) Wiltsh and Alternaria sp are classified as the fungi which may cause jujube black spot, and they are weak parasitic fungi. Because of the use of GA to increase yield, the ratio of leaves to fruit is reduced, and the innutrition of fruits results in descem of immunity, which is believed the internal factor of black spot. It is concluded that the bottom-crinkle of jujube, a disease of physiological disorder resulted from the rain during later August, is an important inducing factor for black spot. Rain during the maturing period is necessary condition for the black spot.

  14. 干旱胁迫下梨枣抗旱性研究%Drought resistance of pear jujube under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 汪有科; 周玉红

    2014-01-01

    为探索陕北黄土丘陵区梨枣的抗旱性与耐旱能力,以大规格盆栽梨枣( Ziziphus jujuba Mill .cv .Lizao )2年生苗木为试验材料,在连续不供水情况下研究了梨枣的萎蔫到致死过程。依据干旱缺水后枣树生长衰退过程中的特征将枣树萎蔫致死分为:暂时萎蔫、初始萎蔫、表征永久萎蔫及耐旱致死四个阶段。结果表明:梨枣的初始萎蔫系数在2.017%~3.054%之间,平均为2.494%;表征永久萎蔫系数在1.199%~1.998%之间,平均为1.489%,永久萎蔫系数在1.250%~1.489%之间;耐旱致死点为1.250%,致死时间为135±11 d。试验结果证明枣树是一种十分抗旱的树种,在半干旱黄土丘陵区枣树不会出现干旱致死。%In order to explore the drought -resistant ability of pear jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill .cv .Lizao ) in Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi ,a pot experiment was conducted with 2-year old seedlings as the material ,and its process from wilting to death was investigated under continuously unirrigated condition .The degenarative process of pear jujube under unirrigated condition was classified into four periods :temporary wilting ,initial wilting ,apparent permanent wilting and drought caused death . The results showed that the initial wilting coefficient of pear jujube was between 2 .017% and 3 .054% with an average of 2 .494% ;the apparent permanent wilting coefficient was between 1 .199% and 1 .998% with an average of 1 .489% ;the permanent wilting coefficient was between 1 .250% and 1 .489% ;the drought lethal point was 1 .250% and the lethal time was 135 ± 11 days .It was concluded that pear jujube was a kind of drought-resistant fruit tree ,and it could not become dead of drought in semi-arid loess hilly regions .

  15. Optimization of Jujube Spray Drying Technology%红枣喷雾干燥工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 王新才

    2016-01-01

    红枣喷雾干燥是新型的红枣制粉干燥技术,结合了热风干燥和真空低温浓缩的优点。红枣喷雾干燥技术生产的红枣粉,营养丰富、口味独特,应用前景广阔。该文综述了红枣喷雾干燥工艺优化的研究进展,分析了红枣粉干燥技术的特点与难点,并解决枣粉易结块吸潮难点。为红枣制粉深入研究提供参考。%Jujube spray drying is a new type of jujube powder drying technology, which combines the advantages of hot air drying and vacuum low temperature condensation. Jujube powder produced by spray drying technology is rich in nutrition and unique taste, so its broad application prospects. This paper summarizes the research progress of the optimization of the spray drying technology, analyzes the characteristics and diffculties of the drying technology, solves the diffculty of the moisture absorption and caking. Provide reference for further research of jujube powder.

  16. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

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    Yage Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time.

  17. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits.

  18. Physio-Biochemical Changes in Jujube Fruits(Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao) at Mature Stage%灵武长枣果实发育成熟期生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天军; 窦云萍

    2008-01-01

    The changes of physiological and biochemical indices in jujube fruits during the late development were investigated from 6-year-old jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao). The results showed that the flesh firmness decreased slowly from white-green stage to full-red stage, being significantly related with the developmental maturity of jujube fruits negatively, the correlation coefficient reached -0.980 3**. The contents of ascorbic acid and titratable acid in jujube fruits were significantly related with the developmental process of jujube fruits negatively or positively, the correlation coef-ficients were -0.973 1** and + 0.974 6** respectively. The contents of soluble solids, total sugar, and sucrose increased with jujube ripening, while the relative sweetness of jujube fruits showed the same variation pattern, the correlation coefficients were 0.996 6** , 0.988 0** , and 0.982 8**, respec-tively. Befcre white-green stage during fruit development,the accumulation d moncsaccharide was predom/nant in jujube fruits, following a fast accumula-tion of sucrose, indicating that the main component of sugars is sucrose at the crisp-ripe stage. Furthermore, the starch content of the flesh reached the peak at about thirty percentage of jujube maturity, being 51.54 mg/100 g · FW. The respiratory rates varied between 10 mg/(kg·h) and CO2 26 mg/(kg·h) after fruit turning red and before softening, indicating a non-climacteric respiratory type.

  19. Image Segmentation and Maturity Recognition Algorithm based on Color Features of Lingwu Long Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits’ recognition under natural scenes is a key technology to intelligent automatic picking. In this study, an image segmentation method based on color difference fusion in RGB color space was proposed in order to implement image segmentation and recognition maturity intelligently according to Lingwu long jujubes’ color features under the complex environment. Firstly, the three-dimensional histograms of each color component which is widely used in color space currently are compared; and then the jujubes’ red area and non-red area was extracted respectively, thus, the whole target area is obtained by sum of those areas; then, watershed algorithm combined with mathematical morphology distance and gradient was utilized to overcome adhesion and occlusion phenomena; finally, the maturity level was recognized by the established recognition model of Lingwu long jujubes. The segmentation was tested through 100 sample set and 93.27% of precision rate was attained, so was correct estimating rate of maturity level recognition above 90%. The results indicate that a smaller average segmentation error probability is in this method, which is more efficient in the extraction and recognition of jujubes with red and green and the problem of segmentation and maturity level judgment of adhesive fruits is solved by the method as well.

  20. Microwave-assisted extraction of jujube polysaccharide: Optimization, purification and functional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hosein; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2016-06-05

    The operational parameters involved in microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of jujube polysaccharide including microwave power, water to raw material ratio and extraction temperature and time were optimized by RSM. MAE at 400W, 75°C, 60 min, using 30 g water/g powdered jujube was the best condition for maximum yield (9.02%) of polysaccharide. Two novel water-soluble polysaccharides (JCP-1 and JCP-2) with average molecular weights of 9.1×10(4)-1.5×10(5)Da in term of the symmetrical narrow peaks were identified using the analytical purification procedures. The JCP-1 and JCP-2 mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in molar ratios of 1.4:2.1:4.2:0.9 and 1.2:1.8:4.1:1.1, respectively. The use of 1.5% JCP-1 led to a high emulsifying stability (95.5%) in a model oil-in-water type emulsion with a reduced surface tension (44.1 mN/m) and droplet size (1.32 μm), and an increased apparent viscosity (0.13 Pas) during 21-day cold storage. The antioxidant activities were increased in dose-dependent manners (25-200 μg/mL).

  1. 萌芽开花期梨枣对土壤水势的响应%Response of pear-jujube to different soil water potentials during budding and flowering stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立新; 汪有科; 张琳琳

    2012-01-01

    本试验选取4年生梨枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)为试验材料,设置-31~-51kPa、-41~-84kPa、-59~-132kPa和-161kPa(不灌溉)4个土壤水势水平,结合茎直径微变化、营养生长与生殖生长量,分析了梨枣在萌芽开花期对土壤水势的响应.结果表明:1)在梨枣萌芽期,土壤水势在-41~-84 kPa范围波动时,茎直径日最大收缩量最小,营养生长与生殖生长最旺盛,是该时期适宜的土壤水势范围;花芽分化适宜的土壤水势范围为-41~-132 kPa.梨枣萌芽期适当的水分亏缺不影响花芽分化,但减弱了营养生长量,优化了营养生长与生殖生长的比例.2)在梨枣开花期,土壤水势范围为-54~-78 kPa时,茎直径日最大收缩量最小,坐果率较高,为开花期适宜的土壤水势范围;土壤水势为-79~-114 kPa时坐果率最高.开花期轻度的水分亏缺可显著提高坐果率.3)土壤水势过高或过低都抑制梨枣的营养生长、生殖生长和坐果,但水涝能促进茎直径生长,水分缺亏则抑制茎直径生长.4)在平水年,梨枣的萌芽期无需灌水,自然降雨即能满足其萌芽展叶、花芽分化的需要,但开花期,降雨不能满足梨枣高坐果率的需要.%Pear-jujube is widely cultivated in the Loess Plateau Region (LPR) of China where it is used to reforest farmlands. Pear-jujube culture was previously constrained by wasteful use of limited water resources that characterized traditional irrigation, restricting local agricultural development. It was therefore vital to study water demand at different growth stages of pear-jujube. This paper discussed the response of 4-year-old pear-jujube trees to different soil water potentials. Both vegetative and reproductive growth processes were studied in commercial pear-jujube orchards in Mengcha Village of Mizhi County, Shaanxi Province. Four levels of soil water potentials [-31-51 kPa, -41-84 kPa, -59-132 kPa and -161 kPa (no irrigation treatment)] were set up to

  2. 哈密地区红枣缩果病的发生与防治%Occurrence and Control of Jujube-fruit Shrink Disease in Hami Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷; 张静; 张卫东; 王建春; 何海娟

    2011-01-01

    以5年生骏枣、哈密大枣为试材,应用真菌杀菌剂、细菌杀菌剂和硼肥进行防治枣缩果病的试验.结果表明,枣缩果病是由真菌与细菌共同引起,缺硼会加重枣缩果病的发生.在枣树花期喷施硼肥溶液,从生理落果期开始喷用真菌性杀菌剂加细菌性杀菌剂是目前防治枣缩果病的有效方法.%With 5 - year - old Bioer jujube and Hami jujube as the tested materials, the fungal, bacterial microbicides and boron fertilizer were used to control jujube - fruit shrink disease. The test results showed that jujube - fruit shrink disease was caused by fungus and bacterium together, and the lack of boron could promote the occurrence of this disease. The current effective methods for the control of jujube - fruit shrink disease were as follows: spraying boron fertilizer solution at flowering stage of jujube, and applying the fungal and bacterial microbicides at the physiological fruit - drop stage.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the metabolic mechanism of L-ascorbic acid in Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. is the most economically important member of the Rhamnaceae family and contains a high concentration of ascorbic acid (AsA. To explore the metabolic mechanism of AsA accumulation, we investigated the abundance of AsA in the fruit development stages, the leaf and flower of Z. jujuba cv Junzao, and the mature fruit of one type of wild jujube (Z. jujuba var. spinosa Hu, Yanchuan sour jujube. And the expression patterns of genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, degradation and recycling were analyzed. The result showed that AsA biosynthesis during early fruit development (the enlargement stage is the main reason for jujube high accumulation. The L-galactose pathway plays a predominant role in the biosynthesis of AsA during jujube fruit development, and the genes GMP1, GME1, GGP, and GaLDH involved in the determination of AsA concentration during fruit development and in different genotypes; the myo-inositol pathway along with the genes GME2 and GMP2 in the L-galactose pathway play a compensatory role in maintaining AsA accumulation during the ripening stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism in regulating AsA accumulation for jujube.

  4. Study the Formula of Jujube and Tieguanyin Tea Powder%袋装枣茶粉配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新玲

    2015-01-01

    以临泽小枣粉和铁观音茶叶粉为主要原料,添加辅料白砂糖、柠檬酸和食盐,在单因素试验的基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验,对袋装枣茶粉配方进行了优选,并对成品部分指标进行了测定。结果表明,袋装枣茶粉最佳配方为枣茶粉84.7%(红枣粉:茶叶粉=20∶1)、白砂糖11.5%、柠檬酸0.4%、食盐0.5%、乳酸钙2.0%、麦芽糊精0.2%等。成品粉末水分含量13.62%,8 g/250 mL液体可溶性固形物含量为3.2%,pH 4.65(20℃),维生素C 0.33 mg/100 g,菌落总数为1.2 CFU/mL,霉菌<1 CFU/mL,酵母菌<1 CFU/mL。%The Linze thread jujube and Tieguanyin tea as the main raw materials,the formula of jujube and Tieguanyin tea bag is studied . Via single factor experiment,combined with orthogonal experiment of L9(34)and the analysis of data,to confirm the best proportion of jujube powder/tea powder,the content of sugar,citric acid optimum technology conditions of the jujube tea bag are:adding jujube powder and tea powder with a ratio of 20∶1,sugar,citric acid and salt are added by the percentage of 11.5,0.4 and 0.5,jujube flavor 0.2%,maltodextrin 0.2%. ect the moisture content is 13.62%,the soluble solids are 3.2%,pH is 4.65 when the temperature is 20 ℃,the content of Vc is 0.33 mg/100 g,the content of aerobic plate is 1.2 CFU/mL,moulds and yeasts less than 1 CFU/mL.

  5. Identification of Chemical Constituents in the Extract and Rat Serum from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Jingze; Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Yanan; Li, Xia; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has long been widely used for human consumption and medicinal purposes in China. It has been reported to possess several vital biological activities. However, the systematic study on the chemical constituents absorbed into plasma and their metabolites is still insufficient.A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization ion-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS(n)) method was established to analyze the ethanol extract in Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the constituents absorbed into rat serum. In the present study, a dose of 10 mL/Kg of ethanol extract of jujube, which is equivalent to 12.5 g crude dried herb/Kg, was orally administrated to rats. The main components were analyzed in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill and the parent constituents and metabolites were studied in rat plasma samples after oral administration of the ethanol extract of jujube.D101 macroporous polystyrene resin was a good pretreatment method to obtain better separation and impurity removal effect. Twenty-two compounds were identified in the ethanol extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Four parent compounds and four metabolites were detected in rat serum. Among them, seventeen compounds were reported for the first time.

  6. The Development of Yogurt Added Red Jujube and Wolfberry%红枣枸杞酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩倩; 王冬娇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the traditional yogurt production, add red jujube and woltberry, through boiling, beating, allocating, vaccinating, fermenting,and other procezses, then developed the yogurt with red jujube and woltberry special flavor, and the yogurt has high nutritional value. Through single factor and orthogonal test, got the best yogurt formula: red jujube juice 7%, wolfberry juice 6%, the amount of seeding ( Bulgaria lactobacillus, Streptococcus thermophilus cultured) 5 %, sugar 8 %. Ferment under 42 ℃ for 5 h, the experimental results show that red jujube and wolfberry added into yogurt can produce a new kind of yogurt.%本试验是在传统酸奶生产基础上添加红枣和枸杞,经过预煮、打浆、调配、接种、发酵、后熟等工艺研制出具有红枣枸杞特殊风味和较高营养价值的酸奶。通过单因素、正交试验确定了最佳酸奶配方:红枣汁7%、枸杞汁6%、接种量(保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌)5%、白砂糖8%。在42%下发酵5h,试验结果表明,红枣枸杞添加于酸奶中可制作出新型酸奶。

  7. Effects of Hypobaric Storage on Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Postharvest Dong Jujube Fruit During Cold Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Meng-lin; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Ji-shu; WANG Li

    2003-01-01

    Effects of hypobaric storage on physiological and biochemical changes in Dong jujube fruit wereinvestigated. Hypobaric storage significantly delayed the decrease in firmness and maintained content of ascor-bic acid, reduced accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in pulp and respiration, inhibited activities of as-corbic acid oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase and slowed down the rate of ethylene production, but had littleeffect on flesh browning of the fruit.

  8. 红枣枣醋发酵工艺的优化%Optimization of Fermentation Process of Jujube Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮; 丘峰; 陈粤; 刘齐; 杨登想

    2016-01-01

    以新疆“哈密大枣”为原料,结合现代醋酸发酵技术制作冬枣枣醋,对枣醋发酵温度、醋酸菌接种量、初始酒精度和初始pH值4个影响因素进行分析,探讨冬枣枣醋最佳发酵条件,试验结果表明:当发酵温度为30℃,醋酸菌接种量为3%,酒精度为6%,初始pH为3.0时,15 d时醋酸含量达到5.76 g/100 mL。%By modern fermentation technology, jujube vinegar was brewed with Xinjiang "hami jujube". The effect of four independents variables in terms of fermentation temperature, acetic acid inoculation, initial alcohol content and pH on jujube vinegar acetic acid fermentation was detected in this paper. This paper concluded the best conditions which was that fermentation temperature was 30 ℃, acetic acid bacteria was with a total inoculum 3%, alcohol content was 6%, pH value was 3.0, the content of acetic acid was 5.76 g/100 mL with the fermentation conditions above after 15 d.

  9. 冬瓜红枣保健饮料的研制%Development of Wax Gourd and Jujube Health Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香军

    2014-01-01

    本文以冬瓜、红枣为原料,首次添加胶原蛋白肽,并且用木糖醇来代替传统工艺的甜味剂,研究冬瓜汁和红枣汁的比例、加糖量以及加酸量三者对饮料颜色、口味和质地的影响。结果表明,冬瓜汁与红枣汁的比例为8:3,加糖量为15%,加酸量为0.1%时,所制备的饮料感官评价分值最高。%In this paper, wax gourd and jujube were used as raw material. Collagen peptide was firstly added, and xylitol was used as sweetener instead of traditional industry sweetener. The beverage color, taste and texture were measured to determine the ratio of wax gourd juice and jujube juice, the content of sugar and acid. The results showed that the highest sensory evaluation scores was obtained when the opitmal ratio of wax gourd juice and jujube juice was 8:3, with the addition of 15%sugar and 0.1%acid.

  10. The Development of the Red Jujube Almond Compound Protein Beverage%红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳怀; 代绍娟; 张雪梅; 雷勇; 尹俊涛

    2015-01-01

    With red jujube, almond as the main raw material,with sensory score as the evaluation criteria, by orthogonal experimental design, the best proportion of red jujube almond compound protein beverage was determined. The experimental results showed that the red jujube almond compound protein beverage best formula was:white granulated sugar 6 %, honey 2 %, almond milk 30 %, red jujube paste 15 %, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 0.03%, xanthan gum 0.06%, sucrose ester 0.07%, glycerol monostearate 0.13%. The product had peculiar to the red jujube and almond aroma, delicate taste, organization in good condition.%以红枣、杏仁为主要原料,以感官评分作为评定标准,采用正交试验设计,确定红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料的最佳配比.实验结果表明,红枣杏仁复合蛋白饮料最佳配方为:白砂糖6%、蜂蜜2%、杏仁乳30%、红枣浆15%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.03%,黄原胶0.06%,蔗糖酯0.07%,单硬脂酸甘油酯0.13%.所得产品具有红枣和杏仁所特有的香气,口感细腻,组织状态良好.

  11. Preparation on Solidity Jujube Juice Soybean Yogurt%凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤春; 高冬婷

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] The study aimed to study the optimum fermentation conditions for solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt. [ Method ] With the jujube juice and soybean flour as main raw materials, the solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt was made through inoculating with the mixture of Str. ThemophUus and L bulgaricw(1: 1). The orthogonal tests with L,(3 ) design was used to confirm the optimum curd formula and the best quality formula and the quality of the product was identified on base of the sense tested scoring table. [ Result]The optimum formula for solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt obtained through the orthogonal tests was as follows: the adding amount of jujube juice was 20.0% , that of sugar was 8.0% and that of honey was 2.0% , the fermentation temperature was 42 X., the inoculating quantity was 4.0% and the fermentation time was 6 h. Kept at low temperature,the products were good in texture condition,without whey separation and with normal flavor and uniform color. But compared with the shelf life (15 d) of sold yogurt,its shelf life was partial short. [Conclusion]The solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt showed the health care function of 3 materials including soy beans,red jujube and lactic acid,and had characters of all nutrition,simple and practical preparation process and the cost was less than the common yoghurt.%[目的]研究凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的最佳发酵条件.[方法]以红枣汁和豆粉为主要原料,将嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳酸杆菌按1∶1的比例混合发酵,研制凝固型枣汁豆酸乳,采用L9(34)正交试验设计,确定最佳凝乳配方和最优品质配方,并根据感官检验评分表鉴定产品的品质.[结果]通过正交试验得出凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的最佳配方为:枣汁添加量20.0%,蔗糖8.0%,蜂蜜添加量2.0%,发酵温度为42℃,接种量4.0%,发酵时间为6h.低温保存后,产品的组织状态良好,无乳清分离,风味正常,色泽均匀一致,但与市售酸奶保质期15 d

  12. 超声波辅助减压提取枣皮多酚的研究%Ultrasound-assisted Vacuum Extraction of Polyphenols from Jujube Peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游凤; 黄立新; 张彩虹; 谢普军; 张耀雷

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain maximum yield of polyphenols from jujube peel, ultrasound-assisted vacuum extraction ( UAVE) was chosen to extract the peel of Ziziphus jujube var. Changzao. The effects of various conditions were investigated by single factor experiments and orthogonal design L9 ( 34 ) . Based on the optimization condition, three extraction methods, i. e. , UAVE, ultrasound assist extraction(UAE) and conventional extraction(CE), were compared with both extraction time and polyphenols yield. To further evaluate UAVE, the radical scavenging activities ( DPPH·) was measured, too. Results showed that: the optimal conditions were 50 % aqueous ethanol as extraction solvent, temperature 55 ℃, solid/liquid ratio 1:30 ( g: mL ) , ultrasonic power 240 W, extraction time 10 min. Under this condition, the polyphenols yield could be 5. 05 %, and the extraction rate could reach 97. 37 % with duplicate extraction. UAVE has advantages such as high yield and time saving by comparison with CE and UAE. The polyphenols extracted by UAVE showed that higher antioxidant activities could be obtained than those by CE and UAE. It indicated that UAVE could protect the bioactive capacity of polyphenols from jujube peel.%以陕西长枣皮为原料,采用超声波减压法提取其中多酚,通过单因素试验及正交试验L9(34)考察了各因素间的交互作用,优化了超声波辅助减压提取枣皮多酚的条件。在此基础上,对比了常规浸提、超声浸提和超声波辅助减压提取三者对提取得率和提取时间的影响,并通过清除自由基能力( DPPH·)衡量了各种提取方法的优劣。结果表明:超声波辅助减压提取枣皮多酚的最佳工艺参数为乙醇体积分数50%,提取温度55℃,液料比30:1(mL:g),超声波功率240 W,提取时间10 min,枣皮多酚得率可达5.05%,此条件下提取2次,多酚得率为6.33%,提取率即达97.37%;对比热浸提和超声波浸提,超声波辅助减压提取在明显缩短提取

  13. Protective effect of aqueous jujube extract in Carbamazepine induced teratogenicity on Balb/c mice fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doostabadi Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbamazepine (CBZ is an anticonvulsant medication that can produce congenital anomalies. This study aimed to assess protective role of aqueous jujube extract (JE on CBZ induced congenital anomalies in mice fetuses. Methods:One hundred pregnant Balb/c mice were divided into 8 experimental (E and 2 control (C groups equally. The groups (E1, E5, E6 and (E2, E7, E8 received 50 and 100 mg/kg of CBZ, respectively IP, from GD 0 to GD15. Besides, groups (E5, E7 and (E6, E8 in addition to CBZ, were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg JE, respectively from ten days prior to gestation, till GD15. The groups E3 and E4 received only 200 and 400 mg/kg of JE respectively. The control groups (C1, C2 received normal saline and tween-20 in turn. On GD18 dams cesarianed and their fetuses assessed for skeletal anomalies by using Alizarin red-alcian blue staining. Results:CBZ induced various anomalies such as; limb defects, craniofacial malformations and etc in mice fetuses. However, these anomalies significantly decreased in groups which were co-administered with CBZ and JE. Conclusion: Co-administration of JE and CBZ significantly decrease teratogenicity of CBZ. Therefore, JE may play a protective role against those properties of CBZ inducing teratogenicity

  14. Symbolization of Jujube and Its Evolution%枣的象征意蕴及其嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锡诚

    2015-01-01

    枣作为一种具有悠久历史的北方果品,在中国历史的演进过程中,逐渐被人们赋予丰富多样的文化内涵。文献记载表明,早期婚仪中有新妇以枣、栗拜见舅姑的习俗,暗含男女有别,妇女的行为应受到严格的限制,要随时以枣、栗所暗示的“早起战栗”观念来“自正”、约束自己。这一习俗在汉以后仍然被流传下来,但逐渐失掉了原意而被赋予了“祝多男”之意,暗喻早生贵子、多生贵子。除此之外,道教的仙人传说又赋予枣灵质仙气的含义,极富思索和睿智之深意。%Abstact:Jujube, as a kind of fruit in the north with a long history, in the process of the evolution of Chinese history, was gradually endowed with rich and varied cultural connotations. Literature shows that carrying jujube and chestnut visiting aunts in the early marriage was a very important custom, implied that women's behavior should be strictly restricted at any time. This custom still came down after Han dynasty, but gradually lost the original intention and was endowed with " more sons", and implied that sons would be born earlier and honorably. In addition, Taoist legend gives the meaning of jujube spirit quality, and the creative thinking and the meaning of wisdom.

  15. Research and development of black tea-jujube wine%红茶红枣复合酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁昕; 胡长玉; 汪春霞

    2011-01-01

    The production processing of black tea-jujube wine was studied. The extraction technology of black tea and fermentation conditions were further investigated. The optimal fermentation conditions were obtained. In details, the extraction steps of black tea were firstly extracted in cold water for 30min and then in 90℃ hot water. The jujube juice should be soften firstly and then treated by 0.02% pectinase before filtration. The black tea juice and jujube juice were mixed and fermented at 25℃ for 8d~10d, followed by aging for 3months. The complex tea wine was clear and brilliant with a pure, elegant and soft taste and a deliciously lingering finish. It is a nutritional and healthy complex tea wine.%研究了以红茶、红枣为原料进行发酵酿得保健酒的生产工艺流程,并对生产工艺中红茶的浸提和发酵工艺条件进行了深入研究.实验得出最佳发酵工艺条件为:茶叶先用冷水浸提30min后,用90℃热水恒温浸提,红枣原汁软化后,用0.02%的果胶酶处理过滤,然后将红茶汁与红枣汁混合后于25℃恒温发酵8d~10d,陈酿3个月,最后酿制的复合茶酒色泽晶莹透亮,香味纯净优雅、口感柔和,回味绵长,是一种营养丰富、有多种保健功效的复合茶酒.

  16. 玛卡大枣保健酒的研发%Research & Development of Maca & Jujube Healthcare Liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春艳; 韩晓明; 赵德义

    2016-01-01

    以景芝产优质白干原酒为基酒和浸提液,采用玛卡、大枣为功能保健原料,经过精细加工,运用酒体设计技术进行多方案设计实验,确定最佳工艺方案,并对各项理化指标严格控制,设计研发酒精含量52%vol的优质营养保健酒。本品酒体清亮透明,色呈金黄微带棕红色,具有玛卡的清香香气,微带焦枣香,药香协调,入口微甘甜,柔绵,酒体细腻,尾爽净,风格独特。%Quality liquor produced in Jingzhi was used as the base liquor and the extracting agent, and maca and jujube were used as functional materials to produce healthcare liquor. After fine processing, the best technical program was determined by using liquor body design technolo-gy. Besides, each physiochemical index was under strict control. Finally, quality maca&jujube healthare liquor (52%vol) was developed. The produced liquor was clear and transparent, golden yellow with slight reddish brown in color. It had feint maca scent and the flavor of charred ju-jube, and it tasted slightly sweet, smooth and delicate, with unique style.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Singh et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. The present work deals to summarize the Pharmacognostical studies like ash value, extractive value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leave shows hepatoprotective, antioxidant and other important pharmacological activities. The results of above parameters show the clue for more medicinal properties of Ziziphus mauritiana.

  18. 红枣浓缩清汁生产工艺的探讨%An Analysis of Jujube Concentrated Juice Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建钢

    2012-01-01

    In the production of Jujube concentrated juice, there are many factors that affect the quality and nutri- tive value of products, including the variety of raw materials, extraction method and process and so on. In recent years, the jujube concentrated juice production technology is more matured, but there are still some problems in the process of production. The article discusses how to keep the color and flavor of the Jujube juice while preserve its ric- hest nutrition and physiological active materials to improve the extraction rate and quality of Jujube concentrated juice.%在生产红枣浓缩清汁时,影响产品质量和营养成分的因素颇多,主要有原料的品种、提取方法和提取工艺参数等。目前国内红枣浓缩清汁的生产工艺日趋成熟,但是在生产过程中还存在一些问题,文中就在保证枣汁色泽和风味的同时,最大限度地保留红枣中各种丰富营养成分和提取具有生理活性物质,并且尽量提高原料提取率和商品红枣浓缩清汁的品质进行了探讨。

  19. 河北酸枣总黄酮提取工艺研究%Study on the Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids of Hebei Wild Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀红; 黎梅; 张慧姣; 高文玲; 田文轩

    2015-01-01

    To study the best extraction technology of total flavonoids from wild jujube. Using ultrasonic extraction method, room temperature immersion method, water bath heating method and microwave extraction method of four kinds of methods of Extracting Total Flavonoids from jujube. Quantitative determination of total flavonoids from wild jujube by UV spectrophotometry. The highest total flavonoids content was 2.509 mg/g by using microwave extraction in 150 s, water as solvent. The result showed that microwave extraction method was the efficient way to extracting total flavonoids from jujube.%采用超声波提取法、常温浸泡法、水浴加热法和微波提取法四种方法提取酸枣中的总黄酮,探讨酸枣总黄酮的最佳提取工艺。酸枣的总黄酮含量采用紫外分光光度法检测。用微波提取法、时间为150 s、用水作溶剂时提取的总黄酮含量最高,为2.509 mg/g。结果表明微波辅助是提取酸枣总黄酮的有效方法。

  20. Analysis and Prospect on Drying technology of Chinese Jujube%红枣制干技术现状分析与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪东; 朱荣光; 高振江; 林海; 娄正; 王栋

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed and evaluated some main drying technology of Chinese Jujube , such as natural drying,drying room drying,mechanical drying, solar drying, vacuum freeze drying, microwave drying, infrared radiation drying, etc.“Two-class” processing mode of jujube enterprises in the south of Xinjiang province is discussed as a typical representation of Chinese Jujube processing mode .Finally , according to the problems and deficiencies of drying room drying technology , the article put forward future development and research direction of Chinese Jujube drying tech -nology .%对自然晾晒法、烘房制干法、干燥机制干法、太阳能制干法、真空冷冻制干法、微波制干法以及红外辐射制干法等现有的主要红枣制干技术进行了分析与评价;以新疆南疆地区红枣加工企业的“两级”干燥模式为代表,分析了红枣干燥加工模式现状;最后,针对主流红枣烘房制干技术的问题与不足,对红枣制干技术的发展与研究方向进行了展望。

  1. Analysis of Freezing Injury on Jujube in Qiemo in Winter%且末红枣冬季冻害成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玖君; 吉春容; 李大武; 冯浩; 邓新建

    2015-01-01

    The daily meteorological data during 1971-2012 from meteorological station of Qiemo and investigation data about freezing injury of jujube in recently years were used to analyze the causes of freezing injury and the effect of meteorological factors on jujube , and to compare the scientific protection measures for jujube safely passing through winter. The results showed that, the occurrence of freeze injury of jujube are closely related to continuous low temperature, snowfall, tree age, tree species, and management measures. The climate warming in winter was beneficial for safe hibernation of jujube, however relative high temperature before dormancy could easily result in insufficient ability of jujube to resist coldness before winter, which led to disadvantage for safe hibernation; The observation of protective measures showed that, the warming effect of crown molding was good, whereas the warming effect of dressing in snow was the worst. Comprehensive protection measures (include whitewashing, autumn turning and winter irrigation, molding, and dressing) should be adjust for Jujube to adapt to the local conditions and pass through winter safely.%根据且末气象站1971—2012年冬季逐日气象资料和近年来枣树冻害灾情调查资料,分析了枣树冻害成因及冬季气象条件变化对枣树安全越冬的影响,开展防御措施对比观测,探讨科学的越冬防护措施。结果表明:枣树冻害发生与持续低温、积雪日数、树龄、树种、管理措施密切相关;冬季气候变暖对枣树安全越冬有利,但休眠前气温偏高易导致枣树冬前抗寒能力锻炼不足,对安全越冬不利;防护措施观测显示,根颈培土增温效果明显,降雪时包扎增温效果不佳;枣树越冬保护应因地制宜采用树干涂白、秋翻冬灌、培土、包扎等综合防护措施。

  2. Effects of Slice Processing on Hot Air Drying Characteristics of Semi-dry Original Red Jujube%切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志慧; 郭婷; 何新益; 程莉莉

    2013-01-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slice processing on hot air drying characteristics of semi-dry red jujube. Drying characteristics of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube under different hot air drying temperature were compared. The drying kinetics model of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube were founded. Results showed that slice processing could decrease the drying time of semi-dry original red jujube. Page model provided better simulation of drying curves for red jujube slice at different hot drying temperature. While Henderson and Pabis model provided better simulation of drying curves for origine semi-dry original red jujube at different hot air drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity of red jujube was 10 times that of origine semi-dry original red jujube, among 1.77×10-5 m2/s-2.99×10-5 m2/s and 4.56×10-6 m2/s-7.20×10-6 m2/s, respectively. Slice processing has the significant effects on drying characteristics of semi-dry original red jujube dried by hot air drying.%  为探索切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响,以半干原枣果作参照,比较了不同热风干燥温度下枣片和枣果的干燥特性,分别建立了干燥动力学模型。研究结果表明,切片处理可以缩短红枣的干燥时间;枣片的热风干燥过程符合Page方程,而枣果的热风干燥过程符合Henderson and Pabis方程。枣片的有效扩散系数是枣果有效扩散系数的的10倍左右,分别为1.77×10-5 m2/s~2.99×10-5 m2/s、4.56×10-6 m2/s~7.20×10-6 m2/s。结果表明切片处理对红枣的干燥特性有明显的影响。

  3. 果胶酶酶解红枣浆工艺研究%Study on Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process of Jujube Pulp Using Pectinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪文兵; 童军茂

    2012-01-01

    以市售和田大枣为原料,利用果胶酶处理红枣浆,以提高红枣浆出汁率。通过单因素试验得到在酶解温度30℃~50℃范围内、酶解pH 4.5~5.5、果胶酶添加量0.01%~0.03%、酶解时间60 min~80 min红枣浆出汁率较高,酶解效果较好;通过正交试验得到果胶酶处理红枣浆最佳工艺条件为酶解温度40℃,酶解pH 5.5,果胶酶添加量0.03%,酶解时间60 min,此条件下红枣浆出汁率为87.5%,比未添加果胶酶进行酶解提高了19%。%Hetian jujube was used as the raw material, and the jujube juice yield was improbed by pectinas treatment. The results of single factor experiments indicated that jujube juice yeild was higher, and the enzymatic hydrolysis effect was better in these conditions: the enzymolysis temperature 30 ℃-50 ℃, the enzymolysis pH 4.5-5.5, the addition of pectinase 0.01%-0.03%, and the enzymolysis time 60 min-80 min. Then orthogonal experiment was carried out, and the optimum conditions were as follows: the enzymolysis temperature 40 ℃, the enzymolysis pH 5.5, the addition ofpectinase 0.03%, and the enzymolysis time 60 min. In these conditions, the jujube juice yeild was up to 87.5%, 19% more than no additon ofpectinase in jujube pulp.

  4. Ultrasound enhances calcium absorption of jujube fruit by regulating the cellular calcium distribution and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Huanhuan; Liu, Qiqi; Xu, Juan; Dong, Yu; Liu, Mengpei; Zong, Wei

    2017-04-26

    Ultrasound has been applied in fruit pre-washing processes. However, it is not sufficient to protect fruit from pathogenic infection throughout the entire storage period, and sometimes ultrasound causes tissue damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCl2 , 10 g L(-1) ) and ultrasound (350 W at 40 kHz), separately and in combination, on jujube fruit quality, antioxidant status, tissue Ca(2+) content and distribution along with cell wall metabolism at 20 °C for 6 days. All three treatments significantly maintained fruit firmness and peel color, reduced respiration rate, decay incidence, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde and preserved higher enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid and glutathione) antioxidants compared with the control. Moreover, the combined treatment was more effective in increasing tissue Ca(2+) content and distribution, inhibiting the generation of water-soluble and CDTA-soluble pectin fractions, delaying the solubilization of Na2 CO3 -soluble pectin and having lower activities of cell wall-modifying enzymes (polygalacturonase and pectate lyase) during storage. These results demonstrated that the combination of CaCl2 and ultrasound has potential commercial application to extend the shelf life of jujube fruit by facilitating Ca(2+) absorption and stabilizing the cell wall structure. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [Absorption and distribution of nitrogen from 15N labelled urea applied at core-hardening stage in winter jujube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengchao; Jiang, Yuanmao; Peng, Futian; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Xu; Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo

    2006-01-01

    The study with pot experiment showed that at the rapid-swelling stage of winter jujube fruit, the percent of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff%) was the highest (10.64%) in fine roots, followed by new-growth nutritive organs. The absorbed urea-15N decreased in leaves and deciduous supers, and accumulated preferentially in root systems after harvest. The Ndff% in coarse roots was the highest (3.69%) before budding stage, while that in new-growth organs (new branches, deciduous supers, leaves and flowers) was the highest at full-blooming stage. The urea-15N applied at core-hardening stage mainly allocated in nutritive organs (leaves, deciduous supers, roots) in the first year, with the distribution rate 54.01% in root systems in winter, which was higher than that in branches (45.99%). The 15N stored in main branches changed drastically from post-harvest to budding stage. Main branches could be regarded as the 'target organs' of N storage, while coarse roots were the 'long-term sink' of N storage. The N reserve distributed preferentially in contiguity organs, and the distribution center changed with the growth and development of winter jujube in next spring.

  6. Research on Production Process of Tea and Jujube Vinegar%茶枣醋生产艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳芳; 李朝虹; 侯红萍

    2016-01-01

    Shanxi dried red jujube and tea are used as the main raw materials.The tea and jujube vinegar is made by liquid-state shaker fermentation method.The process parameters of adding pectin enzyme in preparation of red j uj ube j uice and the blending scheme of finished vinegar product are studied by single factor and orthogonal experiments,and the physical and chemical indexes of finished product vinegar are measured.%以山西干红枣和茶叶为主要原料,经液体摇床发酵法制得成品茶枣醋。通过单因素和正交试验,研究了红枣汁制备过程中添加果胶酶的工艺参数和制得成品醋的调配方案,并测定了成品醋中的理化指标。

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of dried jujube fruits as affected by cultivar and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Legua, Pilar; Lech, Krzysztof; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dying methods, such as convective drying (CD: 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 120, 480, 480-120 W), a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying [(CPD (60 °C)-VMFD (480-120 W)], and freeze-drying (FD) on key quality parameters of dried jujube fruits (cv. "GAL", "MSI", and "PSI"). The parameters studied included bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols and flavonols, identified by LC-PDA-MS, and vitamin C), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP), and sensory attributes (e.g. hardness, jujube-ID, and sweetness). The best quality of the dried product (high contents of bioactive compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes) was found in fruits treated by FD and VMD 480-120 W. The best cultivars were "PSI" and "GAL" from the point of view of bioactive content and sensory quality, respectively.

  8. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on the drought resistance of wild jujube (Zizyphs spinosus Hu) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jinying; LIU Min; MAO Yongmin; SHEN Lianying

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) inoculation on the growth and water requirement of pot-grown wild jujube (Zizyphs spinosus Hu).Three water regimes (20%,40% and 60% of soil water content) were conducted.The VAM inoculation could significantly increase plant growth (including plant height,leaf area,and fresh and dry mass),enhance relative leaf water content,photosynthetic rates,transpiration rates and stomatal conductance,and improve plant drought tolerance.The water consumption of the mycorrhizal plants producing 1 g of dry matter was 18.7%-26.6% lower than the consumption of non-mycorrhizal plants grown under the same soil water content conditions.

  9. Study on Facilities Long Jujube Fruit Abscission in Phenological Period%设施长枣物候期落果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟巧萍; 付晓; 杨红花

    2016-01-01

    该研究对设施长枣的物候期落果情况进行了观察分析。结果表明:设施长枣物候期落果率达到85%以上;枣果第一次膨大期是枣树生理落果的高峰期,落果量达到59.62%,占落果率的69.6%。%Analysis on facilities long jujube fruit abscission in phenological period was made in this paper. Results showed that facilities long jujube fruit abscission rate in phenological period reached 85%, and the first fruit swelling period with 59.62% of abscission amount was the peak period of fruit abscission, taking up 69.6% of total abscission rate.

  10. Study on the Brewing Technologies of Jujube with Honey Wine%枣蜜酒酿制工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑶; 曾丽丽; 廖春燕; 廖兰

    2012-01-01

    研究了以无核干红枣为原料发酵生产枣酒的工艺条件。试验结果表明加水量为枣质量的6倍时,浸提水温80℃处理1 h,微波炉800 W功率热处理12 min可得优质红枣汁。红枣汁用白砂糖调整至可溶性固体物(SSC)为20%,灭菌后冷却加入NaHSO3 60 mg/L,接入体积分数为2.5%的酒精酵母菌液,28℃发酵4d,过滤澄清后加入蜂蜜调制,冷藏处理后可得风格独特的枣蜜酒。%The fermentation technologies of jujube wine were studied.The results showed that adding water as 6 times as the weight of dried red dates,immersing for 1 h at 80 ℃ then dealing for 12 min in the cooker fire of 800 W,got red dates juice.Adjusting the juice with sugar to 20% SSC,cooling and adding NaHSO3 60 mg/L after sterilization,inoculating yeast concentration in 2.5%(V/V),fermenting at 28 ℃ for 4 d,blending honey after filtering and clarify processing,so that got jujube with honey wine of specific style.

  11. 乳酸菌发酵红枣汁在米酒中的应用%Application of Lactic acid bacteria Fermented Red Jujube Juice in Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶阳; 王洋; 左勇; 汪春好

    2012-01-01

    以红枣为原料,对乳酸菌发酵的工艺进行优化,并将其初步应用于米酒生产,测定了米酒产品的理化指标。结果表明,乳酸菌发酵红枣汁的最佳条件为接种量2%,发酵温度41℃,发酵时间24h。添加8%的发酵红枣汁于米酒中,产品的还原糖和总糖含量降低,Vc含量增高。在此工艺条件下酿制的米酒色泽浅红,味甜醇厚,酒体协调,有红枣特有的醇香。%Taking red jujube juice as raw materials, lactic acid bacteria fermentation process is optimized, then it is preliminarily applied in rice wine production, finally chemical indexes of products are measured. The results show that the best conditions of lactobacillus fermented red jujube juice inoculation amount is 2%, fermentation temperature is 41 ℃, fer- mentation time is 24h. 8% fermented red jujube juice in rice wine added, the reducing sugars and total sugar content of products reduced, the content of Vc increased. Under these conditions, the product has light red color, sweet, mellow taste and aromatic flavor of red jujube.

  12. Optimization of formula of composite Jujube powder by response surface methodology%响应面法优化复合枣粉配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许牡丹; 杨雯

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate factors and level were selected by the single factor experiment. The formula of composite Jujube powder was optimized by response surface methodology(RSM). The interactive effects including the ratio of concentrated Jujube juice and concentrated apple juice, the amount of soy bean flour and the amount of maltodextrin on the taste, flavor and color were examined. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed: the ratio of concentrated Jujube juice and concentrated apple juice is 2.79, the amount of soy bean flour is 20.78 g and the amount of maltodextrin is 9.54 g. Then add the appropriate amount of citric acid and sugar. Under these optimal conditions, the composite Jujube powder got the highest points of sensory evaluation.%在单因素实验的基础上,选取合适的因素及水平,利用响应面法对复合枣粉配方进行优化。选择浓缩枣汁与浓缩苹果汁比例、黄豆粉添加量、麦芽糊精添加量作为优化因素,研究各因素的不同水平对复合枣粉的口感、风味、色泽的影响。通过优化后的配方是浓缩枣汁与浓缩苹果汁比例为2.79(mL/mL),100 mL混合浓缩汁中添加黄豆粉20.78 g、麦芽糊精9.54 g,然后取适量的柠檬酸、白砂糖调味。在此条件制得的复合枣粉感官评定分值最高。

  13. Study on Technology of Red Jujube and Ginger Health Jelly%红枣生姜保健果冻的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元成伟; 宋照军; 孔瑾; 高青蕾

    2014-01-01

    以红枣、生姜为主要原料,并配以其他辅料,研制红枣、生姜保健果冻。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定其最佳配方为10%红枣汁,3%生姜汁,10%糖(红糖1%,白糖9%),0.8%卡拉胶,0.25%柠檬酸。研制出的产品色泽均匀,组织状态良好,口感细滑,酸甜可口,风味独特。%With red jujube and ginger as main raw materials, and other accessories, red jujube ginger care jelly was developed. Through single factor test and orthogonal test to determine the best formula of 10%red jujube juice, 3%ginger juice, 10%sugar (brown sugar 1%, sugar 9%),carrageenan 0.8%, citric acid 0.25%. Developed the product colour and lustre is uniform, the organization to be in good condition, and smooth taste, sweet and delicious, unique flavor.

  14. 一种适合提取枣果实总RNA的方法%A Protocol for Isolation of Total RNA from Chinese Jujube Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海山; 杜晓东; 蔡海燕; 彭建营; 韩斌

    2015-01-01

    多糖许多理化性质与RNA十分相似,很难将它们分开,而污染了多糖的RNA样品无法用于进一步的分子生物学研究。针对枣果实多糖含量高的特点,作者开发了一套适宜提取枣果实总RNA的方法———改良SDS法。采用该提取方法可有效去除多糖、酚类化合物、蛋白质等物质的影响,获得质量高、无杂质污染、完整性好的枣果实总RNA。%Many physicochemical properties of polysaccharide are very similar with RNA , it is difficult to separate them, while the RNA samples polluted with polysaccharide can not be used for further molecular biology research.A new modified SDS protocol for isolation of total RNA from Chinese jujube fruit was developed in accordance with the principle of RNA extraction and purification.Because Chinese jujube fruit was rich in polysaccharides, polyphenols, protein and so on, it was very difficult to extract RNA from the fruit.Using the modified SDS protocol, total RNA with high quality , no impurity contamination and good integrity could be successfully extracted from Chinese jujube fruit.

  15. Study on the Optimum Formula of Jujube Juice Drink%枣汁饮料配方的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国浩

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜红枣为主要原料,加入复合酸味剂、蔗糖、果胶,采用单因素和正交试验对枣汁饮料的加工配方进行优化研究.通过感官评定确定最佳的工艺配方为:复合酸味剂(柠檬酸:苹果酸=3∶1)0.2%、蔗糖18%、红枣汁20%、果胶0.12%.%Fresh red jujube were used as raw materials, added the compound acidifier , sugar, pectin , through single factor and orthogonal experiment, we studied the optimum formula of drink by jujube juice. The best optimum formula which we got by the sensory evaluation was: compound acidifier ( citric acid: malic acid = 3:1) 0. 2% , sugar 18% , red jujube juice 20% , pectin 0.12%.

  16. 鲜灵武长枣酒澄清工艺的研究%Study on Clarification Technology of Fresh Lingwu Long Jujube Fermenting Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 方海田; 贺晓光; 张惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Clarification and fermentation technology of fresh Lingwu long jujube fermenting wine were studied During the fermentation process, several key factors were optimized by orthogonal test, and an excellent type of Jujube wine was prepared finally, clarification effects of single and compound clarificants were studied. Through clearing and transparenting, a typical aroma, high-quality fresh jujube fermenting wine was produced.%以宁夏灵武长枣为原料,对鲜灵武长枣鲜枣汁发酵酒发酵工艺和澄清工艺进行了研究.采用正交试验,优化发酵工艺过程中的关键性因素,得出生产红枣酒的最佳发酵工艺条件;对澄清剂进行了单因素及复配实验,选择出最佳的澄清方法.鲜枣汁经发酵、澄清后得到最终获得了一种色、香、味、外观俱佳的高品质鲜枣汁发酵酒.

  17. Formation and evolution of the longevous image of jujube in the literature of South and North Dynasties%两汉魏晋南北朝时期枣的长生意象的生成及其演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文丽

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the formation and evolution of jujube immortals, the author, based on the Eastern Han Dynasty bronze mirror inscriptions"the fairy drinks the spring and eats the jujube, then he can keep young forever" , discusses the causes and evolution of jujube formation after the combination with historical records. The analysis shows that jujube immortals was produced under the influence of Fang Shi during Qin and Han Dynasties. As an independent image appearing in the literary works, jujube immortals got its peak period in South and North Dynasties, and then gradually began to decline.%为研究大枣仙话的产生及演变过程,以东汉铜镜铭文“上有仙人不知老,渴饮玉泉饥食枣”为基础,结合史料记载,对大枣仙话形成的原因及发展过程进行探讨。分析认为,大枣仙话在秦汉之际方仙道士的影响下产生,并作为独立的文学意象在文学作品中出现;魏晋南北朝时期是其鼎盛时期,后来逐渐衰落。

  18. 基于高光谱成像技术的灵武长枣缺陷识别%Non-destructive detection of defects inZizphus jujubeMill cv.Lingwu changzao based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴龙国; 王松磊; 康宁波; 何建国; 贺晓光

    2015-01-01

    Zizphus jujube Mill cv.Lingwu changzao, as one of characteristic agricultural products in Ningxia, is favored by the broad consumer for its high nutritional value. However, the external quality of long jujube will affect directly its sale and storage. In the traditional detection method, it has several disadvantages such as time-consuming, laborious and low efficiency, etc. Hyperspectral imaging technique has become an important trend to employ nondestructive testing of fruit quality, because it simultaneously has the merit of spectral technique and imaging technique. In order to study an effective method for quickly detecting common defects (bruise, insect-infested and cracks) on jujube fruits, the methods of principal component analysis (PCA) on the optimal wavelengths combined with band ratio (BR) were applied to identify the crack, insect and bruised jujubes. In the first place, a total of 300 samples were placed in 4℃ refrigerator storage, including a set of 100 defective jujubes with cracks; a set of 100 insect-infested jujubes with a hole greater than 0.1 mm in diameter on each of the selected jujube's surfaces; a set of 50 bruised jujubes, which are normal jujubes dropped from 1 m and with the region of injury marked; a set of 50 intact jujubes, were picked out by hand-picked the way to randomly and manually collect from three orchards in Lingwu, China during the harvest period of 2013. Before measuring, the samples were kept overnight at room temperature (23℃). Secondly, the hyperspectral images of jujubes in the spectral region 918-1 678 nm were acquired for 300 jujube samples. Region of interests (ROIs) as an average spectral of various jujubes were obtained and the wavelengths in the spectral region of near-infrared reflection were analyzed and combined with PCA method to determine feature wavelengths by weighted coefficient. Intact jujubes were selecting four optimal wavelength (1 028, 1 109, 1 312, 1 449 nm) , crack jujubes were selecting seven

  19. Research on functional diversity of microorganisms on jujube fruit surface in storage%红枣贮藏期果面微生物功能多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙月霞

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Disease during storage caused by microbial infection is a serious problem of jujube fruits. The aim of the study was to characterize the microbial diversity in stored jujube fruits.[Methods] I used Biolog in experiment. The types of micro-plates were Filamentous Fungi micro-plate and Economicmicro-plate.[Results] There was much difference in microbial functional diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. The microbial functional diversity of stored 30 days was richer than it of stored 15 days. The diversity, homogeneity and average well color development of jujube used by fruit perservatives were lower than it not used by fruit preservatives. There were six kinds of the characteristic carbon. [Conclusion] Our study firstly showed microbial diversity on the surface of stored jujube fruit. Biolog could be applied in the research on microbial functional diversity of fruit surface.%[目的]了解果品微生物功能多样性信息,为红枣贮藏期贮藏病害的防控提供技术支撑,同时希望为果品果面微生物多样性的研究提供新的方法.[方法]采用 Biolog方法研究了红枣贮藏期果品果面微生物群落结构功能多样性.[结果]红枣在不同贮藏时间内果面微生物群落的功能多样性差异很大,贮藏时间越长微生物越丰富,对不同碳源的利用程度越高;采用保鲜剂处理后红枣果面微生物群落的多样性、均匀度指数和AwCD均显著低于未作任何处理的红枣果面微生物.四种不同处理的红枣果面微生物的特征碳源主要有六类:碳水化合物类、羧酸类、聚合物类、酚类化合物、氨基酸类、胺类.[结论]我们的研究结果首次初步揭示了红枣在贮藏期果面微生物的功能多样性,并证明 Biolog方法可以应用到果品微生物功能多样性的研究.

  20. 主要原料对红枣饮料品质的影响%Effects of the Main Ingredient on Quality of Jujube Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁周民; 李其晔; 赵楠; 化志秀; 李新岗

    2012-01-01

    以红枣饮料为对象,在前期试验的基础上采用正交设计试验方案,研究了红枣原汁、白砂糖和混合有机酸3种主要原料含量对饮料透光率、可溶性固形物、总酸、固酸比等品质指标以及感官质量的影响.结果表明:红枣原汁、白砂糖和混合有机酸含量分别对饮料透光率、总酸(p<0.05)有显著影响,对可溶性固形物有极显著影响(p<0.01).在试验条件下,3种主要原料优化配比为原汁20%、白砂糖8%、混合有机酸0.2%,饮料固酸比值在26.1∶ 1~36.4∶1范围时具有较好的口感.以此配比生产的红枣饮料具有较好的感官品质.%Based on pre-experiments, the orthogonal experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the quantities of the main ingredients of jujube beverage, including jujube juice, sugar and mixed organic acids on the quality indices (such as transmittance, soluble solid, total acidity, solid-acid ratio) and sensory quality of the beverage. The results showed that the content of jujube juice, sugar and organic acids had significant effects on the transmittance (p<0. 05) , soluble solid (p<0. 01) and total acid (p<0. 05) of jujube beverage. The optimized recipe was obtained as jujube juice: 20%, sugar: 8%, mixed organic acids 0. 2% , and solid-acid ratio range: 26.1 : 1 to 36. 4: 1, by which the beverage presented satisfactory sensory quality.

  1. 枣麦间作系统中冬小麦的冠层光分布特征及产量研究%Canopy light distribution and yield of winter wheat in jujube-wheat strip intercropping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳欢; 潘存德; 冯会丽; 王世伟; 李星

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at competition for land and light between forestry and agriculture, a jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) strip intercropping system in north-south direction with 3 m × 4 m plant and row spacing was used to study light distribution of winter wheat canopy. In the field, two treatments of jujube and winter wheat intercropping (JZ) and monocrop of winter wheat (CK) were investigated during the 2013-2014 growing season. In winter wheat trip, measurement points were set at every 50 cm distance between two jujube trees (reference spacing). Thus seven measurement points were subsequently set as E50 cm, E100 cm and E150 cm, E200 cm (W200 cm) and W150 cm, W100 cm and W50 cm (E and W meant the eastern and western parts of winter wheat trip). In the monocultured winter wheat system, the same measurement pointes were set also. During different growth stages of winter wheat (tillering, jointing, heading, flowering, filling and mature stages), the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of winter wheat canopy in different positions was measured. At maturity, the yield of winter wheat was also investigated. The spatial windows of canopy saturated PAR of winter wheat at different growth stages were analyzed using polynomial regression and fixed interval integral so as to determine light distribution of winter wheat canopy in jujube-wheat strip intercropping system. The results showed that under strip intercropping system, canopy light intensity and yield of winter wheat had different spatial and temporal distribution characteristics. There was a certain degree of attenuation compared to winter wheat monocrop system. The space-time windows of canopy saturated PAR, grain number per spike, effective panicle number, 1000-grain weight, yield under monocrop of winter wheat (the control) were respectively 56.1%, 14.7%, 15.9%, 33.5% and 53.0% higher than those under intercropping system. Compared with monocultured winter wheat (control) the space

  2. Effects of two new dryland farming technologies on growth and fruit bearing of pear jujube trees in hilly regions%两种新的旱作管理技术对山地梨枣树生长及结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞; 汪有科; 刘守阳; 魏新光; 黎朋红

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of non-irrigation, the 9 year-old pear-jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) trees [grafted on wild jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill, var. spinoaa ( Bungge) Hu ex H. F. Chow.) J was set as study material with different dryland fanning technologies, which included water-saving type pruning technology, bamboo-type poly ditch technology and conventional dwarf pruning. And, comparison was made of the effects of each treatment on vegetative growth and reproduction growth of pear jujube trees. The results showed that water-saving pruning and bamboo-type contour ditch, either singly or in combination, could increase significantly the growth leaf area, the area of each leaf and the content of chlorophyll. and increase significantly the number of bearing branchlets and number of flowers. Compared with the control, water-saving pruning (HL) could raise the yield by 83.14% . and bamboo-type poly ditch (CJ) could raise it by 38.44%, while treatment HJ, combined with the HL and CJ technologies, harvested the most and the yield was 155% of the control. In Loess hilly regions in Northern Shaanxi, under the condition of non-irrigation, the water-saving pruning technology could play a jruin positive role in raising pear jujube yield, especially combining the bamboo-type contour ditch technology.%以9a生梨枣树(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)为试材,在无灌溉条件下,研究节水型修剪技术和竹节式聚水沟技术及常规矮化修剪技术(CK)对梨枣营养生长及生殖生长的影响.结果表明:节水型修剪与竹节武聚水沟技术的单独及联合应用,能有效提高叶面积增长量、梨枣单叶面积和叶绿素含量,有效提高枣吊个数和着花数量;与对照相比,节水型修剪技术可提高产量83.1%,竹节式聚水沟技术可提高产量38.4%,节水型修剪技术+竹节式聚水沟技术效果更好,产量可提高155%.综合分析认为在旱地无灌溉条件下的陕北黄土丘陵区,以节水型修剪树体管理

  3. 红枣的营养保健功能及开发利用研究进展%Nutritional and Healthy Function of Zizyphas Jujube and Its Research Advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金玺; 刘慧瑾

    2012-01-01

    红枣具有很高的营养价值和保健作用.本文对红枣的营养保健功能及开发利用研究进展进行综述,为红枣的深加工研究开发提供参考.%There are high nutritional value and powerful health function in zizyphas jujube.The research nutritional and healthy (unction and its research advances.which can provide the reference for further production and development of zicyphas jujube.

  4. Soil water characteristic of a dense jujube plantation in the semi-arid hilly Regions of the Loess Plateau in China%黄土高原半干旱区山地密植枣林土壤水分特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪星; 周玉红; 汪有科; 卫新东; 郭旭新; 朱德兰

    2015-01-01

    针对陕北黄土丘陵区近年来形成的大规模枣林土壤水分研究薄弱的问题,本研究采用中子仪定位观测方法,探讨了山地密植枣林0~1000 cm土层范围的土壤水分特征变化规律。研究将黄土丘陵半干旱区的密植枣林土壤水分划分为活跃层、难恢复层和稳定层。活跃层是土壤0~200 cm土层,该层土壤水分具有明显的逐月动态变化规律,在枣树生育期内,5月是活跃层,土壤水分最干燥期,7月是土壤水分提升最明显期,10月是土壤水分最高期。土壤水分提升规律和枣树耗水规律一致,即在枣树生长旺盛时期,正是土壤水分提升最快的阶段;在枣树休眠结束和开始萌芽时枣林土壤水分出现最低值。枣林土壤水分难恢复层在200 cm以下,其深度取决于枣林年龄,林龄越大该层次越深,12年生密植枣林土壤耗水深度达到540 cm,其中难恢复层厚度为340 cm。难恢复层之下是土壤水分稳定层。研究认为密植枣林土壤耗水深度小于以往研究的刺槐、柠条和苜蓿等土壤水分消耗深度,山地密植枣林模式对今后研究人工林调控土壤水分有积极意义。%Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. CV. Lizao) is an economically important tree fruit species cultivated in the semi-arid hilly regions of the loess plateau in China. A few studies focused on reporting soil water for this area;so this study aimed to quantify soil water characteristic within 0-1000 cm for dense jujube plantation, using the soil core method and neutron probe. The results showed that:(1) According to soil water dynamic change,the whole soil water profile was stratified into three layers:active layer,difficult re⁃covery layer,and stable layer. (2)The active layer ranged in the 0-200 cm;Soil water of this layer had ob⁃vious monthly dynamic change;In May, soil water content was the lowest during the whole growth stage (from May to October);soil water content

  5. 陕西佳县枣林生态系统环境适应性及服务功能价值评估%Environmental Adaptability and Service Function of Chinese Jujube Forest Ecosystem in Jiaxian County, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永勋; 刘某承; 闵庆文; 伦飞; 张灿强

    2014-01-01

    以陕西佳县枣林复合农业生态系统为研究对象,从环境适应性角度,综合分析其对环境的适应特征,评估其服务功能的经济价值.结果表明:枣树的生理结构、生长周期和耐受性适应佳县的自然环境,并且枣树对自然环境具有改造作用;枣具有丰富的营养成分和药用价值,市场需求旺盛,良性的枣林生态系统为人类带来利益,长期形成的有关枣的神话和习俗等枣文化对人类破坏古枣树具有约束作用.佳县枣林生态系统服务功能价值巨大,据测算其主要服务功能的总经济价值为1.72×109元·a-1,其中,提供物质产品和保持土壤是最主要的服务功能.枣林生态系统对佳县的自然和社会环境具有显著的适应性,这种适应性和服务功能价值共同推动了其延续和发展.%As a long history of agriculture heritage system,Chinese jujube forest ecosystem is significantly affected by human activities and has its own environment conditions,ecosystem services and society requirements.A case study on Chinese jujube forest ecosystem in Jiaxian County,Shaanxi Province was carried out.The environmental adaptability and service function of Chinese jujube were comprehensively analyzed.The results showed that the physiological structure,growth cycle and tolerance of Chinese jujube adapted to the local environment in Jiaxian County,and Chinese jujube could also improve the local environment.Because of the high nutrient content and medical value,Chinese jujube has a huge market requirement,and also brings about the huge economic benefits.Furthermore,the local traditional myths and customs avoided the deforestation there,and Chinese jujube forest ecosystem services significantly the local economic development.The service value of Chinese jujube forest ecosystem in the county,as high as 1.72 × 109 yuan · a-1,was also evaluated.Moreover,the service function,direct economic value and soil conservation of Chinese jujube

  6. Synthesis of Jujube Polysaccharide-lron Complex and Determination of Fe Content%大枣多糖铁的合成及其铁含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉贤; 刘艳菊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]从大枣中提取大枣多糖,然后与铁(Ⅲ)合成大枣多糖铁配合物(JPC),建立JPC中铁含量的测定方法.[方法]采用热水浸泡法提取大枣多糖;在碱性条件下,大枣多糖水溶液与三氯化铁反应合成JPC;采用邻菲罗啉分光光度法和原子吸收光谱法测定JPC中铁(Ⅲ)的含量.[结果]JPC是深棕红色无定型粉末,JPC中铁(Ⅲ)的含量:邻菲罗啉分光光度法测定结果为19.76%,原子吸收光谱法测定结果为20.37%.[结论]邻菲罗啉分光光度法和原子吸收光谱法的测定结果基本一致.%[ Objective ] To prepare jujube polysaccharide-iron ( Ⅲ ) complex (JPC) by the synthesis of polysaccharide extracted from jujube and FeC13,and construct a method for determining the Fe content in JPC. [ Method ] The polysaccharide was extracted from jujube by hot water immersion method,and then synthesized with FeCI3 to produce JPC under alkaline condition;at last the Fe (Ⅲ) content in JPC was detected by phenanthroline spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophometry. [ Result ] JPC was heavy brownish red and shapeless powder. The content of Fe (Ⅲ) in JPC was 19.76% detected by phenanthroline spectrophotometry and 20. 37% detected by atomic absorption spectrophometry. [ Conclusion ] The results detected by these two methods were basically consistent.

  7. Selection and breeding of processing - oriented Jujube variety Cangmi No. 1%加工型大枣新品种沧蜜1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立树; 孙秀坤; 李志欣; 翟玉柱; 刘进余; 肖家良

    2009-01-01

    沧蜜1号是以沧州枣树品种资源为材料,经过初选、复选和决选而选育出的枣新品种.果实长圆形,平均单果重17.2 g,最大单果重35.2 g,果实大小整齐,果形一致,果点大、白色,果面平整光洁,果肉白绿色,肉质疏松,汁液少,核长椭圆形,可食率97.7%,在沧州地区8月中旬白熟,9月上中旬完熟.白熟期采收最适宜加工,可加工成无核水晶蜜枣、有核硬蜜和香酸蜜枣,品质极上.耐瘠薄,抗盐碱,抗病虫能力强.2008年12月通过河北省林木品种审定委员会审定,定名为沧蜜1号.%New Jujube variety of Cangmi No. 1 was selected from Cangzhou Jujube varietis. The Jujube fruit was longround, average Jujube fruit weighed 17.2 g, and heaviest fruit was 35.2 g. The size of fruit was even, and the shape was consistent. Fruit point was big and white, huit surface was smooth, the flesh of fruit was white- green, quality of flesh was loose, and its juice was little. Its pit was long- oval,and the edible rate was 97.7%. In Cangzhou area, Cangmi No. 1 was white - ripe in mid - August, and perfect ripe in September. Harvesting within white - ripe period was the most suitable for processing, and it could be processed to hard honey date, sweet honey date and non - pit crystal honey date, and its quality was good. It could endure barren land and alkali - salinity field. It had anti - disease and anti - insect ability. It was named as Cangmi No. 1 by Approving Committee of Forestry Varieties of Hebei Province in December 2008.

  8. Storage and Remobilization of Nitrogen by Chinese Jujube (Z.jujuba Mill.var.inermis Rehd) Seedling as Affected by Timing of 15N Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Deng-chao; JIANG Yuan-mao; PENG Fu-tian; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Xu; SUI Jing; HE Nai-bo

    2006-01-01

    Winter jujube orchard nitrogen (N) management aims at increasing N reserves to meet the tree's growth requirements.Fertilization strategies should maximize the efficiency of fertilizers,including the choice of the optimal timing of N supply.15N-urea was applied to winter jujubes on Jinsixiaozao jujubes rootstock to evaluate the effect of application timing on N-storage and remobilization in mature trees in pot culture. The treatments consisted of ground application before budding (BB), during fruit core-hardening stage (FCH), and fruit rapid-swelling stage (FRS). Nitrogen-use efficiency of treatments were significantly different, which were 2.42% (BB), 9.77% (FCH), and 9.01% (FRS) in the dormant and 5.20% (BB), 16.16%(FCH), and 10.30% (FRS) in the following full-bloom. N supply in the pre-harvest helped to increase N-reserves of trees and then translocate to the new growth organs the following year. The largest amount of 15N was detected in the roots and trunks. In all the treatments, the partition rates were highest in coarse roots, which were 30.43% (BB), 38.61% (FCH),and 40.62% (FRS), respectively. 15N stored in roots and trunks was used by jujube trees to sustain new growth in the following full-bloom. 15N applied before budding resulted in lower Ndff% in perennial organs (trunks and coarse roots)sampled in the following full-bloom, but fine roots had highest Ndff% (1.28%). Other organs recovered similar amount of Ndff%. In contrast, FCH and FRS treatments led to higher Ndff% (4.01-5.15%) in the new growth organs (new growth branches, deciduous spurs, leaves and flowers), but lower Ndff% in perennial branches (1.49-2.89%). With the delay of 15N-urea application time, 15N increased the partitioning to roots. FCH treatment increased N-storage in perennial organ during winter, which should be remobilized to sustain new growth the following spring.

  9. Production technology and stability of fresh cloudy Lingwu long jujube juice%鲜灵武长枣混浊汁饮料生产工艺及稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧燕; 方海田; 贺晓光

    2012-01-01

    Lingwu long jujube of Ningxia as raw materials, the optimal process conditions of fresh cloudy Lingwu long jujube juice, the best ratio of jujube juice and stability of the control points were determined. Cloudy jujube juice optimum conditions for production: feed-water ratio 1:1.5, 0.25% pectinase dosage, reaction temperature 50 ℃, hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under these conditions long jujube juice soluble solids content of 25.3%. Best ratio of cloudy long jujube juice: 50% of the original date juice, mixed sugar (white sugar:fructose syrup 1:4) 4%, mixed organic acids (citric acid: malic acid 1:1) 0.3%. Add 0.1% CMC and 0.05% agar or 0.1% CMC and 0.1% xanthan gum combination. Fragrant, sweet and sour refreshing, natural color, no stratification, the uniform, good mobility, no odor, fresh cloudy jujube juice was made.%以新鲜宁夏灵武长枣为原料,获得鲜枣混浊汁的最佳取汁工艺条件,枣汁饮料的最佳配比及稳定性控制点。鲜枣混浊汁生产的最佳工艺条件为:料水比1:1.5、果胶酶的添加量0.25%、酶解温度50℃、酶解时间4h,此条件下长枣汁中可溶性固形物含量为25.3%。长枣混浊汁饮料最佳配比为:原枣汁50%,混合糖(白砂糖:果葡糖浆1:4)4%,混合有机酸(柠檬酸:苹果酸1:1)0.3%;再添加0.1%CMC和0.05%琼脂或0.1%CMC和O.1%黄原胶组合,均可得到枣香浓郁、酸甜爽1:2、自然色、无分层现象、均匀一致、流动性好、无异味的鲜枣混浊汁饮料。

  10. 水杨酸对冬枣内源激素含量及保鲜效果的影响%Effects of Salicylic Acid(SA) on Endogenous Hormone Content and Preservation Effect of “Dong” Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申勋宇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research was to study effects of SA on endogenous hormone content and preservation effect of Dong jujube. [Method] Dong jujube was spayed with SA at different concentrations (20,40,80 and 120 mg/L) ,and clear water was used as control. During the storage at 10℃ ,contents of gibberellin (GA) ,auxin (IAA) .zeatin riboside (ZR) , abscisic acid (ABA) and indexes of storage quality of Dong jujube were determined at day 1,5,9,13,17and 21 respectively. [Result]Suitable concentration of SA could increase CA.1AA and ZR content of Dong jujube,decrease ABA content,make Dong jujube contain higher soluble sugar and vitamin c content,and delay its senescing process. All concentration of SA could increase water content and hardness of "Dong" jujube. [ Conclusion] The suitable concentration of SA treating "Dong" jujube was 20 mg/L%[目的]研究水杨酸对冬枣内源激素含量和保鲜效果的影响.[方法]以浓度20、40、80和120 mg/L的水杨酸喷洒冬枣,同时以清水为对照.在10℃贮藏过程中,分别于1、5、9、13、17和21 d进行赤霉素(GA)、生长素(IAA)、玉米素核苷(ZR)、脱落酸(ABA)含量及贮藏品质指标的测定.[结果]适当浓度的水杨酸处理可提高冬枣GA、IAA和ZR含量,降低ABA含量,使冬枣保持较高的可溶性糖和Vc含量,延缓冬枣的衰老进程.所有水杨酸处理均可提高冬枣的含水量和硬度.[结论]水杨酸处理冬枣的适宜浓度为20 mg/L.

  11. Identification of Agricultural Climate Resources for Jujube in Chaoyang Region of Liaoxi%辽西朝阳地区大枣农业气候资源鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富荣; 宗英飞; 冯雪菲; 戴海燕; 冯淑霞; 谭政华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]鉴定大枣各生育期气候条件.[方法]根据失枣各个生育阶段的气象指标,分析当地气候资源的利弊程度.[结果]温度条件是朝阳地区种植大枣的主要限制因子.朝阳南部地区热量充足,各生育时段的热量条件较好地满足生理指标的要求,适宜栽植大枣;而北部地区大枣生育关键时段的温度低于临界温度指标,不适宜栽植大枣.朝阳地区水分条件基本满足大枣生长发育需求.朝阳地区大枣生产气候优势是光照充足和温度日较差大.[结论]朝阳南部地区是适宜生产优良品质大枣产区.%[ Objective ] The aim was to identify the climate conditions of jujube in each growth period. [ Method ] According to the climate indexes of jujube in each growth period, the advantages and disadvantages of local climate resources were analyzed. [ Result ] The temperature is the main restricted factor for jujube planting in Chaoyang Region. Heat resource is adequate in south of Chaoyang Resion, which satisfy demands of physical index in each growth period and appropriate for jujube planting; while in north area, the temperature is lower than critical temperature index in key growth period, which not appropriate for jujube planting. Moisture condition in Chaoyang Region basically met the growth demand of jujube. The advantages of Chaoyang Region are enough light and diurnal temperature range. [ Conclusion ] The south of Chaoyang Region is appropriate for planting fine quality jujube.

  12. Selection of a new dry Chinese jujube cultivar——‘ Fangmuzao'%枣优良制干品种——‘方木枣’的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文海; 李新岗; 王长柱; 张学武; 宋晓斌

    2013-01-01

    ' Fangmuzao', a new dry cultivar of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), was selected from excellent mutants of local cultivars in North Shaanxi Province. Its fruit is olive-like and uniform with average mass of 12.25 g and maximum mass of 22 g, drying rate of 58.6% and has a red-ocher coloration with high quality. The phenophase investigation showed that sprouting occurred in late April, blossoming in late May, fruit repening in early and middle October with 110 days of fruit growth period, defoliating in late October in North Shaanxi. It has high-stable yield and certain resistance to fruit cracking, cold, barren, disease and pest. It is suitable to be cultivated along Yellow River both in northeast Shaanxi and northwest Shanxi.%‘方木枣’是从陕北枣区地方品种木枣的优良变异株系中选出的枣制干品种,果实为卵圆或短柱形,平均单果质量12.25 g,最大单果质量22 g,果实大小整齐,制干率58.6%,果皮着色浓、赭红色,品质优良.陕北枣区4月下旬开始萌芽,5月下旬始花,10月上中旬进入完熟采收期,果实生育期11Od,10月下旬落叶.该品种丰产稳产,抗裂性较强,耐寒,耐瘠薄,抗病虫,适宜在陕西东北部和山西西北部黄河沿岸栽植.

  13. 枣醋多酚的提取及其对自由基的清除效应%Extraction and Its Free Radical Scavenging Effect of Jujube Vinegar Polyphenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许牡丹; 杨艳艳; 王俊华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to determine polyphenol content of jujube vinegar, and study the free radical scavenging capacity of the polyphenol. [Method] Jujube vinegar polyphenol was extracted with different solvents, and its hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity were studied. [ Result] The results showed that extraction rate of polyphenol could reach 0.312 5 mg/ml with methanol as solvent , Which is the highest. The free radical scavenging capacity of the jujube vinegar polyphenol increased with the increasing polyphenol concentration , which indicated jujube vinegar had remarkable antioxidation activity. [ Conclusion] The study provides reference for development and exploitation of jujube vinegar.%[目的]测定枣醋中的多酚含量,并对枣醋多酚的自由基清除能力进行研究.[方法]采用不同的溶剂提取枣醋中的多酚,测定枣醋多酚对羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的清除能力.[结果]甲醇的提取率最高,多酚物质得率为0.312 5 mg/ml.枣醋多酚对羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的清除作用,随着浓度的增加而逐渐增大,表明枣醋具有很强的抗氧化性.[结论]该研究可为枣醋的开发和利用提供参考.

  14. An Outline of Studies of Reasons and Preventive Measures for Jujube Fruit Cracking at Home and Abroad%枣裂果原因与预防措施的国内外研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王改莲

    2011-01-01

    Jujube is the hot tree species for developing economic forest in Northern China.However,jujube fruit cracking causes enormous economy loss in the jujube farming because fruit cracking would lower the fruit commercial value.The mechanism of fruit cracking was described from the 3 aspects of species,symptom and period and the 8 kinds of factors causing fruit cracking were concluded through analyzing the appearance reasons for fruit cracking at home and abroad.According to these factors,some concrete measures were summarized to prevent jujube fruit cracking,such us the selecting of variety against cracking,keeping the golden mean tree potential,spraying calcium compound,adopting rain shelter greenhouse of new type etc.These can provide some theoretic basis for preventing jujube fruit cracking.%枣是北方经济林发展的主要树种,但由于裂果频繁发生,严重影响了果实的商品价值,给生产者带来了巨大的经济损失。笔者从裂果的种类、症状、时期3个方面对裂果发生的机理进行了阐述,并详细介绍了国内外枣裂果的原因,归纳了8种导致裂果发生的因子。同时总结了防治枣裂果的具体措施,如:选育抗裂品种、保持中庸树势、喷洒钙化物、适当采用新型避雨棚等,为预防枣裂果提供了一定的理论依据。

  15. Integrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conserving more soil water is of great importance to the success of arid and semiarid orchards. On the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau of China, mini catchments, named fish-scale pits, are widely used in orchards for collecting surface runoff to infiltrate more soil water. However, the flat surface inside fish-scale pits would increase soil evaporation during non-rainfall periods. Therefore, we integrated fish-scale pits with mulching, a popular meaning to reduce soil evaporation, to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that soil water deficit was observed for all treatments. However, soil water deficit was further intensified in the dry month. An index was used to represent the soil water supply from rainfall infiltration denoted WS. For the fish-scale pit with branch mulching treatment in the entire soil profile, the compensation degree of SWS were greater than 0. However, the CK treatment showed negative values in the 40–180 cm. In conclusion, integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation compared to fish-scale pits alone. Since the mulching branches were trimmed jujube branches, the integration of fish-scale pit with branch mulching is recommended in jujube orchards in order to both preserve more soil water and reduce the cost of mulching materials.

  16. 红枣汁非酶褐变抑制技术的研究%Inhibition Technology of Non-enzymatic Browning Against Chinese Jujube Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉艳

    2011-01-01

    本试验以红枣为主要原料,研究HSO3-、半胱氨酸和Ca2+对红枣汁非酶褐变抑制作用的影响,通过单因素试验和正交试验的研究,结果表明:HSO3-、半胱氨酸和Ca2+均可有效的抑制红枣汁非酶褐变;HSO3-、半胱氨酸和Ca2+三者最佳组合为HSO3-:150μg/g,半胱氨酸:2%,Ca2+:120μg/g,在此组合下,红枣汁的A420值为0.462。从极差和方差分析可知,这三种抑制剂对红枣汁非酶褐变影响的主次顺序为半胱氨酸〉Ca2+〉HSO3-。%Chinese jujube was used as raw material in this paper.HSO3-,cysteine and Ca2+ were researched on the non-enzymatic browning inhibition of Chinese jujube juice;The results were confirmed by single factor test and orthogonal test as follows: HSO3-cysteine a

  17. Development of Compound Beverage of Golden Silk Jujube Juice and Apple Vinegar%金丝枣汁苹果醋复合饮料研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 赵利; 袁美兰; 刘华; 张雪莲

    2011-01-01

    A compound beverage was formulated from apple vinegar made by shake flask fermentation using yeast and acetic acid bacteria and gold silk jujube juice prepared by pectinase-catalyzed hydrolysis.Using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array methods,the optimal beverage formula was determined to consist of: 61% apple vinegar,23% gold silk jujube juice and 16% high fructose syrup.%以苹果和金丝枣为原料,酵母菌、醋酸菌作为发酵菌种,以摇瓶发酵法制备的苹果醋与酶解法制备的枣汁进行调配制成复合饮料。在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验确定最佳配方,结果表明:苹果醋添加量6 1%、金丝枣汁添加量2 3%,果葡糖浆添加量1 6%。

  18. 大平顶枣保健果醋酿造工艺探究%Study on Brewing Process of Dapingding Jujube Health Fruit Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓磊; 刘香军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Dapingding jujubes were taken as raw material, and brewed to health vinegar through the deep liquid fermentation. We studied the effects of jujube vinegar fermentation conditions and determine the optimal brewing process. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of Dapingding health vinegar are that:the fermentation temperature at 32℃, the amount of edible alcohol addotion 8%, fermentation period 3 days, and the inoculation amount 6%.%本文以大平顶枣为原料,经过深层液态发酵法酿造保健果醋,研究了影响大枣保健果醋的发酵条件,确定最佳酿造工艺。结果表明,大平顶枣最佳果醋发酵条件:发酵温度32℃,添加食用酒精量8%,发酵时间3d,接种量6%。

  19. Development of health-medlar jujube vinegar%保健型枸杞红枣醋饮的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余昆; 陈玲; 聂永华; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    Studied the health-wolfberry dates vinegar production process.Fermentation stage of alcohol and acetic acid fermentation process parameters to optimize stages.Alcoholic fermentation stage the best combination of factors:the initial sugar content of 15%,use AC yeast fermentation,fermentation temperature 26 ℃;acetic acid fermentation is the initial phase of the optimum combination of alcohol 7%,0.6% inoculation,fermentation temperature 32 ℃,shaking speed of 150 r/min;use vinegar to clarify the effect of chitosan on the ideal,the best use of 0.1%;fermented mash jujube juice content 35%,XOS dosage 1.0 g/L,honey 0.6% addition level of sensory quality of the best.%研究了保健型枸杞红枣醋饮的制作工艺。对酒精发酵阶段和醋酸发酵阶段工艺参数进行优化。酒精发酵阶段最佳因素组合为:初始糖含量15%,利用AC酵母发酵,发酵温度26℃;醋酸发酵阶段最佳工艺组合为初始酒度7%,接种量为0.6%,发酵温度32℃,摇床转速为150r/min;采用壳聚糖对果醋的澄清效果较理想,最佳使用量为0.1%;发酵醪中枣汁含量35%,低聚木糖的添加量为1.0g/L,蜂蜜添加量为0.6%时果醋的感官质量最佳。

  20. 新疆红枣的太阳能干燥工艺研究初探%Primary Research on Solar Drying Technology for Jujube Dates in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过利敏; 张谦; 邹淑萍; 马燕; 孟伊娜

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the experiment was to discuss solar - drying technology for Xinjiang jujube dates.[Method] With jujube dates produced from Kuche County as test materials, and with house drying and the directly natural air drying with frame as the control (CK) , the practical work condition parameters of the self - made 5 HT- 2 agricultural by - product solar - drying device from September to October were observed, and according to climate conditions and material properties, a series of tests researching the solar - drying technology for jujube dates were conducted . [ Result] With the working temperature st 46 . 6 ℃and temperature ascending at 23 ℃ from September to October, the solar drier was suitable for the practice of solar - drying of jujube dates. When the water content was 25 % , the final product′s quality color, aroma, taste and cleanness were greater, dehydrating rate was 2.39 kg/d , drying time of solar - drying is between 7 to 10 day, which was 25% shorter compared with the directly natural air drying with frame and nylon net. The energy consumption was 10 - 20 (kw·h)/t, which has descended substantially compared with 1 000 kg raw coal consumption at house drying. Finally, several process requirement were pointed out . [ Conclusion]It is feasible to adopt 5 HT - 2 agricultural by - product solar drying device to dry jujube dates.The accummulated heat temperature is appropriate, and the product sensory and sanitory index are good .%[目的]摸索新疆红枣的太阳能干燥工艺.[方法]以库车灰枣为试验材料,以烘房、晒架制干为对照(CK),考察9月下旬至10月期间5HT-2农副产品太阳能干燥装置的工作情况,并根据气候条件及原料特征,开展红枣的太阳能干燥工艺研究.[结果]在9~10月该装置集热温度平均为46.6℃,温升为23℃,适宜进行红枣的太阳能干燥;产品色泽、风味品质及洁净度较好;当水分25%时,红枣脱水速率平均为2.39 kg

  1. 转盘式全自动红枣去核机的设计%Design of the Rotating Disc Type Jujube Kernel Removing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤阳; 葛正浩; 李冬冬; 李瑶

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the defects such as high labor intensity , low work efficiency , poor sanitation , safety haz-ard and processing quality of the products more difficult to control and etc in the existing jujube kernel removing ma -chines.A multi-station rotary disc fully automatic mechanism for jujube kernel removing was proposed .Firstly, the de-vice adopted the motor output power to decelerate using reducer .Then , the device droved two globular indexing CAM mechanism to interval transposition and ascension movement at the same time , making the rotary transposition and coordi-nates the up and down movement of the skateboard .Last , coupled with the use of new type rod centralizer go nuclear , the red jujube to nuclear missions such as the jujube centralizer , positioning , to nuclear could be done once .Simultane-ously , the whole structure of the automatic jujube pit machine was carried on the three dimensional modeling in the Pro -E software .The experiment device was designed .Results showed that the device parts assembly was reasonable , the nu-clear effect waas ideal , and it could be made for subsequent physical prototype .%为解决目前红枣人工去核过程中劳动强度大、工作效率低、卫生条件差、安全隐患多以及加工的产品质量难以控制等问题,设计了一种多工位转盘式全自动红枣去核机。该装置采用电动机输出的动力经减速器减速后带动两个弧面分度凸轮机构同时进行间歇转位运动和提升运动,使转盘的转位及滑板的上下运动相配合,加上新型扶正去核杆的使用,一次性完成红枣的扶正、定位、去核三道工序,完成红枣的去核任务。同时,对全自动红枣去核机的整机结构在Pro/E 软件中进行三维实体建模,并且设计加工出了试验装置。结果证明,该装置各部件组装合理,去核效果理想,可以进行后续的物理样机制作。

  2. Effects of anti-fatigue and hypoxia tolerance of nutritional jujube slices%营养枣片对小鼠抗疲劳和耐缺氧作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭; 张茹; 吴昊轩; 杨庆翠

    2015-01-01

    研究以大枣、党参、山药、阿胶为主要原料制作益气养血营养枣片对小鼠的耐缺氧和抗疲劳作用.通过常压耐缺氧实验,观察益气养血营养枣片对小鼠的耐缺氧作用.采用负重游泳法记录负重游泳时存活时间,观察药物对小鼠抗疲劳作用.结果表明,在耐缺氧方面,益气养血营养枣片可以延长小鼠在常压条件下的存活时间(P<0.05);在抗疲劳方面,益气养血营养枣片能延长小鼠在负重情况下的存活时间(P<0.05).益气养血营养枣片能增强小鼠耐缺氧和抗疲劳能力.%The effects of YiqiYangxue nutrition jujube slices made of jujube , codonopsis , yam and donkey-hide gelatin on hypoxia tolerance and anti -fatigue of mice was studied . The effects of YiqiYangxue nutrition jujube slices on endurance in mice was observed through bearing hypoxia tolerance test at normal pressure and loading swimming test .The atmospher-ic hypoxia test showed that the mice in YiqiYangxue nutrition jujube slices group could pro-long the hypoxia tolerance time at normal pressure ( P<0 .05 ) .The anti-fatigue experi-ment showed that the mice in YiqiYangxue nutrition jujube slices group could prolong the swimming time (P<0.05).YiqiYangxue nutrition jujube slices can obviously improve the endurance in mice .

  3. Study Effect on Wild Jujube Decoction in Treatment of Hyperthyroidism Insomnia%酸枣仁汤治疗甲亢失眠的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常广平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study thr effect of wild jujube decoction in treatment of hyperthyroidism insomnia. Methods Chose 48 patients of hyperthyroidism insomnia who are treated in hospital from May 2014 to July 2015 and separate 23 patients into control group and 25 patients into study group and then observe treatment effects of estazolam tablets and wild jujube decoction between two groups. Results Patients’treatment efficiency and efficacy in study group are 68% and 92%,which are much higher than 47.8% and 73.9% in control group,and in addition,patients’scores of SPIEGEL and PSQI in study group are much less than counterparts in control group,there is a differential between two groups and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Wild jujube decoction is effective in treatment of hyperthyroidism insomnia,such a treatment is conducive to improve patients’sleeping quality.%目的:对酸枣仁汤在甲亢失眠治疗中的作用进行观察研究。方法选取于2014年5月~2015年7月经临床确诊并且在我院接受治疗的甲亢失眠患者48例,将患者随机分为对照组(23例)和治疗组(25例)进行对照研究,观察舒乐安定片和酸枣仁汤的效果并进行比较。结果治疗组患者的显效率以及治疗总有效率分别为68%和92%,均高于对照组组的47.8%和73.9%;同时治疗组患者的SPIEGEL评分和PSQI评分均低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论酸枣仁汤治疗甲亢失眠的疗效确切,能够使患者的睡眠质量得到改善。

  4. Design of Dwarf and Close Planting Jujube Harvester Pickup Device%矮化密植红枣收获机捡拾装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚欧; 坎杂; 李成松; 付威; 王丽红; 李琳琳

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf and close planting jujube harvester pickup device was designed for the labor intensity and low efficiency of manual picking up .The joint operation of pickup device and harvester can both achieve jujube picking and harvesting one-time .Structure and working principle of pickup device were introduced , and key working parts were designed .Ki-nematics of pickup mechanism were analyzed using complex-number vector method , then structural parameters of eccen-tric, boom, connecting rods and other key working parts were determined .Motion equations of lever endpoint in the course of working were obtained by the motion analysis , and the relationship between throwing speed and eccentric rota-tional speed was determined , providing a theoretical basis for experimental study of jujube harvester pickup device .%针对红枣人工捡拾劳动强度大、作业效率低、生产成本高等问题,设计了一种矮化密植红枣收获机捡拾装置。该装置与红枣收获机联合作业,能够实现红枣一次性捡拾收获。为此,介绍了捡拾装置的结构与工作原理,并对关键工作部件进行了设计。采用复数矢量法对捡拾机构进行运动学分析,确定了偏心轮、吊杆、连接杆等关键工作部件的结构参数。通过对捡拾拨杆进行运动分析,获得了工作过程中拨杆端点的运动方程,并确定了红枣抛送初速度与偏心轮转速之间的关系,为红枣收获机捡拾装置的试验研究提供了理论基础。

  5. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of jujube fruit on the concentrations of some toxic trace elements in human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to investigate the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in the human milk, and to assess the effect of jujube fruit consumption by lactating mothers in reducing the concentration of these heavy metals in their milk. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014 among forty postpartum mothers in Isfahan, the second largest and polluted city in Iran. Mothers were randomized into two groups; the intervention group received 15 g/day of fresh jujube fruit, and the controls received routine care for 8 weeks. Results: In the beginning, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic were high, without significant difference between groups. The mean (standard deviation concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic were 29.49 (16.6, 4.65 (3.51, and 1.23 (0.63 μg/L, respectively. The smoothed empirical distribution of environmental pollutants showed that in both groups the mean values and variance of toxic metals decreased after 8 weeks, with a sharper decline in the intervention group. Quantile regression analysis showed that in the intervention group, lead concentration decreased by 2.54 μg/L at the 90th quintile, and cadmium decreased by 0.19 μg/Lat 75th quintile; without significant change in arsenic level. The corresponding figures were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The concentrations of heavy metals were high in human milk, and the consumption of jujube fruit had some beneficial effects in reducing these harmful elements. Pregnant and lactating mothers should be advised to reduce their exposure to environmental pollutants, and consumption of some natural medicinal foods can be useful in reducing the concentration of pollutants in human milk. Because of numerous benefits of breast milk, in spite of the existence of some toxic trace elements, breastfeeding must be encouraged because such contaminants are also found in water and formula. The impact of the current

  6. 沙枣果肉原花青素的分离纯化%Study on the Isolation and Purification of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.Jujubes Sarcocarp Proanthocyanidins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石翠芳; 孙智达; 刘畅; 谢笔钧

    2007-01-01

    研究采用固相萃取、HPLC等方法对5种不同沙枣果肉原花青素提取物的分离纯化进行了深入研究,结果表明:石油醚沉淀和乙酸乙酯萃取对沙枣果肉原花青素(Elaeagnus angustifolia L.Jujubes sarcocrp proanthocyanidins,ESPC)的分离效果明显;石油醚沉淀ESPC和乙酸乙酯萃取ESPC均含有较高的原花青素低聚体,而两者的水相提取物中则含有少量的原花青素高聚体及其他一些杂质;石油醚沉淀对ESPC粗提物的分离效果要优于乙酸乙酯萃取.

  7. Effects of Cooking Treatment on Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Jujube%烹饪方式对红枣多酚抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毕妮; 樊明涛; 曹炜; 高慧; 程妮; 邓建军

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同烹饪方式(高压蒸、煮及常压蒸、煮)对红枣枣皮、枣肉中多酚粗提物及4种存在形式酚酸部分的总酚含量及抗氧化活性的影响。采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定其总酚含量、DPPH法和FRAP法分别评价其抗氧化活性。结果表明:高压蒸煮较常压处理红枣中的总酚含量较高,尤其是枣肉;常压煮制红枣的枣皮和枣肉中酚酸类化合物的总酚含量均最高。常压蒸制处理的红枣枣皮的DPPH·清除能力和总抗氧化能力均较强,而高压蒸制处理的红枣枣肉的DPPH·清除能力较强,常压煮制的红枣枣肉总抗氧化能力较强。红枣中总酚尤其是酚酸类化合物对其抗氧化活性起了很大的作用。红枣若采用高压烹饪方式,蒸制处理能较好地保存红枣中的酚类化合物及抗氧化活性;若采用常压烹饪方式,则煮制较好。%The effects of different cooking methods(high-pressure cooking,steam and boiling under normal pressure) on the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the extracts from jujube were investigated.The total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method,and the antioxidant activity were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays.The results showed that the total phenolic content in jujube extracts treated by high-pressure cooking and steam is higher than that by pressure treatments,especially in the pulp of jujube.But the total phenolic acids contents in the peel and pulp of jujube treated by pressure cooking are higher.The peel of jujube treated by pressure steam exhibits the highest DPPH· scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity.The DPPH · scavenging activity of jujube pulp from high - pressure steam is stronger,while the total antioxidant activity of pulp from pressure cooking is higher.The total phenolics especially the phenolic acids play an important role in the antioxidant activity.If jujube is treated by high-pressure treatments

  8. 用EOS/MODIS-NDVI监测枣树生长状况的分析%Study of Jujube Growth Situation to be Monitored with EOS/MODIS-NDVI Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学艺; 戴小笠; 张玉兰; 段晓凤; 官景得; 马力文

    2012-01-01

    This paper proved that remote sensing technology could be used to monitor the growth situation of jujube based on the data collected from two long-jujube planting bases, Ningxia Lingwu Racecourse Lake farm and Lingwu gardening field, as research objects. Based on the analysis of the cloudless sky EOS/MODIS data of the jujube child-bearing period from 2005 to 2009 through the Ningxia border, combined with GPS investigation and the indicators of jujube meteorological disaster occurred, the relationship between the NDVI changes and the meteorological disaster happened during the whole jujube growth period was revealed. It was finding that the NDVI curve during the whole growth stages of the jujube was a double peak type. The influence of the overwintering cold injury was more severe to the early growth stage of jujube, whereas the injury effect vanished over time. Further deep analysis of frost damage and variation coefficient indicated that the injury effect of the overwintering cold was severer to the Lingwu gardening field compared with the Lingwu Racecourse Lake farm. From the impact of florescence hot dry weather in late June, jujube NDVI values in early July to mid-August on the whole year lower than normal. However, the effects disappeared till late of August. In a summary, MODIS-NDVI could be used to monitor meteorological disasters rapidly, and provided the technical supports and guidance in the field of meteorological disaster prevention and selection of cultivation area.%为研究遥感技术监测宁夏枣树生长状况,以宁夏灵武马场湖农场和灵武园艺场两个长枣种植基地为研究对象,结合GPS调查、整理2005—2009年红枣生育期过宁夏境内EOS/MODIS晴空资料,并依据红枣气象灾害发生指标,分析红枣生育期归一化植被指数INDV变化及受灾前后的变化规律.结果表明,枣树全生育期INDv变化曲线为双峰型,越冬冻害对枣树前期生长影响大,并随时间推移

  9. Comparison and Analysis on Quality of Local Jujube of Anhui Province%安徽地方优质枣品质性状比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞飞飞; 孙其宝; 陆丽娟

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 为促进安徽省不同地区枣产业发展.[方法] 采用常规分析方法,对安徽地方5个不同品种(或优株)的枣进行了感官品质和营养成分分析.[结果] 皖枣1号的感官品质最好,繁昌长枣的Vc含量和可溶性固形物含量最高,分别为381.01 mg/100 gFW、29.6%,泗枣1号的可滴定酸含量最高,达0.409%.[结论] 皖枣1号是最适合在安徽地区发展的优质鲜食枣.%[Objective] In order to promote the development of jujube in different regions of Anhui.[Method] The sensory quality and nutritional components of local 5 different varietis in Anhui were analyzed by using normal analysis method.[Result] The results showed that the sensory quality of the Wanzao NO.1 was the best, the content of Vc and soluble solid of Fanchangchangzao were highest, which respectively 381.01 mg/100 gFW, 29.6%.The content of organic acid of SizaoNO.1 was highest, which reached 0.409%.[Conclusion] From comprehensive comparison ,WanzaoNO.1 was the most suitable fresh edible jujube in Anhui.

  10. 清涧县枣树生物灾害调查与分析%Investigation on the Biological Damages Jujube in Qingjian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海祥; 高晓媚; 宋晓斌

    2014-01-01

    对清涧县危害枣树的有害生物进行了调查分析.结果表明,在清涧危害枣树的主要有害生物有3大类:有害动物主要有野兔(Lepus sinensis)、达乌尔鼠兔(Ochotona daurca)、甘肃鼢鼠(Myospalax cansus)、中华鼢鼠(Myospalax fontanierii);危害枣树的昆虫有48种,螨类有2种;病原微生物有植原体、真菌和细菌.其中,枣飞象在东部沿黄枣区发生严重,绿盲蝽在西部枣区发生严重,枣缩果病在大果型的鲜食枣上发生重于其他制干品种.2012年锈病流行,造成大量落叶.提出了相应的防控对策.%Pests occurring on jujube trees were investigated in Qingjian County,Shaanxi,China.It was found that there existed 3 categories of pests on jujube trees.The first one was harmful animals,including Lepus sinensis,Ochotona daurca,Myospalax cansus and Myospalax fontanierii.The second was insects and mites,including 48 species of insects and 2 species of mites.The third was germs,including 1 specie PLO,1 specie of bacteria,and 8 species of fungi.Scythropus yasumatsui seriously occurred in the east part of the county along the Yellow River.Lygus lucorum however,was found in west part of the county.The disease that caused shrieked fruit seriously occurred in freshly consuming cultivars.Some suggestions for pest management were put forward.

  11. Separation of function component of jujube dates by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes%超滤、纳滤技术分离大枣功效成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原超; 范三红; 林勤保; 王亚云

    2012-01-01

    The ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes were used to separate the crude polysaccharides, crude oligosaccharides and monosaccharide from Ziziphus jujube dates extract. The membranes with different molecular weight cut-off(10000, 5000, 800, 500 u) were screened and the operation conditions were optimized. It turned out that ultrafiltration was performed with 10000 u membrane and 3% of soluble solids at 0.12 MPa. Nanofiltration was carried out with 500 u membrane and 1.0% of soluble solids at 0.54 MPa. The final yield of crude polysaccharides was 5.21%, crude oligosaccharides was 19.24% and the monosaccharide was 58.27%. The purity was up to 52.61%, 54.78 % and 84.00%, respectively.%以大枣汁为材料,研究不同截留分子量(10000、5000、800、500 u)的超滤和纳滤膜分离大枣中粗多糖、粗低聚糖和单糖糖浆的效果,筛选了不同截留分子量的超滤膜和纳滤膜,并分别优化操作条件,得到适宜的工艺条件。结果表明:选用10000 u超滤膜,大枣汁可溶性固形物含量为3%,操作压力0.12 MPa;选用500 u纳滤膜,可溶性固形物含量为1.0%,操作压力0.54MPa。在此条件下,粗多糖、粗低聚糖和单糖糖浆的得率依次为5.21%、19.24%和58.27%,纯度可达到52.61%、54.78%和84.00%。

  12. 热处理对红枣汁5-HMF变化的影响%Influence of heat treatment on 5-HMF of Chinese jujube juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 李慧芸; 张宝善; 徐辉艳

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water content,heating temperature and time,micromolecule sugar,amino acid,pH value,and metallic ion on 5-HMF of Chinese jujube juice during thermal processing are studied,and the rule of nonenzymatic browning of Chinese jujube juice is searched.The results showed that higher moisture content is,less 5-HMF generate during thermal processing;rising of temperature and extension of time all can cause the increase of non-enzymatic browning index and content of 5-HMF.The effect of reducibility fructose,glucose,maltose to accelerate the generation of 5-HMF is higher than that of irreducibility sucrose,cysteine and aspartate can inhibit the generation of 5-HMF,glycine and lysine can accelerate the generation of 5-HMF;when pH value is 6(natural pH value for jujube juice),the content of 5-HMF is lowest,when pH value is 8,the content of 5-HMF is highest;Ca2+ can reduce the generation of 5-HMF,while Cu2+ and Fe3+ can accelerate the generation of 5-HMF.%研究了红枣汁热处理时,含水量、加热温度和时间、小分子糖、氨基酸、pH、金属离子等主要因素对5-羟甲基糠醛(5-HMF)的影响,探索红枣汁非酶褐变规律.结果表明:热处理红枣汁时,含水量越高,5-HMF生成越少;加热温度的升高及加热时间的延长均可致红枣汁非酶褐变指数及5-HMF值增大;还原性果糖、葡萄糖和麦芽糖较非还原性蔗糖更能促进5-HMF的生成,果糖最强,其次为葡萄糖;半胱氨酸和天冬氨酸有抑制5-HMF的生成作用,甘氨酸和赖氨酸有促进5-HMF的生成作用;pH为6(枣汁自然pH)的红枣汁热处理时5-HMF含量最低,pH为8时(强碱性)最高;Ca2+能减少红枣汁热处理时的5-HMF生成,Cu2+和Fe3+能促进5-HMF生成.

  13. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata, Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hira Fahim; Javid Iqbal Dasti; Ihsan Ali; Safia Ahmed; Muhammad Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950. Methods: By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed. Results: Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)%and small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-72.420%and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher activity than other honey samples. Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission. Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.

  14. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata,Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hira; Fahim; Javid; Iqbal; Dasti; Ihsan; Ali; Safia; Ahmed; Muhammad; Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluale physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739.Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048.Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027.Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633.Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028,Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 13883.Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.Rhizopus oligasparus PCSIR1.Candida albicans ATCC14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950.Methods:By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties including additive effect of starch and non—peroxidase activity,antioxidative properties(phenol contents,flavonoid contents,1,1-diphenyl-2-pierylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity).Prior to this evaluation,complete physico-chemical properties including pH,color,ash contents,protein contents,moisture contents,hydroxymethyl furfural contents,total sugar contents,reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed.Results:Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e.(0.5900±0.0336)%and small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e.(777.598±9.880) mg/kg.The moisture contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%—16,6%,total sugar contents foam 61.672%-72.420%and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%—3.93%.Presences of phenolic contents indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples.All bacteria showed clear inhibition zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher concentrations of these honey samples.For Escherichia coli.Bacillus subtilis.Salmonella typhi.Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger,overall the small honey showed the higher activity than other honey samples.Conclusion:Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimcntarius Commission.Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.

  15. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...

  16. 枣果实气孔形态特征研究%Research on stomatal characteristics of stoma of jujube fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安荣; 杨延青; 刘鑫; 杨飞

    2015-01-01

    The experiment took eight year-old Jujube of‘Lizao’,‘Dabailing’,‘Jinsixiaozao’,‘Yuanlingzao’,‘Junzao’and‘Jinai NO.4’as test materials to observe the characteristics and differences of the fruit surface stoma structure under an optical microscope. The main results showed jujube fruit stoma was oval and nearly round and some lenticels were cracking in the longitudinal direction. The stoma of matured fruit remained open, and some contained filler within the pores. The outer and smaller inner horizontal diameters and outer longitudinal diameter of the stomas for‘Yuanlingzao’and‘Junzao’were smaller than that of‘Lizao’and‘Jinai NO.4’. The stoma opening and size of‘Lizao’and‘Jinai NO.4’were the largest, and the stoma opening and size of‘Yuanlingzao’and‘Junzao’ were the smallest.%以8年生‘梨枣’、‘大白铃’、‘金丝小枣’、‘圆铃枣’、‘骏枣’和‘晋矮4号’为试验材料,在光学显微镜下,观察果实表面气孔的结构,研究果实表面气孔的特性和差异。结果表明:枣果实表皮气孔呈椭圆形和近圆形,部分皮孔纵轴方向均发现有开裂。成熟期果实表皮气孔均保持开放状态,且部分气孔内含有填充物。‘圆铃枣’和‘骏枣’果实表皮气孔的外横径、外纵径和内横径比较小,‘梨枣’和‘晋矮4号’果实表皮气孔的外横径、外纵径和内横径比较大。‘梨枣’和‘晋矮4号’的气孔大小和开度均最大,‘圆铃枣’和‘骏枣’气孔大小和开度均最小。

  17. Study on enzymatic browning control of polyphenol oxidase for Chinese jujube%红枣多酚氧化酶酶促褐变控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪文兵; 童军茂

    2012-01-01

    确定了红枣多酚氧化酶最适pH为6.0~6.5,最适温度为27℃;其对pH和温度较为敏感,通过调节pH和适当的热处理即可有效抑制其活性。同时在上述最适条件下,研究了以柠檬酸、抗坏血酸、亚硫酸钠作为抑制剂对红枣多酚氧化酶的抑制作用,并在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面分析法对复合抑制剂的复配进行了优化,获得最佳添加配比为:柠檬酸0.24%,抗坏血酸0.14%,亚硫酸钠0.08%;此条件下红枣多酚氧化酶相对残余酶活为0.51%。%Determined that the optimum pH of polyphenol oxidase(PPO) for Chinese jujube was 6.0 ~ 6.5,and the optimum temperature 27℃.Much sensitive to the temperature and pH,the activity of PPO could be effectively inhibited by appropriate heat treatment and adjusting the pH.In these optimal conditions,the test for the control of PPO in Chinese jujube was the addition of citric acid,ascorbic acid,sodium sulfite.And on the basis of one-factor experiments,response surface analysis was applied for the optimization of mixing inhibitors.As a result,with complex additives of 0.24% citric acid,0.14%ascorbic acid and 0.08% sodium sulfite added,the relative residual activity of PPO was 0.51%.

  18. Development of Compound Beverage of Mung Bean, Jujube and Yoghurt%绿豆、红枣复合酸牛乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓英; 刘长姣; 段连海; 霍岩

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean, jujube and yogurt were chosen as raw materials to develop beverage. Optimum formula of beverage was conformed to single factor test and orthogonal test by sensory evaluation. Optimum formula of beverage were as follows, mung bean juice and jujube juice ratio of 6∶4 (V/V), mixed juice amount of 20 mL/100mL, sucrose content of 10g/100mL, citric acid content of 0.10g/100mL. CMC-Na and carrageenan were chosen as stabilizer with amount of 0.3g/100mL and 0.01g/100mL, respectively. Monoglycerides was used as stabilizer with amount of 0.05g/100mL. Product had nutritionally complete, unique flavor and better health function. So it had high promotional value.%以绿豆、红枣、酸奶为主要原料,研制绿豆、红枣复合酸牛乳饮料。以饮料感官指标为考察标准,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定饮料最佳工艺条件:绿豆汁和红枣汁的混合比例为6∶4(V/V),混合汁添加量为20mL/100mL,蔗糖添加量为10g/100mL,柠檬酸添加量为0.10g/100mL;稳定剂为CMC-Na、卡拉胶组成的复合稳定剂,添加量分别为0.3g/100mL和0.01g/100mL;单甘酯为乳化剂,添加量为0.05g/100mL。该产品营养全面,具有独特风味和较好的保健功能,有较高的推广价值。

  19. 酸枣果醋酒精发酵过程工艺的研究%Study on technology of alcohol fermentation in wild jujube vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽衡; 毛永民; 王颉; 申连英; 刘亚琼; 王晓玲

    2013-01-01

    以酸枣果肉为原料,采用液态酒精-固态醋酸发酵法研制果醋,对酸枣果醋酒精发酵的过程进行研究.通过单因素和正交实验,得出酒精发酵最佳发酵条件,即含糖量15%,温度29.℃,酵母接种量0.08%,pH3.5,磷酸氢二铵添加量4g/L,酒精度可达到8.7%.实验结果可以为酸枣果醋饮料产品的进一步开发提供一定依据.%Fruit vinegar was produced using wild jujube as a raw material after liquid fermentation of alcohol and solid fermentation of acetic acid.The main processing technology and conditions of alcohol fermentation were studied.By single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment,the best alcohol fermentation conditions were obtained,for sugar 15%,fermentation temperature 29℃,inoculum concentration 0.08%,pH3.5,diammonium phosphate concentration 4g/L,the alcoholic strength could reach 8.7%.Results showed that these technology foundations could be used for the further development of lemon vinegar drinks.

  20. 鲜食枣新品种‘京枣60’%A New Fresh Consuming Jujube Cultivar‘Jingzao 60’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘青华; 张玉平; 白金; 金万梅; 李少宁

    2011-01-01

    ‘Jingzao 60’is a new jujube cultivar which was selected from a Beijing’s ancient satus jujube’s tree after many times grafting and regional testing. The fruit shape is near cone. The average mass of single fruit is 25.6 g. The color of mature fruit is purple,The flesh is crisp and contains abundant sweet juice. The soluble solids content is 26%,The total sugar content is 18.6%,vitamin C content is 3.24 mg · g-1,and titratable acidity is 0.54%. The quality is excellent. The fruit matures in mid-late September in Beijing.%‘京枣60’是从北京市古城区收集的实生枣树资源中经过多代改接和区域试验而选育出的枣新品种,果实近圆锥形,平均单果质量25.6g,成熟果紫红色,果肉酥脆,汁多味甜,鲜枣可溶性固形物26%,总糖18.6%,维生素C3.24mg·g-1,可滴定酸0.54%,品质优良,在北京地区成熟期为9月中下旬。

  1. 不同浓度蜂蜡涂膜剂对台湾青枣保鲜效果的影响%Effects of Different Concentrations of Beeswax Coating Agent on Taiwan Green Jujube during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曹雪丹; 朱水星

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of beeswax coating agent on Taiwan green jujube at the room temperature (10-15 ℃) were studied in the paper. The preservation effect of Taiwan green jujube fruit coated with 1‰ and 2‰ beeswax respectively both better than the control. The results showed that, Taiwan green jujube fruit coated with 2‰ beeswax could significantly reduce water loss and inhibit respiration intensity, it also maintained total soluble solids and titratable acid content effectively. The rate of fresh fruit was close to 70% after 15 days of storage, which was obviously higher than the control.%以浙江台州地区的脆蜜台湾青枣为试材,研究不同浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理对常温(10~15℃)条件下台湾青枣贮藏保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:在试验范围内,1‰和2‰浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理台湾青枣果实的保鲜效果均好于对照(不涂膜),其中以2‰浓度的蜂蜡涂膜剂处理保鲜效果最好,可以明显控制果实的失水,降低呼吸强度,延缓可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量的下降速率,贮藏15 d好果率接近70%,显著高于对照.

  2. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION AND STABILITY OF RED JUJUBE PIGMENT%微波辅助提取红枣红色素及其稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海华; 李海萍; 王星明

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microwave extraction and ultrasonic extraction on the yield ratio of red jujube pigment were investigated. The results indicated that the ultrasonic wave had slight effect on the yield of pigment, while the microwave increasing the yield of pigment obviously, compared with traditional extraction. The influence of temperature, illumination, the pH value, the different level of salt solution on the stability of red jujube pigment was measured. The result indicated that the red jujube pigment was a good natural pigment with stable properties.%研究微波辅助提取、超声波辅助提取以及常规提取对红枣红色素提取率的影响.结果表明,与常规提取法相比,超声波辅助提取法对改善红枣色素提取率的效果不显著,而微波辅助提取法能明显提高红枣色素的提取率.通过正交试验确定微波辅助提取红枣色素的最佳工艺,即料液比为1:30,提取功率为420W,提取时间为20 min.研究温度、光照、酸碱度、食盐对红枣红色素稳定性的影响,结果表明红枣色素是一种稳定性比较好的天然色素.

  3. Effects of hydrocolloids and homogenization on stability of cloudy jujube juices%亲水胶体及均质对枣浊汁饮料稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光远; 段倩; 常杨; 曹益恒; 纵伟

    2013-01-01

    To improve the cloudy stability of cloudy jujube juices, the effects of some hydrocolloids and homogenization on the cloudy stability rate were studied by turbidity retention rate, sensory evaluation and Ze-ta-potential. The effects of different hydrocolloids on the stability of cloudy jujube juices were studied by the accelerated storage tests, and found the co-operatation of 0.04% (m/V) xanthan and 0.04% (m/V) aciduric CMC had a desired effect on juice stability, which were chosen for storing tests. The optimum process parameters of homogenization were obtained according to turbidity retention rate, which are 50 X., 25 MPa, and time once. The cloudy stability of cloudy jujube juices could be improved by Cooperatation of xanthan and aciduric CMC and suitable homogenization.%为了提高枣浊汁饮料的稳定性,以浊度保留率、感官评定和Zeta电位为指标,考察多种天然亲水胶体和均质对饮料稳定性的影响.通过加速贮藏试验发现:0.04%(m/V)黄原胶+0.04%(m/V)酸性羧甲基纤维素钠的稳定效果较好.通过测定浊度保留率确定最佳均质工艺条件为50℃均质1次,均质压力为25 MPa.黄原胶和酸性羧甲基纤维素钠组合以及适当的均质可以提高鲜枣浊汁饮料稳定性.

  4. 红枣番茄复合低糖果酱制作工艺的研究%Study on the Process of the Low Sugar Compound Jam of Jujube and Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向延菊

    2013-01-01

    With jujube and tomato as raw materials, through single factor experiment and L9 (34) orthogonal test, the preparation process of low sugar compound jam of jujube and tomato was studied. The results showed that, the optimum process and formula of the compound jam were as follows:the ratio of jujube syrup and tomato syrup was 5∶5, additions of white sugar, citric acid and tomato jam were 14%, 0.7%and 4%respectively, the addition of compound stabilizer was 0.15%carboxymethyl cellulose sodium+0.15%alginate sodium, the sterilizing temperature was 100℃, and sterilizing time was 10~15 minutes. The prepared compound jam had low-sugar properties, bright color, full-bodies flavor, good taste, good appearance and high stability, and the unique flavor of jujube and tomato.%以红枣和番茄为主要原料,通过单因素试验和L9(34)正交试验,研究红枣番茄复合低糖果酱的制备工艺。结果表明,制作复合果酱的最佳工艺及配方为:红枣浆与番茄浆配比为5∶5,添加白砂糖14%、柠檬酸0.7%、成品番茄酱4%,复合稳定剂添加量为羧甲基纤维素钠0.15%+海藻酸钠0.15%,杀菌温度100℃、杀菌时间10~15 min。制得的复合果酱产品低糖、色泽鲜艳、香气和顺、酸甜可口、酱体均匀细腻,具有红枣和番茄特有的滋味。

  5. 3种处理方式对冬枣货架期品质的影响%Effects of Different Treatments on Storage Quality of Dongzao Jujube Fruits during Shelf-life Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武杰; 张引成; 李梅玲; 钱金

    2012-01-01

    In order to prolong the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits,the effects of three treatments were studied.Through the determination of respiration intensity,firmness,total soluble solids,vitamin C,ethylene release amount and ethanol production,effects of hot-water treatment,1-MCP and nano-package on the storage quality of Dongzao jujube fruits were studied during the shelf-life period.The results showed that all treatments could keep the storage quality of Dongzao jujube in some degree during the shelf-life period.The nano-package revealed the best effect on maintaining firmness,vitamin C content and fruit color,increasing total soluble solid amount,and inhibiting respiration rate,ethylene release amount and ethanol production.Therefore,nano-package could extend the shelf life of Dongzao jujube fruits up to 15 days.%以冬枣为试材,研究3种处理方式对其货架期品质的影响。通过测定冬枣的呼吸强度、硬度、总可溶性固形物、VC、乙烯释放量、乙醇积累等指标,研究热水浸泡、1-MCP熏蒸、纳米袋包装3种处理对冬枣果实的保鲜效果。结果表明:3种处理方法均不同程度保持了枣果货架期品质,其中纳米袋包装保鲜效果最佳,有效维持了冬枣果肉硬度和VC含量,延缓其色泽由绿到红的转变和总可溶性固形物上升,抑制了冬枣的呼吸强度及乙烯和乙醇的产生,货架期15d后,仍具有商品价值。

  6. 低压条件下梨枣和番茄乙烯的变化%Effects of Hypobaric Condition on Ethylene Changes in Lizao Jujube and Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建春; 王如福

    2011-01-01

    以梨枣和番茄为试材,研究了2种果实在低压贮藏过程中组织内乙烯和乙烯释放量的变化.结果表明,低压可有效抑制梨枣和番茄组织内乙烯的产生,减少组织内乙烯的积累;梨枣和番茄在低压条件下的乙烯释放量低于常压;低压可推迟番茄乙烯高峰的出现,降低乙烯峰值,并且能有效延缓梨枣和番茄的成熟与衰老.%Lizao jujube and tomato were used to investigate the change of internal ethylene and ethylene release in condition of hypobaric. The results of the study showed that hypobaric storage could significantly inhibit internal ethylene production, reduce internal ethylene concentration and ethylene release of hypobaric storage were less than that of CK, and it also could postpone the appearing time of tomato's ethylene peak and degrade value of the peak. Thus the experiment showed that hypobaric storage could effectively delay ripening and senescence of Lizao jujube and tomato fruit.

  7. 蜜蜂授粉与喷施赤霉素对枣树坐果及品质的影响%Effects of Bee Pollination and Gibberellin on Jujube Fruit Setting and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晋山; 武文卿; 马卫华; 邵有全

    2012-01-01

    采用田间试验与实验室测定相结合的方法,研究了蜜蜂授粉与喷施赤霉素对枣果坐果、生长、产量、品质与有仁百分比的影响.结果表明,蜜蜂授粉比喷施赤霉素后枣树的的坐果率可提高0.07百分点,株产量增加34%,单果质量提高16.75%,总糖提高4.4百分点.可见,枣树可以采用蜜蜂代替喷施赤霉素进行授粉,以达到增产的效果,实现绿色果品生产.%Using field experiment and laboratory determination method, effects of bee pollination and gibberellin on jujube fruit setting, growth, yield, quality and percentage of pit were studied. The results showed that bee pollination was better than gibberellin, fruit setting rate increased 0.07 percentage point, per plant yield increased 34%, single fruit weight increased 16.75%, total sugar increased 4.4 percentage point. These data indicated that the Jujube pollination could use the bees pollinated instead of spraying gibberellic acid pollination to increase yield and achieve the green fruit production.

  8. 膨化干燥灰枣粉玻璃化转变及贮藏稳定性%Glass transition and storage stability for explosion puffing dried jujube powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕延娣; 陈芹芹; 毕金峰; 颜廷才; 吴昕烨; 赵悦

    2015-01-01

    glass state is often considered to be stable, and the glass transition temperature has become an important predictor of food quality. With the deep understanding of water activity and glass transition theory, more and more scholars had combined these 2 theories together to predict the stability of food storage. In order to investigate the suitable storage condition of explosion puffing dried jujube (Zizyphus jujube cv. Huizao)powder, moisture sorption isotherm and glass transition temperature were determined at 25°C by the gravimetric method and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Three water sorption models and Gordon-Taylor equation were used to fit the moisture sorption isotherms and the glass transition temperaturedata, respectively. The state diagram of jujube powder was developed using the fitted moisture sorption isotherm and glass transition temperature curve to determine the suitable storage condition. Results showed that the equilibrium moisture content of explosion puffing dried jujube powder increased with the increasing of water activity, and the equilibrium moisture content (dry basis) was increased from 0.06 to 0.76 g/g as water activity increased from 0.113 to 0.902. The sorption behavior displayed “J” type isotherms, which may be due to the high sugar content of jujube powder. The best model to describe the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of jujube powder was GAB model (R2=0.9968). The fitting curve indicated great fitting effect. The glass transition temperature was decreased with the increasing of moisture content, and the glass transition temperaturewas decreased from 29.90 to -35.02℃ as moisture content (wet basis) of jujube powder was increased from 0.064 to 0.175 g/g. The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to fit the glass transition temperature nonlinearly, and the correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.9912, which revealed good fitness. When dry basis moisture content was at or below 0.1223 g/g, and the temperature was at

  9. 枣黄化根蘖苗成因分析%The Cause of Etiolation of Root Suckers of Chinese Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢南南; 崔明稳; 彭龙; 赵锦; 刘孟军

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the reason of etiolated seedling from root suckers of Chinese jujube, morphological index,chlorophyll content,mineral content and molecular variation of etiolated and normal seedling from root suckers of jujube trees were studied in this paper. The results showed that there was no significant change in morphological index between etiolated seedling and healthy seedling from root suckers,but the chlorophyll content of etiolated seedling was significantly lower than that of healthy ones, the mineral content of N,P,K,Mn,Cu,Zn and Fe were significantly increased,Ca and Mg were no significant change. The AFLP analysis showed that there were no obvious differences on the level of genome between etiolated seedling from root suckers and healthy plants. The results of cDNA-AFLP and RT-PCR showed that the Acyltransfer gene expression was higher in etiolated seedlings compared to healthy ones,expression of Ty3-gypsy was decreased dramatically and the expression of GAGA-binding transcriptional activator was reduced slightly in etiolated ones. So the change of expression of GAGA- binding transcriptional activator and Ty3-gypsy may influence the chlorophyll synthesis,and then resulted in the etiolation. But in that stress case the expression of genes related photorespiration,such as Acyltransfer,were increased. Those results showed that there were regulatory networks among those genes.%为了探究枣黄化根蘖苗的成因,对其黄化根蘖苗、正常根蘖苗和母株之间的形态学指标、叶绿素及矿质元素含量和相关基因表达水平进行了分析。结果表明,与正常植株比,黄化根蘖苗形态学指标没有明显变化,但叶绿素含量及叶绿素a/b比值显著降低,矿质元素N、P、K、Mn、Cu、Zn、Fe含量显著增高,但Ca和Mg差异不显著。同时,AFLP分析表明,黄化根蘖苗与正常植株在基因组水平没出现显著差异;但cDNA-AFLP和RT-PCR分析表明在转录水平上,黄化根蘖苗中酰基

  10. Microwave - assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Jujube Seeds%微波辅助法提取枣核总黄酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑静; 李孟娟

    2016-01-01

    Using ethanol( ethanol concerntration was 50%)as solvent,microwave - assisted( micro-wave power was 400 W)extraction of total flavonoids from jujube seeds. The total flavonoids were de-termined by spectrophotometry with rutin as a reference substance,the effects of extraction time,ex-traction temperature and soild -to -liquid ratio on the extraction were investigated by single factor ex-periment. The optimum process conditions had been proposed by orthogonal array design,the optimum process conditions as follows:extraction time was 25 min,extraction temperature was 65 ℃,soild -to-liquid ratio was 1:45 ,the extraction rate of raw total flavonoids was 2 . 058%.%采用微波(微波功率400 W)辅助法,以乙醇(乙醇体积分数50%)为溶剂,提取枣核中的总黄酮.用芦丁为对照品,利用分光光度法进行测定,通过单因素实验研究提取时间、提取温度和料液比对提取效果的影响.利用正交实验确定了最佳提取工艺条件为提取时间25 min、提取温度65益、料液比1:45,枣核中总黄酮粗品的提取产率为2.058%.

  11. 基于新疆红枣产业景气分析的抗风险研究%Countermeasures of Anti -RisK Based on the Analysis of Xinjiang Jujube Industry Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文博; 余国新; 刘运超

    2015-01-01

    Objective] By 2013,Xinjiang jujube cultivation area ranked first in China, jujube industry has now become a pillar industry in some areas of Xinjiang and it has brought large amount of wealth to farm_ers.Meanwhile acreage explosive growth also raises concerns about whether there is overcapacity problem. Through the study of the red date industry cyclical fluctuations, the risk of Xinjiang red dates industry was re_searched and the source of prevention and control measures were explored.[Method] The time —difference correlation analytical method and the peak —valley corresponding method were applied to reveal the leading, coincidence, lagging indicators in the state of Xinjiang jujube industry development, and the development of current situation was analyzed and the future trend of the jujube industry in Xinjiang evaluated.[Result]The results show that Xinjiang jujube industry is in a state of steady development,however,there are many signals showing that industrial development is declining.[ Conclusion] To counter the causes of industry decline, some suggestions to optimize financial service system were raised to improve the product primary processing ca_pacity and perfect the market′s function of service, information, supervision and diversified development model to resist relevant risks in the industry.%【目的】2013年底新疆红枣种植面积居全国首位,红枣产业已成为新疆部分地区农民致富的支柱产业。通过对红枣产业周期性波动的研究,探讨新疆红枣产业风险的来源以及防控措施。【方法】在数学方法上采用时差相关法和峰谷对应法,归纳出反映新疆红枣产业发展状况的先行﹑同步﹑滞后指标,对新疆红枣产业的发展形势与未来趋势进行分析评价。【结果】新疆红枣产业整体处于平稳发展,但很多信号已表现出产业发展周期性下行趋势。【结论】从优化金融服务体系,提高产品初加工能力,完

  12. Influence of Different Application Ways of Biogas Waste Fertilizer on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Zizyphus jujube%沼肥不同施用方式对枣树光合特性与产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴仲平; 王雪梅; 孙霞; 蒋平安

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同沼肥施用方式(沼液根施、喷施、涂干、随水滴灌)下的枣树光合特性及产量、品质的变化.结果表明:不同沼肥施用方式下枣树叶片净光合速率的变化趋势为沼液喷施>涂干>对照>滴施>根施;而蒸腾速率日平均值为沼液滴施>喷施>对照>根施>涂干;沼液喷施有利于提高枣树单果质量和产量,并在一定程度上改善果形指数;沼液喷施还提高了枣果实中还原糖、Vc、蛋白质的含量,改善果实品质.不同沼肥施用方式相比以喷施效果最佳.%Studying photosynthetic characteristics, yield and quality of Zizyphus jujube under different application ways of biogas waste fertilizer(ex-root, spray, smearing, dropping).The results shows that diurnal variations of Pn of Zizyphus jujube leaves under different application ways of biogas waste fertilizer is spray application of liquid manure >smearing trunk>contrast with chemical fertilizer>dropping fertilization>ex-root fertilization.The daily average value of Tr show dropping fertilization of liquid manure >spray application>contrast with chemical fertilizer>ex-root fertilization>smearing trunk.Spray application of liquid manure can increase the single fruit weight and yield, and improve the fruit shape index.Meanwhile spray application can increase the contents of revertose, vitamin C, proteins in fruit of Zizyphus jujube, and improve the fruit quality.The effect of spray application is the best under different application ways of biogas waste fertilizer.

  13. Extraction and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Jujube-wine Residue Polysaccharide%枣酒渣多糖的提取和体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林静雅; 刘邻渭; 严陇兵; 原田

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Search for the extraction condition and determine antioxidation ability of jujube-wine residue polysaccharide (ZRP). Methods: The supersonic extraction condition of ZRP was optimized through single factor and central combination design experiments. The antioxidation ability of the polysaccharide was tested and compared with ascorbic acid, jujube polysaccharide(ZP) and jujube-wine polysaccharide(ZWP). Results; Using the lab ultrasonic cleaner with 40 KHZ, the optemized extraction condition was that extracting by water at 85 °C for 47 min with liquid solide ratio of 30: 1, then the yeild of ZRP was 12.52 mg/g. The ZRP IC50 of ·OH and DPPH· was 2.10 mg/mL and 1.83 mg/mL respectively, and the ZRP reducing power was stronger than ZP and ZWP but weeker than ascobic acid. Conclusions: ZRP had preferable antioxidation ability in vitro test and could be used as food antioxidant.%目的:探讨枣酒渣多糖(ZRP)的提取务件及其抗氧化活性.方法:采用单因素及中心组合试验,建立超声辅助提取ZRP的优化条件,并以红枣多糖(ZP)、枣酒多糖(ZWP)及抗坏血酸为对照,对ZRP清除·OH、DPPH·的能力及还原力进行研究.结果:在超声频率40 kHz条件下,ZRP的最佳热水浸提工艺为:提取时间47 min、提取温度85 ℃、液固比5∶1,在此条件下多糖的提取率为12.52 mg/g.ZRP清除·OH和DPPH·的IC50值分别为2.10 mg/mL和1.83 mg/mL,还原力强于ZP和ZWP,弱于抗坏血酸.结论:枣酒渣多糖具有较强的体外抗氧化能力,可作为食品抗氧化剂.

  14. 野生酸枣果硒多糖纯化与光谱分析%Purification and Corresponding Spectroscopic Analysis of Selenium Polysaccharide in Sour Jujube Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延芳; 梁宗锁; 单长卷; ViernsteinH; UngerF

    2011-01-01

    The crude polysaccharide was extracted from sour jujube fruits using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The content of crude polysaccharide was ( 92. 6 ± 4. 72 ) mg/g by phenol-sulfuric acid assay, and selenium content of the polysaccharide was (17.8 ±2.05) βg/kg by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. After further purified by DEAE - 52 and Sephadex G - 75 column chromatography, a white and flocculent polysaccharide was obtained. After hydrolysis with 2M trifluoroacetic acid, TLC plates was detected and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection ( HPAEC-PAD ) was further analyzed. A comparative study of the two methods showed that the polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, glucose and galactose with a ratio of 3. 21: 8. 36= 5. 63: 0. 96= 1. 82. The selenium polysaccharide exhibited typical absorption of polysaccharide characterized by Infrared spectroscopy ( IR) spectroscopy; 1 H NMR and C NMR analysis indicated that the structure of selenium polysaccharide was pyranoid glucan with β-glycosidic bond.%采用热水浸提、乙醇沉淀法获得酸枣果硒多糖粗品.苯酚-硫酸法测其多糖含量为(92.6±4.72) mg/g,原子荧光光度法测其硒含量为( 17.8±2.05)μg/kg.DEAE-25纤维素和Sephadex G-75凝胶层析柱进一步分离纯化得白色絮状多糖.薄层层析和高效阴离子交换色谱法分析其单糖组成.结果表明:该多糖是由鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖、木糖等单糖组成,其摩尔比为3.21∶8.36∶5.61∶0.96∶1.82.红外光谱分析表明具有明显的多糖特征吸收峰,核磁共振波谱表明该多糖结构主要为β-糖苷键连接的吡喃型葡聚糖.

  15. 根剪对冬枣根际土理化性状及生物学特性的影响%Effects of Root Pruning on Physio-chemical and Biological Characteristics of Winter Jujube Tree Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守军; 刘德玺; 孙玉波; 周健; 刘春生

    2009-01-01

    The root system of six-year-old winter jujube trees were manually pruned with a sharp spade at 3, 5 or 7 times trunk diameter distance along both inter-row sides prior to buds break on April 26~(th) 2008 in Binzhou Chinese jujube orchards, to study the effects of root pruning on physio-chemical and biological characteristics of winter jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill. ) rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the root pruning of 3 times trunk diameter distance increased the available N, P, K concentrations, pH value and pesticides residues in the rhizosphere soil and decreased the populations of bacteria and fungi in contrast to the control. However, no apparent differences of actinomyces populations were found between the treatments. Compared to the control, root pruning inhibited the activities of catalase, invertase, phosphatase and urease enzymes, and at the same time decreased the concentration of organic matter in the rhizosphere soil and that of total amino acids, total organic acids and total sugars in the root exudates at the 3 times trunk diameter distance. As affected by root pruning at the 5 times trunk diameter distance, the concentrations of available N, P, K, organic matter contents, enzymes activities, root exudates, microbial populations were increased, but pH value and pesticides residues in the rhizosphere soil were decreased to some extent in relative to root pruning at the 3 times trunk diameter distance. By statistical analysis, no differences of each indicator were noticed between 7 times trunk diameter distance and the control. It is proposed that root pruning has greater impact on physio-chemical characteristics and biological properties of rhizosphere soil at the 3 times trunk diameter distance.%以6年生的冬枣(Zizyphusjujuba Mill.)为试材,分别在行间两侧距树干3倍、5倍和7倍胸径距离处对其进行根剪处理,研究了根剪对冬枣根际土理化性状及生物学特性的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,3倍胸

  16. Study on interaction between water and fertilizer under jujube-cotton intercropping%枣棉间作模式下作物不同水肥界面交互影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发永; 张营山; 王龙; 王兴鹏

    2014-01-01

    为探讨枣棉间作模式下作物全生育期水肥的交互影响,在枣棉不同生育期,分析了不同土壤界面水分和养分的空间分布差异性。结果表明:枣棉在不同生育时期对水分的需求不同,在7月至8月,作物对水需求随着生长进程逐渐增大,红枣耗水量较大,红枣在新梢增长期、花期、以及幼果期易与棉花产生水分竞争,土壤20~40 cm 深度为最易产生竞争的区域。而在8月下半月至9月上半月枣树对水分的需求低于棉花对水分的需求,二者水分竞争趋于缓和;枣棉对速效磷的竞争不如水分那么剧烈,根据二者的生育期特点可将这种竞争降到最低;速效钾和钠离子的分布都与滴灌位置有关,离滴灌位置越远二者含量越高。红枣和棉花在整个生育期对土壤速效钾的利用存在着竞争,前期竞争较缓和,红枣进入幼果期及棉花铃期和桃期以后,这种竞争更加剧烈。两者在8月份0< H≤60cm 土层对钾的吸收竞争最激烈。%To explore the interaction between water and fertilizer in different growth stages of crops for jujube -cotton intercropping ,we explored the spatial distribution soil moisture and nutrients in different depth .The result showed that jujube and cotton at different growth stages had different requirementsfor water .From July to August ,water requirement increased with the growth process .Jujube needed more water than cotton .And the competition for water between the two crops became more severe at shoot growth ,flowering ,and the young fruit periods ,being more obviously for 20 ~ 40 cm of soil depth .From late August to early September ,jujube required less water than cotton did and the competition for water and available phosphorus weakened .There was competition for utilization of soil available K between dates and cotton during the whole growing period .The competition was more intense during he young fruit and cotton

  17. 大枣牛肉粥治疗眼部慢性难愈合创面1例%1 case of ocular chronic wounds treated with jujube minced beef congee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫平

    2015-01-01

    由于组织结构的特殊性,眼部慢性难愈合创面的治疗十分困难。本文就1例右眼慢性泪囊炎患者采用泪囊摘除术后,配合服用大枣牛肉粥治疗的临床经验作一简单介绍,旨在为今后的临床治疗提供经验。%Because of the special nature of the organizational structure,the treatment of eye chronic wounds is very difficult.In this paper,we introduced therapy experience on 1 cases of chronic dacryocystitis who were treated with eye dacryocystectomy, combined with taking jujube beef porridge briefly,in order to provide experience for clinical treatment in the future.

  18. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Resveratrol Synthase Gene (PcPKS5) into Huping Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba)%农杆菌介导虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗在柒; 郭辉力; 杨亚东; 杨明峰; 马兰青; 王有年

    2015-01-01

    【目的】白藜芦醇作为植物次生代谢产物不但能提高果树抗真菌能力,还能改善果品质量。遗传转化芪合酶基因能够增强植物的抗真菌能力,虎杖芪合酶基因具有较高的催化合成白藜芦醇的效率,研究虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣,以期获得具有抗真菌能力且改善枣果实品质的遗传转化新材料。【方法】通过组织培养再生体系与目的基因转化技术,优化获得茎诱导丛生芽,构建植物表达载体,优化遗传转化体系,采用农杆菌介导法将虎杖白藜芦醇生物合成关键酶基因 PcPKS5遗传转化壶瓶枣。【结果】优化壶瓶枣茎段诱导得到高分化率的丛生芽遗传转化体系,再生增植率为11.0,为壶瓶枣成功实现遗传转化奠定了基础。将壶瓶枣0.8~1.0 cm 含茎尖和茎段的外植体材料置于农杆菌浓度 OD600=0.6时侵染菌液中浸泡15.0 min,然后置于培养基上避光共培养3天;随后转入含 Cb 300 mg·L -1,AS 60 mg·L -1的丛生芽诱导分化培养基中培养5~6周。将分化丛生芽转接至含4.0 mg·L -1 Basta 的培养基中,获遗传转化植株173株;经 Basta 筛选, GUS显色、gDNA PCR、RT-PCR 等检测证实,成功获得3个阳性转基因株系,荧光实时定量检测表明株系2表达效率较高。经植物化学成分分析,转化植株中目的基因得以表达,生成了目标产物白藜芦醇,其含量为0.45μg·g -1(鲜质量)。【结论】本研究成功实现虎杖芪合酶基因遗传转化壶瓶枣,获得壶瓶枣遗传转化新材料。且 PcPKS5在枣树中异源表达,转基因材料中能够代谢合成白藜芦醇,有望提高转 PcPKS5基因壶瓶枣抗枣树病原真菌病能力。白藜芦醇是否在壶瓶枣遗传转化材料果实中积累,及转基因植株果实品质的影响仍需深入研究。%Objective]Huping jujube is widely cultivated in northern China. A resveratrol

  19. Forecast Model of Jujube Harvest in Chaoyang Based on Meteorological Factors%基于气象因子的朝阳大枣年景预报模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国林; 张富荣; 宗英飞; 冯雪菲; 戴海燕; 冯淑霞

    2012-01-01

    The annual harvest forecast model of Jujube in Chaoyang was established by using a multiple linear regression method, based on selected meteorological factors from observed data from 1954 to 2010. The results showed that the significant affecting factors to Jujube were consistent days of the average minimum temperature ≤- 20 ℃ in January , consistent overcast days in June, consistent days of daily precipitation ≤ 10mm from June to August, and daily precipitation during 15-30 September. The model fitting rate was 81. 8% through F-test method. The predicted results were close to the actual situation in 2009 and 2010.%选用朝阳市1954 -2010年气象观测资料,结合该地区大枣产量及年景调研资料,用相关系数选取影响大枣收成的主要因子,应用多元线性回归方法建立大枣年景与气象因子的预报模型.结果表明,1月平均最低气温≤-20℃连续日数、6月连续阴天日数、6-8月连续无≥10mm降水日数、9月15-30日降水量等因子对大枣产量影响显著(P<0.05).大枣年景预测模型经F检验,具有统计学意义,模型历史拟合率为81.8%.用该模型预测2009年和2010年大枣年景,均接近实际值.

  20. Effects of Foliar Spraying Microbial Agents on Physiology and Quality of Yellow River Jujube%叶面喷施微生物菌剂对黄河滩红枣生理和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦亮; 苏俊萍; 王俊宏; 韩立伟

    2012-01-01

    在田间试验条件下,以木枣为应试材料,通过两种微生物菌剂对枣树生理及枣果品质影响的研究,结果表明:喷施光合菌剂、生物高钙菌剂和光合菌剂加生物高钙菌剂并追施硝酸铵钙均能提高枣树叶片光合特性及枣果品质.其中光合菌剂加生物高钙菌剂并追施硝酸铵钙效果最为明显,与对照相比,其叶绿素含量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度均有显著提高,枣果可溶性糖、可滴定酸、维C含量分别提高了31.2%,56%和29.1%,果实品质明显改善.%In the field experiment, the effects on physiology and quality of jujube muzao were studied under two microbial agents. The results showed that the photosynthetic microbial agents,high calcium microbial agents,photosynthetic,the high calcium microbial agents and calcium ammonium nitrate had increased photosynthetic properties and quality of jujube. Using photosynthetic, the high calcium microbial agents and calcium ammonium nitrate had the best effects. Compared with the control, its chlorophyll contents.net photosynthetic rate, leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance are significantly higher than that in control,the soluble sugar, titratable acid,Vc content of muzao was improved 31. 2%, 56% and 29. l%,the quality of muzao have changes greatly.

  1. The Application of Nanofiltration in the Extraction of jujube Cyclic Adenosinemonophosphate(cAMP)%纳膜过滤在提取红枣环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞; 路福平; 刘逸寒; 杜连祥; 李明润

    2011-01-01

    Nanofiltration was used in the extraction of cAMP from Jujube.Jujube was first soaked , then through puree, enzyme hydrolysis, filtration, resin adsorption and formic acid elution.The results showed: Nanofiltration fraction have a peak at a wavelength of 258nm by UV which was the same as the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)standard; the Nanofiltration discard part has no peak at 258nm; HPLC showed that Nanofiltration interception fraction has the same retention time as the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) reference, while the Nanofiltration discard liquid do not have the peak at the same time point.This indicated that nanofiltration intercepted the target product of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), successfully separated molecular , purified and concentrated cAMP.%红枣经过浸泡、打浆、酶解、压滤、树脂吸附、甲酸洗脱后,采用150 nm纳滤膜在压差为0.5~1 MPa下过滤,结果表明:纳滤截留组分经过紫外扫描在波长258 nm处峰值与环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)标准品相同,而纳滤液组分(弃去液)在波长258 nm处无峰;又经过HPLC检测纳滤截留组分与环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)标准品出峰时间相同,而纳滤液组分(弃去液)在此时间处无峰.表明纳滤截留目标产物环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)效果明显,分离了大分子组分及小分子组分,纳滤后利于浓缩、纯化得到环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)成品.

  2. Seasonal Variation and Correlation with Environmental Factors of Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Juglans regia and Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Yang; Shu-Qing An; Osbert-Jianxin Sun; Zuo-Min Shi; Xin-Song She; Qing-Ye Sun; Shi-Rong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Both the photosynthetic light curves and CO.2 curves of Juglans regia L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa in three seasons were measured using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system. The maximal net photosynthetic rate (Ainu), apparent quantum efficlency(ψ), maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the two species were calculated based on the curves. The results showed that Amax of J. regia reached its maximum at the late-season, while the highest values of Amax of Z. jujuba occurred at the mid-season. The Amax of J. regia was more affected by relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere, while that of Z, Jujuba was more affected by the air temperature. Light saturation point (LSP) and Light compensation point (LCP) of J. regia had a higher correlation with RH of the atmosphere, those of Z. jujube, however, had a higher correlation with air temperature. Vcmax of both J. regia and Z. jujube had negative correlation with RH of the atmosphere. WUE of J. regia would decrease with the rise of the air temperature while that of Z. Jujuba increased. Thus it could be seen that RH, temperature and soil moisture had main effect on photosynthesis and WUE of J. regia and Z.jujuba. Incorporating data on the physiological differences among tree species into forest carbon models will greatly improve our ability to predict alterations to the forest carbon budgets under various environmental scenarios such as global climate change, or with differing species composition.

  3. Effects of bio-fertilizers on micro-environment characteristics in winter jujube rhizosphere soil%生物肥对冬枣根际土壤微环境特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方春; 邢尚军; 马海林; 杜振宇; 马丙尧; 陈波

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the impact of biological-organic fertilizer ( DBF ) ,normal biological fertilizer ( NBF) and decomposed chicken manure ( DCM ) on the ecological environment of winter jujube. Dominant micro-organism was extracted from rhizosphere soil of six-year-old winter jujube trees by keeping green method and radish cotyledon weight increasing method. DBF was prepared by compounding the micro-organism and DCM. Effects of DBF,NBF and DCM on rhizosphere soil’ physiochemical, biological characteristics, nutrient content, root exudates, soil organic carbon and its components were studied in Binzhou winter jujube orchards,Shandong Province of eastern China. Results showed that compared with NBF,DBF decreased rhizosphere soil pH,and increased its electric cation and cation exchange capacity. DBF increased available phosphorus, available potassium and trace element content,but it had no influence on soil nitrogen content in rhizosphere soil of winter jujube. Different fertilizers had great effects on soil organic carbon and its components. DBF obviously increased soil organic carbon and humic acids,but it had no influence on fulvic acids in soil organic carbon, correspondingly the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid increased. Besides,DBF increased root exudate content evidently. Compared with NBF,DBF increased total amino acids,total organic acids and total sugars in the root exudates by 40. 70% , 32. 54% and 59. 14% . Besides, compared with other treatments,beta cypermethrin in DBF rhizosphere soil was significantly decreased. However,NBF and DCM had no obvious effects on biological characteristics in winter jujube rhizosphere soil. As a result, normal micro-organism had no effect on the ecological environment of winter jujube,whereas microorganism extracted from rhizosphere soil benefited it greatly.%通过保绿法和萝卜子叶增重法,从6年生冬枣根际土壤中筛选出具有促生作用的优势细菌,以发酵鸡粪(DCM)

  4. 不同覆盖措施对减少枣林休眠期土壤水分损失的影响%Effects of typical mulching patterns on soil water loss in jujube land during dormancy period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳姗姗; 汪星; 汪有科; 佘檀

    2016-01-01

    To promote development of the forestry and alleviate soil water depletion in forest land, a better understanding of the effects of different mulching patterns on soil moisture region, and further seeking reasonable soil conservation measures in loess hilly-gully are paramount important. As the severe soil water depletion existed in forest land in the semiarid area of the Loess Plateau, the soil water contents under 3 different mulching patterns in jujube orchard were measured using a neutron probe (CNC100 DR, ChaoNeng, China) that had been calibrated using standard methods. From March 2012 to October 2015, volumetric soil water content was measured 3 times per month. Measurements were made at the depth increment of 0.1 and 0.2 m in the 0–1 and 1–5 m soil layer, respectively. Meanwhile, the meteorological data were collected from meteorological station near the experimental plots. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mulching patterns on soil water loss in jujube orchard during dormancy period. The test plots were located at Yuanzhi Mount in Mizhi County, Shaanxi Province. The test plots were selected in the 11-aged dwarf close planting jujube forest in October 2011. Three level-terraces with similar slope and aspect were established on a hillslope. For each level-terrace, 4 treatments (straw mulching, plastic film mulching, gravel mulching, and bare land) were set to explore the effects of mulching patterns on soil moisture. The plot scale for 4 treatments was 2 m × 3 m and the area for each plot was thus 6 m2. The 20 cm wide and 5 m deep ditch all around each plot was excavated for each plot. To isolate the surrounding soil water and root on the test plot, about 1 mm thick plastic was used. There was no irrigation during the experiment. The thickness of the straw mulching was 10-12 cm, while the particle size of gravel mulching was 0.5-1.0 cm with a thickness about 5 cm. In the plastic film mulching treatment plot, the terrain around

  5. 不同环境下红枣物候期及枣果性状研究%Study on Phenophase of Red Jujube(Ziziphusjujuba Mill.)and Its Fruits' Growth and Development Rule under Different Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不都卡迪尔·艾海提; 尼亚斯汗·牙生

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究日光温室和露地红枣的物候期和果实的生长发育规律.[方法]试验于2011年1月~ 2012年4月进行.日光温室供试材料为骏枣(Z.jujuba Mill.cv.Junzao),砧木为酸枣(Z.acidojujuba C.Y.Cheng et M.J.Liu);在露地选同样的品种作对照.[结果]温室内的红枣枣头2月11日开始萌动,萌动比露地主芽早61 d,副芽早62d,展叶期比露地早61 d,开花期比露地早36 d,结果期比露地早18d,成熟期比露地早37 d;6月温室和露地枣果纵径生长变化不明显,8月不同环境的枣果纵径生长差异较明显,温室大于露地,9月差异也明显;同一个月枣果横径的生长量变化不明显,但不同月份之间生长量变化明显;不同环境的枣果在前期横径生长量小于纵径生长量,前期主要以纵径生长为主,后期横径和纵径的生长速率基本一致;不同环境枣果生长型不同,日光温室枣果的生长型属于单“S”型,露地的属于双“S”型,日光温室枣果实的生长发育期比露地的短,成熟早;日光温室枣果单果重、纵径、横径大于露地枣果,但硬度和含糖量小于露地.[结论]该研究可为设施栽培红枣提供理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to study phenophase of red jujube and its fruits' growth and development rule under two environment, greenhouse and open Field. [Method] The test time was from January, 2011 to April, 2012. In greenhouse Z. Jujuba Mill. Cv. Junzao was used as test material and Z. Acidojujuba C. Y. Cheng et M. J. Liu was used as rootstock; in open field the same materials was used as control. [Result] In greenhouse, red jujube head germinated in February 11th, and main bud germination stage and accessory bud germination, leaf flushing stage, flowering stage, fruiting stage and mature stage brought forward 61, 62, 61, 36, 18 and 37 days comparing to those in open field; red jujube fruit vertical diameter had no significant change in greenhouse and open field in June

  6. An Efficient System for Plant Regeneration from Immature Embryo of Chinese Jujube%枣未成熟胚高效再生体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀梅; 王玖瑞; 刘孟军; 代丽; 郭敬丽

    2012-01-01

    An efficient system for plant regeneration from immature embryo of Chinese jujube was established by u-sing two callivars of male sterile No. 3CJMS3) and 'Jinmangguozao'. The results showed that the plant regeneration could be achieved by two types of procedures: direct embryo germination and generation of callus of cotyledon. Cold treatment could efficiently accelerate the direct plant regeneration from immature embryo. The plant regeneration rate of immature embryos, which were kept at 0~4℃ for 60 days and then inoculated in medium MS + sugar 30 g ? L-1 + agar 3. 3 g ? L-1, was as high as 93. 3%. Callus could be induced from 98. 9% of cotyledons damaged during smashing stones in medium MS +maltose 20 g ? L-1 +agar 3. 3 g ? L-1 +TDZ 1. 0 mg ? L-1 +NAA 0. 2 mg ? L-1 within 40 days. Adventitious buds occurred in 74.1% of the callus cultured in medium MS + maltose 20 g ? L-1 +agar 3. 3 g ? L-1 +TDZ 1. 0 mg ? L-1 for 40 days with cluster buds rate of 70. 4%. 1/2MS + sugar 20 g ?. L-1 + agar 3. 3 g ? L-1 + IBA 1. 0 mg ? L-1 + IAA 0. 01 mg ? L-1 was proper rooting medium and the rooting rate reached 80. 8% in 40 days.%以枣树雄性不育3号(JMS3)和金芒果枣为材料,建立了枣树未成熟胚高效再生植株体系.对枣未成熟胚高效再生体系研究结果表明:枣未成熟胚可以通过直接萌发和经子叶发生愈伤两条途径再生完整植株,冷藏处理是促进未成熟胚直接成苗的有效方法.枣未成熟胚经0~4℃冷藏60 d,接种在MS+蔗糖30 g· L-1+琼脂3.3g·L-1培养基上,胚直接成苗率高达93.3%.将去除核壳时受损伤胚的子叶接种到MS+麦芽糖20g·L-1+琼脂3.3 g·L-1+TDZ 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-培养基上,40 d后出愈率为98.9%.所得愈伤经MS+麦芽糖20g· L-1-+琼脂3.3 g·L-1+TDZ 1.0 mg·L-1诱导40 d后出芽率可达74.1%,丛生芽率达70.4%.在生根培养基1/2MS+蔗糖20g· L-1+琼脂3.3 g·L-1+IBA1.0mg·L-1+IAA0.01 mg· L-1上40 d后生根率为80.8%.

  7. Study on Optimization of Prodution Process of Fresh Jujube Ginger Sugar Tea by Response SurfaceTest and Its Antioxidant Activities%响应面优化鲜枣姜糖茶制作工艺及抗氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀中; 冀晓龙; 郄佩娟; 沈美荣; 石仕慧; 王敏

    2016-01-01

    以鲜枣、生姜和黑糖为主要原料,采用模糊数学综合评价对鲜枣姜糖茶进行感官评分,结合Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计和响应面(RSM)分析法,研究鲜枣姜糖茶的最佳配方及其体外抗氧化性.结果表明:枣浓缩汁与姜汁的质量比例为2.6:1,200 g混合浆汁中黑糖添加量为29 g,魔芋胶的添加量为0.4 g.研制的鲜枣姜糖茶对DPPH自由基清除能力、ABTS+自由基清除能力和还原力分别为14.90 Trolox/100 g FW、9.76 Trolox/100 g FW和11.59 mg/g,且鲜枣姜糖茶抗氧化活性较枣浓缩汁和姜汁强.%To investigate the fresh jujube ginger sugar tea formulations and its antioxidant activity, the response surface analysis with comprehensive sensory evaluation were used, with fresh jujube, ginger and brown sugar as the main raw material for the study. The optimal technological conditions were as follows:the ratio of concentrat-ed jujube juice and ginger juice were 2.6:1, the mount of addition of brown sugar were 29 g per 200 g mixed juice, and amount of addition of konjac gum were 0.4 g. The antioxidant activity of fresh jujube ginger sugar tea were stronger than the concentrated jujube juice and ginger juice, which ability to remove DPPH·, ABTS+and reducing power were 14.90 Trolox/100 g FW, 9.76 Trolox/100 g FW and 11.59 mg/g respectively.

  8. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SUCCESSIVE EXTRACTS OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta and Ramesh Kumar Singh*

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medicinal plant has been emphasized from time to time. It is believed that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care particularly in rural areas of India. Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber .The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual .The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. Ziziphus mauritiana contains fructose, galactose, malonic acid, malic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid .The antioxidant activities of the plant extract and pure compounds were assessed by Reduction of NBT (Nitro Blue Terazolium and Nitric Oxide Radical Inhibition activity method. The five successive extract (benzene, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Leaves and one standard (Ascorbic acid were tested for in-vitro antioxidant activity. The result was expressed as IC50 values and percentage inhibition at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 in µg/ml. The methanol extract showed maximum antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 36.34±0.16µg/ml and percentage inhibition 33.60±0.06, 41.08±0.12, 64.40±1.32, 76.36±0.56, 81.42±0.64 and 87.23±0.04 at 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 in µg/ml concentrations respectively.

  9. 环剥对玉泉冬枣生长、产量及果实品质的影响%Effect of Girdling on Yuquan Winter Jujube Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇振华; 王仁才; 石浩; 吴小燕; 刘琼

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore relationship between girdling and Yuquan winter jujube growth, yield and fruit quality, selected high grafting 3 years old (Lizao /Suanzao jujube) Yuquan winter jujube tree as experiments materials and girdling jujube tree through different times, parts, widths, and determined the effect of Girdling on fruit growth, fruit quality and fruit yield respectively. The results showed that:the jujube flowers to 45% by girdling was the best, soluble sugar, soluble solids, Vc content were the highest, reached 23.9%, 30.1% and 3501mg/kg respectively, the titratable acid minimum was only 0.21%, the healing time was 32 days, the fruit setting rate of up to 2.66%, the average yield of up to 8.3 kg per plant; although fruit setting of girdling level II main branch+vegetative branches was less than level I main branch, single fruit weight, plant yield, soluble sugar were the highest , respectively, 22.8 g, 9.7kg per plant, 23.9%, girdling level II main branch+vegetative branches was good for increasing yield and fruit quality, the effect was better than the other parts of girdling; when girdling width was 1/6, yield and fruit quality of fruit trees were improved , but had negative effects on fruit tree growth, suitable girdling width should be combined with the tree growth and need to determine, the girdling of the poor growing tree should be narrow, the girdling of the good growing tree should be appropriately relaxed.%为探讨环剥与玉泉冬枣树生长、果树产量与果实品质的关系,选取高接换冠3 a 生(梨枣/酸枣)玉泉冬枣树进行了不同的环剥时期、环剥部位和环剥宽度试验,分别测定各环剥处理对果树生长、果实产量及果实品质的影响。结果表明:枣树花开到45%时环剥最佳,可溶性糖、可溶性固形物、Vc 含量最高,分别达到23.9%、30.1%、350.1 mg/100g,而可滴定酸最低,只有0.21%,愈合时间为32 d ,其坐果率高达2.66%

  10. 残次裂枣枣酒发酵菌相变化及工艺比较分析%Study on Variation of Microbial Community and Comparison of Two Fermentation Technologies in Making Wine by Defective Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘凯旋; 甘峰; 李志西; 王晨; 张俊娜

    2012-01-01

    以残次裂枣为原料,采用直接发酵工艺和蒸煮后发酵工艺进行酿酒.对直接发酵工艺过程中微生物的菌相变化进行研究,比较2种发酵工艺对枣酒品质的影响.结果表明,残次裂枣原料中有害微生物主要包括霉菌和大肠杆菌.在发酵过程中,第3天时大肠杆菌的存活量降至0.03 MPN/mL以下,第6天时检测不到霉菌.发酵后期酒液中的微生物主要为酵母菌,还有少量乳酸菌和醋酸菌.直接发酵工艺得到的枣酒酒精体积分数、Vc质量分数、多酚质量浓度分别为8.9%、45.8 μg/g、1.184 g/L;蒸煮后发酵工艺所得的枣酒酒精体积分数、Vc质量分数、多酚质量浓度分别为7.8%、47.7 μg/g、1.153 g/L.与蒸煮后发酵工艺相比,直接发酵工艺得到的枣酒中的,乙酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯、己酸乙酯质量浓度较高,杂醇油质量浓度较低,甲醇质量浓度符合国家标准(<0.4 g/L).因此,直接发酵工艺得到的枣酒品质较好.%In this research, defective jujube was used to produce wine with two different fermentation processes. One technology was called direct fermentation technique, in which jujube was used for fermentation directly without steaming treatment. And in the other technique, jujube was steamed before fermentation. Microbial flora change was studied during fermentation process of jujube in the first technique. Several quality parameters of the wine produced by the two methods were compared, which include the content change of phenol in the fermentation process, the contents of alcohol, Vc, metha-nol, and esters in the final product. The results showed that the main microbial species in jujube after harvest were mold and E. Coli. On the third day of fermentation, the amount of E. Coli reduced to less than 0. 03 MPN/mL. On the sixth day of fermentation, mold could not be detected. At the end of the fermentation, the main microorganisms in the wine were yeast and a small quantity of lactic acid

  11. Effects of Different Cultivation on Annual Branch Cold Resistance of Xinjiang Huizao jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)%不同栽培措施对新疆灰枣一年生枣头枝抗寒力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘俨; 车凤斌; 郑素慧; 张婷; 胡柏文

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Effects of different cultivation on annual branch cold resistance of Xinjiang Huizao jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. ) were evaluated to select basic parameters for making appropriate cultivation method. [ Method ] 23 cultivation treatments including controls of irrigation and additional fertilizing in late stages, controls of winter irrigation, controls of fruit loading and control of retarded growing retarded were set on 4 years Xinjiang Huizao jujube. 5 indexes including relative conductance, proline value, soluble total sugar value and bond water/free water ratio of annual branches stressed under -27℃ were measured to evaluate the effects on cold resistance. [Result]Proper growing retarded control increases bond water/free water ratio and soluble total sugar value of annual branch. Irrigation in late stages takes effects on proline value and bond water/free water ratio of annual branches. Proper winter irrigation increases bond water/free water ratio significantly, and effects soluble total sugar value and proline value certainly. Additional fertilizing in late stages effects branch bond water/free water ratio Fruit loading effects branch soluble total sugar value. [Conclusion]Single cultivation method including Paclobutrazol (PP333) 8g per tree, twice irrigations at the beginning of August and mid — September, phosphorus potassium fertilizing once at the end of September, 75%fuirt loading, winter irrigation in early November will increase annual branch cold resistance of Xinjiang Huizao jujube varying.%[目的]通过研究不同栽培处理对新疆灰枣(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)抗寒力的影响,从安全越冬的角度初步提出提高灰枣抗寒力的栽培措施基本参数,为制定灰枣合理的技术标准提供理论依据.[方法]设置4年生灰枣的生长后期水肥控制、负载量控制和生长延缓剂处理共23个田间栽培处理,测定和分析各处理一年生枣头枝-27℃胁迫的相对电导率、枝条组织活力

  12. Study on Microbial Change Rules in Solid-state Fermentation Process of Jujube Vinegar%枣醋固态发酵过程中微生物变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松; 王颉; 刘亚琼; 迟超逸; 白凤岐

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the microbial change rules in fermentation process of jujube vinegar,take damaged or defective jujubes and rice as raw materials,the distribution and amount change rules of microbes in different time and positions are studied by vat solid-state fermentation.The result shows that yeast,lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria increase in prophase of fermentation and whereafter gradually die out.The yeast and lactic acid bacteria rapidly proliferate in the first five days,whereafter the yeast decreases,and the lactic acid bacteria gradually die out after increase slightly.The acetic acid bacteria rapidly proliferate in the first three days,whereafter increase slowly and mainly produce acid,die out after thirteen days.Affected by the conditions such as temperature,oxygen content and pH,the number of microorganism in the upper and middle layer of solid fermentation substrate of vinegar is more,therefore those places are more suitable for the growth of microorganism.%为掌握枣醋发酵过程中微生物生长变化规律,文章以残次枣及大米为原料生产枣醋,采用大缸固态发酵,研究不同时间、不同部位微生物分布和数量变化规律.试验结果显示:酵母菌、乳酸菌和醋酸菌在发酵过程中总体呈现先增长后逐渐消亡的趋势.酵母菌和乳酸菌前5天迅速增殖,之后酵母菌逐渐减少而乳酸菌略微增长后开始消亡,醋酸菌前3天增长迅速,之后缓慢增长并以产酸为主,13天以后逐渐消亡.受温度、氧气含量和pH值等条件的影响,醋醅上层和中层微生物数量较多,适合菌的生长.

  13. 纤维素酶提取冬枣叶中总黄酮工艺的研究%Study on extraction technology of total flavones using cellulase from leaves of winter-jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣燕; 张成

    2013-01-01

    Total flavones in leaves of winter-jujube were extracted using cellulose.The total flavones extraction rate was determined by spectrophotometry method with rutin as reference substance.In the single factor analysis,the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time, enzyme amount and solid - liquid ratio were measured. The orthogonal test was used to optimize the conditions of extraction.The results showed that the best conditions of extraction total flavones from leaves of winter - jujube were the solid - liquid ratio 1 : 50 ( g/mL), extraction temperature 55?, extraction time 90min, enzyme amount 4mg/g. Under this optimal condition, extraction rate was 2.45%.The results showed that the order of extraction rate of total flavones was as follows;extraction temperature > extraction time > enzyme amount > solid-liquid ratio.%采用纤维素酶提取冬枣叶中的总黄酮.以芦丁为标准品,采用分光光度法测定冬枣叶中总黄酮的含量,通过单因素实验研究提取温度、提取时间、酶用量和料液比对提取率的影响,再利用正交实验优化最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,纤维素酶提取冬枣叶中总黄酮的最佳工艺条件为:料液比1:50(g/mL),提取温度55℃,提取时间90min,酶用量4mg/g.在最佳提取工艺条件下,提取率可达2.45%.同时得到各影响因素对总黄酮提取率的显著性影响顺序为:提取温度>提取时间>酶用量>料液比.

  14. 不同灌溉方式下枣树根区土壤洗盐效果试验%Soil Salt-washing Effect of Different Irrigation Modes in the Oasis Agriculture Region of Desert with Red Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴鹏; 严晓燕; 李宁; 张军

    2011-01-01

    在不同的灌溉方式及灌水量条件下,对红枣根区的洗盐效果开展了试验研究,研究结果表明,当灌水量分别为30 L和40 L时,滴灌和坑灌的洗盐效果最佳区城在1040 cm土层内,但同时增加了4060 cm红枣根系层土壤盐分的累积程度,会对红枣的生长发育产生不利.而注灌对红枣根系层4060 cm的洗盐优势较为明显,洗盐效果最佳的注灌水量为2530 L.在相同的淋洗水童条件下,红枣根系区的洗盐效果大小依次为注灌、坑灌、滴灌.但当达到最佳的根系层洗盐效果时,注灌所用的淋洗水量要远远小于其他2种方式.%This paper studied on the salt-washing effect of the Red Jujube by different irrigation modes and different amount of water. The results showed that, when the amount of irrigation water was respectively 30 L and 40 L, the optimal area of drip-irrigation and pit irrigation was 10~40 cm in soil layer. But at the same time, would increase the accumulation of the soil-salt around the 40~60 cm fruit tree root, which would engender disadvantage for the development of the red jujube. But the advantage of injection irrigation was more obvious, especially in the soil of 40~60 cm, the best amount of the water was 25~30 L.On the same washing condition, the best irrigation was injection-irrigation, and than pit-irrigation, drip-irrigation at the last. But when reached to the best effect of salt-washing, the amount of the water using of injection-irrigation was less than others.

  15. 超声辅助提取红枣中芦丁的工艺研究%Researches on Ultrasonic-assisted Technology of Extracting Rutin from Zizyphus Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王筠; 李全良; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted method was adopted to extract rutin from Zizyphus jujube, the effects of ultrasonic treatment temperature, time and solid to liquid ratio on the yield of rutin were studied. According to orthogonal tests, the optimum extraction condition was as follows: volume fraction of ethanol 80%, extraction temperature 60 ℃, ultrasonic treatment time 40 min, solid to liquid ratio 1: 20 (g/g), under which the yield of rutin was 24.2%.%在超声辅助下提取红枣中的芦丁,以芦丁提取率为评价指标考察了超声提取温度、提取时间和料液比等因素对芦丁得率的影响.正交试验结果表明最佳提取工艺:用体积分数95%的乙醇为溶剂时,超声提取温度60℃,时间20min,科液比1:20时,得率最高24.2%.

  16. 不同生境类型枣园中节肢动物群落结构特征%Structure characteristics of the arthropod community in the jujube orchards with different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师光禄; 赵莉蔺; 苗振旺; 刘素琪; 曹挥; Shiyou LI; Bruce PIKE

    2005-01-01

    在山西太谷枣区对不同间作生境组合类型枣园的节肢动物群落结构特征进行了研究,结果表明,在有杂草的枣园与其他枣园相比,节肢动物的物种数最大(P0.05),但捕食性的物种数有大豆的枣园明显(P0.05).多样性均匀度和相对稳定性指数研究结果表明有杂草的枣园明显(P0.05) of species and individuals within the parasitoid group between the treatment with soybean and the treatment without weeds. The analysis based on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and relative stability values suggested that the richer the plant diversity, the better regulation ability among arthropod communities. More crops and properly remaining weeds could reduce the possibility of natural enemies migrating out. In addition, intercropping more crops in jujube orchards was more beneficial not only in getting a larger net return but also in increasing diversity and evenness of beneficial insects and decreasing the degree of pest dominance.

  17. 京枣试管苗染色体稳定性观察%Observation on Chromosomal Stability of Test-tube Seedlings of Jujube Cultivar ‘Jingzao'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权燕敏; 肖海峰; 陈宗礼

    2013-01-01

    以继代培养20代后经生根培养基生根的京枣试管苗为试验材料,用常规染色体压片和显微观察相结合的方法对根尖进行染色体数目观察,结果显示,京枣试管苗的染色体数目2n=24条的占85%,说明经继代培养的京枣试管苗仍保持遗传稳定性.%The test-tube seedlings of Jujube ‘ Jingzao' after rooting culture and 20 generations of subcultures were used as experiment materials.The methods of traditional chromosome tabletting and microscopic observation were adopted to observe the chromosomal number of root tip cell.The results showed that 85% of the chromosomal number of ‘ Jingzao' was found as 2n =24,which indicated that the test-tube seedlings of ‘ Jingzao' still kept the genetic stability after subculture.

  18. The Research of Salicylic Acid Signal Transduction in Postharvest Jujube induced by Oligosaccharins%寡糖素诱导冬枣果实水杨酸信号变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红莲; 孙媛媛; 王晓枫

    2012-01-01

    The salicylic acid signal transduction pathways influence on postharvest fruit under oligosaccharins was studied in this paper. The results showed that, induced by exogenous inducer-oligosaccharins, endogenous salicylic acid content increased, which may play a role as signal molecules of antagonistic reaction in postharvest jujube. The signal transduction pathway of salicylic acid may be involved with the synthesis of nitric oxide, calcium ion channel and phenylalanine metabolism pathways and the PAL enzymes activities changed too.%以采后冬枣为实验对象,研究寡糖素诱导处理对冬枣果实抗病反应过程中水杨酸信号分子的影响.实验结果表明,冬枣果实在寡糖素诱导作用下,12h内果实水杨酸含量升高,增加量达60.60%,至诱导后24h果实内游离水杨酸含量急剧下降,水杨酸信号与果实钙离子通道的抑制作用相互协作,共同参与了寡糖素诱导的苯丙氨酸代谢酶活性升高过程.

  19. 枣缩果病初侵染链格孢菌的抗硫酸铜标记及稳定性%Resistance-Labeling and Stability of Jujube Shrunken-Fruit Disease Pathogen Alternaria alternata to Copper Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐; 邢艺林; 李正楠; 郭金堂; 冉隆贤

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to determine the suitable agent and method for labeling Alternaria alternata,the pathogen of jujube shrunken-fruit disease,and to explore its primary infection period,the labeling system with copper sulfate in A. alternata was established,which will facilitate the study of infection mechanisms and pathogenicity of the pathogen,and effective management of the disease in the field. [Method]Copper sulfate was selected for the reagent of resistance-labeling in A. alternata wild type strain CN193 from the four fungicidal chemicals,i. e. copper sulfate,cobalt chloride,silver nitrate and cycloheximide by using inhibition zone method on PDA plate. With the inhibition method of spore germination,the mixture of conidial spore suspension with either 1. 0 mg·mL -1 ,1. 5 mg·mL -1 or 2. 0 mg·mL -1 concentration of the copper sulfate in a ratio of 1∶1 was dropped into concave slides. The germinated spores were scored after a 12 h incubation,and the initial concentration of copper sulfate was determined. A copper sulfate-resistant mutant strain CN193Cur was obtained by culturing the fungus on PDA medium containing copper sulfate from 1. 5 mg·mL -1 up to 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . The stability of the copper sulfate resistance of mutant CN193Cur was verified in the laboratory,and its infectivity was determined by pathogenicity test in a jujube plantation with inoculation of spore by spraying to the jujube flowers and stab-wounding on the surface of unripe jujube fruits,together with the analysis of BOX-PCR finger printing patterns.[Result]Copper sulfate had highly inhibitory effect on A. alternata while cobalt chloride and silver nitrate were less inhibitive,and cycloheximide was not inhibitive. The initial concentration of copper sulfate was set at 1. 5 mg·mL -1 , which produced a mutation rate of 12%,and the final concentration of copper sulfate in this study was 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . Inoculation tests showed that the mutant CN193Cur had the same pathogenicity as did

  20. Pretreatment methods of near infrared diffuse reflection spectra used for qualitative analysis of jujube%基于近红外漫反射检测的红枣定性分析模型中的预处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠侠; 马钺

    2016-01-01

    This work uses diffuse reflectance spectrum of NIR as sample to study the qualitative analysis of jujube,and classify infested and intact jujubes .The effects of different spectral pretreatment methods on the results of spectral analysis are studied .The results show that the combination of wavelet transform and derivative can effectively improve the accuracy of the near-infrared spectrum .The correctness of classifica-tion of original spectrum is 87.08%,after data pretreatment in both calibration and prediction set .So the wavelet transform differential modeling result is best the accuracy is 96 .67%.NIR is illustrated could be applied to classify jujubes .%利用近红外漫反射光谱技术对红枣进行定性分析,针对病虫害果实问题,以马氏判据法建立定性分析模型,研究不同光谱预处理方法对光谱分析结果的影响。结果表明,利用原始光谱进行分类建模的正确性是87.08%,经过各种预处理后的校正和预测集均有提高,小波结合微分建模结果最优,准确率为96.67%。利用近红外技术进行红枣分类建模是可行的,且具有较高的识别准确度。

  1. 赞皇枣黑腐病菌拮抗链霉菌的室内多重筛选及发酵条件优化%Screening in vitro of Antagonistic Streptomyces against the Black Rot Disease (Alternaria tenuissima) of Zanhuang Jujube Fruit and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芬; 李静虹; 王俊宏; 王梦亮

    2015-01-01

    【目的】本研究旨在获得对赞皇枣黑腐病菌具有良好抑制作用的拮抗链霉菌,并对其发酵培养基配方和条件进行优化,以期为进行田间试验和开发生防制剂奠定基础。【方法】以赞皇枣黑腐病优势病原真菌———细极链格孢菌为靶标,采用琼脂块法、牛津杯法和含药平板法对从特殊生境分离获得的10株抗真菌链霉菌进行室内多重筛选,并采用二次回归正交旋转设计和单因素试验对筛选获得的拮抗链霉菌分别进行发酵培养基优化和最佳发酵条件确立。【结果】活体筛选试验中,菌株 AC03、AC04和 AC07表现出了明显的拮抗效果,抑菌圈直径分别为(32.09±1.45),(15.75±1.34),(18.33±0.78)mm;上述3株菌的无菌发酵滤液活性测定表明:菌株AC03、AC07的抑菌圈直径分别为(20.94±0.92)和(23.44±1.63) mm,而菌株 AC04仅为(14.5±0.71) mm;对菌株 AC03和AC07进行无菌发酵滤液的菌丝生长抑制试验,结果表明:菌株 AC07代谢产生的拮抗物质抑菌效果、持效性均优于 AC03。综上可知,菌株 AC07对赞皇枣黑腐病菌的抑菌效果最优。AC07的最优发酵培养基配方为:麦芽糖5.7%,大豆粉2.7%,( NH4)2 SO40.17%,CaCO30.22%,NaCl 0.17%,酵母粉0.2%;最佳发酵条件为:种子液浓度1.5×107~2×108 cfu·mL -1时,接种量2%(V/V),装液量40 mL/250 mL三角瓶,原始pH7.0,发酵温度28℃,发酵时间108 h。【结论】筛选获得的目标拮抗菌 AC07可为开发针对赞皇枣黑腐病的生物农药提供新的原材料,且发酵培养基和条件的优化,提高了目标代谢物的产量,为后续的研究和开发奠定基础。%[Objective]The Zanhuang jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba‘Zanhuang’) fruit black rot disease is one of the most serious fungal pathogens in China. Bio-control of the disease is of great significance to the fruit green production and its sustained efficacy as well as

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Organic Acids and Vitamin C in Jujube Fruits by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定枣果实中的有机酸和VC含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马倩倩; 吴翠云; 蒲小秋; 王德; 孙亚强

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立枣果实中有机酸含量的高效液相色谱测定方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器法,水浴超声、离心、膜过滤提取枣果实中的有机酸。色谱条件:色谱柱为Inertsil ODS-3(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为0.04 mol/mL KH2PO4溶液,流速0.5 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长210 nm。结果:在此色谱条件下,草酸、酒石酸、奎宁酸、苹果酸、柠檬酸、富马酸和VC在30 min之内得到基线分离。7种有机酸和VC标准曲线的相关系数(R2)均在0.9989以上;精密度检测,相对标准偏差为0.98%~4.77%(n=5);重复性检测,相对标准偏差为0.88%~2.19%(n=5);回收率在91.35%~105.74%之间。结论:本方法准确、高效、便捷,适于枣果实中有机酸的测定。%Objective:This study aimed to establish and validate a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the fast simultaneous determination of organic acids and vitamin C (VC) in jujube fruits. Methods: The analytes in samples were extracted ultrasonically in a water bath, centrifugated and purified by membrane filtration for analysis by HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD). The chromatographic column used was Inertsil ODS-3 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5μm). The separation was performed using 0.04 mol/L KH2PO4 (pH 2.40) as mobile phase at 0.5 mL/min flow rate by isocratic elution. The column temperature and detection wavelength were set as 30 ℃ and 210 nm, respectively. Results: Under these chromatographic conditions, 7 organic acids and VC could be successfully separated in 30 minutes. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the standard calibration curves of the analyzed compounds were all above 0.998 9 and the precision expressed as relative standard deviations were between 0.98%and 4.77%(n=5) and the repeatability RSDs were in the range of 0.88%to 2.19%(n=5). The mean recovery rates of seven organic acids and vitamin C were in the

  3. Dynamics of insect diversity and dominant population from fructus jujube in Ningxia%宁夏红枣昆虫多样性及优势种群发生动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治科; 徐世才; 杨彩霞

    2011-01-01

    The insect resource from jujube in Ningxia was studied, and insect diversity and dominant population dynamic were analysed. The results showed that there were 10 ordo, 59 familia,136 species. Mose of them belonged to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The diversity index on August 15 was maximum, which declared that the species of insects was plentiful in this period. The diversity index in September was 0. 78, and that in July was the lowest. Evenness indexes in August, September and July wese 0. 81, 0. 78 and 0. 08, respectively. The change tendency of evenness index was similar to that of diversity index. The dominant centrality in August was the lowest, and after then in September. The dominant centrality in July was the highest. The tendency of dominant centrality was contrary to that of evenness index. Meantime the occurrence and damage of dominant pests, such as Zamacra excavate Dyar, Carposina niponensis Walsingham and Dasineura sp, were also researched. Based on the results, the life history,habits, growth and decline regulation of these dominant population were obtained. In conclusion, the research established the foundation for pest integrated control in jujube.%对宁夏红枣昆虫资源进行调查,并对昆虫多样性及优势种群发生动态进行了分析研究.野外调查共采集13 750个红枣昆虫,隶属于10目、59科、136种,其中鳞翅目、鞘翅目较多;多样性分析结果表明,8月15日灯诱昆虫的多样性指数最高(4.75),表明此时期枣树昆虫种类最为丰富,且在田间分布均匀,其次是9月份,多样性指数为3.66,7月18日灯诱昆虫的多样性指数最低,为0.51.各时期调查的红枣昆虫均匀度,8月份最高,为0.81,其次是9月份(0.78),7月份最低(0.08),与多样性指数曲线变化趋势相似.优势集中性8月份最低,为0.087 6,其次是9月份(0.14),7月份最高,为0.91,与均匀度变化趋势呈负相关.对宁夏红枣优势害虫桑褶翅尺蛾、桃小食心虫、枣瘿蚊的发

  4. Callus induction and adventitious bud occurrence from Chinese jujube in the field%田间枣树愈伤组织诱导及不定芽的发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟; 王玖瑞; 刘孟军; 刘平; 代丽

    2011-01-01

    以‘星光'和‘月光'2个枣树品种为试材,比较了截干高度和截口粗度、覆盖方式、二甲基亚砜(DMSO)、TDZ(N-苯基-N'-1,2,3-噻二唑-5-基脲)、AgNO3和秋水仙素对田间枝干截面愈伤组织诱导和不定芽发生的影响.结果表明:高枝干截面愈伤发生快,愈伤生长旺盛,截口粗度对截面愈伤的发生有影响,差异显著.“塑料袋+泥+塑料袋”是最佳覆盖方式,此方式枝干截面愈伤发生快,第5天即有透明的愈伤出现,愈伤发生率高达100%,出芽率最高达80%.添加2%二甲基亚砜导致出愈延迟.与水比较,4.0 mg/L TDZ+2.0 mg/L AgNO3对提高出愈率和出芽率并没有显著效果.添加秋水仙素后,不定芽的发生受到抑制,‘星光’和‘月光’均在0.025%秋水仙素时出现最小值,分别为45%和5%.与‘月光'比较,‘星光'枝干截面出愈快,出芽率高,可能更容易染色体诱变.%Effect of stumping height and cutting diameter of branches,covering types, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), TDZ (Thidiazuron), AgNO3 and colchicine on callus induction and adventitious occurrence from cross section of Chinese jujube in the field was investigated by using two varieties of Zizyphus jujube Mill. Cv. 'Xingguang'and 'Yueguang'. The results showed callus from cross section of higher branches formed early and developed quickly. Callus formation varied significantly with branch cutting diameter. 'Plastic bag+ mud + plastic bag' was the optimal covering type for callus induction and adventitious bud occurrence on cross section of branches, by which callus occurred so rapidly that transparent callus was visible in 5 days. Finally callus rate was as high as 100% and adventitious bud rate reached 80%. Callus formed lately when 2% DMSO was added. 4. 0 mg/L TDZ+2. 0 mg/L AgNO3 did not obviously accelerate callus induction and adventitious bud formation. However, adventitious bud was hindered by colchicines. 0. 025% colchicines caused the least rate

  5. Study on the Development of Composite Solid Tea Beverage with Cassia Seed,Orange Peel and Red Jujube%决明子陈皮红枣复合固体茶饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳梅; 高鹤宁

    2012-01-01

    对决明子陈皮红枣复合固体茶饮料生产工艺进行了研究,采用三因素三水平试验和多种感官评定方法得出最佳配方,混合浸提液最佳配方为陈皮:红枣:绿茶=3:8:3;决明子吸收浸提液最佳配比为1:1.7。该工艺生产的饮料为固体茶饮料,便于保存,冲泡后颜色为亮红棕色,口感清爽,有复合风味,富含蛋白质、有机酸、维生素和矿物质,具有决明子、陈皮、红枣及绿茶的营养价值和保健功能。%The production process of composite solid tea beverage with cassia seed dried tangerine and orange peel was studied.The best formula was acquired by three factors and three levels test and various sensory evaluate method.The formula were dried tangerine or orange peel: red dates: green tea=3:8:3;Cassia seed: leach 1:1.7.Under this technology the drinks was convenient to store,bright red color after mix with water,taste fresh,with composite aroma.Protein,organic acids,vitamins and minerals were rich.This drink had nutrition and healthy care function with tangerine peel,red jujube and green tea in it.

  6. Study on Correlation Between Effect of Winter Jujube Storage and Related Enzymatic Activity%冬枣贮藏效果与相关酶活性的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波; 谢志兵; 姚国新; 李国元

    2015-01-01

    Using winter jujube as experimental materials ,the correlation analysis ,path analysis ,and grey correlation analysis on related enzymatic activity and fruit firmness under low temperature stor‐age are studied .The analytical results show that the degree of correlation between the related enzy‐matic activity and the firmness are PG ,SOD ,CAT ,PME and POD ,respectively .And the contribution rates of fruit firmness are PG ,CAT ,SOD ,PME ,and POD ,respectively .While the degree of associa‐tion with fruit firmness are PME ,SOD ,PG ,CAT ,and POD ,respectively .Based upon the above com‐prehensive analyses ,the PG activity ,the CAT activity and the SOD activity are the major enzymes dur‐ing fruit storage ,which are important to fruit softening and senescence .%以鄂北冬枣为材料,对果实采后低温贮藏过程中相关酶活性与果实硬度进行相关分析、通径分析和灰色关联分析。分析结果表明,各相关酶活性与硬度的相关程度依次为PG、SOD、CAT、PME、POD ,与果实硬度的贡献率大小依次为 PG、CAT、SOD、PME、POD ,与果实硬度的关联度顺序为 PME、SOD、PG、CAT、POD。综合分析结果表明,PG活性、CAT活性、SOD活性为果实贮藏过程中主要的酶,在贮藏过程中对果实软化衰老起重要作用。

  7. 枣树全基因组MITEs成分分析与系统进化研究%Analysis and System Evolution of MITEs in the Genome of Ziziphus Jujuba Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇慧; 冯爱青; 押辉远; 程彦伟; 逯海朋

    2015-01-01

    微型反向重复转座基因( minialure inverted repeat transposable elements, MITEs)的演化可能是造成枣树基因组及品种多样性的重要原因.为研究MITEs在枣树全基因组中的分布、种类及演化,使用MITE预测软件( MITE-Digger)识别枣树全基因组中的MITEs序列,在植物MITEs数据库中进行分类注释,并用MEGA 6.0构建枣树基因组中MITEs的系统进化树.结果显示,MITE-Digger检测出MITEs总共3230条,碱基数为1104679 bp,占基因组比例为0.34%;其中共有948条在植物MITEs数据库中比对到相似序列,这些MITEs可以归类到5个家族:hAT,PIF/Harbinger,CACTA,Mutator和Tc1/Mariner,MITEs系统进化树显示:枣树基因组中MITEs来源于少数几个共同祖先,在长期的进化中有明显的扩增和突变,这可能与枣树品种多样性有关.研究结果将为枣树的遗传资源及育种研究提供重要参考.%The evolution of the MITEs might be the important cause of Chinese jujube genome and spe-cies diversity. In order to explore the distribution, types and evolution of MITEs in jujube genome, MITE prediction software ( MITE-Digger) was used to identify the MITEs sequence of jujube genome, annotated in plant MITEs classified database. The phylogenetic tree of MITEs in jujube genome was built up with MEGA 6. 0. The results indicated that the MITE-Digger detected 3 230 pieces of MITE, with 1 104 679 bp bases which account for 0. 34% of the whole genome. The similar sequence compared had 948 pieces of MITEs in the plant MITEs database ( P-MITE) . These MITEs could be categorized into five families:hAT, PIF/Harbinger, CACTA, Mutator and Tc1/Mariner. MITEs phylogenetic tree showed that MITEs of jujube genome came from a few common ancestor, and had no obvious amplification and mutation in the long-term evolution, which might be related to the diversity of jujube varieties. The findings could provide important reference for genetic resources and breeding of Ziziphus Jujuba.

  8. 中国各地不同枣树品种上枣疯病植原体的PCR检测及分子变异分析%Molecular detection and variability of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasmas from different cultivars in various regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启聪; 田国忠; 王振亮; 孔繁华; 李永; 王合

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Jujube witches'-broom is an important disease in jujube cultivation areas, which causes serious losses in jujube fruit production. To understand the genetic variability and diversity of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma population from the different cultivars and various regions of China. [Method] We collected 32 samples from 14 cultivars or wild sour jujubes in 7 regions of China and detected them with PCR with the primers RI6mF2/R16mR1 for phytoplasma 16S rDNA, SRI/SR for16S23SrRNA space region (SR) and FDgf/r for secretion proteins (secY). The direct sequencing of PCR products and sequencing by cloned PCR products were used for sequence polymorphism and phylogenetic analyses by comparison to the databases of known conserved gene sequences. [Results] We detected phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of 16SrDNA from all the diseased jujube samples. All the phytoplasma isolates infected various jujube cuhivars belonged to subgroup 16SrV-B of elm yellows group and had closer homology with Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom and cherry lethal yellows phytoplasmas occurred in China than other 16SrV phytoplasmas in other countries. The sequence polymorphism at different extent in 16SrDNA, SR and secY gene and genetic diversity were revealed in phytoplnsma strain population related to different habitats, among which the dominant strains were always detected by the direct sequencing of PCR products in all the diseased areas of China. The degree of variability on secY gene of collected phytoplasma strains was greater than that of 16SrDNA and SR sequences, and some base substitutions could not alter encoded amino acid, however certain single base deletions detected in a Shandong and a Beijing strains may have impact on the gene structure or function. [Conclusion] Phytoplasma strains from different cultivars and regions show dramatic genetic diversity. Compared with direct sequencing of PCR products, the sequencing by cloning PCR products was more useful for the

  9. 生防酵母菌结合钼酸铵对冬枣采后主要病害防治的研究%Research on the Control of Postharvest Diseases of Winter Jujubes using Antagonistic Yeast in Combination with Ammonium Molybdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东起; 侯旭杰

    2012-01-01

    Biological control efficacy of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in combination with different concentrations(5, 10, 15, 20 mmol/L) of ammonium molybdate against postharvest diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium citrinum in Winter jujubes was evaluated. And the effect of ammonium molybdate on the growth of M. Pulcherrima was investigated. The results indicated that, different effects on biocontrol activity of M. Pulcherrimaior different concentration of ammonium molybdate. Combining M. Pulcherrima with 5 mmol/L ammonium molybdate provided the most effective control of postharvest diseases. The addition of 5 mmol/L ammonium molybdate did not significantly influence growth of the yeast in vitro and in Winter jujube wounds. Therefore, it was appeared that antagonistic yeast in combination with ammonium molybdate had potential application value in postharvest diseases control of Winter jujubes.%研究美极梅奇酵母菌(Metschnikowiap ulcherrima)与不同浓度(5、10、15、20 mmol/L)的钼酸铵结合使用对冬枣果实采后黑腐病和青腐病的防治效果以及钼酸铵对美极梅奇酵母菌生长的影响.结果表明,不同浓度的钼酸铵对美极梅奇酵母菌的生防效果影响不同,其中美极梅奇酵母菌与较低浓度(5 mmol/L)的钼酸铵溶液结合使用时对冬枣果实黑腐病和青腐病的防治效果最佳,美极梅奇酵母菌在含有5 mmol钼酸铵的NYDB液体和固体培养基以及冬枣伤口上的生长都未受到明显的抑制.因此,美极梅奇酵母菌与钼酸铵结合使用在控制冬枣采后贮藏中的病害方面具有潜在的应用价值.

  10. Measurement of Coordinate Parameter by Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry System and Data Analysis for Jujube%枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量及数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐洋; 李春友; 孟平; 张劲松

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to explore the measurement of coordinate parameter by multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system. [ Method ] The 3-dimensional coordinate of 8-year-old Jujube was measured by using Lensphoto multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system, and through comparing with measured data of total station, the error and accuracy of photogrammetry data were analyzed.[ Result ] The absolute error of X, Y and Z coordinate was 0 - 0.014,0 - 0. 018 and 0 - 0. 004 m respectively, and the relative error of X, Y and Z coordinate was less than 0. 145%. The significance test of pairs for the photogrammetry data and measured data of total station indicated that the space coordinate data of stumpage were accurately measured by using the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry method,and the photogrammetry data meet the need of space coordinate measurement for virtual plant growth simulation. [ Conclusion ] This study has provided theoretical basis for the growth measurement of virtual plant growth simulation.%[目的]研究枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量.[方法]应用Lensphoto多基线数字近景摄影测量系统,对8年生枣树的三维坐标参数进行了近景摄影测量,并将摄影测量数据与全站仪测量数据进行了比较.[结果]对于较多小细枝的枣树,X、Y、Z坐标的绝时误差分别为0~0.014、0~0.018、0~0.004 m,相对误差均低于0.145%.摄影测量坐标值和真值配对数据的显著性检验和线性回归分析表明,该测量方法能够获得真实可靠的数据,做到精准监测,满足虚拟植物生长模拟的坐标数据测定要求.[结论]为虚拟植物模拟的树木生长观测提供了理论依据.

  11. Measurement of Coordinate Parameter by Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry System and Data Analysis for Jujube%枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量及数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐洋; 李春友; 孟平; 张劲松

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the measurement of coordinate parameter by multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system. [Method] The 3-dimensional coordinate of 8-year-old Jujube was measured by using Lensphoto multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system, and through comparing with measured data of Total Station, the error and accuracy of photogrammetry data were analyzed.[Result] The absolute error of X, Y and Z coordinate was 0 - 0.014, 0 - 0.018 and 0 - 0.004 m respectively, and the relative error of X, Y and Z coordinate was less than 0.145%. The significance test of pairs for the photogrammetry data and measured data of Total Station indicated that the space coordinate data of stumpage were accurately measured by using the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry method, and the photogrammetry data meet the need of space coordinate measurement for virtual plant growth simulation. [Conclusion] This study had provided theoretical basis for the growth measurement of virtual plant growth simulation.%[目的]研究枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量.[方法]应用Lensphoto多基线数字近景摄影测量系统,对8年生枣树的三维坐标参数进行了近景摄影测量,并将摄影测量数据与全站仪测量数据进行了比较.[结果]对于较多小细枝的枣树,X、Y、Z坐标的绝对误差分别为0~0.014、0~0.018、0~0.004 m,相对误差均低于0.145%.摄影测量坐标值和真值配对数据的显著性检验和线性回归分析表明,该测量方法能够获得真实可靠的数据,做到精准监测,满足虚拟植物生长模拟的坐标数据测定要求.[结论]为虚拟植物模拟的树木生长观测提供了理论依据.

  12. Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Mahajan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have always been the natural form of medicine in India. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to presence of various complex chemical substances of different composition which contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin and phenolic compounds distributed in different parts of the plants. Ziziphus jujuba Mill, a member of the family Rhamnaceae, commonly known as Bor, is used traditionally as tonic and aphrodisiac and sometimes as Hypnotic-sedative and Anxiolytic, anticancer (Melanoma cells, Antifungal, Antibacterial, Antiulcer, Anti-inflammatory, Cognitive, Antispastic, Antifertility/contraception, Hypotensive and Antinephritic, Cardiotonic, Antioxidant, Immunostimulant, and Wound healing properties. It possesses allied compounds viz. Ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin-bioflavonoids and Pectin A and various chemical substances like Mauritine-A; Amphibine-H; Jubanine-A; Jubanine-B; Mucronine-D and Nummularine-B. Sativanine-E. Frangufoline, Ziziphine-A to Q, betulinic acid colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-transp-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-pcoumaroylmaslinic acid, oleanolic acid, betulonic acid, oleanonic acid, zizyberenalic acid and betulinic acid, jujubosides A, B, A1 B1 and C and acetyljujuboside B and the protojujubosides A, B and B1, saponin, ziziphin, from the dried leaves of Z. jujube - 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2-a-arabinopyranosyl-20-O- (2,3-di-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl jujubogenin. Saponin from leaves and stem are 3-O- ((2-O- alpha - D - furopyranosyl - 3-O- beta - D -glucopyranosyl - alpha - L - arabinopyranosyl jujubogenin and (6′′′-sinapoylspinosin, 6′′′-feruloylspinosin and 6′′′-p-coumaroylspinosin. The present review discusses photo-chemistry, pharmacology, medicinal properties and biological activities of Za jujuba and its usage in different ailments.

  13. 冬枣早期落叶病致病菌分离鉴定及防治药剂筛选试验%Separation and Identification of Pathogen of the Leaf Cast Disease on Winter Jujube and Screening of Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀社; 张庆国; 徐丽; 暴晓; 王红; 张澎; 宋家清

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to determine the pathogen caused by the leaf cast disease of winter jujube and screen effective fungicides. [Method] Disease samples showed typical symptom were collected and five representative strains were selected to determine morphology, cultural characters, staining reaction, physiological and biochemical reactions and pathogenicity of pathogen, compared with Xantflomonas campestris pv.malvacearum and Psedomonas syringae pv.tabaci. The antibacterial effects of 31 fungicides on the pathogen caused by the leaf cast disease of winter jujube were determined indoor. [Result] The result showed that the leaf cast disease of winter jujube caused by Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson and Xanthomonas cepacia Burkhodor. In the field the leaf cast disease caused mainly by Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson. The control effects of streptomycin sulfate, 72% streptomycin, neomycin and 50% mancozeh were best. The diameter of inhibition zone reached i.8- 4.8 cm with good transparency. [Conclusion] 4- 6 kinds of fungicides were selected to control the leaf cast disease of winter jujube, which used in the field control tests, demonstration and popularization.%【目的】为了明确引起冬枣早期落叶病的致病菌并选择有效的药剂进行防治。【方法】采集具有典型症状的病害标样,室内分离纯化后选取5个代表菌株,对病原细菌形态、培养性状、染色反应、生理生化反应和致病性等性状进行测定,并与棉花角斑病菌和烟草野火病菌进行比较、同时室内测定了31种杀菌剂对冬枣早期落叶病病菌的皿内抑菌效果;【结果】结果表明,甘蓝黑腐黄单胞菌和洋葱假单胞菌均能引起冬枣早期落叶病,田间以甘蓝黑腐黄单胞菌侵染为主。硫酸链霉素、72%农用链霉素、新植霉素、50%代森锰锌等4种药剂防治效果最好,抑菌圈直径为j.8~4.8cm,押菌斑透明程度好

  14. Distribution of Root and Cotton Yield and Temporal-Spatial Variation in Soil Nutrients in Jujube-Cotton Intercropping Ecosystem%枣棉间作生态系统内根系和棉花产量分布及土壤养分时空变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锋惠; 吴正保; 史彦江

    2012-01-01

    为提高枣棉间作系统内肥料管理水平,在棉花不同物候期,测定系统内土壤养分的空间差异性.结果表明:土壤有机质质量分数随棉花生育进程基本呈增加的趋势,且枣树西侧的土壤有机质质量分数高于东侧,并且0<H(土层深度)≤20 cm土层有机质质量分数明显高于20 cm<H≤40 cm土层;土壤中速效N、P和K的质量分数表现出明显的时空分布差异性.随着棉花生育进程,土壤中速效N、P、K的质量分数均呈下降趋势.在水平分布上,随距枣树距离的增加,土壤中速效N、P质量分数均表现出先下降再上升的变化规律,距离树体130 cm左右的土壤速效N、P质量分数最低,而速效K质量分数则相对较为平稳.在垂直分布上,随着土层深度的增加,土壤速效P质量分数呈明显降低现象,而速效N、K质量分数变化较小.%The spatial variation in soil nutrients was studied in different phenological stages of cotton in order to improve fertilizer management in Jujube-cotton Intercropping Ecosystem ( JIE). Result showed that the content of soil organic matter increased with the growing process of cotton. Moreover, the organic matter content in the soil to the west of the jujube trees was higher than that to the east, and the organic matter content in 0-20 cm soil layer was higher than that in 20-40 cm soil layer. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of contents of available N, P, and K in soil was observed in JIE. Contents of available N, P, and K decreased with the growing process of cotton. In horizontal distribution, the contents of soil available N, P, and K first decreased and then increased with increasing distance from the jujube trees, and the contents of available N and P in the soil located at 130 cm away from the jujube trees were lowest, while the available K content was relatively stable. In vertical distribution, soil available P content decreased with increasing soil depth, while the contents of

  15. 基于近红外光谱的室温贮藏下鲜枣霉菌污染动力学模型%Kinetic model of mold contamination in fresh jujube stored at room temperature based on near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 郭康权; 张强; 胡耀华

    2013-01-01

      为了预测鲜枣常温贮藏的保鲜期,确保鲜枣的品质要求及食用安全,应用近红外光谱建立了室温贮藏下鲜枣内部霉菌菌落总数变化的动力学模型.通过对几种数据预处理方法的比较及特征波数的选择,实现了鲜枣霉菌菌落总数变化的近红外模型的优选.结果表明:经过多元散射校正处理的鲜枣近红外光谱,应用多元线性回归方法建立的霉菌菌落总数模型预测能力较好,校正集相关系数为0.920,均方根误差为1.503,预测集相关系数为0.889,均方根误差为1.514.同时,将近红外光谱模型应用于霉菌菌落总数随贮藏时间变化的零级反应动力学模型中,得到模型的相关系数为0.981.根据近红外光谱吸光度值与贮藏时间的线性关系,当霉菌菌落总数初始值小于等于10 cfu/g 时,预测出鲜枣在室温下的保鲜期一般为8 d.研究表明,结合动力学模型的近红外光谱技术可以作为一种无损、快速检测方法来检测鲜枣霉菌菌落总数变化.%The objectives of this study were: 1) to optimize a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy model for fresh jujube to predict the quality deterioration (mold growth) during storage at room temperature, 2) to establish a kinetic model of mold growth according to NIR spectroscopy and storage time at room temperature, and 3) to predict the shelf life of fresh jujube at room temperature. The 72 Lizao samples were picked and divided into 18 sets. The mold infection level was measured, and the NIR spectroscopy was obtained from 4 samples which were tested every day. The spectral data of each jujube measured at three locations were first averaged. The samples were then divided into calibration sets and prediction sets for spectral data analysis. In order to optimize the NIR model, the pretreatment techniques such as Savitzky-Golay smoothing (S-G smoothing), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative (1-Der) and second derivative (2

  16. 不同生育阶段咸水滴灌对红枣根区土壤有机碳垂直分布特性的影响%Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Content in Rhizosphere of Jujube at Its Different Growth Stages under Drip Irrigation with Salty Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 李宁; 王兴鹏; 张军; 姜倩; 王亮

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of drip irrigation with salty water on soil organic carbon content in rhizosphere of jujube at its different growth stages was explored based on the experiment of field drip irrigation with salty water under different irrigation quotas and different salinity levels of irrigation water. The results showed that the soil or-ganic carbon content varied with soil depth, salinity level of irrigation water and irrigation quotas, and its curve was S-shaped. The salinity affecting soil organic carbon content was in an order of 3 g/L 〉 4 g/L 〉 freshwater 〉 2 g/L, organic carbon content in topsoil 10-30 cm in depth was higher than that in soil layer of 30-50 em, but the or-ganic carbon content in soil layer of 30 - 40 cm was relatively low. When the salinity of irrigation water was con-stant, the effect of irrigating quota on soil organic carbon content was in an order of 30 L 〉 20 L 〉 10 L, which indi-cated that an appropriate increase of irrigating quota was an effective way of soil desalination when jujube was irriga-ted with salty water. Compared with other treatments, drip irrigating quota of 30 L and 2 g/L-salinity of irrigation salty water could significantly promote the utilization of soil organic carbon in rhizosphere of jujube.%为探索咸水滴灌对红枣根区土壤有机碳含量的影响,采用大田咸水滴灌试验,在不同的灌水定额和咸水矿化度条件下,对红枣不同生育阶段根区土壤有机碳的影响进行分析。结果表明:不同矿化度的咸水滴灌处理后,不同生育阶段红枣根区土壤有机碳,随着土层深度的增加呈"S"形变化,影响土壤有机碳的咸水矿化度依次为:3g/L〉4 g/L〉淡水对照〉2 g/L,表层10~30 cm的土壤有机碳含量较30~50 cm处高,而30~40 cm土层的有机碳含量相对最小。当矿化度一定时,影响红枣根区土壤有机碳含量的灌水定额依次为:30 L〉20 L〉10 L,说明在利用咸水灌溉时,适度

  17. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ROT-CAUSING FUNGI OF WINTER JUJUBE IN STORAGE PERIOD AND SCREENING OF BROAD SPECTRUM ANTAGONIST%冬枣储藏期致腐真菌分离鉴定及广谱拮抗菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静琴; 陈亮; 岳贵龙; 蔡静平

    2013-01-01

    Four rot-causing fungi were isolated from the rotten tissues of winter jujube and identified as Rhizomorpha Roth.ex FT, Alternaria tenuissima, Coniothyrium olivaceum and Penicillium expansum. 142 bacteria strains were isolated from different samples by dilution method, and 7 strains with remarkable antagonistic effect against the four rot-causing fungi were screened from the 142 bacteria strains by antagonistic cultivation method, strain LM2303 had the best broad spectrum antagonistic effect, and the inhibition zone widths of strain LM2303 to the four rot-causing fungi were respectively (8.5± 0.5) mm, (8.0± 0.3) mm, (10.3± 0.6) mm and (7.5± 0.9) mm. Based on morphologic observation, physiological-biochemical characteristic analysis and 16S rDNA sequence comparison, strain LM2303 should be Bacillus subtilis. Accordingly, strain LM2303 has significant antagonistic effect against the main rot-causing fungi of winter jujube, thereby laying the foundation for biocontrol of rot-causing fungi on winter jujube during storage.%从不同腐烂病症的冬枣中分离得到致腐真菌4株,经鉴定分别为根菌索菌(Rhizomorpha Roth.ex Fr)、细极链格孢(Alternaria tenuissima)、橄榄色盾壳霉(Coniothyrium olivaceum)、扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum);采用稀释分离法从样品中分离得到细菌菌株142株,采用对峙培养法从中筛选到对4种致腐真菌均具有明显拮抗作用的细菌菌株7株,其中菌株LM2303的广谱拮抗效果最佳,其对上述4种致腐真菌的抑菌带宽度分别为(8.5±0.5) mm、(8.0±0.3)mm、(10.3±0.6) mm和(7.5±0.9) mm;通过形态学观察、生理生化特性分析及16S rDNA序列比对,菌株LM2303应为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis).菌株LM2303对冬枣主要致腐真菌均具有显著的拮抗作用,为冬枣储藏期致腐真菌生物防控奠定了基础.

  18. Analysis on canopy characteristics and water saving of pear jujube in different training systems%不同树形结构梨枣的冠层特性及节水性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧; 汪有科; 杨荣慧; 南娟; 李晓彬

    2011-01-01

    以4 a生梨枣树为试材,观测分析了不同树形经过拉枝、摘心修剪后的树体指标与冠层特性之间关系及其对水分生产效率的影响.结果表明:树体越大,叶面积指数越大,透光率越小,光截获密度越大;自然圆头形单位体积内的坐果数最多,较对照(CK)提高353.62个/m3,每667m2产量按顺序排列为:自然圆头形>Y字形>柱形>开心形>立壁式>一边倒>对照(不修剪);各处理的蒸腾量随树体增大而增多,对照的树体最大,蒸腾量最多,其蒸腾量是自然圆头形的1.17倍,是柱形的2.65倍;按照单位时间耗水结果数计算,柱形最高,其次为自然圆头形,最小为对照;柱形修剪的水分生产效率最高,高于自然圆头形3.67个/(g/h),但单位产量较低,产量低于自然圆头形1984.68 kg/667m2,自然圆头形在111株/667m2密度的林地郁闭度达到56.27%,圆柱形在111株/667m2的林地郁闭度达到30.47%,所以作者认为自然圆头形适合111株/667m2的密植,圆柱形更适合密度大的栽植.%Experiment was conducted with 4-year-old trees of pear jujube, and observation was made of different tree pruning form the relationship between tree indicators and canopy characteristics and their impact on water production efficiency. The results show that the larger the tree and the greater the leaf area index, the smaller light transmission rate and the greater density of light interception are; The largest number of the fruiting unit volume is natural round shape, increasing by 353.62 compared with CK, and the yield per 667m2 are in sequence as follows: natural round shape > Y shaped > cylindrical shape > open center shape > standing shape > one - sided shape > CK; The transpiration of treatment increased with the increase of tree size, the tree size of CK is the largest and had the most transpiration, and the transpi ration is 1.17 times of the natural round shape and 2.65 times of the standing shape; Calculated according to

  19. 冬枣多糖的分离纯化及抗氧化活性研究%Isolation, Purification and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujube cv. Dongzao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莹; 许经伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:分离纯化冬枣多糖,并研究其组分、结构特征和抗氧化活性。方法:采用水提醇沉、脱蛋白脱色、DEAE-52纤维素柱和Sephadex G-100凝胶色谱柱分离纯化冬枣多糖;利用Sephadex G-100凝胶色谱柱进行纯度鉴定和分子质量的测定;通过紫外光谱、红外光谱、气相色谱法进行了初步结构分析;采用邻二氮菲法和1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,DPPH)体系对纯化多糖进行抗氧化活性的研究。结果:冬枣多糖经DEAE-52分离和Sephadex G-100纯化得到2个组分DPA和DPB,经Sephadex G-100鉴定均为均一组分,DPA和DPB分子质量分别为1.04×104、3.02×105 D,不含蛋白质和核酸,为吡喃型糖苷环骨架,DPA的单糖组成为阿拉伯糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖,其物质的量比为6.66∶1.00∶6.75∶2.09;DPB的单糖组成为鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖,其物质的量比为4.33∶10.90∶1.00∶3.25∶4.78;DPA和DPB均具有一定的抗氧化活性,随着多糖质量浓度的增加,其抗氧化活性增强,在质量浓度为8 mg/mL时对羟自由基清除率分别为28.52%、78.79%,在质量浓度为0.4 mg/mL时对DPPH自由基清除率分别为9.97%、24.54%。结论:DPA和DPB均具有一定的抗氧化活性。%Objective: To study the monosaccharide composition, structure and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated and purified from Zizyphus jujube cv. Dongzao. Methods:The extraction of polysaccharides was performed by water extraction and subsequent ethanol precipitation, and after removal of proteins and pigments, the polysaccharides were purified by successive DEAE-52 cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 gel column chromatography. The purity and molecular weights of the purified polysaccharides were determined by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization was carried out by ultraviolet

  20. 辣椒枣试管苗叶片再生植株研究%Research of Leaf Regeneration Plant in Ziziphus jujuba Mill.Lajiaozao Test Tube Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖蓉; 王国平; 李春燕; 张拥兵

    2012-01-01

    以辣椒枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)组培苗叶片为试材,研究了不同培养方式、接种方式以及不同生长调节剂对离体叶片诱导不定芽再生的影响.结果表明,适当的暗处理有利于辣椒枣叶片愈伤组织的形成,并能促进愈伤组织尽快形成芽点,有利于缩短叶片再生培养时间;叶片反放便于愈伤组织及芽点的观察,褐化率低,最终的不定芽再生数高于叶片正放,是辣椒枣叶片再生培养的最佳放置方式.正交试验结果表明,基本培养基,TDZ,IBA和糖4个因子对辣椒枣叶片再生影响大小排序为:基本培养基>糖>TDZ> IBA;1/2 MS(大)为最优培养基,WPM不适合作为辣椒枣的叶片再生培养基;辣椒枣组培苗叶片再生的最优培养基为1/2 MS(大)+TDZ 0.3 mg/L+ IBA 0.1 mg/L+糖20 g/L,平均每叶片再生不定芽能达到5.4个.%In the paper, the effect of different culture methods, inoculation methods, growth regulator on Lajiaozao Chinese jujube test-tube seedling leaf regeneration plant was studied. The results showed that: appropriate dark treatment was helpful for the leaf callus formation, and could promote callus to bud as soon as possible to shorten the training time of leaf regeneration. Putting leaf face down was facilitate to callus and bud observation, and it had lower browning rate, higher buds regeneration numbers than putting leaf face up. So it's an optimal inoculation method. The orthogonal test results showed: order of effect on Lajiaozao Chinese jujube leaf regeneration performances from big to small was basic culture medium > sugar > TDZ > IBA. 1/2 MS was the optimal medium; WPM was not suitable for Lajiaozao Chinese jujube leaf regeneration. In one word, the optimal medium for Lajiaozao Chinese jujube leaf regeneration was: 1/2 MS + TDZ 0.3 mg/L + IBA 0.1 mg/L + 20 g/L sugar.

  1. Study on Inhibitory Function of Several Essential Oils for Pathogen of Ziziphus jujube cv .Dongzao%几种植物精油对冬枣病原菌的抑菌试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋姝婧; 许牡丹; 王晓拓; 王志东

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils have effective inhibitory activity with natural ,green and safe characteristics and good prospects of developing antiseptic and freshening agent for fruits and vegetables .Firstly ,the pathogens isolated and purified and then identified that yeasts and rhizopus were the main pathogens .Secondly ,antibacterial activities of five essential oils (basil oils ,leptospermum scoparium oil ,lavender essential oil ,thymus serpyllum oil ,rosemary oil)for yeasts and rhizopus were determined by filter papers .The result showed that thymus serpyllum oil had effec‐tive inhibition for yeast and rhizopus .The determines of inhibitory zones of them were 22 .43 mm ± 0 .06 mm and 23 .48 mm ± 0 .06 mm .Finally ,the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentra‐tion (MBC) of the five essential oils were determined by diluting tube concentration .The MIC of thymus serpyllum oil for yeast was 0 .625μL/mL ,and the MBC of thymus serpyllum oil for yeast was 1 .25μL /mL .The MIC of thy‐mus serpyllum oil for rhizopus was 0 .625 μL/mL and the MBC of thymus serpyllum oil for rhizopus was 2 .5 μL/mL .%以冬枣为试材,从发病的冬枣上提取出病原菌,并进行分离纯化和鉴定,明确导致冬枣发病的病原菌主要为酵母菌和根霉菌。使用滤纸片法测定5种植物精油(罗勒精油、松红梅精油、薰衣草精油、红百里香精油、迷迭香精油)对酵母菌和根霉菌的抑菌活性,结果表明:红百里香精油对酵母菌和根霉菌都具有很强的抑制作用,抑菌圈直径为(22.43±0.06)mm和(23.48±0.06)mm。另外,采用试管浓度稀释法对5种植物精油的最低抑菌浓度(M IC )和最低杀菌浓度(M BC )进行了测定,得知红百里香精油对酵母菌的M IC值是0.625μL/m L ,M BC值是1.25μL/m L ;对根霉菌的M IC是0.625μL/m L , MBC值是2.5μL/mL。

  2. Diversity of Resistance to Jujube Witches’ Broom Disease Among the Strains of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Junzao%骏枣不同株系间的枣疯病抗性多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖京; 杨艳荣; 赵锦; 刘孟军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Sixteen strains of Z. jujuba Junzao were collected and evaluated, aiming at revealing the diversity of resistance to JWB within cultivar, screening excellent strains with high resistance. [Method]The JWB symptom development and phytoplasma infection were studied through field investigation and PCR analysis. The fruit economical characters, including the rate of water content, fruit weight, fruit shape index, ratio of edibility, sugar content, Vc content and titratable acidity, were comprehensively evaluated among different strains using synthesis-reasonable satisfaction and multivalue theory merging rule. The genetic diversity of Junzao strains were analyzed by AFLP. [Result] Different strains of Junzao showed significant differences in JWB resistance. According to the situations of disease symptom development and phytoplasma infection, the strains were divided into four groups:sensitive, delayed sensitive, delayed resistant and resistant, and 4 strains of Junzao (T15, J2, J5, J8) with very high resistance to JWB were screened out. In the resistant group, the fruit quality of T15, J5 and J8 was also at higher level among the sixteen strains. AFLP analysis showed that there had significant differences in DNA level among different strains of Junzao.[Conclusion] Four strains of Junzao (T15, J2, J5, J8) with very high resistance to JWB were screened out, and three of them (T15, J5 and J8) also have an excellent fruit quality.%[目的]揭示骏枣品种内枣疯病抗性多样性,筛选高抗枣疯病的骏枣株系。[方法]以骏枣的16个株系为试材,通过田间调查和PCR检测,研究不同株系在嫁接侵染枣疯病后的症状表现和病原侵染情况;利用“合成-合理满意度”和多维价值理论的合并原则,对不同株系果实的相对含水率、单果重、可食率、果形指数、Vc含量、可溶性糖和可滴定酸含量等性状指标进行综合评价;采用AFLP技术对不同株系进行基因组遗传多样性分析。[结果]不同株系对枣疯病抗性表现出显著差异,可分为感病型、延迟感病型、延迟抗病型和抗病型4种类型, T15、J2、J5、J8这4个骏枣株系高抗枣疯病,其中,T15、J5和J8的果实综合性状在骏枣株系中亦居于较高水平;进一步的AFLP分析发现,不同抗性类型间在基因组水平上存在一定差异。[结论]筛选出了4个抗枣疯病骏枣株系,其中3个株系果实综合品质良好。

  3. Effect of sodium alginate coating and 60Co-γ irradiation treatment on fresh-keeping of golden silk jujube%海藻酸钠涂膜及60Co-γ辐照处理对小枣的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 徐莹; 樊燕; 汪东风; 孙寿魁

    2012-01-01

    Using golden silk jujube at full-red storage as materials,the effects of different preservation treatments(60Co-γ irradiation,coating with sodium alginate,and 60Co-γ irradiation+coating with sodium alginate,respectively) on the post-harvest fruit quality during cold storage were investigated,and the weight loss rate,total sugar content,reducing sugar content,VC content,and ratio of sugar to acid were determined.The results indicated that 60Co-γ irradiation,coating with sodium alginate and 60Co-γ irradiation+coating with sodium alginate all had an obvious fresh-keeping effect.The result showed that the three treatments reduced water loss,delayed the decrease of VC and titratable acid content,and the increase of sugar to acid ratio,and 60Co-γ irradiation+coating with sodium alginate maintained a relatively high content of total sugar and reducing sugar.Especially,the preservative effect of the 60Co-γ irradiation+coating with sodium alginate treatment was obviously superior to the control group,60Co-γ irradiation or coating with sodium alginate alone,which could obviously improve the quality of post-harvest cold storage of golden silk jujube.%以全红期的山东省乐陵小枣为实验材料,分别进行60Co-γ辐照处理、海藻酸钠涂膜处理及二者结合处理后,与对照组同时于(2±0.5)℃冷库贮藏,并对低温贮藏过程中枣的失重率、总糖、还原糖、VC、可滴定酸含量及糖酸比的变化进行测定。结果表明:涂膜、辐照、涂膜+辐照处理均能有效减少水分散失,延缓VC和可滴定酸的下降,抑制糖酸比的上升,涂膜+辐照处理能保持较高的总糖、还原糖含量。其中,60Co-γ辐照+海藻酸钠涂膜处理于(2±0.5)℃冷库贮藏保鲜效果显著优于其他实验处理组,有助于提高乐陵小枣采后的低温贮藏品质。

  4. 等渗透势干旱、盐、碱胁迫下5个枣品种及酸枣的生物学响应与抗逆性%Biological responses and resistances of five cultivars of Chinese jujube and sour date under iso-osmotic drought, salt and alkaline stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐呈祥

    2012-01-01

    试验研究等渗透势干旱、盐、碱胁迫下枣和酸枣的生物学响应,鉴评它们对这3种主要的非生物胁迫的抗性差异.以2年生金丝小枣等5个枣品种及砧木—酸枣苗为试材,在-0.30 MPa、-1.15 MPa 2种渗透势下,设计干旱胁迫(用PEG-6 000模拟)、盐(NaCl)胁迫、碱(NaHCO3)胁迫3种逆境,以浇灌1/2Hoagland溶液、不加PEG-6000或NaCl或NaHCO3的处理为对照.生物量较生长量更能准确反映枣和酸枣对干旱、盐、碱胁迫的响应,但其中各个指标的响应存在显著差异:在植株生长量诸指标中,株高特别是冠幅的差异性很小,对胁迫种类及强度敏感度低,而枣头枝长度和基部直径对胁迫种类及强度的敏感度明显为高,是以生长量反映对胁迫响应的合适指标;在生物量诸指标中,植株叶生物量、脱落性枝生物量的响应最敏感,其次是全株生物量,茎生物量、根生物量的响应最不敏感, (叶+脱落性枝)生物量/全株生物量的响应与全株生物量的响应相似.以(叶+脱落性枝)生物量、全株生物量及(叶+脱落性枝)生物量/全株生物量3项关键指标综合评价,参试的5个枣品种及酸枣对前述逆境的抗性差异显著.其中:耐旱性最强的是大瓜枣和梨枣,耐盐性最强的是大瓜枣,耐碱性最强的是酸枣和大瓜枣.同时,5个枣品种及酸枣各自对3种逆境的响应也有明显差异:大瓜枣是一个对3种非生物逆境抗性都很优良的枣品种;冬枣既不耐干旱,也不耐盐碱,但相对而言,其耐盐性>抗旱性>耐碱性.枣属植物对干旱、盐、碱胁迫的抗性实际上存在很大差异.枣树引种栽培应重视品种的生理生态特性.枣优良新品种培育应关注亲本品种本身对主要逆境的抗性.%The biological responses of five Chineses jujube cultivars and sour date mainly grown in East China to iso-osmotic drought, salt and alkaline stresses were investigated and the resistant

  5. Effect of 1-MCP on texture properties of fresh fruit in storage shelf period of Zizyphus jujube cv.Zhongqiusucui%1-甲基环丙烯对货架期中秋酥脆枣鲜果质构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 谢碧霞

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene on texture properties of fresh fruit in storage shelf period was investigated by using Zizyphus jujube cv. Zhongqiusucai as materials with the TA-XT2i measured texture. The results show that: ① the effects of treating the jujubes in storge shelf period with 0. 4 μL/L of 1-MCP. With gradient low-temperature and time on hardness, brittleness. Elasticity, adhesion to other indicators reached significant differences; ② 1-MCP treatment of cold Mid-autumn crisp dates in 25 d, the fruit firmness while also showing declining trend has been maintained at more than 15 N; low temperature environment within the Mid-autumn crisp dates in the 15 d, fruit hardness maintained at 15 N above, but with the further extension of shelf life, and its hardness suddenly went down, when at 25 days the hardness closed to the firmness under room temperature; ③ 1 - MCP treatment of cold Mid-autumn crisp dates in 25 d, the crispness of the fruit also showed declining although the trend has been maintained at more than 125 N; low temperature in the Mid-autumn crisp date 15 d, the crispness of the fruit also maintained at 12 N above, but with the further extension of shelf life, when the crispness of the 25 d 10. 445 N, and 25 d, when the fruit at room temperature under conditions of reduced hardness to 4. 788 N; ④Mid-autumn crisp dates with different treatments within 25 d,all had trend to increase flexibility, but the flexibility with 1- MCP and low temperature rose with mintmum range.%为了研究中秋酥脆枣货架最佳维持时间,以中秋酥脆枣果实为试材,用TA-XT2i质构仪测定不同处理对货架期中秋酥脆枣鲜果质构特性的影响.结果表明:①0.4 μL/L的1-MCP低温处理对货架期枣鲜果质构特性中硬度、脆度、弹性、粘合性等指标的影响达到显著差异;②1 MCP低温处理的中秋酥脆枣在25 d内,果实硬度虽然也表现出不断下降态势,却一直维持在15 N以上;低温

  6. 施用氮磷钾对黄土丘陵区山地红枣林土壤酶与土壤肥力的影响%Effects of N,P and K fertilization on soil enzyme activities and soil fertility in mintane Jujube forest of hilly loess region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧杰; 徐福利; 林云; 栾晓波

    2012-01-01

    采用野外试验与室内分析,研究了连续4a施氮磷钾肥对黄土丘陵区山地枣园土壤酶活性及土壤养分含量的影响.结果表明:连续4aNPK1施肥处理能够明显增强土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶和蔗糖酶的活性,提高土壤有机质、全氮、速效氮、速效磷和速效钾含量;在土壤剖面中总的趋势是土壤酶活性和土壤速效氮、速效磷和速效钾含量随土层深度加深而降低,土壤酶活性与土壤养分困子的相关分析表明,在0-20cm土层,磷酸酶与有机质、速效磷,过氧化氢酶与有机质、全氮呈显著或极显著性正相关.在20-40cm.脲酶与有机质、全氮、速效氮,磷酸酶与速效钾.过氧化氢酶与速效磷、蔗糖酶与有机质、速效钾呈显著或极显著性正相关.在40-60cm,脲酶与全氮、速效磷,磷酸酶与有机质、速效氮,过氧化氢酶与速效磷,蔗糖酶与有机质、全氮、速效磷呈显著或极显著正相关.%Soil enzymes play an essential role in catalyzing reactions necessary for decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, involving a range of plants, microorganisms, animals and their debris. Field experiment and laboratory analysis were carried on! to investigate soil enzyme activities and soil fertility affected by successive 4-year N, P, K fertilization in montane jujube forest of hilly loess region. The results showed that successive NPK| fertilization could significantly increase the soil activities of urease, phosphatase, catalase and invertase. Similarly, the contents of organic matter, both total N and available N, P and K were increased. From surface layer to in-depth layer, the soil enzyme activities and the contents of available N, P and K reduced in turn. The relative analysis suggested that there was s significantly positive correlation between soil phoaphaiase activity and the contents of organic matter, available P, Catalan activity and the contents of organic

  7. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  8. 剑麻提取液对台湾青枣采后生理及贮藏效果的影响%Effects of Agave americana Leaf Extracts Treatments on Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk(Taiwan Green Jujube)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁斌; 常金梅; 詹儒林; 吴晓燕

    2015-01-01

    探讨剑麻提取液在台湾青枣果实贮藏保鲜上的作用.以剑麻提取液为材料,浸泡处理台湾青枣采后果实,然后在常温条件下贮藏,研究剑麻提取液处理对台湾青枣果实采后生理及品质的影响.结果表明:剑麻提取液处理可有效降低果实失重率和腐烂率,延缓果实硬度、可溶性固形物含量、维生素C、可滴定酸的下降,保持了果实的品质;同时,剑麻提取液处理还提高了采后贮藏台湾青枣果实POD、CAT活性,减轻了台湾青枣细胞膜脂过氧化程度,从而有效延缓果实的衰老;剑麻提取液在台湾青枣贮藏保鲜上有良好的保鲜效果.

  9. 二倍体和同源四倍体‘辣椒枣’减数分裂的比较%Meiotic Observations of Pollen Mother Cells in Diploid and Autotetraploid Ziziphus jujuba Mill.'Lajiaozao'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴改娥; 刘平; 刘孟军; 刘冠楠

    2011-01-01

    Meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in diploid and autotetraploid ‘ Lajiaozao’ Chinese jujube were observed, and all stages of the meiosis were analyzed. The results showed that the behavior of meiosis in autotetraploid was much more complicated than that in diploid. Compared with meiosis in diploid, the behavior of meiosis in autotetraploid was much more complicated. Diakinesis, univalents,bivalents, trivalents and quadrivalents appeared in autotetraploid ‘Lajiaozao’, while two nuclei, including a large one and a small one, were observed. Some of the chromosomes were found not being arranged on equatorial plate at metaphase Ⅰ and metaphase Ⅱ followed by lagged chromosomes and chromosome bridges appeared at anaphase Ⅰ and anaphase Ⅱ in the autotetraploid. At tetrad stage, dyads, triads with micronucleus, tetrads with micronucleus appeared. In conclusion, abnormal meiosis of PMCs is the cytogenetic reason for fertility reduction in autotetraploid ‘Lajiaozao’%观察了‘辣椒枣’(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.‘Lajiaozao’)二倍体和四倍体花粉母细胞的减数分裂过程,并将其减数分裂的各个时期加以系统分析.结果表明,与二倍体相比,同源四倍体终变期染色体构型复杂,有单价体、二价体、三价体和四价体出现,并且此时期出现双核仁,且核仁一大一小;中期Ⅰ和中期Ⅱ有部分染色体游离于赤道板外:后期Ⅰ和后期Ⅱ出现落后染色体及染色体桥现象;四分体时期还出现了二分体、含微核的异常三分体和含微核的异常四分体;减数分裂行为异常是同源四倍体‘辣椒枣'育性降低的细胞学原因.

  10. 枣结果枝cDNA文库的构建与部分ESTs分析%Construction and Partial ESTs Analysis of a cDNA Library for Fruit-bearing Shoot in Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玉平; 曹秋芬; 孙海峰; 周慧; 张春芬

    2009-01-01

    By using directional cloning, a cDNA Library in the fruit-bearing shoot of Ziziphus jujuba Mill during the early stages of flower bud differentiation was constructed. In 1 388 positive clones, 557 cDNA inserts were obtained. 469 cDNA inserts, length over 500 bp, were selected and sequenced, 390 useful inserts were obtained at last. In these useful sequences,281 ESTs (among them there were 101 repetitive ESTs) were higher similarity with the known genes of CNBI, and 68 ESTs were unknown protein that its sequence had published, another 41 ESTs were unknown sequence (new gene) . The known genes were classified by the classification way of arabidopsis thaliana genes, the result indicated that there were the basal metabolism gene 46 genes,the protein synthesis and transfer gene including 27 genes,the photosyn-thesis gene including 24 genes, the cytoarchitecture gene including 22 genes, the signal transduction gene including 19 genes,the auxesis gene including 19 genes,the resistance adversity gene including 11 genes,the flower development gene including 6 genes, the membrane traffic gene including 4 genes, and the metal transfer gene including 2 genes. The ex-pression of some genes may be relation to the properties of jujube trees's high resistance to the adverse environment, for example,cold resistance,drought resistance,barrenness tolerance and heavy metal tolerance.%用定向克隆法构建了枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill)生长初期结果枝的部分cDNA文库,获得1 338个阳性克隆,有557个携带cDNA片段,选取469个长度在500 bp以上的进行测序,得到390个有用序列,其中281个ESTs与NCBI中已知功能基因相似性较高(其中重复性ESTs 101个),有68个ESTs是NCBI中有序列注释的未知蛋白,有41个ESTs是NCBI中没有的未知序列(新基因).将已知基因进行功能分类,其中包含有参与基础代谢的基因46个,蛋白质合成与转运基因27个,光合作用基因24个,细胞结构基因22个,信号转导基因19

  11. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available component: Zizyphus saponin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese m...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06758 Jujub...e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Crude drugs

  12. Current Development Situations of Ziziphus Jujuba Industry in South Xinjiang and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwen; JIN; Xuedong; YAO; Chengjiang; LIU; Hai; LIN; Zheng; LOU; Zhenjiang; GAO

    2015-01-01

    Through surveying current development situations and existing problems of planting and processing of Ziziphus jujuba in south Xinjiang,this paper discussed planting,processing mode of Ziziphus Jujuba in south Xinjiang and development direction of enterprises in Ziziphus Jujuba production. It is expected to ensure and increase quality and sales volume of Ziziphus Jujuba and promote sound and sustainable development of Ziziphus Jujuba industrial chain in south Xinjiang.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.and Z.spinosa (Bunge) Hu%利用组织培养技术研究枣和酸枣耐盐性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐呈祥; 马艳萍; 尚旭岚; 徐锡增

    2011-01-01

    以“金丝小枣”、“泗洪大枣”和酸枣枣头枝为试材,研究了基本培养基含NaCl 0、25、75mmol/L对它们初代培养、继代培养、生根培养效果的影响及多代转接培养后的耐盐性变化.结果表明,培养基中NaCl含量为25 mmol/L对3种试材微茎段组培繁殖效果影响甚微,但NaCl含量达75 mmol/L则产生显著抑制作用;抑制作用的主要表现在不同培养阶段有所不同,总体上对根系生长发育的影响大于对地上部分的影响;无论在何种培养阶段,3种试材的耐盐性均为酸枣>金丝小枣>泗洪大枣;盐胁迫下随培养代数增多,3种试材的耐盐性均表现出增强趋势,耐盐性提升幅度枣大于酸枣,耐盐性弱的泗洪大枣的提升幅度大于耐盐性强的金丝小枣.%Developing shoot segments of two famous cultivars of Chinese date, 'Jinsixiaozao' and 'Si-hongdazao', and sour date were used for in vitro investigation of the responses of Chinese date Ziz-iphus jujuba MilL and sour date Z. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu to salt stress and the influences of multi-generations of subcultures under salt stress on their salt tolerance. The basic media (MS medium) were added with NaCl at concentrations of 0, 25,75 mmol/L and used in primary cultures, sub-cultures and rooting cultures. The results indicated that the addition of 25 mmol/L of NaCl did not show significant effects on in vitro propagation of the three species, but 75 mmol/L NaCl exerted significant growth inhibitory effects which varied with the in vitro propagation stages. In general, root development was more significantly affected by salt than that of the upper parts. It was shown that the salt tolerance of the three materials in all stages of culture was as follows: sour date>' Jinsixiaozao' >'Sihongdazao'. In addition, the salt tolerance of the three materials tended to increase with more generations of sub-culture under salt-stress, and the increase was higher in Chinese date than in sour

  14. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage of MDS in automatic irrigation scheduling compared with ... Based on the MDS signal threshold values, the Ψsoil without irrigation-related stress was in ... Vegetative growth was reduced, but individual fruit weight increased and ...

  15. Study on the Fruits Disease Fungus of Ziziphus jujuba cv.Jinsixiaozao%金丝小枣果实病害病原菌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立震; 康绍兰; 刘春琴; 孙玉英; 黄素芳; 刘惠珍

    2004-01-01

    According to study for years, fruits disease of Jinsixiaozao was divided into three types, which were thick rotten, dark furuncle and brown rind. Different symptom had different pathogenic fungus. The main pathogenic fungus of thick rotten type of jujube was Physalospora obtuse (Schw.) Cooke, and the isolated rate in the thick rotten disease fruits was 94.6% . The main pathogenic fungus of dark furuncle type was Ahernaria ahernata (Fr.) Keissler, and the isolated rate in the dark furuncle fruits was 75.7% .The main pathogenic fungus of the brown rind type was Phoma destructiva Plowr and A. alternata(Fr.)Keissler.The isolated rate in the brown rind type was 33.2% and 25.5% seperately. The mixed isolated rate was 19.1%. According to this, three types of the fruits disease of Jinsixiaozao were named as thick rotten disease, dark furuncle and brown rind disease.

  16. AcEST: DK954979 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 2e-66 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Zizip... 255 2e-66 tr|A9T8M3|A9T8M3_PHYPA...ECGAGTFMANHFDRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujub

  17. 抗枣疯病枣树品种的DAPI荧光染色检测%Detection of resistent varieties of jujube trees to jujube witches-broom disease with DAPI fluorescence staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓军; 田国忠; 赵少波; 李树卿

    2003-01-01

    该文通过嫁接枣疯病病皮和病枝传病的方法,对抗病材料婆枣(JL)和壶瓶枣(Hu)共10棵单株,结合感病酸枣(Suan)品种的健枝和疯枝作对照,应用DAPI染色技术对抗病材料体内植原体的侵染情况进行了荧光观察,结果表明:抗病植株体内已感染了植原体病原,说明应用嫁接方法进行枣疯病病原接种是可行的,但其却不表现丛枝症状,证明了抗病材料具有一定的抗病性;同时,抗病材料中发现的金黄色自发荧光,也为其抗病物质的寻找和抗病机理的研究提供了重要线索.

  18. Two new terpenoids from fruits of Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Guo; Yu Ping Tang; Jin Ao Duan; Shu Lan Su; An Wei Ding

    2009-01-01

    One new ceanothane-type triterpene and one new sesquiterpene,together with two known triterpenes were isolated from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.(Rhamnaceae).Based on the spectral analyses,the structures of two new compounds were elucidated as 2α-aldehydo-A(1)-nodup-20(29)-en-27,28-dioic acid(zizyberanal acid)(1),and zizyberanone(2).While the two knowntriterpenes were identified as zizyberanalic acid(3)and ursolic acid(4).

  19. Study on Jujube Kvass Fermentation Process%红枣格瓦斯发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹源; 史秋兰

    2014-01-01

    [目的]优化红枣格瓦斯生产发酵工艺.[方法]试验以热风干制的骏枣为原料,以热浸提法和酶解浸提法进行枣汁的提取,并研究了酵母接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间对枣酒品质的影响,以枣酒中的可溶性固形物含量、酒精度、感官质量为评价指标,确定枣酒酿造的最佳工艺.[结果]通过对比得出热浸提法制得的枣汁品质优于酶解法制得的枣汁,并且其最优工艺为浸提时间2.0h,浸提温度60℃,料水比1∶6 g/ml.确定了枣酒酿造的最佳工艺为酵母接种量0.2%,发酵温度26℃,发酵时间6d.通过感官评价初步探索了红枣酒调配红枣格瓦斯的最佳配比为蜂蜜添加量为4%,由此得出最佳口感的红枣格瓦斯.[结论]研究可为红枣等外资源的利用开辟新的途径,同时可为红枣格瓦斯的生产提供参考依据.

  20. Jujube dry apricot compound beverage development%红枣杏干复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜海燕; 田洪磊; 李伟朝; 詹萍

    2009-01-01

    以红枣、杏干为原料,用正交实验设计,主要研究了枣汁、杏汁浸提的最佳工艺条件和最佳澄清条件以及最佳复合饮料配方.结果表明,干枣和水用量比为1∶8,浸提温度80℃,浸提时间100 min;杏干和水用量比为1∶10,浸提温度40 ℃,浸提时间100 min.最佳澄清条件为:在温度45℃下,枣汁加入浓度为0.005%的果胶酶,杏汁加入浓度为0.002%的果胶酶,澄清时问为2.5 h.复合饮料最佳配方为杏汁:枣汁(v/v)为1∶1.5,蔗糖7%,柠檬酸0.1%.

  1. The Technology of Producing and Processing Health Jujube Juice%保健枣汁生产加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫长见

    2004-01-01

    @@ 保健枣汁是选用红枣加配枸杞、蜂蜜制成.由于枣能补脾胃、枸杞子能补肝肾、蜂蜜含有维生素和人体所需的多种微量元素,三者结合,更增强了补虚扶正、滋补肝肾、调解代谢的作用.下面介绍其生产技术:

  2. Quantification of total phenols, flavonoides and tannins from Ziziphus jujuba (mill. and Ziziphus lotus (l. (Desf. Leaf extracts and their effects on antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Elaloui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed to determine the biochemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts collected from four different provenances: Mahdia and Mahres (Ziziphus jujuba; Kairouan and Rouhia (Ziziphus lotus. Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals methods, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and klebsiella pneumoniea and three fungal strains (Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium solani and Botrytis cinerea, according to well Agar diffusion method. Total phenols and flavonoids were present at levels of 21.98 mg GAE /g DW and 7.80 mg ER/g DW; respectively in Ziziphus lotus. These levels did not exceeded 13.70 mg GAE /g DW and 6.73 mg ER/g DW for Ziziphus jujuba. The tannin contents were present in equal levels (7.9 mg EC/g DW in two species. The high antioxidant activity (0.01 µg/ml was noted in Rouhia provenance. The Ziziphus lotus leaf extracts showed promising efficiency against all tested microorganisms with a zone of inhibition ranging between 22 and 23.5 mm. This study could validate the medicinal potential of Ziziphus specie and explain why tunisian people traditionally use it in medicine to treat several pathologies. Ziziphus leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts proved also to be effective against tested microorganisms. So, an adequate toxicological study must be carried out to verify the possibility of using these plants for fighting microorganisms.

  3. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a

  4. Water Retaining Capacity of Different Forest Stands%不同林分的保水能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵若楠; 刘秀萍; 张万军; 赵昕

    2014-01-01

    The water conservation function of canopy water volume,litter water volume,soil water storage and soil infiltration capacity of economic forest and ecological forest of the hilly area in Taihang Mountains was studied to provide the scientific basis for vegetation construction and eco-environment sustainable development of the hilly area in Taihang Mountains.The canopy water volume of ecological forest composed with arbors-shrub-grass and shrub-grass is higher than Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujube obviously,and the canopy water volume of grassland is the minimum.The litter storage capacity, water saturated absorption and water absorbing capacity of forests composed with arbors-shrub-grass and shrub-grass are higher than Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujube significantly. The order of soil saturated water storage capacity and maximum soil capillary water capacity is grassland >Vitex negundo var.heterophylla >Leptodermis oblonga >Robinia pseudoacacia >Punica granatum > Ziziphus jujube . The soil infiltration rate of different stands is Leptodermis oblonga > Vitex negundo var.heterophylla >Punica granatum > Ziziphus jujube .%为给太行山低山丘陵区植被建设和生态环境可持续发展提供科学依据,对太行山低山丘陵区经济林和生态林冠层水容量、枯落物水容量、土壤贮水量和土壤入渗能力等涵养水源功能进行了研究。结果表明:乔灌草、灌草相结合的生态林冠层水容量明显大于石榴、枣树,草地最低,乔灌草、灌草结合的林地枯落物贮存量、饱和吸水率和饱和吸水量明显高于石榴和枣树经济林,土壤饱和贮水量和毛管最大贮水量排序为草地>荆条灌丛>薄皮木灌丛>刺槐林>石榴林>枣树林,不同林分的土壤入渗速率依次为薄皮木灌丛>荆条灌丛>枣树林>石榴林。

  5. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  6. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Abedini, Mohammad Reza; Mitra, Moodi; Fard, Mohammad Hassanpour; Beydokhti, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba) is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin) and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers, including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients.

  7. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers,  including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients.

  8. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment

  9. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnair

  10. Processing technology of Kvass yoghurt added jujube and Chinese wolfberry%麦芽糖化汁用于格瓦斯枣杞酸奶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵虎; 顾瑞霞

    2016-01-01

    以大麦、红枣、枸杞等为主要原料,经过两段混菌发酵工艺进行格瓦斯酸奶的研制.通过单因素、正交实验和Box-Behnken设计法及响应面分析分别对麦芽糖化工艺参数和产品配方进行了优化.结果表明:麦芽汁糖化时投料温度为39℃、蛋白质分解时间28 min、糖化温度64℃,糖化时间为60 min.产品配方为:混合汁添加量为21%(均为质量分数,下同),奶粉10%,白砂糖5%,复配稳定剂0.24%,接入4%(体积分数)的嗜热链球菌、乳酸乳球菌乳脂亚种和啤酒酵母,在一段温度为28℃,发酵6h,二段温度为37℃,发酵12h,所制成的成品呈浅黄色,醇香柔和,麦香浓郁,质地紧密,口感细滑,是一种风味较佳的发酵乳制品.

  11. The technology optimization in acetic acid fermentation of jujube vinegar%枣醋醋酸发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑战伟; 王静; 陈菁; 张宝善; 祁春燕

    2011-01-01

    文章在前人研究用表面静止法发酵酿制枣醋的基础上,进一步研究探讨了四个单因素对其醋酸发酵产酸含量的影响,得出结论:醋酸发酵温度为35℃,添加含量为6.67%酸度为2.4 g/dL的猕猴桃醪液,膜面积与醪液体积比为0.2 cm2 /mL,调整进入醋酸发酵时酒精度至9%,同时通过正交试验对其进行优化设计,得出最优组合.

  12. Technology of acetic acid fermentation for golden silk jujube vinegar%金丝枣醋醋酸发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟建楼; 王颉; 郭雪霞; 刘一健; 侯亚薇

    2010-01-01

    以残次金丝小枣为原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了枣醋静置醋酸发酵的适宜工艺参数.结果表明:醋酸发酵最佳条件为:温度28 ℃,接种量7%,初始pH值4.0,发酵20 d,枣醋醋酸含量为4.83 g/dL.

  13. Techniques for industrial production of micropropagated shoots of ‘Pingguozao'jujube%苹果枣试管苗工厂化生产技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆义; 许纪龙; 杜元军; 武玉玲; 刘兆伟

    2002-01-01

    采用MS+6-BA 4mg/L+KT 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.05mg/L作为增殖培养基,1/2MS+IBA 1mg/L+IAA 1mg/L作为生根培养基,组培快繁"苹果枣"试管苗,经过快繁、驯化、温室移栽培壮、大田培育4个环节,可实现周年性生产.

  14. 酸枣的组织培养与快繁%Tissue culture and rapid micropropagation in sour jujube(Zizyphus spinosus Hu.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 刘庆忠; 赵红军

    2001-01-01

    用酸枣种仁在MS 0培养基上培养无菌苗,然后接种在增殖培养基上增殖,再转接在生根培养基上生根.结果表明,适宜酸枣无菌苗高效增殖的培养基为MS+BA 1mg/L+IBA 0.2mg/L+蔗糖3%,在1/2MS+IBA 1.0mg/L+蔗糖2%生根培养基上暗培养10天,再转光下培养,无菌苗生根率为74.4%.

  15. 河北大枣总黄酮的提取工艺%Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Hebei Jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀红; 田文轩; 张慧姣; 闫峰; 高文玲; 黎梅

    2014-01-01

    采用超声波提取法、常温浸泡法、水浴加热法和微波提取法四种方法提取大枣的总黄酮。探讨大枣总黄酮的最佳提取工艺。大枣的总黄酮含量采用紫外分光光度法检测。用超声波提取法,在温度为50℃时提取的总黄酮含量最高,为2.176 mg/g;微波提取(90 s)次之,为1.144 mg/g;70℃水浴加热的提取率为0.8230 mg/g;常温浸取含量最低,为0.4713 mg/g。结果表明超声波辅助是提取大枣总黄酮的有效方法。%In this paper, total flavonoids was obtained from fructus jujubae with the ultrasound-assisted extraction, the normal temperature immersion method, the water bath heating and the microwave extraction process respectively. The optimal extraction technology was investigated with UV-Vis.detection. The yield of total flavonoids by ultrasound (50℃), microwave, the normal temperature immersion method and hot water bath (70℃) was 2.176 mg/g, 1.144 mg/g, 0.823 0 mg/g and 0.471 3 mg/g, respectively. The results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of total flavonoids from fructus jujubae.

  16. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of A pis dorsata, A pis mellifera and Z iziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira Fahim

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission. Evaluation of these honey samples confirms antimicrobial potential of particular types of honeys indigenous to Pakistan.

  17. Preliminary Study on Fresh-Keeping of Chinese Date(Jujube Mill)Lizao%梨枣贮藏保鲜试验研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨复康; 贺立恒; 黄军保; 崔克强

    2002-01-01

    以梨枣为试材,采用不同药剂进行处理,贮存于0~-1℃条件下保鲜.结果表明:加入鲜果重2.0%的CO2吸收剂及2.0%CaCl2+20mg/LBA+2.0%9018防腐保鲜剂能有效延长梨枣鲜脆期.

  18. 红枣醋醋酸发酵工艺条件的优化%Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Jujube Vinegar Aceticgopeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红霞; 汪长钢; 邱芳萍; 黄彦芳; 王建; 石莉娜

    2011-01-01

    Using Beijing "lang homeland" dates for fermentation,by modern technology to brew vinegar.Firstly the fermentation means to undertake choosing,fermentation wave bed fermentation resulting in quiet place fermentation.According to wave bed fermentation process of acetic acid,acetic acid bacteria wave bed speed of inoculation quantity,fermentation temperature and initial alcohol content of fermentation results have influence,the single factor experiment and the response surface method optimization,looking for the optimum technological conditions of fermentation software matlab,through the analysis of the data,this paper concluded that the best conditions for: initial alcohol content 6%,inoculation quantity of 5%,speed of wave bed 160 r/min,fermentation temperature and 32 ℃.%以北京"郎家园"枣为原料,结合现代发酵技术进行酿醋。首先对发酵方式进行选择,试验发现摇床发酵结果好于静置发酵。针对摇床发酵过程中摇床的转速、醋酸菌的接种量、发酵温度和初始酒精含量对发酵结果有影响,故采用单因素试验和响应面试验,寻找发酵最佳工艺条件,通过matlab软件对数据进行分析,研究得出最佳条件为:初始酒精含量6%、接种量5%、摇床转速160 r/min、发酵温度32℃。

  19. Henan Jujube Fruit Shrink Disease and Trace Element Relationship Research%河南省枣缩果病与微量元素关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊青; 宋宏伟; 卢绍辉; 袁国军; 梅象信

    2012-01-01

    从新郑和濮阳采集了枣树的叶片与果实,进行微量元素与缩果病的关系分析,得出:病叶钾、锌、镁含量低于健康叶;病叶中的锰明显高于健康叶;铁含量在病叶和病果中均高于健康叶和健康果并且在健康果中没有检测到铁.而病果中铁的含量达到19.1mg/kg;铜在病果中为1.2mg/kg,而在健康果中含量为0mg/kg。%this paper collected blade and fnfit of trace elements and the relationship between the fruit shrink disease, it is concluded that: disease leaf potassium, zinc, magnesium content was lower than health leaf; Disease leaf of manganese is obviously higher than that of the health leaf; Iron content in disease leaves and disease fruit were higher than in the leaf and fruit in health and health fruit did not detect iron, and disease fruit iron content, of 19.1 mg/kg; Copper in disease in the fruit is 1.2 mg/kg, and in the fruit of content is 0 mg/kg.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Determination of Isosteric Heats of Sorption of Ziziphus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption and adsorption equilibrium moisture isotherms of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were determined using the gravimetric-static method at 30, 40, and 50°C for water activity (aw ranging from 0.057 to 0.898. At a given aw, the results show that the moisture content decreases with increasing temperature. A hysteresis effect was observed. The experimental data of sorption were fitted by eight models (GAB, BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified-Chung Pfost, Halsey, Oswin, Peleg, and Adam and Shove. After evaluating the models according to several criteria, the Peleg and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves were calculated by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the sorption isotherms and an expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties was given.

  1. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SHAMPOO FROM ZIZIPHUS SPINA LEAVES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Heyam Saad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic preservatives and detergents have sometimes been the cause of adverse effects among consumers. A more radical approach in reducing the synthetic ingredients is by incorporating natural extract whose functionality is comparable with their synthetic ingredients. Selection of Ziziphus spina cristi (Z. spina cristi leaves extract was based on its particular properties such as antimicrobial and detergent activities. This study aimed to formulate a self preserving shampoo having low concentration of the detergent using Ziziphus spina cristi leaves with emphasis on safety and efficacy; will avoid the risk posed by chemical ingredients. Formulation of three investigated shampoos was prepared containing different amounts of Ziziphus spina cristi extract and sodium laureth sulfate as a surfactant. Evaluation of organoleptic, physicochemical and performance tests were performed and compared with herbal marketed product (Cedr shampoo®, Sehat Company, Iran. The results indicated that F2 and F3 produced clear shampoos and their averaged pH values were in the range of 5.59-6.25 which were suitable to retain the acidic mantle of scalp. They provided stable foam, surface tension reduction, good cleaning and wetting effect and have pseudo plastic rheological behavior. Moreover, the aesthetic attributes, such as lather and clarity were comparable with the marketed shampoos. The foam volume was on a par and formulas showed higher detergency and foaming effects than the commercial herbal one (p< 0.05. Moreover they can be considered safe to children since less chemical contents were used and no side effects observed after application.

  2. Evaluation of wound-healing effect of Ziziphus mauritiana L. leaf extract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphus mauritiana L. leaves are used traditionally for burns, wounds, inflamed parts, hypertension and as a diuretic. Objective: To evaluate the wound-healing property of ethanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana L. leaf (EEZM on rats using excision, incision and dead space wound models. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats (150 − 200 gm were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I (control animals received no treatment, group II animals were given EEZM 300 mg/kg orally, group III animals were applied EEZM gel, 100 mg/cm 2 and group IV animals were applied Framycetin skin cream, 100 mg/cm 2 topically. In incision and dead space wound models, the treatment was given for 10 days only from the day of wound, skin-breaking strength and dry granulation tissue weight were estimated in incision wound model. Hydroxyproline content was estimated in dead space wound model. In excision wound model, treatment continued till the complete healing of the wound. Rate of wound contraction and period of epithelisation was evaluated thereafter. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnett′s test. P <0.05 is considered significant. Results: EEZM increased the rate of wound contraction, decreased period of epithelisation, increased skin-breaking strength and dry granulation tissue weight, elevated hydroxyproline content. Conclusion: Ziziphus mauritiana possesses wound healing activity.

  3. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  4. Drug: D06734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available buckthorn family) Jujube seed Major component: Zizybeoside [CPD:C17564 C17565] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06734 Jujube seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) D06734 Jujube seed PubChem: 47208385 ...

  5. 不同种植年限对枣园土壤理化性质的影响——以新疆麦盖提县红枣园为例%Effects of Different Planting Time on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Jujube Garden——Markit County Jujube Garden as an Example in Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立; 孙霞; 杨晶晶; 周鹏; 王琛; 马莉

    2015-01-01

    通过比较新疆南部不同种植年限枣园土壤的理化性质,分析了不同种植年限枣园土壤质量的变化,以及研究区土壤理化性质在不同土层分布上的变化,以期对该地区土壤管理及枣业可持续发展提供理论依据.测定项目包括土壤有机质、土壤含水量、pH值、碱解氮含量、速效磷、速效钾.结果发现,随着种植年限的增加,枣园土壤有机质和速效磷含量呈逐年累积趋势,速效磷含量是3年<5年<10年<15年,有机质含量是3年<5年<15年<10年;而碱解氮含量呈逐年下降的趋势.研究区土壤碱解氮含量在11.26~28.16 mg`kg-1之间,且平均值是22.10 mg`kg-1.总体上看研究区土壤碱解氮含量处于缺乏状态,建议枣农合理地多施加氮肥.枣树种植时间的长短对土壤理化性质影响程度不同,总体表现是枣树种植时间越长,对土壤理化性质影响越大.

  6. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tawanda Zininga; Chinedu P Anokwuru; Muendi T Sigidi; Milingoni P Tshisikhawe; Isaiah I D Ramaite; Afsatou N Traore; Heinrich Hoppe; Addmore Shonhai; Natasha Potgieter

    2017-01-01

    .... In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated...

  7. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  8. Antinociceptive, Anti-inflammatory Effects and Safety of Ziziphus mistol Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reynoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mistol Griseb. (Rhamnaceae, popularly known as “mistol,” is widely distributed throughout Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Its fruit is consumed in different forms in several argentinean communities and used against biliary colic, dysentery, cold stomach and diseases of the respiratory system characterized by pain and inflammation. The present study was carried out to investigate the medicinal properties and safety of Ziziphus mistol (mistol fruits ethanol and aqueous extracts and arrope. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the formalin, acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick tests in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined through carrageenan induced edema test and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation, in rats. The safety was evaluated with test of acute toxicity (48 hours and sub-chronic toxicity (91 days. All extracts (1,000 mg/kg b.w. showed significant inhibition (P <0.05 in the three model of pain experimentally induced in comparison to control. In a combination test using naloxone, diminished analgesic activity of aqueous extract and arrope were observed, indicating that their antinociceptive activity is connected with the opioid receptors. At dose 1000 mg/kg bw, the aqueous extract and arrope showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than the ethanol extract, in carrageenan and cotton pellet granuloma model used. In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 4000 and 8000 mg/kg b.w., produced no mortality and no clinical signs of disease were observed after 48 hours. In the sub-chronic toxicity study the extracts no caused significant visible signs of toxicity, nor mortality for 91 consecutive days of treatment. Extracts and arrope of Z. mistol fruits could be good source of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents because of its good activity and safety.

  9. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey; Nitika Goel

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quant...

  10. Atividade alelopática de extratos de diferentes partes de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathic activity of different parts of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de cascas e de folhas juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambos foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. No primeiro foram realizadas quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos (EF - extrato de folhas a 100 ºC, EF - extrato de folhas a 25 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 100 ºC, EC - extrato de cascas a 25 ºC, e água destilada. No segundo foram realizados cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto e quatro repetições com 20 sementes de alface. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a agitação das cascas e das folhas com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50 g de material para 500 ml de água. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. Os extratos brutos e diluídos de Z. joazeiro não afetaram a germinação, mas nas maiores concentrações causaram elevada porcentagem de plântulas anormais e o extrato de folhas e de cascas extraído a 100 ºC reduziram o crescimento da raiz e parte aérea. Extratos aquosos de cascas e de folhas de Z. juazeiro apresentam efeito fitotóxico na germinação de sementes de L. sativa.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts from Ziziphus joazeiro bark and leaves on the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Two experiments were conducted, which both used a randomized design. The first four replicates were the following treatments (EF-extract of leaves at 100ºC, EF-extract of leaves at 25ºC, EC-extract of bark at 100ºC, EC-extract of bark at 25ºC, and distilled water. The next five treatments used 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations of the crude extract and four replicates of 20 seeds. The crude extract was obtained after the bark and leaves were blended with water (50 g of material for 500 ml of water. The results showed that the effect of the extract

  11. Macropropagation and micropropagation of Ziziphus spina-christi Macropropagação e micropropagação de Ziziphus spina-christi

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    Mohammad Hassan Assareh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Christ's thorn (Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Desf. is a cross-pollinated plant with a wide range of genetic variability in nature and, for this reason, vegetative propagation assumes importance for improvement programs. The objective of this work was to evaluate cutting, T budding and tissue culture methods for this species. Shoots of 22-25 cm length were treated by two culture media and three shoot diameters for cutting trial. The T budding treatments consisted of three and five collection dates in spring and autumn, respectively. Tissue culture nodal segments bearing axillary buds were removed from shoots of mature trees at different seasons. Experiments to determine the best disinfectant chemical, appropriate conditions and materials to prevent phenolic compound exudation, explant characteristics, media type and cytokinin-auxin ratios were carried out. Successful rooting happened only on the sand beds and with cuttings greater than 8 mm diameter. The effects of T budding seasons on budtake percentage were significantly different. The best time for explant harvesting was mid of summer. Amount of rooting on media containing IBA as well as activated charcoal and disinfection with Ca(OCl2 at concentration of 5% for 20 minutes were the best treatments.Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Desf. é uma planta de polinização cruzada com grande variabilidade genética na natureza e, por isso, sua propagação vegetativa assume importância para o melhoramento genético. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os métodos de estaquia, borbulhia em T e cultura de tecido na propagação vegetativa desta espécie. No ensaio de estaquia, partes aéreas da planta com 22-25 cm foram cultivadas em dois meios de cultura e com três diâmetros. O ensaio de borbulhia consistiu na coleta do material em três datas na primavera e em cinco datas no outono. Os segmentos nodais contendo gemas axilares foram removidos da parte aérea de árvores maduras, em diferentes esta

  12. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and mineral nutrition of greenhouse propagated fruit trees from diverse geographic provenances

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    Guissou, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are known to promote plant growth by enhancing mineral uptake in nutrient deficient soils. These beneficial effects on plant growth may vary considerably between cultivars of a given species and between plant species originating from different locations. Objectives. The present experiment evaluated the response of three Sahelian fruit trees: néré (Parkia biglobosa [Jacq.] G.Don, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., and jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam., originating from five different geographic provenances, to mycorrhizal colonization, evaluate their respective mycorrhizal dependency (MD and analyze their leaf and stem mineral composition. Method. Trees were cultivated in a nursery on pre-sterilized soil substrate low in available P (2.18 μg·g-1 with or without inoculum of Glomus aggregatum (Schenck & Smith emend. Koske. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design for each fruit tree species separately: 5 provenances x 2 AM treatments (inoculated and non-inoculated [control] with 10 replicates per treatment. Plants were harvested six months after inoculation and different parameters were measured. Results. Overall, the results showed significant provenance variations in the plant response to mycorrhizal inoculation. Néré mycorrhizal plants, from two seed sources, tamarind and jujube plants from one seed source had significant higher dry weight and shoot height than those from other provenances. Jujube plants from 3 out of the 5 provenances showed significant higher MD. It then appears that seed provenance happened to be determinant even though AM-root colonization levels (80-90% do not vary much from one provenance to another. In all cases, the fruit trees benefited from AM fungi with increased N, P and K mineral uptake in aerial parts. In particular P uptake was proportional to MD concentration in AM-jujube plants. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the importance of

  13. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Ziziphus nummularia Leaves Aqueous Extract and Their Biological Activities

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    Farhat Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles of Ziziphus nummularia leaves extract were synthesized and were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, SEM, TGA, and EDX. The XRD pattern reveals the FCC structure of Ag nanoparticles. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Ag-O bonding. UV-Visible spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ag because of the particular peak in the region of 400–430. The SEM analysis confirmed spherical and uniform Ag nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 30 nm to 85 nm. The EDX analysis revealed strong signals in the silver region and confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The antioxidant potential and antifungal and antimicrobial potential of the leaf extract and silver nanoparticles were also determined. The antioxidant property was determined using DPPH assay. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties were better for the silver nanoparticles than the aqueous leaf extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal (MBC, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of plant extract and prepared silver nanoparticles were also tested. The hair growth properties of plant extracts and their respective nanoparticles were observed and good results were noted for nanoparticles as compared to the leaf extract.

  14. Biogenic synthesis of multi-applicative silver nanoparticles by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract

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    Gavade, N. L.; Kadam, A. N.; Suwarnkar, M. B.; Ghodake, V. P.; Garadkar, K. M.

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we are reporting for the first time one step biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature by using Ziziphus Jujuba leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The process of nanoparticles preparation is green, rapid, environmentally benign and cost effective. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by means of UV-Vis., XRD, FT-IR, TEM, DLS and Zeta potential. The absorption band centered at λmax 434 nm in UV-Vis. reflects surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. XRD analysis revealed, that biosynthesized AgNPs are crystalline in nature with the face centered cubic structure. FT-IR analysis indicates that nanoparticles were capped with the leaf extract. TEM images shows the synthesized nanoparticles are having different shapes with 20-30 nm size. The data obtained from DLS that support the hydrodynamic size of 28 nm. Zeta potential of -26.4 mV indicates that the nanoparticles were highly stable in colloidal state. The effect of pH, quantity of leaf extract and concentrations of AgNO3 were also studied to attend control over the particle size and stability. The synthesized AgNPs shows highly efficient catalytic activity towards the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Methylene Blue (MB) for environmental protection. Synthesized AgNPs also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli.

  15. METHODS FOR OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY AND THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. IN DIFFERENT SOILS

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    JOSENARA DAIANE DE SOUZA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential and importance of biodiversity of the Caatinga biome, studies on endemic species are relevant to conservation of its natural resources. The objectives of this work was to evaluate seed viability and physical methods for overcoming seed dormancy in juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. and assess the influence of different types of soil on the initial growth of juazeiro plants. The experiments were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the viability of seeds from different lots was evaluated using the tetrazolium test. The second stage was conducted in a plant nursery, evaluating the application of physical processes (scarification with sandpaper and hammer in overcoming seed dormancy, and the initial growth of the plants. In the third step, the chlorophyll a and b contents, gas exchange and dry matter accumulation were evaluated in young juazeiro plants in three types of soil (Oxisol, Entisol and Vertisol. The results indicate that the viability of juazeiro seeds is greatly influenced by differences between the progenitor plants and by storage conditions, which enable a longevity of two years when stored at 22°C and 16% of relative humidity. The scarification methods with sandpaper and hammer are not efficient to reduce the time and uniform seed germination. The juazeiro plants have high growth potential in different edaphic environments, adapting well to soils of different textures and chemical compositions.

  16. Plant Regeneration of Ziziphus spina-christi by in vivo and in vitro Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H.ASSAREH; H.SARDABI; F.SABBAGHZADEH

    2005-01-01

    Christ's thorn (Ziziphus spina-christi L. Desf.) is ecologically and economically important in Iran. Since it is a crosspollinated plant with a wide range of genetic variability, an investigation was carried out to determine the best method for mass and clonal propagation. Three vegetative methods were examined, including 1) cutting, where shoots with a 22-25 cm length and three shoot diameters were treated with two culture media; 2) layering, where air layering and trench layering treatments consisted of three growth regulators at three levels of concentration; and 3) tissue culture with nodal segments bearing axillary buds that were removed from shoots of mature trees at different seasons. Several experiments were carried out to determine the best disinfectant chemical, the best culture method, the best season, the appropriate explant characteristics and media type. Rooting was successful only on the sandy beds for cuttings with more than 8.0 mm diameter. For the trench layering method, only one specimen in one replicate rooted a very small root, while for the air layering method, only seedlings with growth regulator treatments rooted successfully. The best season for explant harvesting was determined as mid summer, and among the disinfecting treatments, Ca(OCl)2 at a concentration of 0.5 g kg-1 for 20 minutes was the best. There were no significant differences for shoot weight and length with a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with and without a hormone.

  17. Anti-infective, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

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    Rizwan Ahmad; Niyaz Ahmad; Atta Abbas Naqvi; Paul Cos; Louis Maes; Sandra Apers; Nina Hermans; Luc Pieters

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To search for the most active antimicrobial and antioxidant sub-fractions related to traditional use of Ziziphus oxyphylla(Z. oxyphylla) and Cedrela serrata(C. serrata) in Pakistan against infectious and liver diseases.Methods: Factions of different polarity were tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal,antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity against different pathogens. Cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cell lines(human lung fibroblasts) as well as, in vitro radical scavenging activity was evaluated using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay.Results: The highest antiprotozoal activity was observed for the CHCl3 fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots and leaves, and C. serrata bark. The CHCl3 and Et OAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots, the CHCl3 fraction of Z. oxyphylla leaves, the Et OAc and the residual Me OH: H2 O fraction of C. serrata bark showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The same residual Me OH: H2 O fraction of C. serrata bark was active against Candida albicans. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the more hydrophilic Et OAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla leaves, C. serrata bark and leaves, and the residual Me OH: H2 O fraction of C. serrata bark.Conclusions: This study supports at least in part the traditional uses of these plants for antimicrobial purposes and against liver diseases.

  18. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

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    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  19. Anti-infective, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rizwan Ahmad; Niyaz Ahmad; Atta Abbas Naqvi; Paul Cos; Louis Maes; Sandra Apers; Nina Hermans; Luc Pieters

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To search for the most active antimicrobial and antioxidant sub-fractions related to traditional use of Ziziphus oxyphylla (Z. oxyphylla) and Cedrela serrata (C. serrata) in Pakistan against infectious and liver diseases. Methods: Factions of different polarity were tested in vitro for their antiprotozoal, antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity against different pathogens. Cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cell lines (human lung fibroblasts) as well as, in vitro radical scavenging activity was evaluated using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Results: The highest antiprotozoal activity was observed for the CHCl3 fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots and leaves, and C. serrata bark. The CHCl3 and EtOAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla roots, the CHCl3 fraction of Z. oxyphylla leaves, the EtOAc and the residual MeOH: H2O fraction of C. serrata bark showed antibacterial activity against Staphylo-coccus aureus. The same residual MeOH: H2O fraction of C. serrata bark was active against Candida albicans. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the more hydrophilic EtOAc fractions of Z. oxyphylla leaves, C. serrata bark and leaves, and the residual MeOH:H2O fraction of C. serrata bark. Conclusions: This study supports at least in part the traditional uses of these plants for antimicrobial purposes and against liver diseases.

  20. Seed Germination Characteristics of Rhus tripartitum (Ucria Grande and Ziziphus lotus (L.: Effects of Water Stress

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    Zouaoui Refka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae and Rhus tripartitum or Sumac (Anacardiaceae are two indigenous species from arid and semiarid regions of Tunisia, characterized by a severe climate where dry seasons are very long. The combined action of anthropogenic factors and climate in arid regions caused a gradual threat of plant assets. In this context, an experimental study of the effects of water stress (0 to −1 MPa on seeds has identified the water requirements germinal stage of both species. The results showed that both species were able to germinate at relatively low water potentials. However, beyond −0.6 MPa, germination was completely inhibited for R. tripartitum, when it reached for another 50% for Z. lotus. Increasing the concentration of PEG6000 progressively inhibited germination in both species. Only Z. lotus could be considered tolerant of water stress, because, to −1 MPa, seeds germinated with a rate of 17%. It resulted in that the species Z. lotus presented an adaptive capacity to aridity much greater than that observed for R. tripartitum.

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Heavy Metal Analysis of Leaf Extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill. Gard

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    M Lalitha Eswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves of Ziziphus oenoplia belonging to family Rhamnaceae. The dried leaves of the plant were subjected to successive Soxhlet extraction by continuous hot percolation method using organic solvents of increasing polarity such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The aqueous extract was prepared by cold maceration technique. All the extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening and it showed the presence of active constituents such as alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol and triterpenoid. Quantitative determination of alkaloid was done by Harborne (1973 method, whereas total Phenolic content was determined by Folin-ciocalteu method and total Flavonoid were determined by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method. Heavy metals and inorganic elements are determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique. The results obtained shows that the extracts contain medicinally important bioactive constituents and also heavy metals present in the plant extracts were within the permissible limits. This justifies its use in the traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as ulcer, asthma, dysentery and fever.

  2. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

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    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  3. Comparison of the Bioactive Components in Two Seeds of Ziziphus Species by Different Analytical Approaches Combined with Chemometrics

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    Sheng Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ziziphus species are considered to be the medicine and food dual purposes plants. Among them, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (ZS has traditionally been used as an ethnomedicine in Asian countries for thousands years. Owing to the significant benefits for human health, the demand for ZS increased year by year, and the wild resources have become increasingly scarce, which resulted in a shortage of market supply for ZS and product adulteration by substituting ZS with the seeds of Z. mauritiana Lam. (ZM. However, whether the bioactivity of ZM is similar to ZS has not been fully confirmed till now. Thus, to provide potential information for evaluating the similarity of the health promoting activities between these two Ziziphus seeds, their chemical profiles, including triterpenoids, flavonoids, nucleosides, free amino acids and fatty acids were compared using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ MS, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS methods. Furthermore, a more holistic investigation was performed with multivariate principle component analysis and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis analyses to explore the relative variability between the seeds of two species. The results showed that a significant difference exists between ZS and ZM, and ZS was more rich in saponins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and some amino acids, whereas ZM was particularly rich in saturated fatty acids and flavonoids. The above results suggested the bioactivities of ZM for human health may not be similar to ZS owing to their difference in chemical profiles. These results would also be helpful for distinguishing the ZM from ZS with the chemical markers obtained from the study, and set a scientific foundation for establishing the quality control

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

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    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  5. Antioxidant and Antiglycating Constituents from Leaves of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

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    Rizwan Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela Serrata plants have a folkloric use in Pakistan for treatments of different ailments, i.e., Jaundice, Hepatitis, Diabetes, and antimicrobial. Until now, none of the research studies have reported any phytochemical work on leaves of these two plants. This study aimed to isolate and perform phytochemical analysis in order to search for the constituent having the active role in treatment of the aforementioned ailments. A bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedure was used to isolate the concerned phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata. The process involved the hyphenated techniques, i.e., Flash Chromatography, Semi-Preparative HPLC/DAD, UPLC/MS, and NMR in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of the phytochemicals. Seven compounds (1–7 were isolated and identified as flavonoids, more in particular glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. They showed DPPH scavenging activity, compound 3 (isoquercitrin being the most active one with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL (positive control quercetin; IC50 3.6 µg/mL. The superoxide-radical scavenging and total antioxidant (ABTS assays indicated IC50 values ranging from 200 to 910 µg/mL and 170 to 320 µg/mL, respectively (positive control quercetin: 374 and 180 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds had low IC50 values for inhibition of protein glycation (AGEs inhibition, ranging from 530 to 818 µg/mL, comparable to aminoguanidine (510 µg/mL used as a positive control. This study resulted in the identification of seven flavonoid glycosides for the first time from the leaves of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata with antioxidative and antiglycating activities.

  6. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, S K; Clifford, S C; Wanek, W; Jones, H G; Popp, M

    2001-07-01

    The physiological basis of drought resistance in Ziziphus rotundifolia Lamk., which is an important, multipurpose fruit tree of the northwest Indian arid zone, was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Three irrigation regimes were imposed over a 34-day period: an irrigation treatment, a gradual drought stress treatment (50% of water supplied in the irrigation treatment) and a rapid drought stress treatment (no irrigation). Changes in gas exchange, water relations, carbon isotope composition and solute concentrations of leaves, stems and roots were determined. The differential rate of stress development in the two drought treatments did not result in markedly different physiological responses, but merely affected the time at which they were expressed. The initial response to decreasing soil water content was reduced stomatal conductance, effectively maintaining predawn leaf water potential (Psi(leaf)), controlling water loss and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency, while optimizing carbon gain during drought. Carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of leaf tissue sap provided a more sensitive indicator of changes in short-term water-use efficiency than delta13C of bulk leaf tissue. As drought developed, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and total solute concentrations increased in leaves, indicating osmotic adjustment. Decreases in leaf starch concentrations and concomitant increases in hexose sugars and sucrose suggested a shift in carbon partitioning in favor of soluble carbohydrates. In severely drought-stressed leaves, high leaf nitrate reductase activities were paralleled by increases in proline concentration, suggesting an osmoprotective role for proline. As water deficit increased, carbon was remobilized from leaves and preferentially redistributed to stems and roots, and leaves were shed, resulting in reduced whole-plant transpiration and enforced dormancy. Thus, Z. rotundifolia showed a range of responses to different drought intensities

  7. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd

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    Upendra B Gandagule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit decoction of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz Willd. is used toward increase sterility in woman intended birth control in some parts of Rajasthan, India. This plant is widely used in Turkish medicines as a potent sedative. One to two inches of the fresh stem bark of this species are chewed with 1-2 peppers, and the sap swallowed once a day for 5 days in the treatment of cough. Standardization is one of the challenges in herbal medicine. It is essential to evaluate the herbal plants scientifically and proper documentation should be made to know their medicinal properties. Materials and Methods: Leaf samples of Z. xylopyrus were studied as recommended by World Health Organization for morphological, microscopic, physicochemical, phytochemical, powder characteristics and other methods for standardization. Results: Morphologically the leaves are obovate or orbicular in shape, pinnate venation having aromatic odour and pungent taste. Microscopically leaves showed the presence of ground tissue, vascular strand, xylem and phloem. The crystals are mostly rosette type. Microscopic examination of powder showed the presence of stomata, covering trichomes, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, epidermal cells and vascular strands. Phytochemical screening of the plant part with various solvents revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and sterol, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids in it. Physicochemical parameters such as ash value extractive values were also determined and results showed that water soluble extractive value to be higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Conclusion: Results may be helpful for further confirmation of selected species and in future these characters may be compared with the new batch of the same plant materials.

  8. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  9. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

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    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  10. Radioprotective effect of the extract of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Silva, Edvane B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, Ronaldo C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica; Lacerda, Laila B.N.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2011-07-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are energies that can be classified as non-ionizing and ionizing. This type of energy is propagated by a material medium and the vacuum. The important characteristic of ionizing radiation is the localized release of large amounts of energy. The biological effects of radiation result principally from damage to DNA, which is the critical target. Given these harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about the radioprotective substance, because they act to protect the living tissue, decreasing the damage he caused by the effects of radiation. In this study we investigated the radioprotective effect of extract hydroalcoholic of Ziziphus joazeiro and Anacardium occidentale on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata. The embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata pigmented were divided into 18 groups of 100 specimens. The experimental groups were exposed to the extracts at a concentration of 200 ppm and then irradiated. For irradiation, we used a source of {sup 60}Co (Gammacell of Radionics Labs. Dose rate = 4.359 Gy/h). The viability of the embryos was examined using a stereoscopic microscope and statistical analysis was performed using the test Student-Newman-Keuls and {chi}{sup 2}. Our results showed that the extracts of hydroalcoholic Ziziphus joazeiro showed radioprotective effect and that the aqueous extract of the bark of Anacardium occidentale exhibited a reduction in its embryotoxic effect. (author)

  11. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk. is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20 μg/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800 mg/kg b.wt. of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

  12. Non-destructive determination of moisture in jujubes based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique%基于近红外高光谱成像技术的长枣含水量无损检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴龙国; 何建国; 刘贵珊; 贺晓光; 王伟; 王松磊; 李丹

    2014-01-01

    利用近红外(NIR)高光谱(900~1 700 nm)成像技术对灵武长枣含水量的无损检测进行了研究.通过900~1 700 nm高光谱成像系统采集了128个长枣图像,对原始光谱与Savitzky-Golay平滑处理后的光谱反射率R曲线、吸收率A曲线和Kubelka-Munk函数(KM)等曲线的偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)模型进行对比分析;采用PLSR的加权β系数分别提取不同光谱参数下的特征波长,建立R-PLSR、A-PLSR和KM-PLSR的长枣含水量预测模型.结果表明,采用原始光谱建立的PLSR模型优于Savitzky-Golay平滑的PLSR模型;原始光谱的特征波长建立的PLSR模型优于全波段的PLSR模型,特征波长建立的KM-PLSR模型优于R-PLSR、A-PLSR模型,决定系数(R2)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为0.793、1.828.这表明,NIR高光谱成像技术提取特征波长进行长枣水分检测是可行的,同时也为今后长枣品质在线检测提供了理论依据.

  13. 阿胶红枣黄芪山楂糕制作复合裱花蛋糕研究%Donkey Hide Gelatin Jujube Astragalus Haw Jelly Research Making Decorated Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广峰

    2014-01-01

    以阿胶红枣、黄芪为原料生产出阿胶、黄芪山楂糕,以此为基础制作复合裱花蛋糕,不仅研制开发了阿胶红枣、黄芪山楂糕裱花蛋糕新产品,而且该产品具有较高的营养价值、保健价值、食用价值。运用模糊数学法对不同生产方法生产的裱花蛋糕进行质量评判。%Donkey hide gelatin jujube、astragalus membranaceus as raw material to produce donkey hide gelatin , astragalus membranaceus haw jelly, on this basis, making Decorated cake, not only developed the donkey hide gelatin jujube、astragalus membranaceus decorating haw jelly cake of new products, and the product has high nutritive value、health care value and edible value. Using the fuzzy mathematics method to different production methods of decorating cakes for quality evaluation.

  14. The influence of the different freezing temperatures and fruit shapes on the quality of freeze-dried jujube%不同果形和冻结温度对冻干枣品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹有福

    2004-01-01

    将红枣进行真空冷冻干燥,研究了外部形状和预冻温度对冻干枣品质的影响.结果表明,预冻温度为-25℃以下,将新鲜红枣加工成厚度为5mm的环形枣片进行冻干,其能耗、外观、口感等指标都较理想.

  15. 酸枣仁汤合左归丸治疗妇女更年期失眠45例%Forty-Five Women with Menopausal Insomnia Treated with Sour Jujube Decoction Combined with Left-Restoring Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斐

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察酸枣仁汤合左归丸治疗妇女更年期失眠症的临床疗效.方法:选取本院90例更年期失眠症女性患者作为研究对象,随机分为治疗组与对照组各45例,对照组给予安定、谷维素治疗,治疗组给予酸枣仁汤合左归丸治疗,日1剂,连续治疗4周为1个疗程,比较两组患者临床疗效.结果:治疗组愈显率(95.5%)明显高于对照组(73.4%)(P<0.05);两组患者治疗后潮热、盗汗、心烦及乏力各项伴随症状评分及PSQI评分较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05),治疗组较对照组降低明显(P<0.05),具有统计学意义.结论:酸枣仁汤合左归丸治疗妇女更年期失眠症较西药治疗效果理想,可显著改善患者睡眠质量.

  16. 两种万寿菊提取物对枣尺蠖毒杀效果%The Research of Toxicities Effect of Two Extract of Tagetes patula on Larve of Sucra jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红军; 戴建青; 刘贤谦; 闫雄飞

    2007-01-01

    以万寿菊根为材料,以水为对照,分别用甲醇、氯仿作溶剂进行索氏提取,并用提取液对枣尺蠖幼虫进行杀虫生物活性测定,结果表明:氯仿提取物的毒力比甲醇提取物的毒力强;同时,在光照条件下,甲醇提取物、氯仿提取物对幼虫的毒力都比无光照条件下显著.

  17. Effect of dense phase carbon dioxide as a sterilization on jujube clarified juice%高密度二氧化碳杀菌对红枣澄清汁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光远; 常杨; 纵伟

    2014-01-01

    探讨了高密度二氧化碳(DPCD)非热杀菌技术对红枣澄清汁的杀菌效果和对其品质的影响.结果表明:DPCD杀菌对红枣澄清汁的最优杀菌条件为30 MPa、60 min、60℃,该条件下杀菌效果最好并且枣汁中微生物数量符合国家食品卫生标准要求.经DPCD处理后,红枣澄清汁的pH值显著降低,透光率略有下降,可溶性固形物含量基本不变且DPCD处理可有效抑制红枣汁褐变.

  18. Application of Angel Brand Grape Wine Active Dry Yeast in the Production of Jujube Wine%安琪牌葡萄酒活性干酵母在红枣酒酿造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑学习

    2002-01-01

    对安琪牌葡萄酒活性干酵母在红枣汁中的发酵条件进行了研究,表明60~120 mg/L的SO2使用量,0.3%~0.5%的接种量,发酵的酒质较好.采用分次加糖、降低渗透压的方法进行发酵,对提高酒质、缩短发酵周期有利.采用安琪牌葡萄酒活性干酵母酿制干型红枣酒,具有典型的枣香和发酵产生的酒香,同时对控制发酵过程、稳定酒质有很大的好处.

  19. Effects of steaming treatment on the higher alcohols content in the jujube brandy%蒸煮处理对红枣白兰地中高级醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宝颖; 王颉; 孙剑锋; 白凤歧; 迟超逸; 郭洁

    2014-01-01

    采用GC-FID法对红枣白兰地中高级醇含量进行了分析测定.结果表明:蒸煮处理对正丙醇含量影响不显著,能够显著增加异戊醇的含量,而异丁醇的含量显著降低;不同层对正丙醇、异丁醇、异戊醇含量影响均不显著;不同取样时间对正丙醇含量影响不显著,而对异丁醇和异戊醇有显著的影响,其中,酒头中异丁醇和异戊醇含量与中间酒和酒尾中相比显著增加,而中间酒与酒尾中异丁醇和异戊醇含量没有显著差异.为提高红枣白兰地的经济价值和大规模生产提供理论依据.

  20. Isolation and identification of the pathogens of jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Huping) fruit Shrink disease in Shanxi%山西壶瓶枣缩果病病原茵分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祥彬; 赖童飞; 景云飞; 徐勇; 田世平

    2009-01-01

    2005~2008年山两壶瓶枣缩果病害发生严重,造成了巨大的经济损失.本文利用真菌ITS rDNA和细菌16S rDNA基因的通用引物,分别对分离白山西晋中的罹病壶瓶枣果实表而寄生真菌和细菌基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,将扩增产物进行核苷酸序列测定,在GenBank数据库进行Megablast同源性分析.确定壶瓶枣果实的主要寄生菌是细极链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata)、白囊耙齿菌(Irpex lacteus)、青霉菌(Penicillium expansum)、芽枝孢菌(Cladosporium tenuissimum)4种真菌和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、巨大芽孢杆菌(B.megaterium)、短小芽孢朴菌(B.pumilus)、多粘类芽孢杆菌(Paenibacillus polymyxa)4种细菌.回接试验证明链格孢菌、青霉菌、芽枝孢菌是壶瓶枣果实主要的致病真菌,而所分离的细菌没有致病性.

  1. Inhibition of Non-enzymatic Browning against Chinese Jujube Juice by Orthogonal Test%正交法抑制红枣汁非酶褐变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉艳

    2011-01-01

    本试验以红枣为主要原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验,研究EDTA、半胱氨酸和NaHSO3对红枣汁非酶褐变抑制作用的影响.结果表明:EDTA、半胱氨酸和NaHSO3三者最佳组合为EDTA0.03%、半胱氨酸2%、NaHSO3-250μg/g,在此组合下,红枣汁的A420值为0.428.从极差和方差分析可知,这3种抑制剂对红枣汁非酶褐变影响的主次顺序为半胱氨酸>EDTA>NaHSO3.

  2. 两类枣园昆虫群落结构的比较分析%Primary Analysis of Structure of Insect Community in Two Kinds of Jujube Orchards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜学梅; 赵爱玲; 王翠英; 李登科; 师光禄

    2010-01-01

    2009年3-4月初步研究了山西农业大学枣园(记作Ⅰ)和山西省农科院果树研究所枣园(记作Ⅱ)的早春昆虫群落结构特征.结果表明:枣园Ⅰ昆虫有34种,分别隶属8个目27个科,其中网目拟地甲(Opatrum subaratum Faldermann),蒙古拟地甲(Gonocephalum mongolicum Reiner),菱蝗科(Teaigidae)和中华广肩步甲(Calosoma maderae chinense Kirby)是群落优势种.枣园Ⅱ昆虫有55种,分别隶属6个目39个科,其中三点盲蝽(Adelphocods taeniophorus Reuter),隐翅甲科(Staphilinidae)和花蝽科(Anthocoridae)是群落优势种.枣园Ⅱ中,昆虫群落的丰富度、个体总数、多样性指数、均匀度均高于同时期的枣园Ⅰ,其中捕食性昆虫和寄生性昆虫的比例较高.通过聚类分析得出,两园昆虫群落的时间动态格局较相似,可分为两个阶段:发展初期,物种数和个体总数均较少;上升期,物种数和个体总数都显著增加,昆虫群落的稳定性增强.

  3. Pollution -free production management technologies of flat core jujube in neihuang county%内黄县大枣生长立地条件与无公害生产管理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊立; 周游游; 高素霞; 莫晓春

    2013-01-01

      介绍沙地内黄县大枣品质及其生长的立地条件,总结其高产优质的管理技术,包括定植、整形梳理、田间管理、修剪、喷激素、枷枣、疏花保果、着色管理、采摘、晒制、清园、病虫害防治等方面内容,为内黄大枣广大消费者和无公害生产种植户提供参考。%This paper analyses the quality and the site conditions , growth of flat core axillaris which grow in sandy land, What’ s more, it summarizes Spina Date ’ s high yield and good quality plantation ’ s techniques which contains field planting, plastic combing, field management, trimming, spraying hormone, flailing, flower and fruit thinning, color management, picking, drying, cleaning up the orchard, prevention and control of diseases and pests etc.The paper aims to provide useful information to the vast number of consumers and farmers who product pollution – free Spina Date.

  4. Studies on the Some Biological Properties of the Pathogen of Indian Jujube Anthracnose%毛叶枣炭疽菌部分生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兰; 赵更峰; 邵强; 何月秋

    2004-01-01

    毛叶枣炭疽病病原菌[Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes]在25~30 ℃,pH 5~6时最适宜生长;PDA、PSA培养基最适宜病原菌丝生长,而OMA培养基最适宜病原菌产孢; 麦芽糖是病菌生长的最适碳源,蛋白胨是最佳氮源;光照对病菌的生长无明显的影响.

  5. Study on the structure and diversity of arthropod community in Jujube orchards in different management models%不同管理水平枣园节肢动物群落结构及其多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦旭东; 郭艳兰; 王立生; 吴雪海; 夏伟; 张建萍

    2014-01-01

    [目的]全面了解不同管理模式枣园中节肢动物群落的结构和组成以及多样性的差异,为枣园害虫的综合治理提供理论依据.[方法]于2011年调查了新疆南疆不同管理水平枣园节肢动物群落的结构,并应用群落多样性指数进行分析.[结果]管理粗放枣园中的节肢动物的物种数和个体数均高于管理精细枣园;在管理粗放的枣园共采集节肢动物39 009头,分属于2纲13目66科.真螨目类群为优势种群.在管理精细的枣园共采集节肢动物7 481头,分属2纲13目52科,双翅目昆虫为其优势种群.[结论]管理粗放枣园各类群的多样性指数、物种丰富度均高于管理精细枣园,管理粗放枣园捕食性类群的优势度低于管理精细枣园,在2种类型枣园中,植食性类群在总群落中所占的比例均为最高.

  6. 综合防治与常规防治下枣园节肢动物群落多样性的比较%Arthropod community diversity in jujube orchards with integrated and conventional pest management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师光禄; 王有年; 张铁强; 杜艳丽; 刘素琪; 苗振旺; 李登科; 于同泉

    2007-01-01

    在太谷地区枣麦间作与枣单作生态系统中,研究了综合防治与常规防治对枣树不同发育阶段的节肢动物群落、害虫亚群落和天敌亚群落多样性的影响.结果表明:在各个发育阶段,4种不同处理中的枣园节肢动物群落、害虫亚群落和天敌亚群落的多样性指数均存在显著性差异 (P<0.05);通过对影响枣园生态系统3种多样性指数的因子的方差分析表明,枣麦间作和综合防治措施的共同作用是影响枣园生态系统节肢动物群落和天敌亚群落多样性指数的主要因子.

  7. ABA和乙烯对冬枣果实成熟衰老的调控%The Regulation of Abscisic acid and Ethylene on the Ripening of‘ Winter Jujube'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红卫; 冯双庆

    2003-01-01

    研究了外源ABA和乙烯处理对青绿冬枣在-1℃贮藏过程中内源ABA(脱落酸)、IAA(吲哚乙酸)、GA(赤霉素)含量变化的影响和不同成熟度果实的内源ABA含量与品质变化的关系.结果表明,外源ABA(50mg/L)处理显著刺激了果实内源ABA含量的增加,贮藏45d时出现最高峰值,含量为697.1ng/g,比对照(峰值为401.2ng/g)出峰时间提前达10d;外源乙烯利(1000×10-6)处理提高了贮藏前期果实内源ABA含量,促进了内源IAA和GA含量的下降.随着冬枣成熟度的增加,内源ABA含量和TSS含量逐渐增加,全红时达到最高值;内源IAA和GA含量及果实硬度、叶绿素和VC含量逐渐下降;果实硬度下降与内源ABA含量上升呈负相关(r=-0.8516);对果实衰老与ABA和乙烯的关系进行了讨论.

  8. 正交试验优化清汁红枣乳酸饮料工艺%Process Optimization by Orthogonal Array Design for the Development of a Clarified Beverage Based on Lactic Acid Fermetnation of Jujube Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长亮; 向进乐; 郑晓莹

    2013-01-01

    以红枣为原料进行乳酸发酵,生产具有红枣和乳酸发酵特有风味与营养功能的红枣乳酸饮料.通过单因素试验和正交试验确定红枣乳酸发酵最佳工艺条件为:菌种保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌的复合比2∶1、发酵时间1d、发酵温度38℃、复合菌剂接入量6%、牛奶添加量3mL/100mL、葡萄糖添加量0.5g/100mL,产酸量达7.5g/L.饮料调配最佳工艺条件为100mL饮料中添加红蔗糖2g、白蔗糖5g、NaCl 20mg,乳酸含量为0.5g.对4种乳酸发酵醪抗氧化功能分析发现次等红枣发酵醪在清除DPPH自由基和总抗氧化能力方面与优质红枣发酵醪相当,而高于苹果汁、红心红薯2种发酵醪.

  9. The Effect of Temperature and Soluble Solids Concentration on the Storage Stability of Chinese Jujube Concentrated Juice%温度和糖度对金丝小枣浓缩汁贮藏稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩希凤; 王成荣; 候召华; 朱永宝; 代守鑫

    2007-01-01

    以产于山东省乐陵市金丝小枣的浓缩汁为试材,研究了不同糖度浓缩枣汁在不同条件贮藏过程中的浊度、活性蛋白(HAP)、Vc、Chroma值和L*值的变化,探讨了温度和糖度与浓缩枣汁贮藏稳定性的关系.结果表明:4℃是保持金丝小枣浓缩汁贮藏稳定性、色泽和营养成分等贮藏品质及浑浊和沉淀出现时间的理想温度;70°Brix金丝小枣浓缩汁在不同温度下贮藏的效果均优于50°Brix和60°Brix枣汁,色泽变化相对较小,出现浑浊和沉淀的时间较晚.

  10. Study on the effects of different factors during preparing caramel pigment from jujube on color ratio%制取红枣焦糖色素的各因素对色率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗婷; 陈锦屏

    2010-01-01

    研究了以红枣为原料,尿素为催化剂,制备焦糖色素的各因素时色率的影响.在单因素实验基础上,通过正交实验得出制备高色率红枣焦糖的最佳条件是:枣汁浓度60°Brix,反应温度118℃,反应时间2h,尿素添加量为红枣汁浓度为60°Brix时的1%,pH4.2,焦糖色素的色率可以达到71228.1 EBC.

  11. Anti-Oxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ziziphus mucronata Fruit Extract Against Dimethoate-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwape Tebogo Elvis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of Ziziphus mucronata (ZM fruit extract. Methods: The different types of fruit extract were prepared by soaking the dry powdered fruit in different solvents followed by rotary evaporation. Each extract was tested for its phenol content and antioxidant activities. An in vivo study was performed in Sprague- Dawley (SD rats. Thirty adult male SD rats (aged 21 weeks were divided into six groups of five rats each and treated as follows: The normal control (NC received distilled water while the dimethoate control (DC received 6 mg/kg.bw.day-1 dimethoate dissolved in distilled water. The experimental groups E1, E2, E3, and E0 received dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (100 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (200 mg/kg.bw-1, dimethoate (6 mg/kg.bw + ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1, and ZMFM (300 mg/kg.bw-1 only. Both the normal control and the dimethoate control groups were used to compare the results. After 90 days, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical assays, and livers were harvested for histological study. Results: High phenol content was estimated, and 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH spectrophotometric, thin layer chromatography (TLC and 2, 2-Azobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity among the extracts. The preventive effects observed in the E1, E2 and E3 groups proved that the extract could prevent dimethoate toxicity by maintaining normal reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C and E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cholineasterase and lipid profiles. The preventive effect was observed to be dose dependent. The EO group showed no extractinduced toxicity. Histological observations agreed with the results obtained in the biochemical studies. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that ZM methanol fruit extract is capable of attenuating dimethoate-induced toxicity because of its

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  13. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  14. Squamate diversity in different croplands of district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Balouch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied squamate diversity in 5 different croplands (wheat, sorghum, millet, maize and groundnut of district Chakwal, North Punjab, Pakistan, in February and September, 2013, using area-constrained searches for squamates and line intercept method for vegetation. We recorded 11 squamate species (6 lizards; 5 snakes. Based on diversity index value (H the highest squamate diversity was recorded from maize (1.91, followed by wheat (1.54, groundnut (1.51, sorghum (1.34 and millet (1.21. We recorded Calotes versicolor versicolor, Ophisops jerdonii and Eutropis dissimilis as most frequently sighted species in all croplands. The multivariate generalized model revealed that sightings of species differed significantly (F(5,40 = 2.89, P < 0.05; Wilk’s Λ = 0.30, Partial η2 = 0.94 among cropland types and their boundary vegetation. The cluster analysis of boundary vegetation produced two main clusters: (1 groundnut and wheat, and (2 sorghum, millet and maize. We concluded that herbs (Parthenium hysterophorus Chenopodium album, shrubs (Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jujube, Gymnosporia royleana, and grasses (Cynodon dactylon, Setaria pumila along the cropland boundary provided abode for lacertids (O. jerdonii and skinks (E. dissimilis, while tress (Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus mauritiana for agamids (Calotes versicolor. We suggest the inclusion of maintaining cropland boundary vegetation particularly grasses and shrubs in agricultural practices to ensure the conservation of squamate and their habitat.

  15. Farmland shelterbelt interval setting based on protection insurance rate%基于防护保证率的农田防护林林带间距调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱乐奎; 刘彤; 郑波; 孙钦明; 韩志全; 刘尊驰; 张礼春

    2016-01-01

    农田防护林林带间距的设置关系到防护林防护效益和农田单位经济效益的权衡。该文以新疆南疆枣树防护林为例,引用水文学中防护保证率的概念和方法,以枣树受风害危害的概率特征为基础,兼顾防护林防风生态效益和经济效益最大为目标,建模分析和野外试验相结合,研究了农田防护林林带间距调控方法。结果表明:1)运用防护保证率的方法能够实现对农田防护林防风生态效益与经济效益权衡的优化;2)枣树防护林的防护保证率在95%,林带间距为132.1 m左右时,单位经济价值达到最优,高出常规防护林间距经济产量6.2%;3)林带疏透度为0.34大于疏透度为0.49的防护效益。该研究可为农田防护林林带间距定量调控提供参考。%Setting appropriate farmland shelterbelt intervals is critical for ensuring an appropriate trade-off between shelterbelt protection benefits and unit economic benefits. If the shelterbelt interval is very large, the protection benefits will be reduced, and consequently the crops will suffer serious damage; however, if the shelterbelt interval is very small, more farmland area will be occupied, resulting in crop failure. With the development of precision and intensive agriculture, a new agricultural concept has been developed in which the ecological benefits that shelterbelts provide through the prevention of wind damage can be optimized against the economic benefits. In this study, we chose the jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) shelterbelts in southern Xinjiang, China as an example to develop a model for calculating a protection guarantee rate and farmland economic benefits, using the concept and method of the protection guarantee rate from hydrology. The protection guarantee rate was used to describe the number of wind damage incidents in this region, and the Weibull curve was used for the fitting of the number of wind damage incidents per hour in which

  16. Sedative properties of Mitracarpus villosus leaves in mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The extract at the doses tested had no effect on motor coordination as observed in the rota-rod ... components of this plant for management of stress-related diseases. ..... Wangs for donation of diazepam and NIPRD .... semen Zizipus jujube.

  17. Fenologia reprodutiva e sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: atuação de Apis mellifera e de visitantes florais autóctones como polinizadores Reproductive phenology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: the role of Apis mellifera and autochthonous floral visitors as pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila de Lima Nadia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Fenologia reprodutiva e sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: atuação de Apis mellifera e de visitantes florais autóctones como polinizadores. Ziziphus joazeiro é uma espécie endêmica da Caatinga, com grande utilidade econômica, cuja biologia reprodutiva é pouco conhecida. Este estudo aborda a fenologia reprodutiva, a biologia floral e o sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro no Cariri Paraibano, Nordeste do Brasil. Os períodos de floração e de frutificação ocorreram no fim da estação seca e início da chuvosa, com picos nos meses de dezembro (floração e fevereiro (frutificação. As flores são do tipo disco, esverdeadas, duram cerca de 12 horas e possuem disco nectarífero largo e amarelo, o qual circunda o gineceu. Ocorre protandria associada a outro tipo de dicogamia, a heterodicogamia. Ziziphus joazeiro produz néctar em pequena quantidade (1 µl, com alta concentração de açúcares (75%. Os visitantes florais observados foram vespas, abelhas e moscas. Apis mellifera apresentou maior freqüência de visitas (77,5%, seguida pelo grupo das vespas (20,4%, ambos considerados polinizadores efetivos. As moscas e as outras espécies de abelhas apresentaram baixo percentual de visitas (2,1% e foram consideradas pilhadoras de néctar. A elevada taxa de desenvolvimento inicial de frutos por inflorescência pode sugerir alta eficiência dos polinizadores, uma vez que o mecanismo de dicogamia presente na espécie praticamente impede a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea e de geitonogamia.(Reproductive phenology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: the role of Apis mellifera and autochthonous floral visitors as pollinators. Ziziphus joazeiro is an endemic species of the Caatinga with great economic importance, whose reproductive biology is poorly understood. This paper analyses the reproductive phenology, floral biology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro at

  18. Characterization and hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xuyan; Niu, Yunhui; Cao, Xiaoqin; Huang, Fuwei; Ding, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp (PWJS) is evaluated for the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect. The characteristics of PWJS were determined by FT-IR spectral and HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity was investigated using in vitro systems. An in vivo study of PWJS against CCl4 induced liver injury was also conducted. HPLC analysis showed that PWJS is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, rich in glucose (38.59%), arabinose (23.16%), galacturonic acid (17.64%) and galactose (10.44%). PWJS displayed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, PWJS treatment lowered the serum levels of ALT and AST in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and GSH were elevated in liver damage mice by PWJS intervention, while content of MDA was lessened. Meanwhile, PWJS reverses the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increases the protein expression of HO-1, GSTα and NQO1 in liver damage mice. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the condition of liver damage was mitigated. This study demonstrates that PWJS reverses hepatotoxicity in CCl4-intoxicated mice through the mechanisms of antioxidant activity, as well as an augmentation of the Nrf2 pathway in liver tissue.

  19. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit Influence on Aberrant Crypt Formation and Blood Cells in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Chung-Teng; Wu, Wang-Hung; Chien, Se-Ping; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) fruit is rich in bioactive functional components such as polysaccharides, triterpenoid acid, flavonoids and oleamide. It has been commonly used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes, digestive disorders, diarrhea, skin infections, liver and urinary complaints. However, dietary effects with regard to chemoprevention of colon cancer have not been studied. The present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of dietary ZJ against colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-treated mice. AOM was injected (10 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) and three cycles of 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days with 14 days of normal drinking water in-between were administered to induce colitis-associated colon cancer. ZJ fruit was supplemented into feed at levels of 5 and 10%. Dietary ZJ significantly attenuated aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and also decreased the progression of hyperplasia to dysplasia. In addition, it significantly reduced circulating white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelets compared to colon cancer mice. We conclude that ZJ supplementation may delay the progression of colon cancer from hyperplasia to dysplasia and ultimately adenocarcinoma and cancer. In addition, it decreased circulating tumor-related leukocytes, main regulators of cancer inflammation. Dietary consumption of ZJ fruit attenuated the formation of ACF and delayed the progression of colon cancer.

  20. Assessment of Ziziphus mauritiana grown on fly ash dumps: Prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of edible fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Mishra, Tripti

    2016-12-12

    A field study was carried out on fly ash dumps of Panki Thermal Power Station to assess the phytoaccumulation of elements in various plant parts of edible fruit tree Ziziphus mauritiana. Out of the twelve analysed elements, the highest concentration was found for Fe followed by Mn > Se > Zn > Mo > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd >Ni > As > Co in rhizospheric substrate of Z. mauritiana grown on fly ash dumps. Metal accumulation, bioconcentration factor and translocation factor for each metal was calculated in various parts of the edible fruit tree. Significant variations of metal accumulations were observed amongst various plant parts. Accumulation of toxic elements was higher in roots and it gradually declined towards the aerial parts of the plant corresponding to its distance from the ground. The concentration of some elements in fruit tree was found to be above prescribed limits in edible parts. Therefore, the present study suggested that additional care should be undertaken, if edible fruit trees are considered for phytoremediation or afforestation programs of FA dumps.

  1. Evaluation and optimization of downstream process parameters for extraction of betulinic acid from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM, three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w. To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  3. Effect of NaCl Salinity on Growth and Mineral Composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohail

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd. is a fruit tree species growing wild in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa where rural populations intensively use its fruits, leaves, bark and wood. However, little is known about the effects of salinity, a widespread problem in these regions, on early growth and mineral composition of this species. This study was conducted under controlled conditions to contribute to filling this gap. Six weeks old seedlings of Z. spina-christi germinated in a full strength Hoagland solution were subjected to 0, 40, 80 and 160 mM NaCl. Compared to the unstressed control salinity levels of 80 and 160 mM reduced plant height, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll, total leaf area and dry matter by > 50%. Salinity levels of 40, 80 and 160 mM enhanced leaf water contents by 14, 16 and 17%, respectively and 160 mM NaCl raised the concentration of Na and Cl ions in leaf tissues 81- and 21-fold. The K/Na ratio, in contrast, was hardly affected by increasing salinity indicating adaptation or tolerance of Z. spina-christi to low or moderate NaCl salinity. These results suggest that Z. spina-christi could be an interesting species for re-vegetation of moderately degraded saline lands.

  4. Studies on the steady shear flow behavior and chemical properties of water-soluble polysaccharide from Ziziphus lotus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Mostafa; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of water-soluble polysaccharide from Ziziphus lotus fruit (WPZL) was performed by ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (ultrasonic power (X1: 70-100 W), extraction time (X2: 10-30 min), extraction temperature (X3: 55-95 °C), and water to raw material ratio (X4: 5-25)) on the extraction yield of APH. The effect of temperature and concentration on flow behavior of gum solution was studied. WPZL solutions exhibited shear-thinning non-Newtonian flow behavior for concentrations above 0.5% (w/v). The viscosity of fully hydrated gum solutions decreased as temperature increase. The correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model indicated that quadratic polynomial model could be employed to optimize the extraction of WPZL. The optimal conditions to obtain the highest extraction of WPZL (13.398 ± 0.019%) were as follows: ultrasonic power, 88.77 W; extraction time, 29.96 min, extraction temperature, 77.73 °C and water to raw material ratio 24.44 mL/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi against scopolamine-induced anxiety in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the effect of Ziziphus spina-christi extract against anxiety related behavior induced by scopolamine. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, each group consists of eight rats. Vehicle group received distilled water, negative control received scopolamine (1 mg/kg and positive control received diazepam (1 mg/mL. Experimental groups received Z. spina-christi extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg IP 30 min after scopolamine injection. Anxiety related behaviors were assessed using the elevated plus maze. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Administration of Z. spina-christi extract (200 mg/kg significantly increased the time spent in the open arm of elevated plus maze. The extract also reduced the percentage of closed arms entries and time spent in the closed arms. Different concentration of Z. spina-christi extract didn’t affect motor coordination and balance. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Z. spina-christi significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced anxiety.

  6. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  7. Silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill: Characterization and assessment of antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Soumya; Ray, J G

    2016-10-01

    Biological approach to synthesis of metal nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract is a highly relevant and recent theme in nanotechnological research. Phytosynthesized AgNPs have better inhibitory and antimicrobial effects compared to aqueous leaf extract and silver nitrate. In the present investigation crystalline silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 10nm have been successfully synthesized using aqueous leaf extract (AQLE) of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill., which act as both reducing as well as capping agent. The particles were characterized using UV Visible spectroscopy, HRTEM-EDAX, XRD, FT-IR and DLS. An evaluation of the anti bacterial activity was carried out using Agar well diffusion method and MIC determination against four bacterial strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi; the AgNPs exhibited quite high antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bactericidal studies with TEM at different time intervals after AgNPs treatment showed the presence of AgNPs near cell membrane of bacteria at about 30min exposure and the bacterial-lysis was found completed at 24h. This gave an insight on the mechanism of bacterial-lysis by direct damage to the cell membrane.

  8. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  9. Uso de la corteza del coróngoro Ziziphus amole (Sessé & Moc.) M.C. Johnst. en la medicina tradicional xochipalense

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar América Romero-Castillo; Armando Gómez-Campos; Ma. Cristina Pérez Amador-Barrón; Verónica Muñoz-Ocotero; Alberto Reyes-Dorantes

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es valorar el conocimiento y uso medicinal del coróngoro Ziziphus amole (Sessé Moc.) M.C. Johnst. reportado por los habitantes de Xochipala, Guerrero mediante un cuestionario y analizando sus respuestas a través de un análisis estadístico. Se recolectaron frutos, hojas, tallos y corteza, se elaboraron ejemplares botánicos para su confirmación taxonómica. Se realizó un muestreo aleatorio estratificado y se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas generales a 107 ...

  10. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Ziziphus oenoplia (L Mill on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Pramod Mourya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to investigate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ziziphus oenoplia (L stem bark against Alloxan induce hyperglycemia in rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by an injection of alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/kg (i.p.. After 72 hr, the rats having Blood Glucose Level (BGL above 150 mg/dL were selected for the investigation. At two different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. of aqueous and ethanolic extracts were observed antidiabetic effect for 12 consecutive days. BGL was monitored after 1, 3, 6 and 12 days and compared with Metformin (250 mg/kg. Alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity of both extracts were also determined. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in ethanol extract and flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins found in aqueous extract of Z. oenoplia bark. Oral administration of both extracts showed significant (P < 0.05 antihyperglycemic activity in dose dependent manner in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats had significant (P < 0.01 reduction in blood glucose; serum liver enzyme level (AST, ALT, and ALP and lipid profile were compared with normal rats. Significant effects of aqueous and alcoholic extract in alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity were observed in rats. The ethanolic and aqueous extract reveals the reduction in the blood glucose level, inhibition of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes which support antidiabetic effect (reduce postprandial glucose levels of Z. oenoplia and this may be due to presence of flavonoids constituents.

  11. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill roots against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ch V Rao; AKS Rawat; Anil P Singh; Arpita Singh; Neeraj Verma

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid(INH) and rifampicin(RIF) induced liver damage in animal models.Methods: Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for21d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver.Result: The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due toINH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenopliaroots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver ofINH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action againstINH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats.

  12. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana en vue de leur rajeunissement

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    Danthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age of the rootstock (two to six weeks depending on species, the level of grafting (on hypocotyl instead of epicotyl and the origin of the scion (apex have higher growth after micrografting than axillary buds. The method developed was applied to the restoration of juvenile traits of adult trees. The main criterion is the rooting ability of microcuttings sampled on scions, after micrografting. Rooting competence restoration depends on the species, the nature of the first copy of the donor tree and the number of cycles of micrografting. The rejuvenation was more definite for F. albida, mobilised by root cuttings. In this case, one third of the microcuttings rooted after the first cycle of micrografting and 75 % after the second. For 2. Mauritiana mobilised by horticultural budding, 25 % of microcuttings were rooted after the second successive micrograft. No restoration of rooting competence was obtained with A. senegal and T. indica mobilised by cutting.

  13. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different tree species on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree

  14. 枣实蝇产卵选择习性研究%Oviposition preference of ber fruit fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡陇生; 朱银飞; 齐长江; 任玲; 田呈明

    2012-01-01

    通过枣实蝇产卵选择习性研究,发现枣实蝇喜欢产卵于枣果的背阴面及底部,其产卵孔周围呈现凹陷或瘤状凸起症状,且对不同品种枣果的产卵选择性不同,‘鸡心枣’、‘骏枣’对枣实蝇的抗性大于‘梨枣’、‘灰枣’和‘相枣’;枣果受伤害程度越重,产卵量就越少;不同大小的枣果均受到危害,且以中型果受害最为严重;随枣果成熟度的增加其产卵量逐渐减少,且不产卵于完全红的枣果上.同时枣实蝇对枣、海棠果、青杏、番茄、葡萄等不同寄主的产卵选择性均存在显著性差异,但更喜欢产卵于枣果.胁迫性寄主试验中不同寄主果实的产卵量存在显著差异,但枣果与杏之间的产卵量差异不明显,而且枣实蝇可以在杏果中化蛹并羽化.%The ber fruit fly Carpomya vesuviana Costa preferred to oviposit on the shades and bottom of jujube based on our study on oviposition preference. The oviposition aperture showed hollow and lump-like shapes. It was showed that the ber fruit fly had different ovipositional selection to different varieties of jujube. The 'Jix-inzao' jujube and ' Junzao' jujube were less severely damaged than ' pear jujube', ' grey jujube' and ' Xiang jujube' . It ovipositional selection decreased as the extent of damage increased. The ber fruit fly's harms to the jujube differed depending on jujube size. The medium-sized jujube was more hurtful than others. Its ovipositional selection decreased as the maturing stage of the jujube increased. The ber fruit fly showed no ovipositional selection at full maturity. The jujube was more hurtful than others and had significant difference in oviposition preference for jujube, Beijing flowering crab, apricot, tomato and grape. No significant difference existed between jujube and apricot, but significant difference existed in oviposition preference between different species of hosts. The ber fruit fly could pupate and eclose on the

  15. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  16. Use of ISSR markers to assess the genetic diversity in wild medicinal Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd. collected from different regions of Saudi Arabia

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    Saleh Alansi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus spina-christi (sidr is a shrub, sometimes a tree, native to a vast area of Africa stretching from Mauritania to West Africa. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it is an exotic medicinal plant for many diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity within and among 34 accessions of Z. spina-christi collected from different regions of Saudi Arabia. The amplification of genomic DNA with 11 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR primers yielded 105 scorable loci, of which 93.4% were found to be polymorphic. The observed number of alleles (na, effective number of alleles (ne, Nei's gene diversity (h and genetic diversity estimated by Shannon's information index (I were 1.93, 1.44, 0.26 and 0.41, respectively. The total genetic diversity, Ht (0.266 ± 0.0289 was close to the average intrapopulation genetic diversity, Hs (0.2199 ± 0.0216. A high level of gene flow (Nm = 2.37 between populations, reflecting high genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.1739. The analysis of molecular variance showed that the maximum value of genetic variation was found within populations (90%, whereas a low value of genetic variance was observed among populations. The analysis using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages clustered the population from Farasan Island as an out-group due to its geographical origin. The obtained results demonstrate that the ISSR markers may be used for evaluation of the genetic diversity due to their efficiency in revealing polymorphism even in closely related germplasm and may help in Ziziphus genome analysis.

  17. Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity of five Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd provenances and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Lens culinaris L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaloui, M; Ghazghazi, H; Ennajah, A; Manaa, S; Guezmir, W; Karray, N B; Laamouri, A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate some secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of five Ziziphus spina-christi provenances (INRGREF, Tozeur, Degueche, Nafta and Kebelli) and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum and Lens culinaris. Leaves were collected during 2013 and 2014. Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 22-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical methods, respectively. Total phenols, tannins and flavonoids were present, at levels of 57.41 mg GAE/g DW, 31.98 mg RE/g DW and 14.68 μg CE/g DW, respectively. The high antioxidant activity (0.086 μg/mL) was noted in kebelli provenance (2013). The highest germination, plumule and radicle lengths of tested species were observed in INRGREF provenance. Z. spina-christi leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts could also provide a natural herbicide with a positive impact on the environment.

  18. Rapid determination of amino acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by hydrophilic interaction ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Shang, Erxin

    2013-03-20

    In this study, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free amino acids without derivatization using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed. The method was performed on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation system coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) instrument. Sufficient separation of 23 underivatized amino acids was achieved on an Acquity BEH Amide column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) in a single run of 12 min. Then the method was applied for the analysis of the free amino acids in 46 batches of Ziziphus jujuba fruits which comprised 39 cultivars from 26 cultivation regions. Multivariate statistical analysis was also used to investigate the differences in free amino acid profiles among the samples. This study showed that HILIC-UHPLC-TQ-MS is an effective technique to analyze underivatized amino acids in the food samples.

  19. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Zininga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  20. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zininga, Tawanda; Anokwuru, Chinedu P; Sigidi, Muendi T; Tshisikhawe, Milingoni P; Ramaite, Isaiah I D; Traoré, Afsatou N; Hoppe, Heinrich; Shonhai, Addmore; Potgieter, Natasha

    2017-07-28

    Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function.

  1. 辽西坡地林农复合经营模式优化研究%Optimization of Agroforestry Model on Slope of Western Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刚; 赵冰; 刘畅; 刘阳; 刘红民; 高英旭

    2012-01-01

    On slope of western Liaoning province,through test screening,production value analysis on jujube + millet + soybean,pear + millet + soybean,peach + millet + soybean,apricot + millet + soybean other models,result shows that:jujube + millet + soybean is suitable for this area;through compared experiments of dried fruit trees of hazelnuts or walnut + crop and jujube + millet + soybean,result shows that jujube + millet + soybean is the preferred model for western Liaoning;Lingdang jujube + millet,which is optimal component for jujube + millet + soybean,is high-efficient agroforestry in the same land-unit on slope of western Liaoning.%在辽西坡地上,通过枣农、梨农、桃农、杏农等林农复合经营模式试验筛选及产量、产值分析,结果表明,该区适宜的林农复合优化模式为枣农复合模式;通过榛子、核桃干果树种+作物复合经营与枣农复合对比试验,结果表明枣农复合经营为辽西坡地林农复合首选模式;继续试验研究了枣农复合优秀组分为铃铛枣与谷子,是辽西坡地同一土地单元内高效的林农复合模式。

  2. Protective effect of bioactivity guided fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation via inhibiting inflammatory markers and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Kandimalla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF, chloroform (ZJCF, ethyl acetate (ZJEAF, water (ZJWF and residue (ZJMR. In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD and CAT and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β and Il-10 in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of Z. jujuba root bark as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

  3. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS.

  4. Bioactive Fraction of Annona reticulata Bark (or) Ziziphus jujuba Root Bark along with Insulin Attenuates Painful Diabetic Neuropathy through Inhibiting NF-κB Inflammatory Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Ramanathan, Muthiah; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-01-01

    The present study explains the neuroprotective ability of bioactive fractions of Annona reticulata bark (ARB) and Ziziphus jujuba root bark (ZJ) along with insulin against diabetic neuropathy. By using different solvents of increasing polarity ARB and ZJ were undergone for bioactive guided fractionation. The neuroprotective ability of the all the plant fractions were tested against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and DRG neuronal cells. Among all the fractions tested, the methanol extract of ARB and ZJ (ARBME and ZJME) and its water fractions (ARBWF and ZJWF) exhibited significant neuroprotection against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cells and DRG neuronal cells. Further both the active fractions were tested against streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p.) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Wistar rats. Body weight changes, blood glucose levels and pain threshold through hot plate, tail immersion, cold plate and Randall-Sillitto methods were measured throughout the study at weekly interval. After completion of the drug treatment period, all the animals were sacrificed to measure the sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme levels (SOD, catalase, and GSH) and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, iNOS, and NFκB) through ELISA and western blotting analysis. Results of this study explain that ARBME, ZJME, ARBWF, and ZJWF along with insulin potentially attenuate the thermal, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in diabetic neuropathic rats, where insulin treatment alone failed to diminish the same. Reduction of sciatic nerve oxidative stress, NF-κB and iNOS mediated inflammatory cascade and normalization of abnormal cytokine release confirms the possible mechanism of action. The present study confirms the neuroprotective ability of ARB and ZJ against painful diabetic neuropathy through inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB inflammatory cascade.

  5. Inhibition of cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on vero cells by Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae) and Ziziphus mistol Griseb (Rhamnaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellarín, M G; Albrecht, C; Rojas, M J; Aguilar, J J; Konigheim, B S; Paraje, M G; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J

    2013-10-01

    The capacity of Prosopis alba Griseb. and Ziziphus mistol Griseb. fruit extracts to inhibit the toxic action of Shiga toxin (Stx) was investigated. Purification of Stx from Escherichia coli O157:H7 was performed by saline precipitation and affinity chromatography using a column with globotriaosylceramide, while the fruits were subjected to ethanolic or aqueous extractions. The protective action of both fruits was determined by pre-, co-, and postincubation of one 50% cytotoxic dose per ml of Stx with different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts in confluent monolayers of Vero cells for 72 h at 37°C (5% CO2). The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Stx by fruit extracts was determined by the neutral red vital staining technique. The extraction of the polyphenols and flavonoids was effective, and more polyphenols per milligram of dissolved solids were obtained from P. alba than from Z. mistol. However, there were more flavonoids in Z. mistol than in P. alba. Components of both fruits increased the viability of cells treated with Stx when the extracts were preincubated with Stx for 1 h before being applied to the cell cultures, with the ethanolic extract of P. alba showing 95% cell viability at a concentration of 2.45 mg/ml. The extracts were less effective in protecting cells when Stx, extracts, and cells were coincubated together without a previous incubation of Stx; only the concentrations of 19.46 mg/ml for the P. alba aqueous extract and 3.75 mg/ml for the Z. mistol ethanolic extract resulted in the inhibition of cytotoxicity, with 52 and 56% cell viability occurring, respectively. Investigation into this difference in the protection of cells indicated that the protein molecule of Stx suffered degradation to advanced oxidative protein products during preincubation with extracts, principally with P. alba, which exhibited a greater amount of nonflavonoid polyphenols than Z. mistol. The prooxidant action on Stx favored the cells and enhanced the

  6. 枣与农作物间作系统节肢动物时序动态%Temporal Dynamics of Arthropod Communities in Orchard-Crop Intercropping Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿地力·沙塔尔; 李宏; 李兰; 程晓甜

    2012-01-01

    A systematic survey on arthropods was carried out in jujube-crop intercropping systems in Aksu region of southern Xinjiang. The temporal dynamics of arthropod communities were studied by the methodology of plant population ecology research. Results showed that the seasonal dynamics of evenness and diversity of arthropod communities in the jujube-crop intercropping systems were basically consistent, both fluctuating up and down, and they reached the maximum in June and then remained stable. Among three types of jujube yards, the diversity index and evenness index of the jujube-wheat intercropping system were the highest, followed by jujube-cotton intercropping system and single jujube yard, while the dominant concentration index was in vice versa. The highest diversity index and evenness index were both found in the jujube-wheat intercropping system; therefore, jujube-wheat intercropping system can effectively control the pest occurrence by improving management level.%主要针对南疆阿克苏地区枣树与农作物间作系统节肢动物开展系统的调查,以群落生态学方法研究枣园节肢动物的时序动态.结果表明:枣园与农作物间作系统节肢动物群落均匀度的季节动态与多样性季节动态呈现基本一致的趋势,多样性时高时低,均匀度也有相应的高低变化,在6月份达到最大并保持稳定.3种类型枣园中,多样性指数与均匀性指数均值大小排序是枣+小麦间作>枣+棉花间作>单一枣园,而优势集中性指数反之.3种类型枣园中枣和小麦间作系统多样性指数和均匀性指数均值最大.可见,在枣和小麦间作系统中通过提高管理水平可有效控制害虫的发生.

  7. 基于高光谱成像技术的长枣表面农药残留无损检测%Study on non-destructive detection of pesticide residues on Lingwu long jujubes'surface using hyperspectral imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘民法; 张令标; 何建国; 贺晓光; 刘贵珊; 王松磊

    2014-01-01

    利用近红外高光谱成像技术对灵武长枣的表面农药残留进行无损检测研究.采用Kubelka-Munk校正和Savitzky-Golay卷积平滑对900~1 700 nm波段范围内的原始光谱进行预处理,选取最优的预处理方法;运用偏最小二乘回归系数选择特征波长,建立全波段和特征波长下的偏最小二乘农药残留预测模型.结果表明,经过Kubelka-Munk+ Savitz-ky-Golay卷积平滑处理后的光谱建模效果最好,且利用特征波长建立的长枣表面农药残留校正和验证模型的相关系数和均方根误差分别为0.86,0.85和0.000 32,0.000 33,优于全波段建立的模型.研究表明,采用高光谱成像技术对灵武长枣表面农药残留的无损检测是可行的.

  8. Different Cultural Characteristics from Love Stories in Dance Dramas——Comparative Study on "A Handful of Wild Jujubes" and "Romeo and Juliet"%舞中情尽显不同文化特色——舞剧《一把酸枣》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雪清

    2010-01-01

    、都属于舞剧,但是一个舞出了民族特色,一个舞出了人文精神.两部舞剧虽然都演绎了人间的爱情悲剧,但两部舞剧通过题材与情节、主人公的死因与结局和不同的表现形式充分地展现了不同的民族精神和地域特色.这两部艺术经典,对世人处理爱情与财富、亲情与权势的关系,有着深刻的启迪作用.

  9. Effect of the temperature and sugar concentration on the color of concentrated Chinese jujube juice during storage%贮藏过程中温度和糖度对金丝小枣浓缩汁色泽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩希凤; 王成荣; 朱永宝; 侯召华; 代守鑫

    2007-01-01

    以乐陵金丝小枣的浓缩果汁为试材,研究温度和糖度对金丝小枣浓缩汁贮藏过程中色泽变化的影响.结果表明,温度对金丝小枣浓缩汁贮藏过程中色泽变化的影响较大,贮藏温度越高,浓缩汁的色泽变化越快,45℃贮存时,5-HMF的生成速率与果汁色泽变化呈显著正相关,金丝小枣浓缩汁较适宜在低温(0~5℃)下贮藏;糖度对其影响显著,70°Brix浓缩汁的色泽变化明显低于50°和60°Brix的,70°Brix是金丝小枣浓缩汁适宜的贮藏糖度,贮存时间长,效果好.

  10. 酸性红枣松仁复合蛋白饮料稳定性研究--pH、电解质和均质条件对稳定性的影响%Study on Stability of the Acidic Jujube-pine nut Compound Protein Beverage--Effect of pH, Electrolyte and Condition of Homogenization of Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶国华; 陈锦屏; 赵谋明

    2004-01-01

    对酸性红枣松仁复合蛋白饮料的稳定性进行了研究.以离心沉淀率和脂肪分布系数作为测定指标,通过对pH值的选择、磷酸盐电解质的选择及用量和均质工艺的试验,得出:当pH值为4.0、NaH2PO4的用量为0.05%,并采用二段均质法(40MPa、50℃),酸性红枣松仁复合蛋白饮料稳定性最好.

  11. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  12. Study on the Change Law of Stable Nitrogen Isotope in Tissue of Chinese-date%大枣不同组织氮稳定同位素变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红云; 高占锋; 付才; 黄志国; 常志强; 刘悦

    2015-01-01

    For the reason that:some agricultural products which have higher economic value were often simula-ted by the counterfeiters.It was in urgent need of building theirs source database to insure the safety of agricultural products in order to clear the change laws of stable nitrogen isotope in tissue of Chinese-date,and the effect of such factors as breed,region,and sampling time on δ15 N values of in tissue of Chinese-date,as well as to screen the sam-pling location of Chinese-date in origin traceability,it was measured in this paper δ15 N values in tissue of fructus corni,jujube meat,jujube pit as the research object to Zanhuang jujube and jujube in Tai-hang Mountain main pro-ducing areas such as Zanhuang Country,Xingtang Country,Fuping Country.The results showed that:Under the com-prehensive influence of such factors as breed,region,sampling time and year,the difference of δ15 N value sexsited between breeds of Zanhuang jujube and jujube,Zanhuang jujube was higher than that of jujube;And the change law of the two breeds was different:For Zanhuang jujube,jujube pit >jujube meat(P >0.05) >frctus corni( P >0.05),For jujube:jujube meat >frctus corni(P >0.05) >jujube pit(P <0.05).For the reason that the value ofδ15 N had no significant difference in jujube meat between two breeds,it was suggested that we should take jujube meat as sampling location in origin traceability of Chinese-date.The effects of breed,region,and sampling time onδ15 N of jujub meat was co-operational.%为了打击农产品造假,提高农产品质量安全,急需建立特色农产品的溯源数据库。数据库的建立,首先要建立溯源指标体系。以河北省太行山区大枣主产区赞皇县、行唐县、阜平县的赞皇大枣和婆枣为研究对象,测定其皮、肉、核3个组织中的δ15 N 值,以期明确大枣各组织中 N 同位素的变化规律,以及品种、地域、采摘时期等因素对大枣δ15 N 值的作用,筛选出大枣与产地溯源相

  13. Techniques for advancing survival ratio of Ziziphus jujubea cv. Huizao micropropagated shoots in transplanting%提高灰枣试管苗移栽成活率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨录军; 王慧瑜; 梁政杰

    2006-01-01

    研究了影响灰枣(Ziziphus jujuba cv.Huizao)试管苗温室和大田移栽成活的因素.结果表明,木贼镰刀菌[Fusarium equiseti (Corda)Sacc.]引起的立枯病是影响温室移栽成活率的主要因素.使用壮苗,在干净、经过消毒的基质(珍珠岩:蛭石=1:1)上发病率低,成活率高,最高可达93%以上.露天炼苗、适当遮荫、砂壤土栽植可提高试管苗的大田移栽成活率,最高可达95%以上.

  14. Sistemas de polinização de duas espécies frutíferas endêmicas da caatinga : Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae) e Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Lima Nadia, Tarcila

    2005-01-01

    Ziziphus joazeiro e Spondias tuberosa, espécies endêmicas da caatinga, apresentam grande importância econômica pela produção de lenha, carvão e de frutos comestíveis. Apesar de sua importância, há poucos estudos que tratam da biologia floral e da polinização dessas espécies. Este trabalho propõe-se, portanto, a analisar a fenologia reprodutiva, a biologia floral e o sistema de polinização dessas duas espécies frutíferas de caatinga e comparar o grau de similaridade entre os seu...

  15. Studies on the Pollination, Fertilization and Embryo Development of Chinese Date‘Wu-He-Zao'(Ziziphus jujuba)%枣授粉受精及胚胎发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学英; 彭士琪; 郭振怀

    2004-01-01

    The processes about pollination, fertilization and embryo development of Chinese Date ‘Wu-he-zao' (ziziphus jujuba) were observed by means of lightmicrocope combining histochemical dyeing and fluorescent technique. The results were summarized as follows:The pollen grains germinated on the stigma at the 4th hour after pollination. On the 5th day after pollination,the primary endosperm nucleus formed, and the zygote formed on the 6th day. The double fertilization of Wu-he-zao was the type premitotic syngamy. The first division of the zygote took place after a dormancy for about 6 - 7 days. The proembryonal development of Wu-he-zao belonged to the Solanad type. The development of the endosperm belonged to the nuclear type.

  16. 保健型红枣米酒发酵工艺研究初探%Study on Healthy Rice Wine Fermentation Technology of Jujude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙科

    2015-01-01

    以红枣和糯米为原料进行发酵生产保健型红枣米酒发酵工艺的研究,结果认为当红枣原汁添加量为10%,红枣原汁的添加方式为拌曲时添加,主发酵温度为24℃最佳。发酵得到的红枣米酒就具有红枣特有的香气,又具有米酒绵软醇厚的口感,同时具有很强的保健功能。%With red dates and stichy rice as raw material for fermentation study on the production of healthy rice wine fermentation technology of jujube ,add the conclusion that when the jujube juice content of 15 ,when you add a way to mix songs of jujube juice added ,the primary fermentation temperature for the best.jujube rice wine fermentaton by date-specific odor,and rice wine mellow taste,and has a strong and healthy function.

  17. Sharing information and collections on phytoplasmas: from QBOL to QBANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertaccini, Assunta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 phytoplasma strains from 15 ribosomal groups were employed for barcode sequences production. Besides strains in periwinkle, 36 strains in natural infected plants such as napier grass, grapevine, plum, jujube, apple, pear, spartium, pine tree, hibiscus and erigeron were employed. Ba...

  18. Drug: D06925 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nseng [DR:D06772], Jujube [DR:D06758], Pinellia tuber [DR:D06778], (Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712] | Cinnamon branch [ED:E00249]), (Proces...sed ginger [DR:D06702] | Ginger [DR:D06744]) Acute gastritis; Hangover; Stomatitis

  19. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... American Pistachio Growers trade association. III. Response to Comments In this section, EPA describes the... profitable minor crop. For these reasons, EPA concludes it would be appropriate to include Chinese jujube as.... EPA received one comment from the American Pistachio Growers trade association that supported...

  20. Drug: D09076 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09076 Formula, Drug Hainoto Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Platycodon root [DR:D06703], ...Ginger [DR:D06744], Jujube [DR:D06758] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for pus discharge Formula

  1. Drug: D09040 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09040 Formula, Drug Ryokeikansoto Poria sclerotium [DR:D06783], Cinnamon bark [DR:...D06712], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Jujube [DR:D06758] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formula

  2. Drug: D09063 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09063 Formula, Drug Kigikenchuto Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Peony root [DR:D06739], Jujube [DR:D06758], Gin...ger [DR:D06744], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Japanese angelica root [DR:D06768], Sacch

  3. Drug: D06956 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3], Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Ephedra herb [DR:D06791], Jujube [DR:D06758], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Ging...er [DR:D06744], Immature orange [DR:D06706], (Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780] | At

  4. Sharing information and collections on phytoplasmas: from QBOL to QBANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertaccini, Assunta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 phytoplasma strains from 15 ribosomal groups were employed for barcode sequences production. Besides strains in periwinkle, 36 strains in natural infected plants such as napier grass, grapevine, plum, jujube, apple, pear, spartium, pine tree, hibiscus and erigeron were employed. Ba...

  5. 8种落叶乔木抗旱性相关叶片的解剖结构%Drought Resistance of Eight Deciduous Trees and Anatomical Structure of Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓巧; 任媛媛; 刘艳萍; 王念; 王文君

    2013-01-01

    为了探索适合进行屋顶绿化的落叶乔木,对其抗旱性进行早期评价。选取屋顶绿化试验区中的8种常见的庭院观赏落叶乔木为试验材料,观察并统计其10项叶片解剖结构指标,利用模糊数学法中的隶属函数法,对这8种落叶乔木进行了抗旱性综合评价。结果显示:其抗旱性由强到弱的顺序为:构树、黄连木、白榆、刺槐、枣树、臭椿、火炬树、白蜡。利用灰色系统理论,对10项叶片解剖结构指标与抗旱性的关联度进行了分析,探讨其在植物抗旱过程中所起到的作用。%We chose eight kinds of common deciduous trees in roof greening test region to explore the adapted plants in roof greening and evaluate their drought resistance .We observed and statistically analyzed ten anatomical structure indexes of leaves for comprehensive evaluation on drought resistance by applying subordinate function.The drought resistance capabil-ity order from strong to the weak is Broussonetia Papyrifera, Pistacia Chinensis Bunge, Ulmus pumila, Robnia pseudoaca-cia, Ziziphus jujube, Ailanthus altissima ( Mill.) Swingle and Rhus typhina.The correlation of drought resistance and ana-tomical structure indexes was analyzed with grey correlative analysis.

  6. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ, its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10: Cordia dichotoma (10.6, Anchusa italic (10.6, Euphorbia humifusa (4.9, Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9, Ziziphus jujube (4.9, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1, Foeniculum vulgare (4.9, Lavandula angustifolia (4.9, Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9, and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3. Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were 0.999. Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ.

  7. Effect of dormancy improving in mice test of functional food extraction from jujuboside and Poria coco%酸枣仁、茯神功能食品的制备及改善睡眠功效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 李和平; 李更生

    2012-01-01

    The functional food extracted from Jujuboside and Poria coco was given to the mice according to different doses, and to induce sleep afterwards. The sleeping latency time and sleeping time were assayed. The experiment results indicate that the functional food may shorten length of the hypnotic latent period induced by sodium pentobarbital, also can extend the hypnotic lasting time induced by sodium pentobarbital. The results proved that the functional food from Ziziphus jujube Mill and Poria coco could significantly improve the sleep quality of mice and the optimal low dose is obtained.%通过采用酸枣仁、茯神两味药食同源的植物药按照一定的比例提取有效成分,制备成功能食品,不同剂量给药供给小鼠并测定给药后小鼠的入睡率、睡眠潜伏期和睡眠时间,研究其与对照组睡眠质量变化。实验结果显示,本功能食品可以缩短小鼠的睡眠潜伏期时间,也能延长戊巴比妥钠睡眠时间,从而验证了酸枣仁、茯神功能食品改善睡眠的功能并得到了最低给药量。

  8. 云南枣树根围5种拟鞘线虫的记述%Description of five species of Hemicriconemoides nematodes from rhizosphere of Ziziphus jujuba in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽飞; 李卫芬; 洪亮; 周银丽; 胡先奇

    2014-01-01

    During 2010 to 2013,120 samples of Ziziphusjujuba root and rhizospheres were collected from Mengzi County in Yunnan Province. Through morphological observation,5 species of Hemicriconemoides nematodes were identified,which were H. chitwoodi,H. camellia,H. parataiwanensis,H. mangiferae and H. strictathecatus, respectively. Ziziphus jujuba was a new host for these nematodes.%从2010-2013年间,到云南省枣树主要栽培区蒙自等地,采集根际土壤,应用形态学比较的方法,从120份根际土壤中鉴定了5种拟鞘线虫:奇氏拟鞘线虫(Hemicriconemoides chitwoodi)、茶花拟鞘线虫(H.camellia)、拟台湾拟鞘线虫(H.parataiwanensis)、芒果拟鞘线虫(H.mangiferae)和紧鞘拟鞘线虫(H.strictathecatus),枣树是这5种线虫的新寄主。

  9. A NEW ANGULAR FURANOFLAVONOL RHAMNOSIDE FROM SEEDS OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA VAR.SPINOSA(BUNGE) HU%酸枣仁中一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 毕志明; 李萍; 叶文才; 易玲

    2005-01-01

    A new flavonol rhamnoside was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa(Bunge) Hu.The process was as follows:70% EtOH extract of the seeds of this plant was successively partitioned with petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-BuOH;then the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography followed by Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography,to afford the compound.On the basis of spectral analysis and acid hydro-lysis,the structure was confirmed to be an angular furanoflavonol rhamnoside,which is a novel compound,named spinorhamnoside.%对鼠李科植物酸枣仁的化学成分进行了研究,分离得到一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷类化合物.研究流程如下:药材的70%乙醇提取物依次用石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取,乙酸乙酯部分再经过反复硅胶柱层析后得到一个黄酮苷类化合物.经酸水解和波谱分析,其结构确证为一个新的角型呋喃黄酮鼠李糖苷,命名为spinorhamnoside.

  10. ExperimentaI Study of the Hypnotic Effect of the CompatibiIity of Sedum aizoon L.and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa by Increase-decrease BaseIine Geometric Proportion Design Method%基于基线等比增减法的养心草配伍酸枣仁安神药效的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 林珠灿; 张睿卓; 郭素华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the optimal proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa on hypnotic effect .METHODS According to the increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method , different proportion compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa were optimized through observing the pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.RESULTS Compared with the control group,prescrip-tions 3,4 could extent the sleep time significantly and increased the sleep rate (P<0.01),and the prescriptions 3 was best.CONCLUSION Prescriptions 3 is the best proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa.on hypnotic effects.%目的:优选养心草与酸枣仁配伍安神作用的最佳配比。方法采用基线等比增减法拟定养心草与酸枣仁不同比例配伍,观察其对小鼠协同戊巴比妥钠睡眠实验的影响。结果与空白组相比,处方3,4能显著延长小鼠的睡眠时间和增加小鼠入睡率(P<0.01),且以处方3药效最佳。结论处方3为养心草配伍酸枣仁安神作用的最佳比例。

  11. Effects of girdling and ring cutting treatments on growth, fruiting and fruit quality of Dongzao%环剥与环割处理对冬枣生长结果及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晴; 石倩倩; 周军; 胡孟豪; 石卓功; 段安安; 和润喜

    2016-01-01

    With 8-year-old Dongzao (Ziziphus jujuba) as test materials, effects of girdling and ring cutting treatments at different periods on growth, fruiting and fruit quality were studied, in order to provide some theoretical basis for improving cultivation techniques of jujube and enhancing yield and fruit quality. The results showed that the appropriate time of trunk girdling and ring cutting on branches was at blooming period, namely blooming from 30% to 50%, which could signiifcantly improve the fruit setting rate and inflorescence fruit setting rate of Dongzao, and could increase yield. The contents of vitamin C, total acid, total sugar and soluble solids in fruits were increased after girdling and ring cutting. The total sugar content in fruits was more higher, the hardness was lower, and the fruit quality was better in the girdling treatments than those in the ring cutting treatments. At post-blooming period of blooming 60%-80%, the girdling and ring cutting treatments could improve the longitudinal and traverse diameters of fruits and single fruit mass, and could promote fruit enlargement, so in cultivation, girdling or ring cutting could be carried out at full-blooming period, after that, at the post-blooming period, tree could be taken a second handling of girdling or ring cutting according to potential situation of growth. fruit setting rate, soluble solids content, average longitudinal and traverse diameters and single fruit mass of ligniifed bearing shoots were higher than those of the deciduous bearing shoots, so ligniifed bearing shoots should be paid more attention in production, and it is an effective way to enhance yield and quality of jujube fruits.%以8年生冬枣为试材,研究不同时期环剥与环割对冬枣生长结果及果实品质的影响,旨在为改进枣树的栽培技术和提高枣树的产量与枣果质量提供理论依据。结果表明:主干环剥及主枝环割适宜在盛花期即开花30%~50%时进行,可明显提

  12. Screening of total RNA extraction methods for RNA-sequences from different organs inZiziphus jujuba%适于转录组测序的枣不同器官总RNA提取方法筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琦琦; 冯延芝; 林青; 贾宝光; 张琳

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain themethodsfor high-quality total RNA extractionfromlfower,fruit bearing branchandfruit inZiziphus jujuba, takingZ. jujuba cv.'Zhongqiusucui'asmaterials,and the RNA extraction effectswere compared using twokinds of total RNA extractionkits (Ambiogenand Autolab)andmodiifed CTABmethod based on the Autolab RNA extractionkit. Theresults showed thatOD260/OD280values of the RNA extracted by using the three RNA extractionmethods had no signiifcant differences, buta part of RNAs obtained by the two RNA extractionkitswere degraded. The RNAmass concentrationsfromlfower,fruit bearing branchandfruitwere 126, 284and 222 ng/μL by using the RNA extractionkit of Ambiogen; the RNAmass concentrationswere 307, 402and 266 ng/μL by using the RNA extractionkit of Autolab;and the RNAmass concentrationswere 401, 417and 296 ng/μL by using themodiifed CTABmethod based on the Autolab RNA extractionkit,respectively. Themodiifed CTABmethod couldgenerate high-integrity, high-concentrationand high-purity RNA that couldmeet therequest of transcriptome sequencing, comparedwith the two extractionkits.%为获得适用于转录组测序的枣花、结果枝和果实的总RNA提取方法,以中秋酥脆枣为材料,比较分析了Ambiogen和Autolab 2种总RNA提取试剂盒和基于Autolab试剂盒改良的CTAB法的总RNA的提取效果.结果表明:3种方法提取RNA的OD260/OD280差别不大,但用2种试剂盒提取的RNA有降解,其中Ambiogen试剂盒提取的花、结果枝和果实3个器官的RNA质量浓度分别为126、284和222 ng/μL;Autolab试剂盒提取的RNA质量浓度分别为307、402和266 ng/μL;基于Autolab试剂盒改良的CTAB法提取的RNA质量浓度分别为401、417和296 ng/μL.与2种试剂盒相比,基于Autolab试剂盒改良的CTAB法提取出来的RNA完整性好、纯度和浓度高,能够满足转录组测序的要求.

  13. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  14. Assessing the concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in China’s main deciduous fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Ji-yun; ZHAO Duo-yong; WU Yong-long; CHENG Yang; KUANG Li-xue; LI Zhi-xia; XU Wei-hua; WANG Cheng; CHEN Qiu-sheng; LI An; ZHAO Xu-bo; XIE Han-zhong

    2016-01-01

    To assess levels of contamination and human health risk, we analyzed the concentrations of the heavy metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in China’s main deciduous fruits-apple, pear, peach, grape, and jujube. The concentration order of the heavy metals was Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. In 97.5% of the samples, heavy metal concentrations were within the maximum permissible limits. Among the fruits studied, the heavy metal concentrations in jujube and peach proved to be the highest, and those in grape proved to be the lowest. Only 2.2% of the samples were poluted by Ni, only 0.4% of the samples were poluted by Pb, and no samples were poluted by Cd or Cr. Compared with the other fruits, the combined heavy metal polution was signiifcantly higher (PCr>Pb>Cd. The highest DIR came from apple, while the lowest DIR came from grape. For each of the heavy metals, the total DIR from ifve studied fruits corresponded to no more than 1.1% of the tolerable daily intake, indicating that no signiifcant adverse health effects are expected from the heavy metals and the fruits studied. The target hazard quotients and the total target hazard quotients demonstrated that none of the analyzed heavy metals may pose risk to consumers through the fruits studied. The highest risk was posed by apple, folowed in decreasing order by peach and pear, jujube, and grape. We suggest that the main deciduous fruits (apple, pear, peach, grape, and jujube) of China’s main producing areas are safe to eat.

  15. Drug: D09113 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09113 Formula, Drug Shokyoshashinto Pinellia tuber [DR:D06778], Ginseng [DR:D06772], Scutellaria root [DR:D06688], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Jujube [DR:D06758], Coptis rhizome [DR:D00092], Processed ginger [DR:D06702], Ginger [DR:D06744] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for stomach Antidiarrheal formulas D09113 Shokyoshashinto PubChem: 96025793 ...

  16. Design of Solar Combined Drying Device for Kiwi-slices%大枣太阳能组合干燥装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董继先; 李敏敏; 饶嘉琪

    2014-01-01

    为缩短大枣的干燥时间及相应干燥成本,利用中国西北部地区充沛的太阳能资源,设计了槽式太阳能与常规能源相结合作为热源的大枣组合干燥装置。结合大枣的干燥特性,确定了干燥装置的总体结构设计方案,完成了集热、干燥等关键部件设计选型,并对核心部件真空干燥箱进行了改进,使其具有热风、真空两用功能;同时,利用该装置进行了大枣片干燥试验。试验结果表明,应用太阳能组合干燥装置达到了设计目标,缩短了干燥时间,大大降低了能耗,干燥质量明显提高。%In order to reduce drying time and cost in jujube drying process , a jujube combined-drying devices was de-signed with the combination of solar and conventional source as heat energy , based on abundant solar energy resources in Northwest China .The overall structure as well as critical components were designed according to characteristic of jujube . Experimental results suggested that this achievement met the original objective and requirements for quality improvement and energy saving of jujube .

  17. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  18. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  19. 漫灌方式下幼龄枣树林地土壤水分的运移特征%Characteristics of soil water transportation in young Ziziphus jujuba forest land under flood irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞琪; 刘华; 李宏; 李丕军

    2013-01-01

    In order to know the characteristics of soil water transportation in young Ziziphus jujuba forest land in Akesu area, south of Xinjiang area under flood irrigation, infiltration rate, moisture interval of soil, and irrigation cycle were measured by EM50 soil temperature and humidity meter . The results were as follows: (1) The maximum soil water content was 36.8 %, 38.7%, and 39.0% in -20 cm, -60 cm, and -60 cm soil layers when the quantity of water supply was 80 m3, 120 m3, and 160 m3 per acreage, respectively. (2) During the irrigation, the mean transportation rate of soil water was 3.74 min per cm. (3) The moisture interval of soil was increased with a great quantity of water supply, while it was low with a small quantity of water supply. The moisture interval was 0-60 cm, 0-80 cm, and 0-100 cm when the quantity of water supply was 80 m3, 120 m3, and 160 m3 per acreage, respectively. (4) In the process of irrigation, the relationship among the moisture interval of soil (Y), quantity of water supply(X1), and irrigation time(X2) was fitted for y=0.347X1+0.364X2 - 65.538. (5) When the quantity of water supply increased 40 m3 per acreage, the irrigation cycle would increase 2-4 d, correspondingly.%以枣树林中空地为对照,研究漫灌条件下新疆阿克苏地区幼龄枣树林地土壤水分的运移规律,并用EM50测定土壤含水量的变化,以确定不同灌水量下的枣树林地土壤水分的下渗速率、土壤湿润区间、灌溉周期,为枣树的精准灌溉提供科学依据.结果表明:(1)灌水量为80、120和160 m3·亩-1时,枣树林地土壤最大含水量分别为36.8%、38.7%和39.0%,含水量最高的土层分别在-20 cm、-60 cm和-60 cm范围处.(2)在灌溉过程中,土壤水分的运移速率平均为3.74 min·cm-1.(3)随灌水量的增加,幼龄枣树林地土壤湿润区间也在增大,灌水量为80、120和160 m3·亩-1的土壤湿润区间分别为0~-60 cm、0~-80 cm和0~-100 cm. (4)土壤水分湿润区间

  20. 北京不同类型居住区树种组成结构及其三维空间配置%Tree species composition and three-dimensional configure in different types of residential areas in Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄光发; 任启文; 李伟; 杨颖; 王成

    2011-01-01

    Taking three types of residential areas in Beijing as the objects, this paper analyzed the tree species composition, relative important value, and three-dimensional configure in diameter at breast height (DBH) , height, and crown coverage. In all types of the residential areas, there existed common key tree species, and also, unique dominant species. Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica, and Platycladus orientalis were the common key species with higher important value; tall and straight species Paidewnia fortunei, Cedrus deodara, P. Canadensis, and Ginkgo biioba were the important species in enterprise-institution residential areas; traditionally native species such as Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis, and Ziziphus jujube were the essential components in Hutong residential areas; and excellent landscape tree species such as Robinia pseudoacacia, Pinus tabulaeformis, Salix babylonicay and S. Japonica cv. Pendula had valuable traits in mixed residential areas. As for the tree species three-dimensional configure, the overall distribution in DBH, height, and crown coverage in the three types of residential areas all presented a great development potential, being still at a rapid growth phase. With larger green space,enterprise-institution residential areas had significantly higher tree density, crown coverage, average DBH, and height than the other two types of residential areas; due to the limited green land, Hutong residential areas were difficult to increase the green biomass to a higher level; whereas mixed residential areas had considerable potential in the increase of green space.%以北京城区3种不同类型居住区为对象,对其树种组成、相对重要程度以及在胸径、树高和树冠等级上的三维空间配置结构进行了分析.结果表明:不同类型居住区既有相同的核心树种又有各自的特色主导树种,其中,毛白杨(Populus tomentosa)、国槐(Sophora japonica)和侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)是各类居住

  1. “Who Began This Art? From Whence Did It Emerge?”: A Hermetic Frame Story on the Origins of Alchemy in Pseudo-Ibn Waḥshīya’s The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Braun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the context of a Hermetic frame story in the pseudepigraphical alchemical treatise The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary (Kitāb Sidrat almuntahā. The treatise is attributed to a prominent figure in the Arabic occult sciences, Abū Bakr b. Waḥshīya (fl. first half of the 4th/10th century. It was written in the form of a dialogue between the protagonist, Ibn Waḥshīya, and an alchemist from the Islamic West, al-Maghribī al-Qamarī. The last section of the introductory dialogue between these two characters consists of a frame story on the origins of alchemy and a legend of discovery (Fundlegende that introduces a cosmogony and an allegorical depiction of the process of transmutation. Both the frame story and the legend of discovery abound in Hermetic motifs and topoi known from other Greek and Arabic alchemical treatises. The exposition of the different prevailing theories on the beginnings of alchemy reflects, moreover, historical phenomena, such as the Graeco-Arabic translation movement and the shu‘ūbīya controversy. Consistent with the literary tradition of the Arabic Hermetica, Ancient Egypt emerges in this treatise as the cradle of alchemy; however, I suggest that more than merely literary convention, such evocations express a genuine fascination with Ancient Egypt and its surviving material culture. In this respect, the littleknown genre of Arabic books on hidden treasure might shed new light on common Hermetic narratives and their circulation in Arabic occult literature.

  2. 骏枣花期喷施叶面剂(肥)的保花保果效果试验%Effect of Increasing Fruit Setting by Using Foliar Fertilizer during Flowering on Junzao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩茹; 宋卫; 玉山·库尔班; 梁刚

    2015-01-01

    2013-2014年用7种叶面剂(肥)进行了骏枣保花保果田间试验,结果表明,4%赤霉酸乳油、75%赤霉酸结晶粉、0.01%芸苔素内酯乳油对骏枣枣吊坐果率和单株产量的提高有明显效果,与对照比较均可提高39%和68%以上;其次是0.1%噻苯隆可溶性液剂,与对照相比,可使骏枣枣吊坐果率和单株产量分别提高27%和65%;其他叶面剂(肥)效果稍低,但与对照比较,也可提高11%和22%以上。%The test of increasing set of fruit by using seven kinds of foliar fertilizer was did during 2013-2014 on Junzao .The result showed that foliar fertilizer could produce high fruit setting rate and yield per tree .The setting rate of shedding shoot of jujube could increase 39% and yield per tree could increase 4% using emulsifiable concen‐trate of gibberellic acid ,75% crystal powder of gibberellic acid and 0 .01% emulsifiable concentrate of emulsifiable concentrate comparing without using it .The setting rate of shedding shoot of jujube could increase 27% and yield per tree could increase 65% using thidiazuron soluble liquid comparing without using it .The setting rate of shedding shoot of jujube could increase 11% and yield per tree could increase 22% using other foliar fertilizers comparing without using it .

  3. Effects of Jujuba essential oil on hair follicle of the skin of Balb/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Shadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of jujube seed oil on the hair follicle in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male BALB/c mice (2.5 months of age were used. A 4 cm2of the back of animal’s body shaved with wax. The mice were then divided into five groups (n=8. The first three groups received Jujube oil concentrations 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively.The fourth and fifth groups were selected as the baseand sham control groups, respectively. The animals received topical treatment of jujuba seed oil for 12 day. Base and control groups received Ocerin and water respectively. After passing 12 day, back skin of animals was shaved againby wax and the treatment was repeated again for further 12 days. At 13th day the animals were sacrificed  and  samples  were collected and tissue processing  and staining were performed.Data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests with the 22th version of SPSS sofware. Results: This study showed that mean number of hair follicles in the skin of 5% jujuba essence treated group(37.75±6.6, 10% jujuba (42.75±8.3, 15% jujuba (41.25±6.2 was meaningful higher than the base (18.50±3.1and sham (15±2.1 groups. Furthermore, we  also showed  that the  number of hair papilla, fibroblast cells and collagen fibers  were increased in the  treatment groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion: Based on our study, Jujube essensial oil can have very positive effects on improving hair growth and can be used for hair losing clinical trial.

  4. BGA土壤调理剂在缺水土壤上的施用效果%Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Water Shortage Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 王峰; 许强; 刘廷俊; 尚红莺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了缓解宁夏中部干旱带土壤缺水问题,提高水分生产效率和土地生产力.[方法]通过田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂对缺水土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响.[结果]与不施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了缺水土壤物理性质,促进了马铃薯、压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜和不覆膜条件下马铃薯产量,改善了红枣品质;与配方施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂促进了压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜产量,改善了红枣品质.[结论]如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,那么BGA土壤调理剂改良缺水土壤是可行的.%[Objective] The research aimed to relieve soil water shortage problem in the middle arid belt of Ningxia, and increase water use efficiency and land productivity. [Method] Through field plot experiment, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on physical and chemical properties of water shortage soil and the growth of crops was studied. [ Result ] Compared with no fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved the physical properties of water shortage soil, promoted the growth of potato, watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of potato without plastic film mulch and watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner promoted the growth of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. [ Conclusion ] It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve water shortage soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner was reduced or BGA soil conditioner was applied with chemical fertilizers together.

  5. FRUITS AND SIMILES AND METAPHORS ON FRUITS IN CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE (DIVAN POETRY / DIVAN SIIRINDE MEYVELER VE MEYVELERDEN HAREKETLE YAPILAN TESBIH VE MECAZLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdülkerim GÜLHAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have surveyed 40 divans belonging differentcenturies and different regions in classical TurkishLiterature. Đn the works we have looked up, poets used fruitnames such as pear, quince, almond, hickory, apple, plum,filbert, peanut, date palm, jujube, oleaster, fig, coffee,watermelon, melon, apricot, cherry, lemon, pomegranate,peach, bitter orange, grape, morello, olive and mademetaphor regarding their trees, forms, tastes, colors, flowersand functions. Many characteristical features of “the lovedone” were given with word games on fruits.

  6. 微量营养素及中草药大枣对糖尿病大鼠抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常红; 车素萍; 刘莉; 王永明

    2003-01-01

    @@ 糖尿病是以糖代谢紊乱为主的全身性疾病,其与自由基的关系正在引起人们的广泛关注.本研究选用四氧嘧啶诱发大鼠实验性糖尿病,同时观察微量营养素大枣(micronutrients complex Chinese medicinal herbs-jujube,MCHJ)和中草药大枣(Chinese medicinal herbs-iuiube,CHJ)对糖尿病大鼠抗氧化能力的影响.

  7. 火焰原子吸收光谱法测定Borojo果及其制品中的8种微量元素%Determination of Eight Trace Elements in South American Fruit Borojo by FAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟平; 焦红; 孙超; 胡烨敏; 陈元浩

    2012-01-01

    Borojo fruit is a natural fruit which contained high potassium and low sodium which is a good food source for supplement of potassium, calcium and magnesium. To detect the content of eight kinds of trace elements by FAAS: copper, iron, magnesium, zinc, manganese, potassium, sodium, calcium in Borojo fruit and its products, and to provide a scientific basis for the development and deep processing of Borojo efficacy. Samples were digested by nitric acid overnight and were detected for six times by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The pre-treatment method was rapid, reproducible and reagentless. The recovery was between 94% and 104% and the relative standard deviation was no more than 3.15%. The contents of eight trace elements in Borojo freeze-dried powder were about 3 times more than those in the fruit. The concentrations of trace elements in enzymatic hydrolysis concentrated powder were higher than that in freeze-dried powder. The copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron and sodium in concentrated powder were 5, 7,1.08, 1.16,1.22,1.12, 1.23 and 55 times respectively higher than those in freeze-dried powder. The ratios of potassium to sodium in Borojo fruit, freeze-dried powder and concentrated powder were 2435:1, 2870:1 and 63:1, respectively. The proportion of eight trace elements in Borojo was similar with that in ziziphus jujube, durian and dried dates, while Borojo contained more magnesium.%Borojo果是一种天然的高钾低钠水果,是补充钾、钙和镁优良的食品来源.本文用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定Borojo果及其制品中铜、铁、镁、锌、锰、钾、钠、钙8种微量元素的含量,为Borojo果功效开发及深加工提供科学依据.样品经硝酸消解过夜,重复测定6次,计算精密度.方法前处理简单快速,重复性好,试剂用量小,加标回收率在94%104%之间,相对标准偏差≤3.15%.Borojo冷冻干燥粉中8种微量元素分别是果肉的3倍左右.酶解浓缩粉中

  8. 胡芦巴种子不同溶剂提取物及提取工艺对植物果实致病菌的抑菌作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明昱; 王颖; 崔新仪; 杨晓君

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose of this writing is to expIore the antibacteriaI activity of the extract from the seeds of Trigonella foenum -graecum L. For pIant disease caused by bacteria and screen out the best soIvent extraction process. [ Method ] Extract was taken from seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum L. By ethanoI, ethyI acetate and water to expIore the impact of colletrotrichum gloeosporioildes, Valsa mali and Jujube rotten bacteria by it. Result The different extracted soIvents from the seeds of Trigonella foenum -graecum L. Have antibacteriaI effects for colletrotrichum gloeosporioildes and Valsa mali and Jujube rotten bacteria, and the best antimicrobiaI effect is the extract by ethanoI. The best technics to extract the soIvent from the seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum L. Is to use 80% ethanoI. The ratio of the IiGuid - soIid is l:l5 , at 60 ℃ for 2 h extraction. [ conclusion ] The extracted soIvents form the seeds of Trigonella foenum -graecum L. Have the bacteriostatic effect in the order Iike this ethanoI concentration > extraction time > extraction temperature > IiGuid - solid ratio.

  9. Classification of Chinese honeys according to their floral origin by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanzhen; Wang, Jiahua; Ye, Zhihua; Zhao, Jing; Xue, Xiaofeng; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Sun, Qian

    2012-11-15

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as tools to classify Chinese honey samples according to their different floral origins was explored. Five kinds of honey, namely, acacia, linden, rape, vitex and jujube, were analysed using a NIR spectrophotometer with a fibre optic probe. Classification models based on the NIR spectra were developed using Mahalanobis-distance discriminant analysis (MD-DA) and a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). By the MD-DA model, total correct classification rates of 87.4% and 85.3% were observed for the calibration and validation samples, respectively, while the ANN model resulted in total correct classification rates of 90.9% and 89.3% for the calibration and validation sets, respectively. By ANN, the respective correct classification rates of linden, acacia, vitex, rape and jujube were 97.1%, 94.3%, 80.0%, 97.1%, and 85.7% in calibration, and 100%, 93.3%, 80.0%, 100%, and 73.3% in validation. The results indicated that NIR combined with a classification technique could be a suitable technology for the classification of Chinese honeys from different botanical origins.

  10. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber (Ziziphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... and nutrition, and economic welfare of rural communities in southern Africa ... cultivars in India are known to store for up to 15 days ... The experiment was set up as a randomised complete block ..... fruits during storage indicates development of browning. ... Zimbabwe with funding from the United Kingdom.

  11. Traditional processing of masau fruits (Ziziphus mauritiana) in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of the traditional processing techniques of masau was conducted using a questionnaire and two focus group discussions in Mudzi, Mt. Darwin, and Muzarabani districts in Zimbabwe. Masau fruits form part of the family diet and generate additional income by selling at local markets. Surplus fru

  12. Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract emulsion for skin rejuvenation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... the safety of synthetic antioxidants, thus ... plays a significant role. ..... documented antimicrobial activity [12], which ... in patients with inflammatory skin diseases.

  13. 临泽红枣的功能特性及其在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉麒

    2014-01-01

    临泽红枣肉质细嫩,酥脆多汁,具有地域优势,富含环磷酸腺苷、三萜类化合物和二磷酸腺苷,随着新品种的不断研发和技术改造,实现了企业增效、农民增收、财政增税的目标。%Linze red jujube is tender meat, crisp and juicy, with geographical advantage, and rich in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) , triterpenoids and adenosine diphosphate. With the continuous development and transformation of new varieties to achieve the business efficiency and rural incomes, fiscal taxe increase.

  14. Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko as an alternative treatment for chronic tonsillitis to avoid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Fumiyki; Asama, Youji; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2010-11-01

    Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko (TJ-109) is composed of 9 herbs (gypsum, Bupleurum root, Pinellia tuber, Scutellaria root, Platycodon root, jujube fruit, ginseng root, Glycyrrhiza root, and ginger rhizome). It is a folk medicine that has been used to treat pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis. The efficacy of TJ-109 for treating patients with chronic tonsillitis was investigated. Ten outpatients who experienced chronic tonsillitis for more than 2 years were recruited. TJ-109 was prescribed, and after one year of daily treatment the incidence of acute tonsillitis before and after the treatment was compared. The incidence of acute tonsillitis due to chronic tonsillitis decreased in all 7 patients who were followed up. No adverse events were observed in any of the patients. In conclusion, the herbal medicine TJ-109 effectively reduced the incidence of acute tonsillitis. In some cases, planned tonsillectomy was avoided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physiochemical, Biochemical, Minerals Content Analysis, and Antioxidant Potential of National and International Honeys in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 16 honey samples from Pakistan and two other countries were investigated for their physiochemical, biochemical, minerals, and antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activities of all honey samples were performed by using percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical, AEAC, and FRAP. 5-HMF and mineral contents were determined by HPLC and AAS, respectively. The obtained values of respective parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, total acidity, moisture, ash, color intensity, sugars, proline, and protein were in compliance with codex standard and recommendation of council directive by European Union. The total phenolics contents in acacia honey from Germany and jujube honey from Pakistan are similar to monofloral honey from Saudi Arabia and Yemen, respectively. The mineral contents in tested honey samples are comparable with honey from Brazil and Romania. Dark color honeys contained higher phenolic contents than light color ones and attributed to higher oxidation potential and have strong positive correlation with DPPH and FRAP.

  16. Drug: D06944 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06944 Formula, Drug Keishikajutsubuto Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Peony root [DR:D06739], Jujube [DR:D06758], Atractylodes lancea rhizome [DR:D06752], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Ginger [DR:D06744], Processed aconite root [DR:D06784] Arthralgia; Neuralgic Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06944 Keishikajutsubuto Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for warming the interior Formulas for warming the interior D06944 *Keishikajutsubuto Formulas for dampness Antirheumatic formulas D06944 *Keishikajutsubuto PubChem: 51091286 ...

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  18. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory-derived NO emission from soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis centre, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three-dimensional (3-D) NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modelled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory-derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  19. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China): MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory derived NO emission from soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, B.; Behrendt, T.; Badawy, M. M.; Wagner, T.; Qi, Y.; Wu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.

    2014-07-01

    We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW-China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis center, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i) soil moisture and (ii) soil temperature of Milan oasis' (iii) different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert) were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol-Transport) was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three dimensional NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution) have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modeled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration) of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical) NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2) to the size of an entire agricultural

  20. Tropospheric vertical column densities of NO2 over managed dryland ecosystems (Xinjiang, China: MAX-DOAS measurements vs. 3-D dispersion model simulations based on laboratory derived NO emission from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mamtimin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 over an oasis-ecotone-desert ecosystem in NW-China. There, local ambient NO2 concentrations originate from enhanced biogenic NO emission of intensively managed soils. Our target oasis "Milan" is located at the southern edge of the Taklimakan desert, very remote and well isolated from other potential anthropogenic and biogenic NOx sources. Four observation sites for MAX-DOAS measurements were selected, at the oasis center, downwind and upwind of the oasis, and in the desert. Biogenic NO emissions in terms of (i soil moisture and (ii soil temperature of Milan oasis' (iii different land-cover type sub-units (cotton, Jujube trees, cotton/Jujube mixture, desert were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. Net potential NO fluxes were up-scaled to oasis scale by areal distribution and classification of land-cover types derived from satellite images using GIS techniques. A Lagrangian dispersion model (LASAT, Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol-Transport was used to calculate the dispersion of soil emitted NO into the atmospheric boundary layer over Milan oasis. Three dimensional NO concentrations (30 m horizontal resolution have been converted to 3-D NO2 concentrations, assuming photostationary state conditions. NO2 column densities were simulated by suitable vertical integration of modeled 3-D NO2 concentrations at those downwind and upwind locations, where the MAX-DOAS measurements were performed. Downwind-upwind differences (a direct measure of Milan oasis' contribution to the areal increase of ambient NO2 concentration of measured and simulated slant (as well as vertical NO2 column densities show excellent agreement. This agreement is considered as the first successful attempt to prove the validity of the chosen approach to up-scale laboratory derived biogenic NO fluxes to ecosystem field conditions, i.e. from the spatial scale of a soil sample (cm2 to the size of an entire

  1. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  2. Characterization and cation exchange capacity of seeds of Ziziphus spina-christi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia M. Sirry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several naturally existing materials have ability to utilize as ion-exchangers. Most of these materials are by-products of waste material from industry or agriculture. Agriculture ion exchange materials include: lemon orange, grapefruit, apple, peas, broad bean, and meddler peels, kernel core, and grape skins. This research deals with the utilization of agriculture waste biomass of napak seed as natural cation exchanger for removal of cationic pollutant from aqueous solution. Methylene blue dye method was used to determine the cation exchange capacity of the stone and it was characterized by IR and TGA methods. The results showed that the highest dye sorption capacity was found at pH 7, the equilibrium time was 60 min, sorbent dose = 0.1g, particle size 177μm and methylene blue concentration range 10-50 ppm. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afrisham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of alpha-amylase was led to a delay in breaks down of starch and glycogen and prevented a rapid rise in blood sugar. Alpha-amylase was isolated by gel filtration chromatography Sephadex G-75 from bovine pancreas. Then, total methanolic extracts of plants were prepared and IC50 values of extracts on alpha-amylase were obtained and compared with acarbose IC50. The polyphenolic content of extracts and antioxidant capacity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH test, respectively. The specific activity of alpha-amylase was 48.2 U/mg. For inhibition of alpha-amylase, IC50 values of H. persicum, Z. jujuba, and acarbose were 307, 827, and 113 μg/ml, respectively. For inhibition of DPPH radical, IC50 values of extracts were 235 and 701 μg/ml. Total phenolic contents of methanol extracts were 73.8±3.2 and 44.2±1.8 μg tannic acid equivalent/mg extract. Acarbose causes gastrointestinal symptoms and liver toxicity, but H. persicum and Z. jujuba decrease these side effects and prevent gastrointestinal disorders. Due to the high polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these plants and significant inhibitory effect of the plants on alpha-amylase, these plants can be proposed for treatment of diabetic patients.

  4. 冬枣轮纹病病原真菌的分离及其拮抗菌的初筛%Isolation of the Pathogenic Fungus of Ring Grain Disease and Screening of Its Antagonistic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪红; 王宝琴

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus of ring grain disease of Winter Jujubes was isolated,screened and identified, and its antagonistic bacterium was determined. Taking the fruits infected by ring grain disease of Winter Jujubes as the target,the pathogenic fungus of ring grain disease was confirmed by reinoculating test. The pathogenic fungus was identified by the morphological characteristics and ITS sequence analysis. Moreover,culturing characteristics, intracellular toxin and extracellular toxin was studied. The antagonistic bacterium was screened using the confront antibiotic culture experiment,and it was identified using the morphological,physiological and biochemical character-istics combined with 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The pathogenic fungus was successfully screened from the fruits infected by ring grain disease. Based on its morphology,cultural characteristics as well as ITS sequence analy-sis,the pathogenic fungus was identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea. The single factor experiments show that the op-timal carbon sources,nitrogen sources,pH,growth temperature were sucrose,peptone,5,27 ℃,respectively. One bacterium isolated from the local soil showed strong antagonistic activity against the pathogenic fungus of ring grain disease,and it was identified as Bacillus sp. . The strain of Bacillus sp. has a potential application in the biological control to the ring grain disease of Winter Jujubes.%以患轮纹病的冬枣果肉组织作为分离对象,将筛选出的真菌经单孢分离纯化后进行回接试验。依据回接试验中接菌枣果的发病症状确定出冬枣轮纹病的病原真菌,并通过其形态特征、培养特性及ITS序列分析对该菌株进行鉴定。摸索该病原菌的最适培养条件,同时测定了该病原菌的胞内毒素及胞外毒素的毒力。利用平板对峙培养法筛选有拮抗作用的细菌,并进行该拮抗细菌的形态特征观察、生理生化试验及16S rDNA序列分析。结果表明:本研

  5. Content Determination of Vitamin C in Several Market Fruit by Spectrophotofluorimetry in Tianjin%荧光分光光度法测定几种天津市售水果中维生素C的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅维; 杨彩霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为人们正确补充营养素和合理膳食提供科学依据.[方法]采用荧光分光光度法测定了纽荷尔脐橙、草莓、樱桃、芒果、木瓜、圣女果、鲜枣、山楂等水果的维生素C含量.[结果]维生素C含量测定的标准曲线回归方程为:y=2.114 5x -0.887 6,R2 =0.9946.纽荷尔脐橙、草莓、樱桃、芒果、木瓜、圣女果、鲜枣、山楂等市售水果富含维生素C.市售草莓的维生素C含量是462 mg/kg,市售纽荷尔脐橙的维生素C含量是52.8 mg/kg,市售木瓜的维生素C含量是41.2mg/kg,市售芒果的维生素C含量是22.3 mg/kg;市售樱桃的维生素C含量是9.8 mg/kg;市售鲜枣的维生素C含量是231.7 mg/kg;市售山楂的维生素C含量是51.2 mg/kg,市售圣女果的维生素C含量是30.2mg/kg.[结论]天津市售水果中含有丰富的维生素C,通过食用水果,可以补充人体所需的维生素C.%[Objective]The research aimed to supply scientific basis for correct nutriments supplementation and rational diet of people. [ Method] The contents of vitamin C in the fruit of Newhall navel orange,strawberry,cherry,mango,pawpaw,cherry tomato,fresh jujube and haw were determined by spectrophotofluorimetry. [ Result ] The regression equation of standard curve of content determination of vitamin C was y = 2. 114 5 x -0. 887 6,R2 =0. 994 6. The market fruit of Newhall navel orange,strawberry,cherry,mango,pawpaw,cherry tomato,fresh jujube and haw were rich in vitamin C. The contents of vitamin C in market strawberry,Newhall navel orange,pawpaw,mango,cherry,fresh jujube,haw and cherry tomato were 462,52.8,41.2,22.3,9.8,231.7,51.2 and 30.2 mg/kg resp. [ Conclusion ] The market fruit of Tianjin were rich in vitamin C,the required vitamin C of human body could be supplemented through eating fruit.

  6. 微波热风两段式干燥法生产婴幼儿保健糯米粉%Production of infant health glutinous rice powder by two stages method of microwave and hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤霞; 蒋欣欣; 陈守江; 于雷; 江铃

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the taste cold empty and abdominal distension diarrhea of infants,the edible traditional Chinese medicine poria cocos,dioscorea opposita thunb,lotus seed,and jujube were added into glutinous rice powder,and then the health glutinous rice powder was developed for infants.The curves of hot air and microwave drying were drawn based on a single factor experiment,and the best drying parameters were determined according to the orthogonal test under two dry optimal conditions,the best proportion of raw materials was determined by other orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the best parameters of dying were microwave 300W,1.5min,and then hot air drying 70℃,2h.The best ratio of raw material was 14g poria cocos and jujube,10g dioscorea opposita thunb,8g lotus seed were added into 100g glutinous rice,and 24% xylitol was added after being smashed.The combination drying method of hot-air drying with microwave drying could effectively keep raw natural composition and good sensory properties when health care glutinous rice powder was produced.%以糯米粉为基料,添加药食同源的中药茯苓、淮山药、莲子、红枣,开发一种能调理婴幼儿脾胃虚寒、腹胀腹泻的即食型糯米粉。依据单因素实验绘制热风和微波干燥曲线,并根据两种干燥的最适条件进行正交实验,确定最佳干燥参数;然后用正交实验对原辅料进行最佳配比实验。结果表明:原辅料最佳配比为100g基料中添加茯苓和红枣各14g,淮山药10g,莲子8g;先用300W微波干燥1.5min,后70℃热风干燥2h;粉碎后添加24%的木糖醇。采用微波热风联合干燥法生产即食型保健糯米粉可有效保持原料固有成分,且具有良好的感官性状。

  7. Anti-clogging Emitter and Root-zone Drip Irrigation Technology%抗堵塞滴头研制与根际滴灌技术集成应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣慧; 汪有科; 刘守阳; 雷战随; 杨开宝

    2012-01-01

    Root system of the economic forests mainly distributes in deep soil.As a result of the water scarcity in the mountainous region,there is not sufficient drip irrigation water infiltrating into the root system layer.In addition,the emitter clogs up easily when irrigation water is carried to the root-zone by subirrigation.To tackle these problems,a kind of multivariable anti-clogging emitter was developed.Proved by different irrigation technologies applied into jujube in mountainous region,compared with jujube without irrigation,drip irrigation,subirrigation and root-zone drip irrigation could increase yields by 12 075,15 145 and 15 150 kg/hm2,respectively,while the increasing of water use efficiency was 66.94%,72.07% and 72.07%.And drip irrigation,subirrigation and root-zone irrigation got more net income,62 536.0,73 494.0,76 086.0 yuan/hm2,than without irrigation.The depreciation period of drip irrigation,subirrigation,root-zone was 8,6 and 12 years.%为了解决滴灌水直接输送根际和滴头堵塞的技术问题,开发研制了一种可埋于地下的多变量抗堵塞滴头。经山地红枣不同灌溉试验证明,滴灌、渗灌、根际滴灌产量比不灌溉分别增产12 075、15 145和15 150kg/hm2;WUE分别提高66.94%、72.07%、72.07%,净收入分别增加62 536.0、73 494.0、76 086.0元/hm2。滴灌、渗灌、根际滴灌年使用折旧期分别为8、6、12年。

  8. Agroforestry and its Application in Amelioration of Saline Soils in Eastern China Coastal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianfeng; Xing Shangjun; Li Jiyue; F.Makeschin; Song Yumin

    2004-01-01

    Some environmental problems, especially soil salinity hinder the regional sustainable development of eastern China coastal region. Salinity mainly comes from tide weave, seawater flooding and seawater intrusion. Over exploitation of groundwater, which is the result of unfitful land use systems, leads to seawater intrusion and salt concentration increase. Agroforestry systems can enrich soil fertility and prevent soil salinization, furthermore help maintain biodiversity and enhance productivity. For the intergrated multiple ecosystems the most critical issue is to select optimum tree species and rationally arrange these plants. The basics of this multiple ecosystem is that different plants will occupy variable ecological niches within an area, both in space and in soil depth. Shelterbelts and trees intercropping with agricultural crops are major types of the multiple ecosystem. Shelterbelts can reduce wind speed and consequently lessen evaporation and erosion of the soil, increase pasture growth by up to 60% on exposed sites, increase crop yields by up to 25%. Besides intercropping with jujube, other agroforestry multiple ecosystem such as forestry plus agriculture, forestry plus agriculture plus fishery, and forestry plus animal husbandry are the most appropriate ways to utilise land resource in this region.

  9. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chen, Lih-Chi; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In addition to modern medicinal therapy, many cancer patients in Taiwan are treated regularly with herbal medicines or prescribed a traditional herbal diet. In this paper, the effect of a Taiwanese traditional herbal diet (TTHD) on pain in terminal cancer patients was investigated. A total of 2,466 patients diagnosed with a variety of cancers were included. The most common patient-reported symptoms included troublesome pain (79.2%), weakness (69.0%), anorexia (46.4%), fever (36.5%), dyspnea (31.1%), and leg edema (30.9%). The 2,466 terminal cancer patients included in the study were randomly divided into three groups. The TTHD group (n=1044; 42.3%) were given the TTHD consisting of analgesic herbs (paeony root: licorice root=1:1) and a Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup (Lilii bulbus, Nelumbo seed, and Jujube fruit). The remaining patients were divided into a reference group, given the regular hospital diet, (n=909, 36.9%) and a control group, given the Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup without analgesic herbs, (n=513, 20.8%). All patients maintained their assigned diets for one week. A verbal numerical scale was used to assess pain. Results revealed that the patients given TTHD reported enhanced pain relief (ppain among terminal cancer patients thereby supporting the supposition that Eastern and Western medicines can be effectively co-administered to enhance terminal patient's quality of life. Further research is warranted.

  10. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  11. Optimization of Acetic Acid Fermentation Technology of Gujube Vinegar%枣醋醋酸发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑战伟; 张宝善; 王静; 陈菁; 祁春燕

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of previous studies, the author studied jujube vinegar fermented by static fermentation, and the four single factors on the impact of acetic acid fermentation. The results showed that acetic acid fermentation temperature reached 32T, kiwi mash with the acidity levels of 2.4g/100mL added 6.67%, the ratio of membrane area and volume of wort was 0.2cm2/ml, and the alcohol into acetic acid fermentation was adjusted to 9%. While the orthogonal test to optimize the design, the optimal combination was obtained.%文章在前人研究用表面静止法发酵酿制枣醋的基础上,进一步研究探讨了四个单因素对其醋酸发酵产酸含量的影响,得出结论:醋酸发酵温度为35℃,添加含量为6.67%,酸度为2.4g/100mL的猕猴桃醪液,膜面积与醪液体积比为0.2cm2/mL,调整进入醋酸发酵时酒精度至9%,同时通过正交试验对其进行优化设计,得出最优组合.

  12. Drug: D09064 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09064 Formula, Drug Kyukichoketsuindaiichikagen Japanese angelica root [DR:D06768], Cnidium rhizome [DR:D06748], Rehmannia root [DR:D06736], (Atractylodes lancea rhizome [DR:D06752] | Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780]), Poria sclerotium [DR:D06783], Citrus unshiu peel [DR:D06764], Lindera root [DR:D06696], Cyperus rhizome [DR:D06719], Moutan bark [DR:D06788], Leonuri herba [DR:D06913], Jujube [DR:D06758], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], (Dry ginger [DR:D06744] | Processed ginger [DR:D06702]), Peony root [DR:D06739], Peach kernel [DR:D06769], Safflower [DR:D06717], Immature orange [DR:D06706], Cinnamon bark [DR:D06712], Achyranthes root [DR:D06722], Saussurea root [DR:D06795], Corydalis tuber [DR:D06686] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for blood Formulas for replenishing blood D09064 Kyukichoketsuindaiichikagen PubChem: 96025745 ...

  13. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi Babak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Today, cardiovascular diseases are the prominent cause of death in industrialized countries which include a variety of diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, heart failure, etc. Recent research findings haveshown that not only the extent of cultivation and production of medicinal plants have not beenreduced, but also day-to-day production and consumption have increased. In traditional botanicalknowledge, herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. In this study,we sought to gather and report medicinal plants used to treat these diseases in different regionsof Iran.Methods: The articles published about ethnobotanical study of cardiovascular diseases in variousregions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan, Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan andIlam were prepared and summarized.Results: The results of ethnobotanical studies of various regions of Iran, such as Arasbaran, Sistan,Kashan, Kerman, Isfahan Mobarakeh, Lorestan and Ilam were gathered. The results showed thatsumac plants, barberry, yarrow, wild cucumber, horsetail, Eastern grape, hawthorn, wild rose,spinach, jujube, buckwheat, chamomile, chicory, thistle, Mary peas, nightshade, verbena, sorrel ,cherry, citrullus colocynthis, Peganum harmala, sesame and so many other plants are used for thetreatment of cardiovascular diseases and disorders.Conclusion: Herbal medicines are used effectively for some cardiovascular diseases. Rigoroustraining of patients to take precautions and drug interactions into account and to avoid thearbitrary use of medicinal plants is very important.

  14. 发酵型黑莓醋饮料的研究%Study on the Production of Fermenting Blackberry Vinegar Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣妹; 吴广黔; 周剑丽

    2012-01-01

    Blackberry vinegar juice was prepared by alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation of flesh blackberry. The optimum technical pa- rameters were determined and the recipe of vinegar beverage was summed up by orthogonal experiments as follows: 20 % blackberry vinegar juice, 10 % jujube juice, and 8 % sweetener (xylitol, sugar candy and honey). Besides, the technology of high temperature instant sterilization was adopted in the production of blackberry vinegar beverage. (Tran, by YUE Yang)%以新鲜黑莓(Blackeny)为原料,经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制取黑莓醋汁。通过试验,得出了黑莓醋汁的最佳酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的工艺参数。选用正交实验,得出醋酸饮料的配方:黑莓醋汁20%,红枣汁10%,甜味剂(木糖醇、冰糖、蜂蜜)8%。黑莓果醋饮料采用高温瞬间灭菌的杀菌工艺。

  15. Influence of Fruit Tree Types and Their Structure Configuration on the Yield, Quality and Economic Returns of Intercropping Cotton in Southern Xinjiang%果树类型及配置方式对南疆间作棉花产量、品质及经济效益的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 田立文; 郭仁松; 汤秋香; 崔建平; 徐海江

    2013-01-01

    [目的]选取苹果、香梨、桃、杏、核桃、红枣等果树,在南疆果棉间作生态区,研究开展间作果树类型对棉花生长的影响,为形成稳定、高效的配置结构,以及制订系统科学的管理措施提供理论依据.[方法]以生产中的主要种植模式为研究对象,采用大田随机区组设计,在关键生育时期,调查棉花的主要生长指标、冠层微气象指标、产量指标及纤维品质指标.[结果]遮荫对棉花冠层微环境的改变显著,树冠直径与遮荫效果呈加性效益,同一树种间比较,冠层微环境的变化幅度依次为冠下>冠外>中间测点,不同树种间比较,冠层微环境变化幅度依次为桃树>香梨>苹果>桃核>红枣.树冠直径与果枝台数、单株结铃数的下降呈正比,遮荫是造成产量下降的主要原因.树冠增大导致棉花冠层光强、冠层温度降低,冠层湿度升高,微环境因子的改变对棉纤维品质的形成具有影响作用.[结论]对间作棉花产量、品质及冠层环境综合指标较为有利的果树依次为红枣>桃核>苹果>香梨>桃树,生产中采用红枣等冠层较小的树种或适度修剪营养枝,能够提高棉花产量,改善纤维品质.%[Objective] The project aims to provide a theoretical basis for stable and highly effective structure configuration and scientific management measures by selecting apple, pear, peach, apricot, walnut, jujube and other fruit trees to study their influence on yield, fiber quality and economic returns of intercropping cotton in Southern Xinjiang. [Method] Cropping pattern in the present production was chosen as the object of study by using randomized block design. Major growth indicators, canopy micrometeorological indicators, yield and fiber quality indicators were investigated at the crucial important growing stage. [Result] Shade has a significant influence on cotton canopy microenvironment. Crown diameter is proportional to shade

  16. Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Syed Aalam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, common rail direct injection (CRDI system assisted diesel engine using diesel with 25 percentage of zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25. Along with this ZJME25 aluminium oxide nanoparticles were added as additive in mass fractions of 25 ppm (AONP 25 and 50 ppm (AONP 50 with the help of a mechanical Homogenizer and an ultrasonicator. It was observed that aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions at all operating loads. At the full load, the magnitude of HC and smoke emission for the ZJME25 before the addition of aluminium oxide nanoparticles was 13.459 g/kW h and 79 HSU, whereas it was 8.599 g/kW h and 49 HSU for the AONP 50 blended ZJME25 fuel respectively. The results also showed a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency and heat release rate due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in biodiesel–diesel blend.

  17. Fruit Quality Evaluation Using Spectroscopy Technology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Peng, Jiyu; Xie, Chuanqi; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented with regard to applications of visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging and hyperspectral imaging techniques for quality attributes measurement and variety discrimination of various fruit species, i.e., apple, orange, kiwifruit, peach, grape, strawberry, grape, jujube, banana, mango and others. Some commonly utilized chemometrics including pretreatment methods, variable selection methods, discriminant methods and calibration methods are briefly introduced. The comprehensive review of applications, which concentrates primarily on Vis/NIR spectroscopy, are arranged according to fruit species. Most of the applications are focused on variety discrimination or the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC), acidity and firmness, but also some measurements involving dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and pigments have been reported. The feasibility of different spectral modes, i.e., reflectance, interactance and transmittance, are discussed. Optimal variable selection methods and calibration methods for measuring different attributes of different fruit species are addressed. Special attention is paid to sample preparation and the influence of the environment. Areas where further investigation is needed and problems concerning model robustness and model transfer are identified. PMID:26007736

  18. 骏枣内生生防细菌的分离、筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雁津; 邱服斌; 陈美娟; 张海杰

    2011-01-01

    选择交城骏枣(Zizyphus jujube cv.Jiaocheng Junzao)作为分离内生细菌的材料,从中共分离到18株内生菌株,运用平板对峙法从中筛选出5株对大枣病原菌及部分植物病原菌有拮抗作用的内生细菌。抑菌试验结果表明:筛选出的5株细菌对刺盘胞菌Colletotrichum gloeosporides、链格孢菌Alternaria alternata、尖孢镰刀菌Fusarium oxysporium、烟草赤星病菌Alternarial longipes、稻瘟病菌Pyricularia oryzae、人参立枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani、人参菌核病菌Sclerotinia schinseng和小麦根腐病菌Bipolaris sorokiniana均有一定的抑菌活性。对这5株内生细菌进行了形态特征观察和生理生化鉴定。

  19. Ectopic pancreatic tissue in the wall of the small intestine: Two rare case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiannan; Huang, Haibin; Huo, Sibo; Liu, Ying; Xu, Guangmeng; Gao, Hongwen; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tongjun

    2017-09-01

    Ectopic pancreas, which is a kind of rare congenital disease, forms during embryonic development. It can occur throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract, but has a low tendency to develop in the wall of the small intestine. It is easy for patients with ectopic pancreases to be misdiagnosed because the symptoms are untypical and can vary. In the present study, we reported two rare cases of ectopic pancreatic tissue in the wall of the small intestine, which presented with obvious abdominal pain and distention. The laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT) scans didn't reveal any evidence of ectopic pancreas. The two patients received small intestine masses resection and intestinal anastomosis. During surgery, an intestinal mass with a diameter of 4.0 cm was found in the first patient. An intestinal mass with a diameter of 0.8 cm, jejunum perforation, and diffuse peritonitis were found in the second patient. Histological analyses of the dissected intestinal masses confirmed them as ectopic pancreatic tissue. Interestingly, for the second patient, the intestinal perforation and diffuse peritonitis were not induced by the ectopic pancreas, but by a jujube pit that was found in the perforated site of the intestine. Our study demonstrated that an ectopic pancreas should be considered in cases of untypical abdominal symptoms with intestinal masses.

  20. 当代西方国家移民群体问题现状及其对现行民族政策的影响分析%Present Situation of Western Immigrant Groups and Their Influence on the Immigrant Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    On the global background,large-scale immigrating brings more and more international immigrants which changes many countries,especially some western developed courtiers .Recently,the conflict between the immigrants and the local people is more and more serious .It has become a Jujube hand and has a great impact on the immigrant policy for western countries .%  在全球化背景之下,大范围的人口流动所导致的跨国移民愈来愈多,从而改变了众多国家,特别是西方发达国家的人口民族构成。近些年来,受一系列政治、经济等因素变化的影响,西方国家移民群体与世居居民之间的矛盾日臻凸显。移民群体问题业已成为西方各国政府面临的一个棘手问题,并且对近期西方国家现行民族政策的调整方向产生了重要的影响。

  1. Determination of Elements by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Medicinal Plants Employed to Alleviate Common Cold Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F Zehra Küçükbay; Ebru Kuyumcu

    2014-01-01

    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of com-mon cold have been studied for their mineral contents .Eleven minor and major elements (essential ,non-essen-tial and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L .,Althaea of ficinalis L .,Verbascum phlomoides L .,Euphorbiachamaesyce L .,Zizyphus jujube Miller ,Peganum harmala L .,Arum dioscori-dis Sm .,Sambucus nigra L .,Piper longum L .,Tussilago farfara L .and Elettariacardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrom-etry .Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolu-tion of medicinal plants .Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification .These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants .The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential ,non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive ,preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants .

  2. Influence of Fruit Tree Types and Arrangements on Yield, Quality and Economic Returns of Cotton of Intercropping System in Southern Xinjiang%果树类型及配置方式对南疆间作棉花产量品质及经济效益的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 田立文; 郭仁松; 汤秋香; 崔建平; 徐海江

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to provide a theoretical basis for stable and high-ly effective intercropping arrangements and scientific management measures by se-lecting apple, pear, peach, apricot, walnut, jujube and other fruit trees to study their influence on yield, fiber quality and economic returns of intercropped cotton in southern Xinjiang. [Method] Based on major cropping pattern in production, random-ized block design was adopted to explore growth indicators, canopy micrometeorolog-ical indicators, yield and fiber quality in key growth stage. [Result] Shading has a significant effect on cotton canopy micro-environment and canopy diameter is propor-tional to shading effect. According to comparisons of the same tree type, the change of canopy micro-environment was as fol ows: under canopy>outer canopy>middle points and peach>pear>apple>walnut>jujube for comparisons among different tree types. Canopy diameter is directly proportional to the number of tree branch and bol weight reductions and shading is the main cause of yield reduction. The canopy expansion is the major cause of decline of light intensity, temperature and humidity of cotton canopy. [Conclusion] Fruit trees, which wil promote cotton yield, quality and canopy-environment, are as fol ows: jujube>walnut>apple>pear>peach trees. In practice, trees, which are smal in canopy or wel trimmed, are popular in production, such as jujube trees, to improve cotton yield and fiber quality.%[目的]选取苹果、香梨、桃、杏、核桃、红枣等果树,在南疆果棉间作生态区,研究开展间作果树类型对棉花生长的影响,为形成稳定、高效的配置结构,以及制订系统科学的管理措施提供理论依据。[方法]以生产中的主要种植模式为研究对象,采用大田随机区组设计,在关键生育时期,调查棉花的主要生长指标、冠层微气象指标、产量指标及纤维品质指标。[结果]遮荫对棉花冠层微环境的改变显著,

  3. Structural mapping: how to study the genetic architecture of a phenotypic trait through its formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chunfa; Shen, Lianying; Lv, Yafei; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoling; Feng, Sisi; Li, Xin; Sui, Yihan; Pang, Xiaoming; Wu, Rongling

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for genetic mapping are to simply associate the genotypes of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the phenotypic variation of a complex trait. A more mechanistic strategy has emerged to dissect the trait phenotype into its structural components and map specific QTLs that control the mechanistic and structural formation of a complex trait. We describe and assess such a strategy, called structural mapping, by integrating the internal structural basis of trait formation into a QTL mapping framework. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been instrumental for describing the structural components of a phenotypic trait and their interactions. By building robust mathematical models on circuit EIS data and embedding these models within a mixture model-based likelihood for QTL mapping, structural mapping implements the EM algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of QTL genotype-specific EIS parameters. The uniqueness of structural mapping is to make it possible to test a number of hypotheses about the pattern of the genetic control of structural components. We validated structural mapping by analyzing an EIS data collected for QTL mapping of frost hardiness in a controlled cross of jujube trees. The statistical properties of parameter estimates were examined by simulation studies. Structural mapping can be a powerful alternative for genetic mapping of complex traits by taking account into the biological and physical mechanisms underlying their formation.

  4. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  5. Guipi Pill(归脾丸)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Source "Recipes for Saving Lives" in 10 volumes, written by Yan Yong-he (严用和)in 1253 A.D., Song Dynasty, but modified by Xue Li-zhai (薛立斋)in Ming Dynasty in adding Angelica and Polygala to the recipe, carried in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (1995 edition). *Chief Ingredients Ginseng root, Chinese Angelica root, Milkvetch root, Longan aril fruit, Costus root, Polygala root, Wild spiny jujuba seed, Licorice, Poria with hostwood, Bighead Atractylodes rhizome, Chinese Date fruit, Ginger rhizome. *Explanation Milkvetch and Ginseng are the principal drugs of this recipe with the effect of tonifying the Qi and invigorating the Spleen; Atractylodes and Licorice are sweet in taste and warm in nature, assist the principal drugs in enriching the source of Qi-blood production, Angelica nourishes the Liver and helps in generation of Heart-blood; while the function of Poria, Jujube and Longan being sweet in flavour, could nourish the Heart and tranquilize the mind, Polygala restores the coordination between Heart and Kidney, so as to relieve mental stress, Costus regulates the Qi-flow and invigorates the Spleen, also prevents the Qi-blood tonics from interfering the digestive function. *Pharmacological Effect The effect of this recipe could promote digestion and absorption, strengthening the metabolism, nourishing the body to enhance the constitution, regulating the cerebral excitement, increasing the peristalsis of gastrointestinal tract, arresting the diarrhea. *Function Invigorating the Spleen, nourishing the Heart, replenishing the Qi and enriching the blood.

  6. 新疆红枣果实不同部位总酚的含量测定%Determination of Total Polyphenols in Different Parts of Jujubae Fruetus Growing in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐; 努尔比耶; 李宏

    2016-01-01

    系统地研究新疆红枣果实不同部位总酚含量的最佳提取和测定方法,为进一步开发利用红枣资源提供有效的测试手段。以没食子酸为标准对照品,研究Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定新疆红枣果肉和果核的中总酚含量的最适宜条件;以总酚含量为指标,通过L9(34)正交试验考察甲醇浓度、料液比、提取时间和提取次数对总酚提取工艺的影响,确定红枣总酚供试品溶液的提取方法。红枣提取液在Folin-Ciocalteu试剂1.5 mL、25%Na2CO3溶液2 mL、反应温度30℃、反应时间60 min的条件下,测定其760 nm处的吸光值,没食子酸浓度在0~100μg/mL范围内与吸光度呈良好线性关系(R2=0.9988);红枣总酚的最佳提取工艺为50%的甲醇,料液比1∶10(g/mL),提取时间30 min,提取次数2次。加样回收率为98.79%,RSD为1.71%。该提取和测定方法适合于红枣果实总酚含量的测定,利用该方法提取和测定同一产地12个不同品种红枣果核中的总酚含量均明显低于果肉,果肉总酚含量约为果核总酚含量的6倍。%The study was to investigate an optimal Folin -Ciocalteu colorimetric method to determine polyphenols in Dried Jujubes systematically, and to provide an effective way to estimate the polyphenols for the value of Dried Jujubes. Gallic acid was used as a standard substance to determine total polyphenol contents in different parts of Dried Jujubes growing in Xinjiang by Folin-Ciocaheu Colorimetry. With the content of total phenols as index,effects of solvent concentration,solid-liquid ratio extraction time and times on extraction technology of total phenols were investigated by L9(34) orthogonal test,in order to define preparation method of the test solution for determination. The results showed that when the concentration of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was 1.5 mL and the concentration of 25%Na2CO3 was 2 mL, reaction 60 min in 30℃, there was a good

  7. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarab

  8. Gastrointestinal Absorption and Metabolic Dynamics of Jujuboside A, A Saponin Derived from the Seed of Ziziphus jujuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Panpan; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Guijie; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhou, Aimin; Xie, Junbo

    2017-09-27

    Jujuboside A (JuA), an active saponin, is responsible for the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Zizyphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS). In this study, the gastrointestinal absorption and metabolic dynamics of JuA were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the bioavailability was 1.32% in rats, indicating only a trace amount of JuA was able to be absorbed. Further investigation revealed that its poor bioavailability was not caused by malabsorption but by the metabolic process. JuA was hydrolyzed largely in the stomach before being absorbed into the different parts of the intestine (especially duodenum and colon), and the gastric environment played a vital role in this process. Furthermore, the metabolites, jujuboside B (JuB) and jujubogenin, exhibited significant effects on the expression and activation of γ-amino-butyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptors. Our findings demonstrate that the metabolites of the saponin, not the original molecule, should be responsible for the specific bioactivities.

  9. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  10. 水肥调控对宁夏旱砂地枣树生长发育的影响%Effects of Fertilizer-Water Regulation on Growth and Development of Zizyphus Jujuba in Gravel-Sand Mulched Field in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天军; 李百云

    2011-01-01

    At Xiangshan Mountain arid areas in the middle Ningxia, the effects of both water absorbent and supplemental fertilizer-water on soil water contents, fruit-setting rate, yields, quality, water use efficiency and vegetable growth of jujube trees were investigated under the field condition, by using the three-year-old ‘Tongxinyuanzao’ jujube trees with plant and row placing being 3 m×8 m while intercropping watermelon which the yield of was 12 000 kg-13 500 kg per hm2. The results indicated that the content of soil moisture in the depth of 40 cm was increased by 2.14% (absolute value) from May to October after the application of water absorbent with 30-60 g per plant and supplementary twice fertilizer-water (125 kg of total number per tree) on mid-June, mid-July, respectively. Meanwhile, the leaf area, chlorophyll content, fruit-setting rate, fruit number of individual tree, yield per plant, mean fresh weight of fruit, water use efficiency and ratio of total soluble solids content to titratable acid content were enhanced by 4.1%-50.5%, 44.9%(compared with that of naturally growing trees), 9.5%-27.8%, 29.5%-33.2%, 37.9%-51.1%, 0.5 g-2.1 g, 33.3%-46.7% and 23.0%-41.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the content of ascorbic acid, new branch thickness and rate of diameter of tree trunk increased all improved slightly.%以种植在宁夏中卫市香山干旱山区压砂地的3年生‘同心圆枣'树(行间套种西瓜,每公顷产量12000kg~13500kg)为试材,研究了保水剂+补水补肥对土壤含水量、坐果率、产量、品质、水分利用率和树体营养生长的影响,试验结果表明:每株施30 g~60 g保水剂,并在枣树生长期补水补肥2次,使整个生育期40 cm处土壤含水量绝对值提高了2.14%,单叶面积增加了4.1%~50.5%,叶绿素含量增加了44.9%(与放任生长的树相比),坐果率提高了9.5%~27.8%,单株坐果量提高了29.5%~33.2%,单株产量提高了37.9%~51.1%,

  11. Specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Chung, Wen-Chuan; Peng, Mun-Tsu; Yang, Hong-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2010-02-28

    Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the beta-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the beta-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified beta-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 凤眼莲有性繁殖与种子结构及其活力研究%Research on sexual reproduction, seed structure and its vigor of Eichhornia crassipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎颖; 吴富勤; 张志勇; 刘海琴; 王亚雷; 王智; 张君倩; 申仕康; 严少华

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction, seed structure and its vigor of Eichhornia crassipes in Dianchi Lake were investigated in order to determine whether its seeds dispersion would initiate ecological risk. The results showed that E. Crassipes preferred sexual reproduction by blossom with the ability of clonal propagation decreasing in Waihai Baishan Bay waters of Dianchi Lake, but the seed setting rate was very low,about 5% -10%. The seeds of E. Crassipes were extremely small and the thousand seed weight was only (0. 429±0. 009) g. Observed with an unaided eye, the ripe seeds were of yellowish-brown color and shaped like common jujube seeds. Observed with scanning electric microscope (SEM) , single embryo was shaped like bone which was surrounded by endosperm and spermoderm. Test results of seed vigor showed that 87% -95% of full seeds had a viability.%为了探讨凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes)种子扩散潜在的生态风险,开展了滇池大水面凤眼莲有性繁殖和种子结构及其活力的研究.结果表明:滇池外海白山湾水域凤眼莲克隆繁殖能力较弱,大面积开花可进行有性繁殖,但结实率极低,约为5%~10%.凤眼莲种子极其微小,千粒质量仅为(0.429±0.009)g.肉眼观察其表观性状,成熟的种子呈黄褐色,状似枣核;以扫描电镜观察其种胚结构,为单胚种子,状如骨头,外包胚乳和种皮.87% ~95%的饱满种子具有生活力.

  13. 活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎43例%Clinical Observation on 43 Cases of Refractory Reflux Esophagitis Treated with Promoting Blood Circulation Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏林

    2012-01-01

      目的观察活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食管炎的疗效。方法采用血府逐瘀汤加减(柴胡、枳壳、赤芍、桃仁、红花、太子参、茯苓、大枣、当归、生地黄、川牛膝、桔梗、穿山甲、浙贝母、陈皮、炙甘草等)治疗本病43例,对照组以奥美拉唑治疗本病41例,结果治疗组总有效率88%,对照组总有效率78%。结论活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎疗效确切。%  Objective To observe blood circulation-based traditional Chinese medicinetreatment of refractory reflux esophagit is curative effect. Methods Use Xu-efuzhuyu Decoction Subtraction (Bupleurum,Citrus aurantium,red peony,pe-ac h kernel,safflower,heterophylla,Poria,Jujube,angeli ca,Reh-mannia,Achyranthes,Campanulaceae,Pangolin,Fritillaria,Citrus,Licorice,etc.)treatment of the disease in 43 cases.The control group treatment of the disease with Omeprazole in 41 cases.The result:treatment group efficacy is better than the control group.Conclusion this method through both strengthening is suitable to the refractory reflux esophagitis which is lingering course、blood gas deficiency and blood stasis as obvious.

  14. 《医学衷中参西录》中龙骨牡蛎配伍运用浅析%Analysis on Compatibility Application of Bone Fossil of Big Mammals and Oyster Shell in Yixue Zhongzhong Canxilu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少丹; 杨桢; 李冀

    2016-01-01

    Zhang Xichun is a famous Chinese medicine expert in the period of late Qing Dynasty .Yixue Zhongzhong Canxilu is his representative work .He is good at using bone fossil of big mammals and oyster shell compatibility in the treatment of various diseases .The functions are as following:convergence zhenyin and astringent yuanqi with dogwood fruit and radix paeoniae alba , astringing for stranguria with Chinese yam and radix paeoniae alba , convergence heart qi and tranquilization with heavy material with Longan , Wild Jujube and Seman Platycladi, hemostasis with astringents and compatibility Os Sepiae and Radix Rubiae , descending adverse qi for expelling phlegm with Pinellia Tuber;nourishing yin and suppressing hyperactive yang with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Hematite .%《医学衷中参西录》是张锡纯一生治学临证经验和心得的汇集,受到临床医家的推崇,其善用龙骨、牡蛎配伍收敛固涩以治疗各种病证。集中体现在以下方面:收敛真阴、固涩元气,多和山萸肉、生杭白芍配伍;收涩止淋,多和山药、芍药配伍;收敛心气、重镇安神,多和龙眼肉、酸枣仁、柏子仁配伍;收敛止血,多和海螵蛸、茜草配伍;降逆祛痰、安神定志,多和清半夏配伍;重镇降逆、滋阴潜阳,多和怀牛膝、赭石配伍。

  15. Research on the Technology Process of Polysaccharide from Zizyphus jujuba MILL by Enzymolysis%酶法脱蛋白提取大枣多糖工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱承军; 姚文华

    2009-01-01

    This paper studied technology of extracting polysaccharide from jujube juice which has been extracted c-AMP. The extracting liquid contract 4 times, adding ethanol to make the concentration of alcohol 60%, and time was 5 h. Papain was used to remove protein, and the optimum conditions including 0.4∶ 1V/V papain, temperature 60℃, pH5.0, 90 min. This method may increase the removal rate of protein to 91.8%, and the loss rate of polysaccharides in reduced greatly. The extracted solution was then decolorized through macro-reticular adsorption resin column. The rate was 73.64% and the yield of polysaccharide was 94.4%. The structure was similar to the polysaccharide extracted by normal technology.%讨论了从提取环磷酸腺苷后的枣汁中提取枣多糖的最佳工艺条件,包括枣汁浓缩4倍,加无水乙醇调枣汁中乙醇体积分数为60%,醇沉5 h;木瓜蛋白酶脱蛋白效果最佳,木瓜蛋白酶液与枣汁的体积比为0.4∶ 1,温度60℃、pH5.0,酶解90 min,蛋白脱除率可达91.8%;AB-8树脂脱色,脱色率为73.64%,多糖得率为94.4%.红外光谱显示,提取的多糖与常规方法提取的多糖成分相同.

  16. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of red ginseng extracts produced with different processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, E K; Hong, J H; Lê, S; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to develop objective and effective sample preparation and presentation procedures for the sensory analysis of red ginseng extracts (RGE); to identify their sensory attributes in relation with the consumer acceptability of RGEs produced with different processing techniques. The samples included 7 different types of RGE, among which 2 samples were of commercial products and the other samples were specially prepared for the study. The samples differed in processing methods (traditional method, high-hydrostatic pressure [HHP], and fermentation) and extraction solvents (ethanol, water). For the descriptive analysis, 7 trained panelists developed and evaluated 30 attributes. Principal component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the sensory attributes and to get a representation of the samples according to those attributes. Consumers evaluated the appearance and flavor acceptability of the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on consumer acceptability of flavor. The results showed that the clear differences among the RGEs in terms of sensory perceptions were explained by the processing methods. Consumers were segmented into 3 distinct groups in terms of preference: a consumer cluster that likes the RGEs produced with HHP or fermentation, a cluster that likes a product with strong ginseng flavor, and a cluster that likes a RGE with sweet taste and jujube flavor. These 3 clusters differed somewhat in their consumption frequency and purchase factors, also. The red ginseng extract (RGE) market is rapidly growing due to the consumer awareness of its superior health-promoting effects. However, little attention has been given to sensory properties that are a critical factor in determining quality and consumer preference. The results of this study will be helpful for researchers and manufacturers to understand the sensory characteristics of RGEs and to detect the driving factors of consumer acceptability

  17. Experimental Research on the Electrical Characteristics of Xinjiang Junzao Moisture%基于电特性的新疆骏枣含水率的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大伟; 陈超; 兰海鹏; 弋晓康

    2016-01-01

    To explore the detection of moisture in Xinjiang jujube, paper uses TH2828S type LCR meter changes in the electrical properties of dates and water content were measured to analyze the different electrical characteristics change dates moisture frequency, and the establishment of the moisture content of electricity dates characteristic parameters of the model.Dates with whole pieces of test subjects, the power supply voltage 1 V and longitudinal pressure ( 0.1 kg ) tested the low frequency (200Hz ~1000Hz) dates moisture variation of electrical parameters, test results show that:the mois-ture content of 55.85%or less, dates water content and the complex impedance Z is negatively correlated electrical pa-rameters can be achieved by dates moisture detection.%为探究新疆地区红枣含水率的检测方法,运用TH2828 S 型LCR 测量仪对红枣电特性与含水率的变化进行测定,分析了红枣含水率不同频率下电特性变化,并建立红枣含水率电特性参数模型. 以整颗红枣为试验对象,在电源电压1V及纵向压力(0.1kg)下测试了低频段(200 ~1 000Hz)红枣含水率电特性参数变化规律. 试验结果表明:在含水率55.85%以下,红枣含水率与复阻抗 Z呈负相关,通过电特性参数可以实现红枣含水率检测.

  18. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion - ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Belkacem, Abdelkrim; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, Heiko; Canal, David; LoValvo, Mario; Giacalone, Gabriele; Päckert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    A stabilized hybrid form of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) is known as Passer italiae from the Italian Peninsula and a few Mediterranean islands. The growing attention for the Italian hybrid sparrow and increasing knowledge on its biology and genetic constitution greatly contrast the complete lack of knowledge of the long-known phenotypical hybrid sparrow populations from North Africa. Our study provides new data on the breeding biology and variation of mitochondrial DNA in three Algerian populations of house sparrows, Spanish sparrows, and phenotypical hybrids. In two field seasons, the two species occupied different breeding habitats: Spanish sparrows were only found in rural areas outside the cities and bred in open-cup nests built in large jujube bushes. In contrast, house sparrows bred only in the town centers and occupied nesting holes in walls of buildings. Phenotypical hybrids were always associated with house sparrow populations. House sparrows and phenotypical hybrids started breeding mid of March, and most pairs had three successive clutches, whereas Spanish sparrows started breeding almost one month later and had only two successive clutches. Mitochondrial introgression is strongly asymmetric because about 75% of the rural Spanish sparrow population carried house sparrow haplotypes. In contrast, populations of the Italian hybrid form, P. italiae, were genetically least diverse among all study populations and showed a near-fixation of house sparrow haplotypes that elsewhere were extremely rare or that were even unique for the Italian Peninsula. Such differences between mitochondrial gene pools of Italian and North African hybrid sparrow populations provide first evidence that different demographic histories have shaped the extant genetic diversity observed on both continents.

  19. Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长亮; 张村雪; 郭秋实; 汤琳

    2012-01-01

    Five different fermentation broths were prepared by fermentation of purple sweet potato, red-core sweet potato, red jujube, apple juice or apple pomace by lactic acid bacteria. The total antioxidant capacity and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of the fermentation broths and purple sweet potato vinegar were tested. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation resulted in a slight increase in the antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato. The total antioxidant capacity was increased to 200.18 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of fermented purple sweet potato was 96.99% at the dosage of 100 IzL, which was comparable to that of purple sweet potato vinegar. Purple sweet potato fermentation broth exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the five fermentation broths.%测定5种乳酸发酵醪和紫甘薯醋的总抗氧化能力和对二苯代苦昧酰基(DPPH)自由基清除率,结果表明紫:甘薯乳酸发酵后抗氧化能力轻微增强,总抗氧化能力达200.18mg/mL,添加量为100μL时对DPPH自由基清除率达96.99%,与紫甘薯醋抗氧化能力相当。5种乳酸发酵醪中,紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪抗氧化能力最强。

  20. Variations of soil organic C following land use change on deep-loess hillsopes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaodong; Zhao, Xining; Meng, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    Land use change is a key factor driving changes in soil organic C (SOC) around the world. However, the changes in SOC following land use changes have not been fully elucidated, especially for deep soils (> 100 cm). Thus, we investigated the variations of SOC under different land uses on hillslopes of the Loess Plateau in China based on datasets in the 0-100 cm. And we quantified the contribution of deep-layer SOC (200-1800 cm) to that of whole soil profiles (0-1800 cm). The results showed that in shallow profiles (0-100 cm) land uses significantly (Pstocks in surface layer (0-20 cm) but not subsurface layers (20-100 cm). Pearson correlation analysis indicated that soil texture fractions and total N were significantly (Pcorrelated with SOC content, which may have masked effects of land use change on SOC. In deep profiles (0-1800 cm), SOC stock generally decreased with soil depth; the mean SOC stock, as a proportion of the amount in the 0-100 cm, declined from 87.6% in the 200-300 cm to 32.7% in the 1700-1800 cm. But deep soils showed high SOC sequestration capacity. The SOC accumulated in the 100-1800 m equaled 90.6, 91.6, 87.5, and 88.6% of amounts in the top 100 cm under cropland, 7-yr-old grassland, 30-yr-old grassland, and jujube orchard, respectively. The results provide insights into SOC dynamics following land use changes and stressed the importance of deep-layer SOC in estimating total SOC inventory in deep loess soils.

  1. PREGNANCY CUSTOMS OF HUIZHOU IN MING AND QING DYNASTIES%明清时期徽州地区孕期习俗的人类学解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高朋; 慈艳艳

    2012-01-01

    明清时期徽州地区有许多孕期习俗,包括“缝尿片”、“催生礼”、“松关”和“吃黄连”;孕期习俗中存在一些特有的禁忌,包括受孕的禁忌、孕妇交往行为禁忌、饮食禁忌及胎教禁忌。从人类学视角进行理论分析可知,徽州地区的孕期习俗深受自然环境和文化环境的影响,寄托着徽州人望子成龙、望女成风的功能寓意,凸显了风俗中“红枣”、“鸡蛋”等典型文化符号的象征作用。徽卅I地区的孕期习俗是我国宝贵的非物质文化遗产,值得传承、保护和发展。%In Ming and Qing Dynasties, there are many conventions, manners and customs when women are pregnant in Huizhou, like sewing diapers, ecbolic ceremony, song guan and eating coptis chinensis. Moreover, there are many special taboos for pregnant women, including conception taboos, communication taboos, diet taboos and the taboos of prenatal education. Analyzing theoretically, from an anthropological perspective, we learn that pregnancy customs are influenced deeply by natural and cultural environment. They show Huizhou people wish their children a bright future and highlight symbolic role of jujubes, eggs and other typical cultural symbols. Huizhou pregnancy customs are our precious non-material cultural heritage and they are worth our inheriting, protecting and developing.

  2. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  3. Effects of Coppice Management on Growth and Fruit in Introduced Ziziphus mauritiana in Horticultural Greenhouse%棚栽台湾青枣主干更新试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖岳; 续九如; 史良; 胡伟娟

    2005-01-01

    引种台湾青枣5个品种至辽宁省朝阳市,为适应棚内栽植,进行了主干更新试验以确定各品种的最佳截干高度.试验结果表明:(1)主干更新是棚栽台湾青枣必不可少的一项重要栽培措施;(2)截干高度以30 cm为佳;(3)主干更新高度在各品种间差异不显著.

  4. Modification of DNA extraction protocol for Jinsi Ziziphus jujuba%金丝小枣基因组DNA的优化提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾强成; 郑世英; 沈亮; 陈吉美

    2004-01-01

    采用SDS和CTAB两种方法分离提取金丝小枣基因组DNA,并比较其提取效果.结果表明,改进后的CTAB法可获得高质量、高得率的基因组DNA,可用于金丝小枣的各种分子生物学研究.

  5. 酸枣叶多糖抗氧化性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎进; 闫军; 周俊丽; 孔丽霞; 张海容

    2013-01-01

    The polysaccharides from the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba cv. spinosa were extracted with ultrasonic method, meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of the crude polysaccharides (CP) and deproteinated polysaccharides (DP) were investigated in vitro by determining the scavenging effects on·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity. The results showed that both CP and DP exhibited strong scavenging effects on ·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity, the antioxidant activities of CP were higher than that of DP. The dose-effect relationship was obviously. The polysaccharide is an excellent natural antioxidant and scavenging reagent on radicals, and has a broad development prospects.%  采用超声波法提取酸枣叶多糖,考察酸枣叶粗多糖(CP)和脱蛋白多糖(DP)对·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·的清除作用及还原能力。结果表明,CP和DP均具有较强的清除·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·作用和还原能力,CP抗氧化活性高于DP;并且清除率与浓度之间存在明显量效关系。酸枣叶多糖是一种优良的天然抗氧化剂和自由基清除剂,具有广泛的开发前景。

  6. 枣MAPK基因片段克隆与分析%Cloning and analysis of MAPK gene fragment from Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦檩; 彭龙; 赵锦; 刘孟军

    2010-01-01

    采用同源基因克隆法,首次获得了枣MAPK基因片段543 bp,经Blast比对,该序列与湖北海棠(Malus hupehensis EF427897.1)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis XM002509805.1)、西府海棠(Malus micromalus AF435805.2)和欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica AJ784997.1)的相似率分别为86%、86%、85%和84%.进一步进行系统进化分析,证明该基因属于MAPK中TEY型的B类.

  7. RESPUESTA A LA DESECACIÓN Y A LA TEMPERATURA DE ALMACENAMIENTO DEL GERMOPLASMA DE PROSOPIS NIGRA (GRISEBACH HIERON. Y ZIZIPHUS MISTOL GRISEB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIAMMINOLA EUGENIA MABEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La conservación ex situ y a largo plazo de las semillas se basa en la respuesta a la desecación y a las temperaturas de almacenamiento, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. El contenido de humedad de las semillas frescas se determinó en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. La tolerancia a la desecación y a las temperaturas de almacenamiento se evaluaron con 5 experimentos de germinación: semillas frescas (10-12%CH; 3-5% CH; y 3-5% CH almacenadas tres meses a 25, 5 y -20ºC, con dos tratamientos: control y escarificación. El CH fue del 11% en ambas especies. En P. nigra, el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas escarificadas fue mayor al 80% en todos los experimentos realizados, mientras que el poder germinativo de las semillas del control disminuyó con la desecación y el almacenamiento. La temperatura de almacenamiento no influyó en la cantidad de semillas germinadas. El porcentaje de germinación de los  endocarpos frescos de Z. mistol fue bajo (<35%, pero aumentó con la reducción del CH. En síntesis, P. nigra y Z. mistol son tolerantes a la desecación y al almacenamiento en las temperaturas probadas, por lo que pueden considerarse como probablemente ortodoxas.

  8. 基于无线传感器网络的农田环境因子监测系统研究%Research on Farmland Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁宁; 苏夏侃; 杨自栋

    2014-01-01

    无线传感器网络的发展为农田环境因子监测系统提供了新的设计模式。为此,以冬枣栽培环境因子为对象设计了监测系统,系统数据采集部分利用无线传感器模块和相关的传感器搭建了系统硬件平台,基于 Zig-bee 2007/PRO协议栈设计了所需要的应用程序,使数据采集部分具有树型网络拓扑结构,具有自组织及自修复网络的能力。通过比较发现,目前相关设计的功能较简单,一般只包括实时显示、历史数据查询和保存功能。因此,基于LabVIEW 开发平台设计了监测部分,添加了报表生成和报表发送、报表定时发送、采集周期设置等功能,使监测系统的功能得到进一步完善,更具人性化。经过整体调试,使系统具有良好的操纵性、较高的可靠性和实用价值。%Development of wireless sensor network provides a new design mode for the farmland environment monitoring system .Essay designed monitoring system for the jujube cultivation environment factor , The data acquisition part used wireless sensor module and the associated sensors to set up hardware platform , based on Zigbee 2007/PRO protocol stack essay designed required application , the data acquisition part has tree network topology , and has a self-organizing and self-healing networks .That through the comparison to other relevant article found the designed function relatively simple , generally only included real-time display , historical data query and save function .Therefore ,the article designed a moni-toring part based on LabVIEW ,which has the historical data query , report generation and send reports , statements sent from time to time , acquisition cycle settings and other functions , so that the monitoring function of the system has been further improved , more humane .After debugging , the system has good maneuverability , high reliability , high practical value .

  9. Optimization of immobilization of acetic acid bacteria for ginseng vinegar drinks%固定化醋酸菌发酵人参醋饮料加工工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐璐; 文连奎

    2012-01-01

    After studying the alcohol fermentation,acetic fermentation by immobilized acetobacter,clarification, and blending to ginseng vinegar drinks with ginseng. The result showed that..when 3g of sawdust and 20mL of adsorption vinegar mother were added in 100mL ginseng alcohol and the fermentation temperature was 28℃, the fermentation was fastest,and the immobilized acetobacter could be recycled. The gelatin-tannin clarify showed the better effect,the transmittance was 87.8% with the 0.02‰ content of vinegar. The best formula conditions for ginseng vinegar drinks was that ginseng original vinegar 7% ,jujube juice concentrate 1% ,total acid 0.37% ,total sugar 12% and the product was amber with characteristic flavor of ginseng and vinegar and the score was 90.%摘要:以生晒人参为原料,经酒精发酵后通过固定化醋酸茵进行醋酸发酵、澄清及调配得到人参醋饮料。通过正交实验分别确定固定化发酵最佳条件、人参醋饮料最佳配方,通过离心、壳聚糖、明胶一单宁梯度澄清实验确定澄清方法。实验结果表明,每100mL人参发酵酒中,木屑3g、被吸附醋母20mL、28℃时发酵速度最快,同时固定化醋酸菌可重复利用:采用明胶一单宁澄清法澄清效果最佳,明胶、单宁添加量各为0.02‰,透光率达87.8%;人参醋饮料最佳配方为:人参原醋7%、浓缩大枣汁1%、总酸0.37%、总糖12%,感官评分为90分,产品口感最佳。

  10. Experience of Professor Wei Xuxing in the Treatment of Migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription%韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦红霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛的经验.方法:通过跟师学习,对其所创的通天笑痛方的治法、药物组成、用药剂量进行分析,阐明通天笑痛方治疗偏头痛的疗效.结果:通天笑痛方是韦绪性教授治疗顽固难愈偏头痛的经验方,方由生白附子12 g,僵蚕6 g,全蝎4.5g,川芎18 g,白芍30 g,炙甘草10 g,大枣8枚组成.是治疗偏头痛标实证(无明显热象)之通用方,临证多能收“一剂知,二剂已”之奇效.结论:韦绪性教授运用通天笑痛方加减治疗偏头痛疗效显著.%Objective:To investigate the experience of Professor Wei Xuxing in the treatment of migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription.Methods:Therapeutic method,drug composition and medication dosage of Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription created by Professor Wei Xuxing were analyzed and TCM mechanism of Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription in treating migraine were clarified through learning with the teacher.Results:Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription is the experience prescription of Professor Wei Xuxing treatment of migraine.The prescription is composed by Raw rhizoma typhonii 12 g,Bombyx batryticatus 6 g,Scorpio 4.5 g,Ligusticum wallichii 18 g,Radix paeoniae alba 30 g,Prepared radix licorice 10 g,Jujube 8 pieces.It is the general prescription in treating excessive superficial syndrome of migraine(without obvious heat syndrome) and it can receive wonderful effects of "the first dose of effectiveness,and the second dose of recovery" in clinical.Conclusion:Professor Wei Xuxing in the treatment of migraine by Tongtian Xiaotong Prescription has obvious therapeutic effect.

  11. Study on technology of extracting cAMP from Hetian jade jujuba by the auxiliary of ultrasonic wave%超声波辅助提取和田玉枣cAMP的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立霞

    2013-01-01

    以和田玉枣为主要研究对象,对超声波辅助提取和田玉枣cAMP的工艺进行系统研究,并与传统溶剂浸提法进行对比.实验结果,超声波辅助提取和田玉枣cAMP的最优工艺条件为:乙醇体积分数15%,提取温度35℃、提取时间50min、液料比20∶1、超声波功率400W;在此工艺条件下,和田玉枣cAMP平均提取率为771.95 μg/g·dw.各因素影响和田玉枣cAMP提取率的影响程度依次如下:提取温度>液料比>提取时间>超声波功率.超声波辅助法与传统溶剂浸提法相比,具有提取速度快,提取率高,提取温度低等明显优势.%The ultrasonic extraction of cAMP from Hetianyuzao systemically was studied,and that was compared with the traditional solvent extraction.Results were as follows:the technology of extracing cAMP from Hetian jade jujube with ultrasonic extraction was that:ethanol concentration 15%,ultrasonic extraction temperature 35℃,ultrasonic extraction time 50min,solid/liquid ratio 20∶1,ultrasonic power 400W.Under the optimal extraction conditions,the average yield of cAMP was 771.95μg/g ·dw.The effect sequence of four main factors for the yield were as follows:ultrasonic extraction temperature>liquid/solid ratio>ultrasonic extraction time>ultrasonic power.Compared with traditional solvent extraction,ultrasonic extraction had obvious advantages including the faster extraction speed,higher yield rate and lower temperature.

  12. Juanbi Decoction in The Treatment of 68 Cases of Periarthritis of Shoulder%蠲痹汤加减治疗肩周炎68例体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国标; 陈金英

    2013-01-01

    蠲痹汤源于《百一选方》,由羌活、姜黄、当归(酒浸)、黄芪(蜜炙)、赤芍、防风、炙甘草、生姜、大枣组成,功效益气活血,祛风除湿,宣。营卫。主治气血两亏之风痹、项背拘急,肩肘痹痛,举动艰难等证。笔者认为,肩周炎,中医称"五十肩"、"漏肩风"、"肩凝症"多见于中老年人,与肩关节周围软组织长期慢性损伤、劳损、正气不足、肌体虚弱、风寒湿邪侵袭有关,蠲痹汤以当归补血汤,补气升血、扶正气,以驱补气。笔者在2008~2012年,临床应用此方加减治疗肩周炎68例,疗效满意,现介绍如下。%Juanbi decoction from"byI election party"by Jiang Huang, Chinese angelica, notopterygium, (wine soaked), Huang Qi (honey), radix paeoniae rubra, windproof, licorice, ginger, jujube, ef ect of Supplementing Qi and activating blood, expel ing wind and dampness, dispersing Ying wei. At ending blood arthralgia due to wind, two losses of spasm of nape and back, shoulder and elbow pain, move hard card. The author thinks, scapulohumeral periarthritis, Chinese medicine cal ed "Fifty shoulder", "leakage shoulder wind", "shoulder coagulation disorder" is more common in the elderly, and shoulder surrounding soft tissue injury, chronic strain, the deficiency of vital qi, the body weak, wind cold dampness evil invasion, Juanbi Decoction in Danggui Buxue decoction, Qi and blood Fu Qi, Qi, to drive. In the 2008 to 2012, 68 cases of scapulohumeral periarthritis treatment, clinical application of this decoction curative ef ect satisfaction, introduce as fol ows now.

  13. Characteristics of peroxidase from Zizyphus jujuba Mill%冬枣果实过氧化物酶酶学特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁薪源; 周娜娜; 赵玉梅; 曹建康

    2012-01-01

    以冬枣(Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)果实为材料,研究了枣果实过氧化物酶(Peroxidase,POD)的酶学特性,并探讨了不同抑制剂和激活剂对POD活性的影响,为冬枣的加工与贮藏等过程中防止酶促褐变提供参考和理论依据。结果表明:冬枣枣皮POD活性是枣肉POD活性的10倍,枣果实POD的最适反应温度为40℃,最佳反应底物(愈创木酚)浓度为0.0002mol/L,最大反应速度为Vmax=2.86U/min,米氏常数Km=0.2516mol/L。在0~2.0mmol/L浓度范围内,抑制剂对POD抑制作用为:抗坏血酸〉L-半胱氨酸〉柠檬酸〉EDTA。在0~20.0mmol/L浓度范围内,激活剂对POD激活作用为:FeCl3〉CuCl2〉吐温-20。%Characteristic and inhibition of peroxidase(POD) from Zizyphus jujuba Mill were studied.Provide reference and theoretical basis to protect Zizyphus jujuba Mill from enzymatic browning in the course of processing and storage.The result showed that the activity of POD in the peel was 10 times higher than that in the pulp of the jujube.The optimum temperature was identified to 40 ℃.The optimum concentration of the reaction substrate(guaiacol) is 0.0002 mol/L.The reaction kinetic of enzyme was Michaelis Equation model.Using guaiacol as substrate,Vmax were 2.86 U/min and Km were 0.2516 mol/L,respectively.In the concentration range of 0~2.0 mmol/L,POD activities were inhibited by the following inhibitors:Vc,L-cys,citrate,EDTA.In the concentration range of 0~20.0 mmol/L,POD activities were stimulated by the following activators:FeCl 3,CuCl 2,Tween-20.

  14. 花生红衣补血口服液的研制%Preparation of enrich the blood oral solution of peanut red skins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海悦; 魏滢; 刘曼

    2012-01-01

    贫血是世界公共性营养卫生问题之一,近几年越来越得到人们的重视,以四粒红花生红衣、大枣、木耳为主要原料,根据中医配伍原则,研制出一种具有补血功能的口服液。通过响应面分析确定了最佳配方为:花生红衣提取液0.04%、红枣浓缩汁49%、木耳浓缩汁25%、甜蜜素0.15%、柠檬酸0.03%。其感官得分为92.3分。并对口服液的稳定性进行了研究,结果表明花生红衣补血口服液的热稳定和光稳定性都比较好,在常温下保质期可达2年。%Anemia is one of the world's public nutrition and health problems,which is valued by people increasingly in recent years. According to the principle of compatibility of the traditional Chinese medicine,skins of four red peanuts,red dates,fungus were used as the main raw material to develop the oral solution with the foundation of enrich the blood. The optimal formula was determined by response surface analysis :the extract of peanut red skins of 0.04% ,the jujube juice concentrate of 49% ,the fungus juice concentrate of 25% ,sodium cyclamate of 0.15% ,citric acid of 0.03%. And the final score of sensory was 92.3. The stability of oral solution were studied,the result showed that the thermal stability and light stability were all appropriate and the shelf life of enrich the blood oral solution of peanut red skins would be up to 2 years at room temperature.

  15. Study Schisandra Beverage Technology%五味子饮料的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓明

    2016-01-01

    ①将五味子漂洗后干燥,对干燥后的五味子破碎后进行压榨,浆渣分离得到五味子压榨液;②向步骤一中所述五味子压榨液中加入果胶酶,在温度为35℃~38℃条件下酶解为五味子压榨液;③将白砂糖加入溶化后依次加入柠檬酸、酒石酸和柠檬酸钠,搅拌均匀得到混合溶液,接着向保温后的混合溶液中加入五味子原汁和酸枣汁,搅拌均匀后再加入β-胡萝卜素和L-抗坏血酸钠,搅拌均匀得到混合溶液过滤。④然后对真空脱气后的滤液进行高压均质;灌装封口,最后进行巴氏灭菌,得到五味子饮料。%First, the fruit of Chinese magnoliavine dried after rinsing, to squeeze of fructus schisandrae broken after drying, isolated from fructus schisandrae squeezing pulp slag liquid; Second, to step one described adding pectinase, fructus schisandrae squeezing liquid in the temperature of 35 ℃~38 ℃ under the condition of enzymatic hydrolysis for fructus schisandrae squeeze liquid; Third, add the sugar melts, in turn, add citric acid, tartaric acid and sodium citrate and stir evenly mixed solution, and then to join in the mixed solution of heat preservation after schisandra fruit juice and wild jujube juice, stir well before you add the beta carotene and L-ascorbic acid sodium, stir evenly mixed iflter solution. Fourth, then after vacuum degassing of the high pressure homogeneous ifltrate; Filling sealing, ifnally get to pasteurization schisandra beverage.

  16. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Meriem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. also known as Jujube, is a deciduous shrub which belongs to Rhamnaceae family. This plant is used in Algerian traditional medicine for its anti-diabetic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of different vitamins (vitamin A, C and E and fatty acids in root, stem, leaves, fruit pulp and seed of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. and assessed the effects of their aqueous extracts on antioxidant status and human T-cell proliferation. Methods Aqueous filtrates from different parts, i.e, root, leaf, stem, fruit pulp and seed, of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. were prepared. Vitamin C levels were determined by precipitating with 10% trichloroacetic acid and vitamin A and E were assessed by HPLC. Lipid composition of these extracts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by using anti-radical resistance kit [Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL@; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France]. T-cell blastogenesis was assessed by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. IL-2 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results Our results show that fruit pulp contained higher vitamin A and C contents than other parts of the plant. Furthermore, the fruit pulp was the richest source of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, a precursor of n-6 fatty acids. Fruit seeds possessed higher vitamin C levels than leaves, roots and stem. The leaves were the richest source of vitamin E and linolenic acid (18:3n-3, a precursor of n-3 fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts, measured by KRL@ test, was as follows: pulp Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. exerted immunosuppressive effects. Conclusion Seed extracts exerted the most potent immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression. The results of the present study are discussed in the light of their use to modulate the immune-mediated diseases.

  17. Study on the Formulation and Process Optimization of the Lilac Warm Stomach Health Biscuits%丁香花暖胃保健饼干的配方及工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓峰; 刘敏; 李维宏; 王愈

    2015-01-01

    The best formulation and process optimization of the lilac warm stomach health biscuits were studied by orthogonal test on the single factor experiment,with lilacs, milk powder, dried tangerine or orange peel, jujube mill, brown sugar, hawthorn and cake flour as main raw materials, and texture analyzer combines sensory evaluation as methods. The results showed that the lilac warm stomach health biscuits with optimum sensory quality were obtained by cake flour 100 g, brown sugar 38 g, butter 19 g, malt sugar 4.67 g, milk powder 5.93 g, NaHCO3 2.53 g, NH4HCO3 0.47 g, total fiber 20 g and water 27 g, baked at 190℃-180℃for 7 min. The biscuits manufactured by optimum formulation had moderate sweetness, good taste, uniform surface color, flat surface. The influence factors of biscuits quality are the addition of brown sugar, addition of water, total fiber and addition of butter in sequence.%以丁香花、奶粉、陈皮、大枣、红糖、山楂及低筋粉等为主要原料,采用感官评价结合质构仪的方法,在单因素试验的基础上进行正交试验研究添加丁香花制作系列保健饼干的最佳配方及工艺优化。结果表明:在低筋粉100 g,红糖38 g,酥油19 g,饴糖4.67 g,奶粉5.93 g,碳酸氢钠2.53 g,碳酸氢铵0.47 g,纤维总量20 g,加水量27 g,上火温度190℃,下火温度180℃,烘烤7 min后得到成品感官品质最佳,口感良好,甜味适中,颜色均匀,表面平整。影响此饼干品质的主次因素从大到小依次是:红糖用量、加水量、纤维总量、酥油用量。

  18. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  19. 涌泉根灌多点源交汇入渗湿润体试验研究%Experimental Study on Soil Wetted Volume of Multiple Point Sources from Surge Root Irrigation Interference Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎朋红; 汪有科; 马理辉; 赵颖娜; 黎朋军

    2011-01-01

    在米脂山地微灌枣树示范基地进行原状土涌泉根灌入渗试验,研究了多点源交汇入渗条件下涌泉根灌湿润体特征值的变化规律.结果表明,涌泉根灌多点源交汇入渗孔洞处和交汇面处的湿润锋运移距离与入渗时间均符合幂函数关系,交汇面处的湿润锋运移速度比孔洞处的快,最终交汇入渗湿润土体沿孔洞布置方向的剖面形状近似带状;在孔洞底部周围的中间区域土壤含水率等值线分布相对复杂,等值线的分布类似于地形图上的"鞍部";涌泉根灌双点源灌溉比单点源、四点源灌溉效果好.%Undisturbed soil surge root irrigation infiltration experiment was carried out at mountain microirrigation demonstration base for jujube at Mizhi, and the variation of eigenvalues of wetted soil is studied under the condition of multi-point source interference infiltration. Results show: the infiltration distance of soil wetted front were good power functional relation with infiltration time on the intersection surface side and the holes surface side under surge root irrigation, and the wetting front migration velocity at the intersection surface was faster than that at the hole, and that is, finally the profile shape of wetting soil under interference infiltration in the direction of hole arrangement would nearly become a ribbon. In the middle area around the hole bottom, the soil water content contour distribution was relatively complicated and the contour distribution was similar to the“saddle” on the topography. The double point sources irrigation got the best irrigation effect under surge root irrigation.

  20. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  1. Based on the Viewpoint of "Shaoyang as Pivot" to Analyze Xiaoyindan Tang and Xiaoyangdan Tang%基于“少阳为枢”图解小阴旦汤、小阳旦汤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永林; 李金田; 史光伟; 李应存; 韩琦; 贾斌

    2016-01-01

    小阴旦汤证是外感阳邪致“精化为气”太过,则少阳生气大过,少阳为枢功能偏向于助东方升气,使六经升的力量表现太过,总体上表现“天气下降”不及,则取芍药“酸收”以抑太阳之开(少阳升气),取黄芩“苦降”以助阳明之合(少阳天气),更取姜草枣正补脾胃“地气”,用药之性味补入下降的力量,矫正少阳为枢偏于升太过的病证;而小阳旦汤证是外感阴邪致“精化为气”受阻(不及),则少阳生气不及,少阳为枢功能难以使地气上升,使六经升的力量表现不及,总体上表现“地气上升”不及,则取桂枝“辛开”以助太阳之开(少阳升气),取赤芍“酸收”以助降南方火气和西方天气,再取姜草枣正补脾胃“地气”,用药之性味补入上升的力量,矫正少阳为枢偏于升不及的病证.至于赤白芍之活用,则根据二者对阴的力量赤泄白补,小阴旦汤用白芍助阴以增加降的力量,小阳旦汤改用赤芍药则恰为防止白芍助阴而更加阻碍“地气上升”,且能泻南方火气太过.%The symptom of Xiaoyindan Tang is exogenous pathogenic factors "into Yang Qi" is resort to too much rage.Shaoyang for the pivot function tends to help lifting the Eastern Qi,make six liters power perform a lot,which performed by the "weather down" less and then to take acid Shaoyao to suppress peony the sun open (Shaoyang lift Qi),take the bitter Huangqin to help the Yangming (Shaoyang weather).What' more,it takes Ginger,Jujube,Licorice to tonify spleen and stomach Qi.The character and taste of medicine produce the function of reinforcing and reducing,which decreased the power of correction of Shaoyang diseases tends to rise too.For the Xiaoyinyangdan Tang syndrome is exogenous pathogenic factors "into Qi"(less),then blocked Shaoyang lifting Qi as Shaoyang for the pivot function is difficult to make up to six liters of Qi,power as the performance,the overall performance of "Qi rising

  2. Agricultural image de-noising algorithm based on hybrid wavelet transform%基于杂交小波变换的农产品图像去噪算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福增; 田艳娜; 杨亮亮; 何金伊

    2011-01-01

    The current image de-noising methods cannot remove the noise effectively, and they have the disadvantage of losing minutiae easily.A new de-noising method based on Hybrid Wavelet Transform was proposed in this study.Wavelet de-noising has the advantage of keeping the image's detail information, and Wiener Filter can obtain an optimal solution.This algorithm synthesized the advantages of Wavelet de-noising and Wiener Filter.Firstly, the image de-noised by Wavelet was used as male parent of the Hybrid Wavelet Transform's initial population, and image de-noised by Wiener Filter as female parent.Then, the individuals with fitness function of maximum between-cluster variance were evaluated.Through the hybrid and mutate operation, the gene recombination was realized, and then the superior gene of the two images de-noised was extracted by Wavelet and Wiener Filter.Finally, with the finite order hereditary algebra, an offspring image was obtained which has both advantages of male parent and female parent.The performance of this algorithm was tested by the red jujube images and wheat images.The results showed that images of red jujube and wheat de-noised by the proposed method had a higher PSNR (178.44 and 183.24) than those processed by conventional methodssuch as neighborhood average (176.76 and 175.16), median filter (174.79 and 173.13), Wiener filter (172.75 and 173.48) and Gauss filter (167.50 and 165.60) etc.The experimental results showed that the Hybrid Wavelet Transform de-noising method used on agricultural image had the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio, and good visual effect.Therefore, the method proposed is effective and practicable.%针对现有图像去噪方法去噪效果不明显、易丢失细节特征等缺陷,提出了一种基于杂交小波变换的农产品图像去噪算法.该方法综合了小波去噪能较好保留图像细节特征和Wiener滤波器可得到最优解的优势,分别以经小波变换、Wiener滤波处理后的图像作

  3. 枣不同器官和组织RNA提取方法的研究%Isolation of Total RNA for Different Organs and Tissues of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锦; 刘中成; 代丽; 刘孟军

    2009-01-01

    以田间幼嫩叶片为试材,建立枣RNA改良CTAB提取法,改良之处包括利用巯基乙醇和PVP联合去除多酚、CTAB与异硫酸氰胍联合促进RNA释放及加入糖原提高产率等.改良CTAB法提取液组成:2% CTAB,4mol/L异硫酸氰胍,100mmol/L Tris-HCl(pH8.0),20mmol/L EDTA(pH8.0),2% PVP,4% β-巯基乙醇,250μg/ml糖原.进而采用Trizol试剂法、改良CTAB法、改进SDS-酚法、热硼酸法和异硫氰酸胍法5种方法分别对枣组培苗、幼叶、幼嫩枝皮、根皮和枣果5种器官和组织进行了总RNA提取.结果表明,组培苗RNA提取以Trizol试剂法为最佳,田间幼叶和成熟果实宜采用改良CTAB法,幼嫩枝皮和根皮宜采用改良CTAB法或改进SDS-酚法;本研究建立的改良CTAB法可作为枣不同器官和组织RNA提取的通用方法;根据季节可从不同器官和组织中获得高质量RNA;枣组织RNA含量相差较大,以幼嫩叶片含量最高,其次为组培苗、枝皮、枣果和根皮.

  4. Spectral variability within species and its effects on savanna tree species discrimination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available . buxifolia and G. senegalensis), Lonchocarpus capassa, Peltoforum africanum, Piliostigma thonningii, Pterocarpus rotundifolia, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos sp (S. madagascariensis, S. usambarensis), Terminalia sericea and Ziziphus mucronata. Discriminating...

  5. ‘Trace quantity irrigation’ is impossible:Thinking about ‘trace quantity irrigation’%“痕量”无法灌溉--对“痕量灌溉”的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzed trace quantity irrigation from five aspects including: reasons for irrigation, the source of irrigation water, crop demand for water,the role of soil during irrigation process, and functions of irrigation system. The author thinks that trace quantity irrigation is unable to meet the water requirement of crop in field at the demand peak because trace quantity irrigation system is unable to transport water to root zone of plant. During period other than peak demand, the water supplied by emitters of trace quantity irrigation system may be much more than that required by crops. In fact, trace quantity irrigation in Hami city is nothing but the subsurface drip irrigation with low flow rate, and results of the experiments showed that the flow amount of trace irrigation emitter was so small that it was unable to meet the water requirement of jujube trees, it did not have the self-adaptive ability, whose algorithms and experimental design were unreasonable. Theory and practice showed that the trace quantity irrigation with super low flow rate could not match with the water requirement of plant. This paper also explored the reasons why trace quantity irrigation could not achieve ‘self-adaptive irrigation’.%该文从为什么要灌溉、灌溉水的来源、作物的需水(耗水)规律、土壤在灌溉中的作用、灌溉系统的任务这五个问题出发,谈及对“痕量灌溉”的思考。笔者认为痕量灌水器无法满足大田作物高峰需水期的需水要求,在大田作物需水高峰期痕量灌溉系统无法将水输送到植物根区,而在大田作物非需水量高峰期又有可能供水过量。哈密痕量灌溉试验本质上是小流量地下滴灌。哈密痕量灌溉试验的初步结论可以看出:痕量灌溉灌水器流量太小不能满足枣树需求且不具备自适应能力;水分利用率的算法及试验设计不科学。理论和实践都证明:痕量灌溉的“超低流量供水”实

  6. 健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害患者认知功能及AchE的影响%The effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成银; 梁妍霞; 邝仰东; 吕金丹; 梁洁; 刘健红; 何子意; 黄德弘

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害(aMCI)患者认知功能的改善情况及AchE水平的影响。方法:将70例aMCI患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各35例,治疗组给予健脑增智饮(熟地、茯苓、巴戟天、山茱萸、石斛、肉苁蓉、麦冬、石菖蒲、远志、川芎、丹参、赤芍、五味子、生姜、大枣)治疗,对照组给予脑复康片(吡拉西坦片)治疗,两组疗程均为16周。两组患者在治疗前、治疗8周后、治疗16周后分别进行神经心理学测试,包括CMS、ADL、MMSE、CDT,抽血查AchE活性变化。另设健康组20例,只进行神经心理学测试及抽血查AchE水平,不进行治疗。结果:治疗组CMS指标、MMSE评分、血清AchE含量治疗8周后及治疗16周后明显改善(P<0.05,P<0.01),且显著优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:健脑增智饮能提高aMCI患者记忆功能,CMS评分及MMSE评分均明显改善,降低胆碱酯酶的活性,AchE水平明显降低,提示健脑增智饮有显著提高智能的作用。%Objective:To observe the effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on improvement of the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods:70 aMCI patients were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, with 35 cases in each group. The control group was treated with Naofukang Tablets (Piracetam Tablets) while the observation group was treated with Jiannao Zengzhi Yin (composed of Rehmannia, Poria, Morinda officinalis, dogwood, Dendrobium, Cistanche, ophiopogon root, calamus, Polygala, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Salvia miltiorrhiza, radix paeoniae rubra, Schisandra, ginger, jujube), the treatment of both groups lasted 16 weeks. Neuropsychological test which contains test of CMS, ADL, MMSE and CDT of was given to patients in two groups 8 weeks before and after treatment, 16 weeks after treatment respectively, changes of AchE activity in

  7. Area integrated emission of biogenic nitric oxide by Lagrangian dispersion modeling (LASAT): Milan oasis, Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, PR China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, M.; Wu, Z.; Behrendt, T.; Fechner, A. D.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mamtimin, B.

    2012-04-01

    Today's knowledge of soil biogenic NO emission rates from arid and hyper-arid land is based on a total of about 20 experimental studies. Nevertheless, biogenic NO emissions even from non-managed arid and hyper-arid soils are significant and may range between 1-10 ng m-2 s-1 (in terms of nitrogen, if conditions for soil NO production are favourable (optimum soil moisture, high soil temperatures). Irrigated and fertilized oases, ranging about 3000 km long around the great Central Asian Taklimakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). Recent and future development of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. Up to today, only a few studies have preliminarily addressed soil biogenic NO emissions from the Taklimakan desert. In our contribution, we will focus on the quantification of the area integrated NO emission from the Milan oasis located on the most southern fringe of the Takalimkan desert (39.26° N, 88.91° E). At a first step, the 3D distribution of ambient NO concentration is calculated using a state-of-the-art commercially available dispersion model (LASAT 3.2, Lagrange Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). Performing the dispersion simulation, transport and turbulent diffusion are simulated for a group of representative "simulation particles" by means of a stochastic process (Lagrange simulation). Surface sources (individual cotton fields, Jujube orchards) are known: their geographical location as well as their areal extent, their stage of vegetation growth as well as irrigation and fertilization events and amounts, soil temperatures and soil water contents. This information is used to up-scale our results of field specific potential net NO emission, which has been parameterized in terms of soil temperature, soil water content, and soil nutrient

  8. 基于“体质-疾病谱-主症”模式的黄芪桂枝五物汤方证规范化文献研究%Formula Syndrome Standardization Study of Classical Formula of Huang-Qi-Gui-Zhi-Wu-Wu Decoction Based on Mode of "Constitution-Spectrum of Disease-Main Symptom" on Document Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 周美启; 李锋刚; 郜峦; 陆翔; 李净; 吴元洁

    2013-01-01

    Objective:It is to study the formula syndrome rule of Classical formula of Huang-qi-gui-zhi-wu-wu decoction on relative document data based on the mode of constitution-spectrum of disease-main symptom.Methods:By collecting,sorting out the individual clinical cases,then analysis and data mining of them.Results:Constitution and appearance of its formula syndrome are lack of vitality and fatigue,chills,lack of energy even to speak,lusterless or sallow complexion.Diseases mainly treated are neuritis,postpartum disease,Raynaud's disease,cervical vertebra disease,urticaria.Differentiation syndromes are syndrome of meridian obstruction and defense-qi and nutrient blood deficiency,Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome owing to yang deficiency,blood stasis syndrome complicated cold coagulation.Main symptoms include pain,numbness,swelling,sweating,dizziness,etc.Pulses mostly are sinking and thin or thin and weak or sinking and weak.Tongue color is pale white or pink and tongue coats are thin white or white mainly.Among this formula,common dosage of Astragalus is higher than other medicinal,and maximum dosage of stragalus and jujube are significantly higher than other medicinal.Chinese angelica,licorice,spatholobus stem,Rhizoma ligustici wallichii are frequently be added.Conclusion:Formula syndrome of Huang-qi-gui-zhi-wu-wu decoction includes the constitution and appearance and main symptom characteristics attending to the diseases above mentioned.Based on the original formula,other medicinal are added accordingly promoting blood circulation to remove blood staais,tonifying deficiency,releasing the exterior,dispelling wind and dampness,calming the liver to stop the wind.%在“体质-疾病谱-主症”模式下,通过对黄芪桂枝五物汤个案的搜集整理分析与数据挖掘,从文献角度探讨该方的方证规律.结果显示该方证体质及体貌特征为神疲乏力、畏寒、少气懒言、面色无华或萎黄等;所治疾病以神经炎、产后病

  9. Effects of density and feed supplement on layer production and yolk cholesterol under grazing conditions%放养条件下密度和补饲量对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉; 孙宝盛; 孙熠; 卢营杰; 李建慧; 张俊珍

    2014-01-01

    Although the birth of ecological chicken industry was greeted with great enthusiasm, unreasonable feeding density has largely killed plant cover, exposed hill slopes bare and damaged the ecology. How to use the land resource and shade environment under trees has become a major problem requiring an urgent solution. A total of 441 healthy 45-week-old layer hens were randomly divided into 7 groups to study the effects of density and feed supplement rate on layer production and yolk cholesterol content under grazing conditions. Hens of groups 1ԟ6 were reared under jujube/alfalfa wood. Treatments were set at feed supplement rates of 50%and 70%of free ingestion and at densities of 100, 250 and 400 hens per 667 m2. The 7th group of hens was reared in cages with free ingestion. Each plot area was 62 m2, 3 replicas set up for each group and 3 plots of each group used for rotation grazing. Preliminary trial period was 7 days while normal trial period was 70 days. The results showed that while density and feed supplement interaction had significant effects on egg laying rate (P0.05). However, in cage-reared hens with free ingestion, egg laying rate was significantly higher than in other treatments (P>0.05), egg weight significantly higher than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P>0.05), and feed/egg ratio significantly lower than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P 0.05). However, hen density had significant effect on egg cholesterol content (P0.05)。笼养+自由采食组(CK)与补饲量70%、100只·667m−2组蛋重、平均产蛋率及料蛋比差异不显著(P>0.05),但产蛋率显著高于其他各组(P0.05);放养密度对全蛋胆固醇含量影响极显著(P<0.01)。笼养+自由采食组蛋黄重极显著高于补饲量50%、100只·667m−2组(P<0.01),蛋黄胆固醇含量和全蛋胆固醇含量显著高于100只·667m−2组(P<0.05)。补饲量70%下,100只·667m−2放养密度对牧草的破坏性

  10. 万寿菊根不同溶剂提取物对枣缩果病病原菌抑菌活性研究%Studies on the Action of Different Solvent Extracts from the Root of Tagetes patula on Fruit Shrink Disease of Ziziphus jujuba Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟翔; 刘贤谦; 胡俊杰; 王琼

    2008-01-01

    比较了万寿菊根甲醇、氯仿、无水乙醇、丙酮、乙酸乙酯等不同溶剂的提取物对枣缩果病三种病原菌:细交链孢菌、聚生小穴壳菌和橄榄色盾壳霉菌的抑菌活性.结果表明:万寿菊根粗提物对枣缩果病病原菌均有不同程度的抑制作用,其中以乙酸乙酯粗提物对枣缩果病三种病原菌的抑菌作用最强,分别为79.77%,66.20%,70.26%,其次为丙酮、无水乙醇.有效抑菌成分有待进一步分离确定.

  11. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol Efecto benéfico de extractos de Berberis buxifolia Lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb y Prosopis alba sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por cloramfenicol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Albrecht

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax; above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively; whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.Se estudió el efecto antioxidante de tres extractos de frutas autóctonas, Berberis buxifolia lam (michay, Zizyphus mistol Griseb (mistol and Prosopis alba (algarrobo. Las células sanguíneas humanas sufrieron estrés oxidativo por acción de cloramfenicol (Ch, con un aumento inmediato de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO, que fue determinado por quimioluminiscencia con luminol. La respuesta fue dependiente de la dosis, con un máximo a 8 mg/ml. Los extractos de frutas autóctonas de la Argentina fueron capaces de contrarrestar el estrés generado por el antibiótico. El michay y el mistol resultaron más efectivos en la fase acuosa, y el algarrobo fue más antioxidante en extractos etílicos, mientras que las fracciones obtenidas con hexano no fueron activas. La viabilidad de los leucocitos se mantuvo elevada con Ch en presencia de extractos, entre 92.5 y 97.1%, cayendo hasta un 30% con Ch solo. Tanto los eritrocitos como los leucocitos fueron protegidos del efecto estresante por la capacidad antioxidantes de los extractos de las tres frutas investigadas, lo que podría ser importante a considerar en la dieta de niños, y pacientes en general, sometidos a Ch u otras terapias causantes de estrés oxidativo.

  12. Food selection by giraffes in relation to changes in chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this food selection criterion. Voedselvoorkeure en ... preferred food plants influence food selection. Availability of the 54 .... 0,38. 0,60. Ziziphus mucronata. 0,82. -0,69. No. of significant 7. 3. 2. 6. 5. 7. 2. 3 .... In fact, only 35,2% of the species ...

  13. Quality Assessment of Biodiesels from Lophira Lanceolata and Zi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.KYARI

    Lophira and Ziziphus oils were transesterified under the following conditions: ethanol/methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), potassium hydroxide catalyst (1.0%wt), temperature (55. oC. ) .... the catalyst, and glycerol. ... indicates oils to be normal triglycerides which ... Table 2.0: Methyl Fatty Acid Esters (approximate wt %) of Biodiesels ...

  14. AcEST: DK959921 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 248 2e-64 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like p...B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 Score

  15. AcEST: BP915533 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 62 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Zizip... 242 1e-62 ...TFMANHFDRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=

  16. Chemical composition, rumen degradability, protein utilization and lactation response to selected tree leaves as substitute of cottonseed cake in the diet of dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.; Ullah, G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of leaves from Grewia oppositifolia (G. oppositifolia) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana) as a crude protein (CP) supplements to low quality diets of goats in Pakistan. Chemical composition and CP degradability of the tree leaves were compa

  17. Three new species of Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Tachardiidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramamurthy, V V; Sharma, K K; Mohanasundaram, A; Vidyarthi, A S; Ramani, R

    2013-11-07

    Three new species of Kerria Targioni-Tozzetti from India, namely Kerria pennyae Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Schleichera oleosa from Orissa, Kerria dubeyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ficus bengalensis from Bangalore and Kerria varshneyi Ahmad & Ramamurthy sp. nov. on Ziziphus mauritiana from Punjab are described and illustrated, and a key is provided to species of Kerria known from India.

  18. Effects of Bamboo Knot-shaped Ditches on Rainwater Harvesting and Soil Structure Amelioration in the Hilly Loess Region of China%黄土丘陵沟壑区竹节式聚水沟聚水改土效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺君; 汪有科; 卫新东; 肖森; 赵霞; 卢俊寰

    2013-01-01

    试验以水平阶地为对照,于7-9月在典型黄土丘陵沟壑区陕西省米脂县测定了竹节式聚水沟中间、上侧和下侧的土壤水分,并于4月初和9月末测定了聚水沟样地的土壤容重.结果表明:7-9月,各时期聚水沟整体土壤水分均高于水平阶地且差异均达到极显著性水平(p<0.01),200cm土层内聚水沟的储水量比水平阶地最高增加了53.54 mm,增长率为29.5%;各时期聚水沟不同位置上土壤水分含量表现为沟中间>上侧>下侧,且中间与上、下侧土壤水分差异各时期均达到极显著性水平,上侧土壤水分变化幅度较下侧小;各时期聚水沟整体土壤水分含量表现为0~40cm土层最高,且从7月30日后呈不断下降趋势,>40~100 cm土层次之,各时期变化幅度较小,>100~200 cm土层最低,但呈不断增长趋势;沟内填充材料可以显著降低沟底10 cm以内土层的土壤容重,增大总孔隙度(p<0.05).竹节式聚水沟较水平阶地更能增加土壤水分含量,缓解浅层土壤干层形成,同时也具有改良土壤结构的作用,作为黄土丘陵沟壑区集聚水、保墒、改土于一体的新技术具有较好的推广应用价值.%Bamboo knot-shaped water harvesting ditches (BWHD) between the rows of jujube trees across the slope were built up. The ditches were filled with crushed biological materials to retain the rainfall. The soil moisture content of BWHDs at three sampling positions (top, middle, and the bottom) between July and September were measured,while the level bench terrace was used as the control. The soil bulk density (BD) and soil porosity (P) before and after constructing the ditches were also measured. The mean overall moisture content of BWHD was higher than that of the control throughout the observation period,and the difference between BWHD and the control was highly significant (P<0. 01). BWHD significantly (P<0. 05) enhanced the soil water storage in 0-200 cm

  19. Exploration of Purgative Decoction and the Therapeutic Effects of Its Associated Prescriptions%承气汤及其类方功效探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓琳; 程发峰; 王雪茜; 李鹏英

    2016-01-01

    Purgative Decoction was first seen in Treatise on Cold Damage,mainly used for visceral excess syndrome of yangming meridians with the effects of purging heat and unblocking the bowels.The later generations of doctors developed this formula and formed a series a associated prescriptions which are modified and developed on the basis of Purgative Decoction.Zhang Zhongjing created such associated prescriptions as Peach Kernel Qi-Guiding Decoction,Resistance Decoction,Major Chest Draining Decoction,Ten Jujubes Decoction,Cannabis Fruit Pill,extending from mere unblocking the fu organs and purging heat to activating blood flow,relieving edema.And the later generations develop the associated prescriptions based on Zhang Zhongjing's.Yu Gen values yangming meridian during the treatment of cold damage and created Three Kernels Purgative Decoction,Xilian Purgative Decoction,Chest Draining Purgative Decoction,Toxin-Removing Purgative Decoction,etc.Wu Jutong,an expert of epidemic febrile disease in Qing dynasty,expanded the therapeutic range of Purgative Decoction according to the features of transformation of dryness impairing yin and visceral excess syndrome mostly complicated with other disease.In the Chapter of Middle Energizer of his Systematic Differentiation of Warm Diseases,there are 14 associated prescriptions of Purgative Decoction (including Major Purgative Decoction,Minor Purgative Decoction,Stomach-Regulating and Purgative Decoction).This research generally divided the associated prescriptions into five categories:method of clearing heat and unblocking the bowels,method of reinforcing the healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic factors,method of purging heat and dispelling water retention,method of activating blood flow and dissipating blood stasis,and method of removing toxin and cooling blood.The application of Purgative Decoction and its associated prescriptions are in line with the principle of "inspecting the pulse syndromes,being aware of the pathogenic factors

  20. Analysis on Seedling Functional Traits of 7 Wild Fruit Tree Species on the Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountains%天山北坡7种野生果树幼苗的功能性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆华; 臧润国; 丁易; 许正; 刁永强; 孙霞

    2012-01-01

    and roots were significantly different among the 7 tree species except P in stems. Z. jujuba var. spinosa and Amygdalus ferganensis had higher nutrients contents in the three organs than the other tree species, while J. regia and Crataegus sanguinea were lower nutrients contents in the three organs than the other tree species. The average leaf nitrogen content of the 7 tree species was 28. 4 mg·g-1 , which was higher than the average value for terrestrial plants worldwide. The average leaf phosphorus content of the 7 tree species was 2. 20 mg·g-1 , which was higher than the average value for plants in China, but close to the average value for terrestrial plants worldwide. The studied wild fruit tree species could be categorized into three types according to their nutrients utilization efficiencies: ( 1 ) low efficiency type: A. ferganensis and Z. jujube var. spinosa; (2 ) middle efficiency type: M. sieversii, Prunus divaricata and Armenioca vulgaris ; ( 3 ) high efficiency type : J. regia and C. sanguinea.

  1. Analysis of effects of different modes of irrigation and mulching on water-saving and drought-resistance in sloping orchards of dry-hot valley%干热河谷坡地果园灌溉覆盖方式的抗旱节水效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米艳华; 陆琳; 黎其万; 陈艺棋; 段曰汤; 杨顺林; 朱红业

    2011-01-01

    在金沙江干热河谷坡地青枣果园设置裸地漫灌,直沟和目字沟埋草沟灌,地面秸秆、生物覆盖浸灌以及直沟埋草沟灌加地面秸秆覆盖等6种灌水疆盖实验,研究干热河谷坡地果园覆盖灌水方式的抗旱节水效应,筛选适宜的节水抗旱灌溉技术.结果表明:土壤保水、蓄水能力表现为覆盖漫灌高干开沟埋革沟灌,显著高于裸地漫灌.灌溉水利用率和经济效益则表现为:目字沟、直沟埋草沟灌>地面秸秆、生物覆盖漫灌>裸地漫灌.直沟埋草沟灌加地面秸秆覆盖处理的灌水次数最少,灌水量不到裸地漫灌对照的28.6%,灌溉水利用率是对照的6.7倍.节水效果依此表现为:直沟埋草沟灌+地面秸秆覆盖>>目字沟埋草沟灌≥地面秸秆覆盖漫灌>直沟埋草沟灌≥地面生物覆盖漫灌>>裸地漫灌(CK).经济效益最好的是直沟埋草沟灌+地面秸秆覆盖处理,其次是目字沟埋草沟灌,纯效益分别是裸地漫灌的2.36倍和2.16倍,产投比是对照的1.9倍和1.8倍.结果说明,在干热河谷燥红土果园,开沟埋草沟灌,地面覆盖,使灌溉水渗透土壤,减少地表径流和蒸散损失,提高土壤的保蓄水能力,能有效提高灌溉水的利用率和果园经济效益.%In jujube orchards of the slope area in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River, six modes of irrigation and mulching were set in the experiment, namely flood irrigation in bare land(CK), furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditches, furrow irrigation with straw buried in mesh ditches, flood irrigation with plants covering, flood irrigation with soil surface straw mulching, and furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditch + soil surface straw mulching. The results show that, for soil conservation and water storage capacity, flood irrigation with soil surface straw mulching is better than furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditches, and much better than CK. As for rrigation water use

  2. Tree species as a potential source of bio-herbicides for controlling Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Muhammad Ehsan; Tanveer, Asif; Khaliq, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Ahmad, Salman

    2013-01-01

    To assess the herbicidal potential of Eugenia jambolana Lam., Ricinus communis L., Ziziphus jujuba L. and Ziziphus mauritiana L. against noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L., germination bioassay using their 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (w/v) and seedling growth bioassay using their 5% (w/v) (on dry weight basis) aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) were conducted. ALE of R. communis showed maximum reductions in germination percentage (79%), germination index (89%) and seedling biomass (88%) as well as maximum delays in mean germination time (211%) and time to 50% germination (265%) of parthenium whereas maximum reductions in its seedling length (47%) and seedling vigour index (97%) were shown by Z. mauritiana. Reciprocal dose-response relationship by probit regression analysis revealed that LC50 values of R. communis and Z. mauritiana are 1.04% and 1.44%, respectively. Therefore, R. communis and Z. mauritiana are potential sources of bio-herbicides against this weed.

  3. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones. Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades, but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures. In this paper, we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework. Between 2002 and 2012, we (and our collaborators carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia, Ziziphus celata, a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills. Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat, fire, and propagule type. Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually, inconsistent growth, and little transition to reproduction, while introduced seeds had low germination and survival. Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules. Shaded (vs. open sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages, but growth responses varied among experiments. Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination, but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected. Contrary to expectations based on wild populations, introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites, suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized. Compared to wild plants, introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire, slower growth, and more delayed flowering. Introduced plants had no clonal spread. While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability, one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits. Given that Florida ziziphus genets are

  4. AcEST: BP919253 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in OS=Medic... 117 2e-25 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Zizip... 117 2e-25 tr|A9... >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 S

  5. AcEST: DK944965 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-40 tr|B7FGN8|B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 167 3e-40 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive...ensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 Score = 167 bi...CPNAECGAGTFMANH DRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA Sbjct: 108 VDDSGKVQRLRKECPNAECGAGTFMANHFDRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin ext

  6. AcEST: DK945602 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|B7FGN8|B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 167 3e-40 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive...ECGAGTFMANH DRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA Sbjct: 108 VDDSGKVQRLRKECPNAECGAGTFMANHFDRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensi...ve-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 Score = 167 bits (

  7. AcEST: BP917744 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5e-62 tr|B7FGN8|B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 239 5e-62 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive...MANHFDRHYCGKCG 145 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 S

  8. AcEST: DK961175 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 255 2e-66 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive...DRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA Sbjct: 121 CPNAECGAGTFMANHFDRHYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin exten...sive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 Score = 255 bits

  9. AcEST: DK947908 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66 tr|B7FGN8|B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 255 2e-66 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive...tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 Length = 156 Sco

  10. AcEST: DK959924 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available WQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Zizip... 255 2e-66 tr|A9T8M3|A9T8M3_PHYPA Predicted pro...HYCGKCGLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2

  11. New approach for determination of an optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity based on productivity and nectar secretion potential of bee forage species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Adgaba, Nuru; Getachew, Awraris; Tadesse, Yilma

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine an optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity of selected valleys dominated by Ziziphus spina-christi and Acacia tortilis in the Al-Baha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted based on the assessment of the number of colonies kept, their productivities and the existing productive bee forage resources in the target valleys with its economic implication. In the existing beekeeping practice, the average number of managed honeybee colonies introduced per square kilometer was 530 and 317 during the flowering period of Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, respectively. Furthermore, the overall ratios of productive bee forage plants to the number of honeybee colonies introduced were 0.55 and 11.12 to Ziziphus trees and A. tortilis shrubs respectively. In the existing situation the average honey production potential of 5.21 and 0.34 kg was recorded per Ziziphus and A. tortilis plants per flowering season, respectively. The present study, revealed that the number of honeybee colonies introduced in relation to the existing bee forage potential was extremely overcrowding which is beyond the carrying capacity of bee forage resources in selected valleys and it has been observed to affect the productivities and subsequent profitability of beekeeping. The study infers that, by keeping the optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity of valleys (88 traditional hives/km(2) or 54 Langstroth hives/km(2) in Ziziphus field and 72 traditional hives/km(2) or 44 Langstroth hives/km(2) in A. tortilis field), profitability of beekeeping can be boosted up to 130.39% and 207.98% during Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, flowering seasons, respectively.

  12. Complete sequence of a full-length DNA and molecular characterization of one plasmid from chinaberry (Melia azedarach Z) witches'-broom phytoplasma%苦楝丛枝植原体质粒的测定与分子特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋传生; 林彩丽; 田国忠; 赵文军; 朱水芳; 牟海青; 胡佳续; 王曦茁; 郭民伟

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To clone plasmid from chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma and analyse its molecular characterization. [Methods] Fragments of one plasmid (pCWBFq) in chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuqing strain ( CWBFq) were amplified with primer pairs which were designed according to plasmid sequences published on NCBI. Transmembrane domain and subcellular localization predictions of proteins encoded by the plasmid pCWBFq as well as phylogenetic analysis among the plasmid sequences were completed by using bioinformatic softwares. Southern blot analysis was performed to detect the plasmids existed in CWBFq and several other phytoplasmas with the pCWBFq repA probe. [ Results] One complete plasmid was sequenced from CWBFq. pCWBFq comprised 4446 bp and had a nucleotide content of 73. 5% A + T and encoded six proteins. Protein P2, P3, P4 and P5 of pCWBFq contained 3,2,1 and 2 tranmembrane domains respectively, and their predicted signal peptide values were 0.989, 0.505, 0.918 and 0.914 respectively. Homologous comparison showed that RepA homology between pCWBFq and other phytoplasmas was between 9. 6% -85. 6% , however, the homology of different SSB proteins was between 74. 0% - 89. 4% . Southern blotting withpCWBFq repA probe confirmed the existence of the plasmids in CWBFq. In addition, The hybridizations occurred with paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanyang strain ( PaWBNy ) , periwinkle virescence phytoplasma-Hainan stanin (PeVHn) , chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuzhou strain ( CWBFz) and mulberry dwarf phytoplasma -Puyang strain (MDPy) , whereas, no hybridizarions occurred with jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma-Beijing strain ( JWBBj) , cherry lethal yellows phytoplasma-Xichang strain (CLYXc) and Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanchang strain ( BiWBNc ). [ Conclusion ] The plasmid encoded a replication associated protein ( RepA) and a single-stranded DNA binding protein ( SSB) , which were for the replication of plasmid. Four

  13. AcEST: DK953554 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GLTYVYQKA 153 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Ziziphus jujuba GN=UBQ PE=2 SV=1 L...m tu... 255 2e-66 tr|B7FGN8|B7FGN8_MEDTR Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Medic... 255 2e-66 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin exte...nsive-like protein OS=Zizip... 255 2e-66 tr|A9T8M3|A9T8M3_PHYPA Predicted protein O

  14. Phytotherapy against insomnia: extravagant claims or an alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhijit; Dey, Amrita

    2013-02-01

    Insomnia or sleeplessness is a disorder characterized by a personal incapability to falling or staying asleep for a desirable period of time. Apart from Valeriana officinalis and Ziziphus jujuba most of the ethnobotanicals used for sleep disorders have not been evaluated for pharmacological or clinical efficacy against insomnia. Chinese herbal medicines involving polyherbal formulations are yet to be characterized and long-term side effects are yet to be evaluated. Anti insomniac phytotherapy opens up an exciting aspect of research which might benefit a large number of patients suffering from different degrees of insomnia.

  15. [Traditional therapy of dracunculiasis in the state of Bauchi - Nigeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiyi, J P; Kela, S L; Tal, K M; Istifanus, W A

    1993-01-01

    Traditional medicinal treatments of guinea worm being applied in various parts of Bauchi State were investigated. Extracts of leaves of a number of plants were universally applied topically. Users perceived relief of pain and accelerated expulsion of worms and healing process. In particular, Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jaozeiro and Moringa olifera are known in nature to have relevant medicinal properties especially lessening of inflammation, relief of pain, or promoting healing or reducing secondary bacterial infections. The possibility was expressed that some of the herbs might be exerting useful effects and could be exploited for the effective treatment of guinea worm.

  16. THE ROLE OF THREE WILD ANIMALS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PREFERRED FORAGE PLANTS IN THE DINDER NATIONAL PARK (D.N.P SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. MOHAMMED

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Dinder National Park (D.N.P. of Sudan during the dry season (March, April and May. Waterbuck (Kobus defassa, warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tiang (Damaliscus korrigum in D.N.P were chosen for this study. Seeds of Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal and Piliostigma reticulatum recovered from the fecal samples of waterbuck showed a highly increased rate of germination above the control. Acacia polycantha and Sesbania sesban showed decreased rate of germination below the control. The germination rate of Acacia siberiana showed no positive effect (zero versus the control. The germination rate of the seeds of Ziziphus-spina-christi remained more or less above the control (53% and 50%, respectively. The germination of seeds of Ziziphus spina-christi from fecal samples of warthog showed higher increased rate of germination. The results of this study confirmed that the three wild herbivores are grazers, but they shift their diets towards forbs, woody plants and fruits of leguminous trees during the dry season. Waterbuck, Tiang and Warthog they depended on the plant diversely around water collecting places in the pank (Mayas for their diets, but they selected other plant species from the surrounding. Also this study provides the information regarding food habits and feed requirements of these wild herbivores. Such information might help in the management of the habitat (Mayas and the protection and sustainability of wild herbivores in D.N.P.

  17. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fourteen Wild Edible Fruits from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile G. Nacoulma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of fourteen (14 species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso wereanalyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities usingthe DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic andtotal flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana andLannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the otherfruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit alsoshowed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with highantioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents.There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidantactivities.

  18. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-03-06

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities.

  19. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  20. Parasitismo natural em moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae no semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Falcão de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle natural de tefritídeos, e os conhecimentos sobre as relações tritróficas podem subsidiar o manejo destas pragas. Este trabalho objetivou estimar índices de parasitismo em moscas-das-frutas, em 21 espécies vegetais, e identificar as espécies de parasitoides associados, nas condições do semiárido do sudoeste da Bahia. Oito hospedeiros apresentaram infestação por Anastrepha spp. e, destes, em quatro, ocorreu parasitismo superior a 20,0%, sendo: 20,8% (Ziziphus joazeiro L.; 21,3% (Spondias tuberosa L.; 32,4% (Spondias purpurea L. e 57,1% (Malpighia emarginata L.. Os parasitoides coletados pertencem à família Braconidae, sendo 89% de Doryctobracon areolatus e 11% de Asobara anastrephae.

  1. ATIVIDADE ACARICIDA DE EXTRATOS AQUOSOS DE PLANTAS DE CAATINGA SOBRE O ÁCARO VERDE DA MANDIOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE FERNANDO DA SILVA SIQUEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The undesirable effects of agrotoxics have aroused the interest of society to use alternative tactics of pest control, as plants with insecticidal activity, which can be used as powders, aqueous and organic extracts, essential oils and emulsifiable. This way, the toxicity, population growth and repellence of aqueous extracts of plants were evaluated on the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa . Aqueous extracts of Cro- ton blanchetianus , Myracrodruon urundeuva and Ziziphus joazeiro were used, in which were immersed in cas- sava leaf discs (3.5 cm diameter. The extracts at all concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% resulted in a de- cline in the pest population. The concentrations of 20 and 25% of the extracts resulted in the highest percentage mortality of the pest. All extracts in concentrations of 15, 20 and 25% for adult females were repellents M. ta- najoa .

  2. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

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    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  3. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)