WorldWideScience

Sample records for juin 2006i contexte

  1. Formation sécurité : places disponibles dans les sessions de juin

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Il reste des places dans les formations sécurité suivantes. Pour les mises à jour et les inscriptions, veuillez vous reportez au catalogue des formations sécurité. Safety in Cryogenics level 1, 14 juin, en anglais, 3 heures, 9h00 – 12h00 (5 places) Radiological Protection, 18 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Radiological Protection, 22 juin, en anglais, 4 heures, 08h30 – 12h30 (15 places) Sécurité Radiologique, 22 juin, en français, 4 heures, 13h30 – 17h30 (15 places) Conduite de chariots élévateurs, 24-25 juin, en français, 2 jours, 8h00 – 17h30 (3 places) 

  2. General Alphonse Juin: A Case Study in Leadership and Coalition Warfare (Italy 1943-1944)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    publishers, New-York and Evanston.1967. Leahy, William D (Fleet Admiral). I Was There. Mac Graw Hill Book Company, New- York, 1950. Linklater Eric...I was There (New-York: Mac Graw Hill Book Company, 1950). 71 Pujo, Juin, 39. 72 Pammeters, Alliance and Coalition Waifare. 56

  3. À propos de Pierre Brossolette, " Hommage aux morts de la France combattante ", Albert Hall de Londres, 18 juin 1943

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En rendant un hommage passionné aux morts de la France Combattante, le 18 juin 1943 à l'Albert Hall de Londres, Pierre Brossolette s'efforce de mobiliser les " Français de Grande-Bretagne " (c'est-à-dire, rappelons-le, un auditoire qui dépasse la seule France Combattante) au service de l'entreprise gaullienne et, plus largement, de la rénovation à venir de la France (...).

  4. : Communication au colloque Oeno2011, Institut des sciences de la vigne et du vin, Bordeaux, 16-18 juin 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Communication au colloque Oeno2011, Institut des sciences de la vigne et du vin, Bordeaux, 16-18 juin 2011 http://www.oeno2011.u-bordeaux2.fr/; In 2008 the European Union (EU) adopted a reform of its wine policy that many commentators consider has radically altered the logic of public support for this sector. Instead of seeking to structure the supply of wine in Europe through plantation rights, distillation aids and strict rules on vinification processes, the reform was instead based on a lo...

  5. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air (ETTAP2009) . Environment and transport. Transport and air pollution. 3ème(17e)/3rd(17th), conférence, Toulouse, 2-4 juin 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Ces actes de la 3eme conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 17eme conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Toulouse du 2 au 4 juin 2009 - ETTAP2009, regroupent les communications sur les thématiques suivantes : qualité de l'air et matière particulaire générée par les transports ; consommation d'énergie et émissions de gaz à effet de serre ; émissions et impacts des transports non-routiers ; évaluation et acceptabilité des politiques de transport ; exposition personnelle et ...

  6. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air. 2ème(15e), conférence, Reims, 12-14 juin 2006 - Volume 1 communications orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Ces actes de la 2e conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 15e conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Reims du 12 au 14 juin 2006, regroupent les communications orales (tome 1) ou sous forme d'affiches (tome 2) sur des sujets aussi variés et complémentaires que le développement durable, les différents impacts des transports sur l'environnement et leur modélisation, les caractéristiques du trafic routiers, les facteurs d'émission, les inventaires d'émissions, le cas des tran...

  7. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air. 2ème(15e), conférence, Reims, 12-14 juin 2006 - Volume 2 communications affichées

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Ces actes de la 2e conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 15e conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Reims du 12 au 14 juin 2006, regroupent les communications orales (tome 1) ou sous forme d'affiches (tome 2) sur des sujets aussi variés et complémentaires que le développement durable, les différents impacts des transports sur l'environnement et leur modélisation, les caractéristiques du trafic routiers, les facteurs d'émission, les inventaires d'émissions, le cas des tran...

  8. Compte-rendu des journées des rencontres orales en ligne pour l'apprentissage les 22-23 juin 2007, The Open University, Royaume-Uni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Lamy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available L'association Baal-CUP (British Association for Applied Linguistics avec Cambridge University Press http://www.baal.org.uk/ finance régulièrement des journées destinées à susciter des débats entre une vingtaine de chercheurs très actifs d'un domaine bien ciblé. Soutenue par Baal-CUP, l'Open Universitya organisé en juin dernier deux journées sur le thème des rencontres orales en ligne pour l'apprentissage (Spoken Online Learning Events ou Sole. Sole a réuni principalement mais non exclusivem...

  9. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  10. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  11. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  12. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  13. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  14. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  15. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  16. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  17. National context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This document forms part of the tasks of Work Package 3 for the European project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science) whose main goal is to offer to a wide and diverse community of actors a common platform to structure their science communication activities,......, at a city/regional level (www.openplaces.eu). The main objective of this document is to have an overview of different contexts of scientific culture that are present around Europe with a particular focus on the local dimension of the initiatives and policies in science communication....

  18. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2005; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2005 activity report of CRE. Content: A - The opening of the markets in France and in Europe: The opening of the markets one year after 1 July 2004 (An especially important step, Electricity and gas: a common framework with structural differences, The coexistence of market prices and regulated tariffs); The European texts of 26 June 2003 (Texts to give new impetus, Texts to harmonize the role and powers of national regulators, Texts to guarantee the independence of system operators, Texts to ensure transparent and non-discriminatory access to networks, Texts providing for strengthening of interconnections); The outlook for 2007, a fully open market (1 July 2007: a date set by the directives, Priority given to informing and protecting consumers); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Europe's dependency on imports is increasing, Gas prices increased considerably across the whole of Europe in 2004, The European gas scene continues to be dominated by a small number of players, Gas infrastructures need to be developed in Europe, The new

  19. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Package, Infringement proceedings initiated against France by the European Commission); D - CRE action at national level: Regulation of systems and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Natural gas networks and other infrastructures); Electricity and natural gas markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative context, Electricity markets, Natural gas markets, Monitoring open market operations); Support measures: electricity generation, vulnerable customers and TaRTAM (Supporting cogeneration and renewable energy sources, Public electricity service costs, Collection of public electricity service contributions (CSPE), TaRTAM-related costs, Costs related to the special solidarity tariff for natural gas supply); E - Appendices: Glossary, Acronyms, Council of European Energy Regulators, Units and conversions.

  20. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  1. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  2. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  3. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  4. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  5. Context and Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Context is very important factor that can't be ignored in speech communication. Context contributes much to understanding the meaning of words. The exact and thorough interpretation of words and utterance results from contexts. The relation is discussed between context and listening comprehension, and the functions of context are analyzed in listening. It is pointed out that the analysis of contextual clues is useful in understanding listening materials and also introduces some ways on contextual clues in listening so as to improve listening comprehension.

  6. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  7. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  8. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed....

  9. Context in place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework - i.e. a vocabulary - for understanding the importance of integrating context in analyses of guidance practices. The paper delineates a conceptual landscape of context based on social practice and interactional theories on context. We...... specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...

  10. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  11. Incest in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Stan

    1984-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive view of the societal, cultural, familial, and personality factors that form the context of people at risk for incest and associated problems. Summarizes the consequences and the causal context of incest and describes an ecosystems approach to intervention. (Author/LLL)

  12. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctor...

  13. Evaluation in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaap, Kamps; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger

    All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation...... in the Cranfield tradition requires abstracting away from individual differences between users. This paper investigates if we can bring some of this context into the Cranfield paradigm. Our approach is the following: we will attempt to record the "context" of the humans already in the loop - the topic authors....../assessors - by designing targeted questionnaires. The questionnaire data becomes part of the evaluation test-suite as valuable data on the context of the search requests.We have experimented with this questionnaire approach during the evaluation campaign of the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX...

  14. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human......: patients and IT; usability test and evaluation; work tasks and related contexts; human factors and simulation; and context and systems design, and outline theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights related to how health information technologies can be better designed to accommodate...

  15. Dynamic context bindings : infrastructural support for context-aware applications

    OpenAIRE

    Broens, Tom Henri Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The world is increasingly equipped with high-capacity, interconnected, mobile and embedded computing devices. Context-awareness provides an attractive approach to personalize applications such that they better suit the user’s needs in this rich computing environment. Context-aware applications use context information, offered by context sources, to adapt their behavior to the situation at hand. The exchange of context information requires an association between a context consuming context-awa...

  16. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  17. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...

  18. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...

  19. From context to condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process.......Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process....

  20. Knowledge in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kompa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to motivate and defend a version of epistemic contextualism; a version, that is, of what came to be called attributor or ascriber contextualism. I will begin by outlining, in the first part, what I take to be the basic idea of and motivation behind the version of epistemic contextualism that I favor. In the second part, a couple of examples will be presented in order to illustrate the contextualist point. Since epistemic (ascriber contextualists commonly claim that knowledge ascriptions are context-sensitive, the third part of the paper will be concerned with the phenomenon of context-sensitivity at a more general level. A more detailed inquiry into the context-sensitivity natural language expressions exhibit will prove helpful in order to counter the objection that postulating context-sensitivity in the case of knowledge ascriptions is an ad-hoc-maneuver. Given that epistemic contextualism is partly an epistemological thesis, party a linguistic thesis, the remainder of the paper will be devoted to the question of how to semantically model the kind of context-sensitivity exhibited by knowledge ascriptions. The upshot will be that there are two differ-ent ways of semantically accommodating the context-sensitivity at issue. Both call for a more or less drastic departure from epistemological and semantic orthodoxy.

  1. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  2. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  3. Context, you need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt

    that object-initial clauses like “Her, he invited” are more difficult to read and comprehend than subject-initial clauses like “He invited her”. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the difference particularly affects a brain area known by the name of Broca’s area. Whether one says “He invited her” or “Her......, he invited” depends on the context – it is therefore relevant to take contextual factors into account when examining how language users process information structure. The dissertation is based on a psycholinguistic reading experiment and three neuroimaging experiments that all examine the interplay...... between context and information structure. The experimental results indicate that context plays a significant role when it comes to sentence comprehension and that the activity in Broca’s area is also affected by contextual factors. Based on the results of the four language experiments, it is also argued...

  4. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  5. A Brief History of Context

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Kaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Context is a rich concept and is an elusive concept to define. The concept of context has been studied by philosophers, linguists, psychologists, and recently by computer scientists. Within each research community the term context was interpreted in a certain way that is well-suited for their goals, however no attempt was made to define context. In many areas of research in computer science, notably on web-based services, human-computer interaction (HCI), ubiquitous computing applications, and context-aware systems there is a need to provide a formal operational definition of context. In this brief survey an account of the early work on context, as well as the recent work on many working definitions of context, context modeling, and a formalization of context are given. An attempt is made to unify the different context models within the formalization. A brief commentary on the usefulness of the formalization in the development of context-aware and dependable systems is included.

  6. Context-dependent generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  7. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  8. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  9. Context and Implicature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2014-01-01

    that has a lot in common with non-linguistic behavior. But what exactly is its role? We invite the reader to view conversational implicature as a way of negotiating meaning in conversational contexts. Along the way, the reader will learn something of the theoretical properties of implicatures, why...... they are tricky to work with empirically, what can be done with them computationally, and (perhaps) where future research on the topic may lead. But the basic message of the paper is actually quite simple: context and conversational implicature are highly intertwined, and unravelling their interactions...

  10. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  11. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Alexander; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compression benchmark tests while never being significantly worse on any individual file.

  12. Context and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄念峰

    2004-01-01

    The exponents of Functional Teaching Approach hold that only when the linguistic expressions are presented(by the teacher)and practised(by the students)in the specifte context,can language teaching cultivate students' competence of understanding and using language forms.Based on two years' practice,The author argues that excellent effects on setting up context can livene up the atmosphere of the classroom,foster the students' competitive consciousness and collective spirit,stimulate the students' rich imagination and creativity,satisfy their thirst for knowledge,promote the harmonious relationship between teacher and students and improve the quality of teaching.

  13. Learning in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik  through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....

  14. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  15. Context 2010/2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT 2010/2011 består af 16 artikler og essays, forfattet af forskere og undervisere på Arkitektskolen Aarhus. Forfatterne præsenterer hér deres individuelle, faglige tilgange til kontekst-begrebet, som det helt aktuelt anvendes i forskning og undervisning på Arkitektskolen. Teksterne ledsages...

  16. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2015-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  17. DANS LE CONTEXTE IVOIRIEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA RELATION "GENRE" ET SES IMPLICATIONS SOCIOLOGIQUES. DANS LE CONTEXTE IVOIRIEN ... de base et de la gestion des affaires publiques en milieu rural .... Les raisons économiques; du fait du faible pouvoir d'achat des parents face au ..... cause de rupture du contrat, toute femme a le droit de suspendre son.

  18. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  19. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  20. Adaptive context exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents concepts and an implementation scheme to improve information exploitation processes and products by adaptive discovery and processing of contextual information. Context is used in data fusion - and in inferencing in general - to provide expectations and to constrain processing. It also is used to infer or refine desired information ("problem variables") on the basis of other available information ("context variables"). Contextual exploitation becomes critical in several classes of inferencing problems in which traditional information sources do not provide sufficient resolution between entity states or when such states are poorly or incompletely modeled. An adaptive evidence-accrual inference method - adapted from developments in target recognition and scene understanding - is presented; whereby context variables are selected on the basis of (a) their utility in refining explicit problem variables, (b) the probability of evaluating these variables to within a given accuracy, given candidate system actions (data collection, mining or processing), and (c) the cost of such actions. The Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Model, with its extension to dual Resource Management functions, has been adapted to accommodate adaptive information exploitation, to include adaptive context exploitation. The interplay of Data Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) functionality in exploiting contextual information is illustrated in terms of the dual-node DF&RM architecture. An important advance is in the integration of data mining methods for data search/discovery and for abductive model refinement.

  1. Context modification in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop the positive fragment of Context Modification Logic. This logical system is a variant of Dynamic Predicate Logic that employs multiple-access variables and that treats argument places in the same way as Latin. The positive fragment is purely incremental.

  2. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  3. Context as a Spurious Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, G

    1997-01-01

    I take issue with AI formalizations of context, primarily the formalization by McCarthy and Buvac, that regard context as an undefined primitive whose formalization can be the same in many different kinds of AI tasks. In particular, any theory of context in natural language must take the special nature of natural language into account and cannot regard context simply as an undefined primitive. I show that there is no such thing as a coherent theory of context simpliciter -- context pure and simple -- and that context in natural language is not the same kind of thing as context in KR. In natural language, context is constructed by the speaker and the interpreter, and both have considerable discretion in so doing. Therefore, a formalization based on pre-defined contexts and pre-defined `lifting axioms' cannot account for how context is used in real-world language.

  4. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  5. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008; Impacts du changement climatique, adaptation et couts associes en France. Document d'etape. Juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  6. Static context model for context aware E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu. M. Das

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Context aware E-Learning systems provide learning content according to a learner’s context. In order to determine a learner’s context, the parameters that constitute the context and the values of these parameters in the current learner’s situation have to be found. There are several existing context aware E-Learning systems and each of these are taking care of some of the context parameters - like learning styles, learner preferences etc. But, a standardized static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context in its ntirety is not available. This paper proposes a static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context. The static context model is developed by consolidating the various context parameters used in the existing context aware E-Learning systems and organizing them into an appropriate structure. The structure of the static context model along with the parameters that constitute the context is explained in the paper

  7. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... in discourse-pragmatically felicitous contexts. Our results extend previous findings of preschoolers’ sensitivity to discourse-contextual cues in sentence comprehension (Hurewitz, 2001; Song & Fisher, 2005) to the basic task of assigning agent and patient roles....

  8. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    are colored by contextual information. This can be longterm contextual information, such as knowledge of phonological or emotional categories, but can also be short-term local expectancies, such as the previous sound heard. In this paper, I present original electrophysiological data illustrating the early...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  9. Reading the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engage with, if it has to be relevant to the African context. In this vein, the article argued that a correct reading of the African context would lead to a more relevant theory and praxis of African Christianity for the benefit of all African peoples and their global neighbours. The contention of this article was that African Christianity has a significant role to play in the re-shaping of the African society and in the global community of humans, only that this role must be executed inclusively, responsibly and appropriately, together with all those who seek the holistic development of Africa towards one common destiny.

  10. Context-free multilanguages

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    This article is a sketch of ideas that were once intended to appear in the author's famous series, "The Art of Computer Programming". He generalizes the notion of a context-free language from a set to a multiset of words over an alphabet. The idea is to keep track of the number of ways to parse a string. For example, "fruit flies like a banana" can famously be parsed in two ways; analogous examples in the setting of programming languages may yet be important in the future. The treatment is informal but essentially rigorous.

  11. Context-free multilanguages

    OpenAIRE

    Knuth, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    This article is a sketch of ideas that were once intended to appear in the author's famous series, "The Art of Computer Programming". He generalizes the notion of a context-free language from a set to a multiset of words over an alphabet. The idea is to keep track of the number of ways to parse a string. For example, "fruit flies like a banana" can famously be parsed in two ways; analogous examples in the setting of programming languages may yet be important in the future. The treatment is in...

  12. THE MUMMY in context

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Freeman

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the literary and cinematic antecedents of a cinema icon, The Mummy, produced by Universal Pictures in 1932.  It looks at the sources in Victorian and Edwardian literature to see if any of the ideas found their way into the film.  Similarly, the silent cinema is surveyed to see if the 1932 film was a collection of previously filmed stories remoulded.  The context of the Great Depression and its effects on Universal Studios will be shown to have a significant influence on ...

  13. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...

  14. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  15. Context in place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...... studies on interdisciplinary clinical supervision and work place guidance in which there appears to be a mismatch between intended outcomes and actual events. The analyses demonstrate and support that 'the place' seems - to influence partipants' responses in the guidance sessions and, therefore, must...

  16. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  17. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  18. Behavioral Biases in Interpersonal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Liu (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents evidence suggesting that the same types of biases in individual decision making under uncertainty pertain in interpersonal contexts. The chapters above demonstrate in specific contexts how specific interpersonal factors attenuate, amplify, or replicate these bias

  19. Interface between Context and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Daojuan; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explores how to consider contextual factors in the development of paradigm theory by focusing on the application and development of agency theory in a cross context. Specifically, the interface between agency theory and context is established from two aspects. On one hand...... and PPC, which shows that the two forms of conflict co-exist in the Chinese context and that the primary or secondary status of either conflict is sensitive to the context....

  20. Parallel context-free languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1974-01-01

    The relation between the family of context-free languages and the family of parallel context-free languages is examined in this paper. It is proved that the families are incomparable. Finally we prove that the family of languages of finite index is contained in the family of parallel context......-free languages....

  1. Class-Based Context Quality Optimization For Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    delay, packet drop probability, information dynamics and the access strategies taken. QoS classification and system configuration of context management traffic is in this aspect important in order to efficiently balance generated access traffic between network delay, packet loss probability, information......Context-awareness is a key requirement in many of today's networks, services and applications. Context Management systems are in this respect used to provide access to distributed, dynamic context information. The reliability of remotely accessed dynamic context information is challenged by network...... dynamics and reliability requirements to the information from the applications. In this paper we develop a QoS Control network concept for context management systems. The concept includes a soft realtime algorithm for model based context access configuration and QoS class assignment, and allows to put...

  2. The HFEA in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    While the regulatory role of the HFEA, its independence and its shortcomings are debated in the context of a fiscal economic crisis, the larger sociological importance of the Authority may be overlooked. Harder to calculate than its annual budget and more elusive than its technical remit as a licensing body, the cultural value of the HFEA as a historical and symbolic entity that was born out of a pioneering debate unique to the UK must be included in a discussion of its future role. Against its perceived shortcomings as an expensive and outdated quango is the importance of the Authority as a public instrument for enhancing the future of translational bioscience. From this point of view, the HFEA is crucial not only to ensuring the successful realization of a domestic bioscience agenda but also to protecting the international reputation of UK Plc as a best-practice model of publicly supported bioinnovation.

  3. Context effects in games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  4. Celebrity and contemporary context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guimarães Simões

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hermeneutic power of a celebrity (seen from the concept of event, seeking to understand what it reveals about the contemporary context. Based on this premise, we attempt to recognize some aspects of contemporary social life that emerge from the trajectory of a specific celebrity: the former soccer player Ronaldo Fenômeno. This analysis brings to light the hermeneutic power of Ronaldo, i.e., how his life story reveals characteristics of contemporary social life. Individualism, machismo, emphasis on a heteronormative ideal, shifts in the construction of romantic relationships, and the overlapping spheres of public and private life, are some important aspects of contemporary society revealed by this analysis.

  5. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  6. Discourse, Ideology and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun Van Dijk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available ideologi merupakan sistem kepercayaan, keyakinan dasar; menyangkut gagasan-gagasan, dan representasi sosial tentang sejumlah hal yang dijadikan acuan bersama dalam kelompok. Ia akan terekspresikan dalam struktur wacana dan mengontrol pengetahuan yang dimiliki dan, terdistribusi dalam kelompok. Pemahaman biasa tentang ideologi adalah dengan mengkaji efek ideologi pada bentuk-bentuk wacana dan makna. fdeologi jJositifatau negatiftergantung pada konsekuensinya dalam praktik sosial. Orang membentuk model mental tentang peristitwa yang dipercakapkan dan peristiwa di mana ia berpartisipasi. Model mental adalah memori personal yang bersifat episodik. Dan, orang tidak berada dalam ruang hampa. fa berada dalam sebuah kontkes, yakni situasi subjektifdi mana ia berada atau terlibat. Konteks itu sendiri tidak statis. secara terus-menerus akan direkonstruksi dalam mental para partisipan. Untuk mendeskripsikan wacana, sebagai alat analisis, kategori-kategori kotekstual berikut dapat digunakan: domain, global action, roles, sosial relations, dan context. interpretasi para partisipan dan peneliti yang dihasilkan tak terhindarkan pada bias ideologi tertentu yang dianut, sehingga bersifat subjektif.

  7. THE MUMMY in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freeman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literary and cinematic antecedents of a cinema icon, The Mummy, produced by Universal Pictures in 1932.  It looks at the sources in Victorian and Edwardian literature to see if any of the ideas found their way into the film.  Similarly, the silent cinema is surveyed to see if the 1932 film was a collection of previously filmed stories remoulded.  The context of the Great Depression and its effects on Universal Studios will be shown to have a significant influence on the decision to make the film.  The film itself and its publicity is discussed, followed by its reception at the time, and its significance to writers since.

  8. Personality and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Mike M; Ward, Ashley J W

    2011-11-01

    There has been considerable interest among biologists in the phenomenon of non-human animal personality in recent years. Consistent variations among individuals in their behavioural responses to ecologically relevant stimuli, often relating to a trade-off between level of risk and reward, have been recorded in a wide variety of species, representing many animal taxa. Research into behavioural variation among individuals has major implications for our understanding of ecological patterns and processes at scales from the level of the individual to the level of the population. Until recently, however, many studies that have considered the broader ecological implications of animal personality have failed to take into account the crucial moderating effect of social context. It is well documented that social processes, such as conformity and facilitation, exert considerable influence on the behaviour of grouping animals and hence that isolated individuals may often behave in a qualitatively as well as quantitatively different manner to those in groups. Recently, a number of studies have begun to address aspects of this gap in our knowledge and have provided vital insights. In this review we examine the state of our knowledge on the relationship between individual personality and sociality. In doing so we consider the influence of the social context on individual personality responses, the interaction between the collective personalities of group members and the expression of those personalities in the individual, and the influence of the personalities of group members on group structure and function. We propose key areas of focus for future studies in order to develop our understanding of this fundamentally important area. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Intercultural Learning Across Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Beate VASBØ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available International youth work in Europe (i.e. non-formal learning demands a renewal of the prominent intercultural theory and framework in the youth field in order to cope with contemporary questions concerning pluralism and global challenges. This article provides a new theoretical framework for intercultural learning that departs from a complex, multicultural, social reality. Furthermore, the article explores how young people today experience international youth exchanges as arenas for learning in relation to other learning arenas in and out of school. The data consists of interviews and participant observation of a Norwegian youth group preparing for, participating in and reflecting on their experiences in an international youth exchange programme. The findings show that participation in international youth exchanges, in addition to cultural knowledge, may contribute to increased motivation for learning, enhanced self-understanding and personal growth that seems transferable to other contexts. Furthermore,global youth culture plays a crucial role in young people`s experiences of being like one another across national borders, cultures and social realities.

  10. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  11. Richard Rorty in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lloyd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard Rorty was a strong contextualist in his approach to philosophical and political ideas, yet his own most characteristic arguments are typically evaluated without much reference to the historical circumstances that provoked them. A key participant in the post-1980 revival of pragmatism within North American and European intellectual circles, Rorty reaffirmed the strong connections between American pragmatism and German idealism. This move placed him at odds with scholars who forged the unity of pragmatism—united John Dewey and William James—under the banner of radical empiricism. Those engaged most enthusiastically in celebrating Rorty’s achievements, in short, defend a conception of pragmatism that Rorty sharply criticized and ideas about the history of philosophy that he did not share. His distinctive intellectual agenda is best appreciated after setting it in the context of the history of the American Left and, more specifically, the reckoning with the tumultuous 1960s that animates so many ongoing debates—inside and outside the academy—about cultural and political affairs.

  12. The pleasure in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2008-10-01

    The pleasures associated with the use of illicit drugs are rarely acknowledged in contemporary drug policy debates. Where they are, these pleasures are almost always attributed to the specific physiological and/or sensory effects of individual substances. Drawing on qualitative research recently completed in Melbourne, Australia, this paper argues that the pleasures associated with illicit drug use extend well beyond the purely physiological to include a host of properly contextual elements as well. These "contextual" pleasures include the corporeal experience of space, such as the "feeling" of electronic music in a large night-club space, or the engagement with natural and wilderness environments. Also important are a range of corporeal and performative practices, such as dancing and interacting with strangers, which were reportedly facilitated with the use of different drugs. This emphasis on the dynamics of space, embodiment and practice as they impact the contextual experience of pleasure, has the potential to open up new ways of thinking about pleasure and its place in the mediation of all drug related behaviours. Greater understanding of these relationships should also facilitate the emergence of new, context specific, drug prevention and harm reduction initiatives.

  13. Translation science and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based health care practices are available for a number of conditions such as asthma, smoking cessation, heart failure, and management of diabetes. However, these practices are not routinely implemented in care delivery and variations in practices abound. Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) is challenging, and difficulties implementing evidence may be largely explained by contextual factors. Thus, strategies are needed that address the complexity and systems of care, individual practitioners, senior leadership, and ultimately changing health care cultures to promote an evidence-based practice environment. To advance knowledge about promoting and sustaining adoption of EBPs in health care, translation science needs more studies that test translating research into practice (TRIP) interventions; studies are needed that investigate what TRIP interventions work, for whom, in what circumstances, in what types of settings, and studies that explain the underlying mechanisms of effective TRIP interventions. According to the Translation Research Model, adoption of innovations, such as EBPs, are influenced by the nature of the innovation (e.g., the type and strength of evidence; the clinical topic), and the manner in which it is communicated (disseminated) to members (e.g., physicians, nurses) of a social system (organization, nursing profession). This article discusses the importance of context in translation using this framework as a guide.

  14. Disagreeing in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eMarques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for contextualism about predicates of personal taste and evaluative predicates in general, and offers a proposal of how apparent resilient disagreements are to be explained. The present proposal is complementary to others that have been made in the recent literature. Several authors, for instance López de Sa (2008, Sundell (2011, Huvenes (2012, Marques (2014b, and Marques and García-Carpintero (2014, have recently defended semantic contextualism for those kinds of predicates from the accusation that it faces the problem of lost disagreement. These authors have proposed that a proper account of the resilient disagreement in the cases studied is to be achieved by an appeal to pragmatic processes, and to conflicting non-doxastic attitudes. It is argued here that the existing contextualist solutions are incomplete as they stand, and are subject to objections because of this. A supplementation of contextualism is offered, together with an explanation of why failed presuppositions of commonality (López de Sa, disputes over the appropriateness of a contextually salient standard (Sundell, and differences in non-doxastic attitudes (Sundell, Huvenes, Marques and García-Carpintero give rise to conflicts. This paper claims that conflicts of attitudes are the reason why people still have impressions of disagreement in spite of failed commonality presuppositions, that those conflicts drive metalinguistic disputes over the selection of appropriate standards, and hence conflicting non-doxastic attitudes demand an explanation that is independent from those context dependent pragmatic processes. The paper further argues that the missing explanation is two-fold: first, disagreement prevails where the properties expressed by taste and value predicates are response-dependent properties, and, secondly, it prevails where those response-dependent properties are involved in evolved systems of coordination that respond to evolutionarily recurrent

  15. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  16. Learning Context for Text Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Haribhakta, Y V

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes our work which is based on discovering context for text document categorization. The document categorization approach is derived from a combination of a learning paradigm known as relation extraction and an technique known as context discovery. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our categorization approach using reuters 21578 dataset and synthetic real world data from sports domain. Our experimental results indicate that the learned context greatly improves the categorization performance as compared to traditional categorization approaches.

  17. Popular Culture, Methods, and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Responds to an earlier article that argues that the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. Suggests that it is time to replace CLT as the central paradigm in language teaching with a context approach. (Author/VWL)

  18. Using Context Clue in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立新

    2004-01-01

    @@ The context of a word consists of the other words surrounding it and the situation in which it is used.When we come across a new word in our reading,instead of looking it up in a dictionary for its definition,we can guess its meaning from its context.

  19. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  20. Context-free languages, coalgebraically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, J.; Bonsangue, M.M.; Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    We give a coalgebraic account of context-free languages using the functor ${\\cal D}(X) = 2 \\times X^A$ for deterministic automata over an alphabet $A$, in three different but equivalent ways: (i) by viewing context-free grammars as ${\\cal D}$-coalgebras; (ii) by defining a format for behavioural dif

  1. Teaching Psychology: The Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, John

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author raises two critical aspects not adequately addressed in John Radford's (2008) wide ranging article on the teaching of psychology in higher education. The first aspect is the relevance of boundaries. The second aspect is the political context(s). These two issues, though artificially dissociated for current purposes,…

  2. Using Context Clue in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The context of a word consists of the other words surrounding it and the situation in which it is used.When we come across a new word in our reading,instead of looking it up in a dictionary for its definition,we can guess its meaning from its context.……

  3. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  4. Carbon trends. June 2006; Tendances carbone. Juin 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This newsletter makes a monthly synthesis of the European CO{sub 2} market: traded volumes, spot prices, conformability of facilities, supply and demand, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations from June 2005 to May 2006), economic activity indicators (industrial production from March 2005 to March 2006), confidence index of business leaders (from May 2005 to May 2006), changes in energy prices (from June 2005 to May 2006), CO{sub 2} quotas allocated to European Union countries and detailed indicators of CO{sub 2} market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  5. Context Sensitive Article Ranking with Citation Context Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Doslu, Metin

    2015-01-01

    It is hard to detect important articles in a specific context. Information retrieval techniques based on full text search can be inaccurate to identify main topics and they are not able to provide an indication about the importance of the article. Generating a citation network is a good way to find most popular articles but this approach is not context aware. The text around a citation mark is generally a good summary of the referred article. So citation context analysis presents an opportunity to use the wisdom of crowd for detecting important articles in a context sensitive way. In this work, we analyze citation contexts to rank articles properly for a given topic. The model proposed uses citation contexts in order to create a directed and weighted citation network based on the target topic. We create a directed and weighted edge between two articles if citation context contains terms related with the target topic. Then we apply common ranking algorithms in order to find important articles in this newly cre...

  6. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  7. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  8. The Role of Context in Utterance Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xin-xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the function of context in utterance interpretation.In speech communication,context plays a very important role in expressing utterance meaning appropriately and understanding that precisely.Context can be classified into three kinds,which is context of utterance,context of situation,and context of culture

  9. On learning context-free and context-sensitive languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, M; Wiles, J

    2002-01-01

    The long short-term memory (LSTM) is not the only neural network which learns a context sensitive language. Second-order sequential cascaded networks (SCNs) are able to induce means from a finite fragment of a context-sensitive language for processing strings outside the training set. The dynamical behavior of the SCN is qualitatively distinct from that observed in LSTM networks. Differences in performance and dynamics are discussed.

  10. Context based multimedia information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    with the help of contextual knowledge. Our approach to model the context of multimedia is based on unsupervised methods to automatically extract meaning. We investigate two paths of context modelling. The first part extracts context from the primary media, in this case broadcast news speech, by extracting...... through an approximation based on non-negative matrix factorisation NMF. The second part of the work tries to infer the contextual meaning of music based on extra-musical knowledge, in our case gathered from Wikipedia. The semantic relations between artists are inferred using linking structure...

  11. AWARE: mobile context instrumentation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzil eFerreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile instrumentation toolkit, AWARE, an open-source effort to develop an extensible and reusable platform for capturing, inferring, and generating context on mobile devices. Mobile phones are sensor-rich but resource-constrained, and therefore several considerations need to be addressed when creating a research tool that ensures problem-free context collection. We demonstrate how AWARE can mitigate researchers’ effort when building mobile data-logging tools and context-aware applications, with minimal battery impact. By encapsulating implementation details of sensor data retrieval and exposing the sensed context as higher-level abstractions, AWARE shifts the focus from software development to data analysis, both quantitative and qualitative. We have evaluated AWARE in several case studies and discuss its use, power consumption, and scalability.

  12. User producer interaction in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream

  13. Cultural Context and Humor Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中锋

    2009-01-01

    "Humor" is a very general word, which has been studied by numerous scholars from different points of view, pursuing different goals and using different assumptions. This paper holds that cultural context counts for the production and perception of humor.

  14. Sex Tourism in Transnational Contexts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nacima Ourahmoune

    2014-01-01

      The material and discursive conditions in which affective sexual practices occur in transnational touristic contexts call for an understanding of tourism as a process of extraction and transference...

  15. Context and Word Choosing in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳

    2007-01-01

    This paper has a discussion on context in relation to translation,and elaborates with examples the important role context plays in helping translators to choose the right word in the line with a specific context. Context here does not only refer to the linguistic context,but also the non-linguistic context,which can be further subcategorized as situational and cultural context.

  16. Context-aware system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine S.; Ostertag, Michael H.; Akyürek, Alper Sinan; Šimunić Rosing, Tajana

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things envisions a web-connected infrastructure of billions of sensors and actuation devices. However, the current state-of-the-art presents another reality: monolithic end-to-end applications tightly coupled to a limited set of sensors and actuators. Growing such applications with new devices or behaviors, or extending the existing infrastructure with new applications, involves redesign and redeployment. We instead propose a modular approach to these applications, breaking them into an equivalent set of functional units (context engines) whose input/output transformations are driven by general-purpose machine learning, demonstrating an improvement in compute redundancy and computational complexity with minimal impact on accuracy. In conjunction with formal data specifications, or ontologies, we can replace application-specific implementations with a composition of context engines that use common statistical learning to generate output, thus improving context reuse. We implement interconnected context-aware applications using our approach, extracting user context from sensors in both healthcare and grid applications. We compare our infrastructure to single-stage monolithic implementations with single-point communications between sensor nodes and the cloud servers, demonstrating a reduction in combined system energy by 22-45%, and multiplying the battery lifetime of power-constrained devices by at least 22x, with easy deployment across different architectures and devices.

  17. Context-dependent metabolic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Oyarzún, Diego; Picó, Jesús; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism to survive changes in their environment. We present a framework for the construction and analysis of metabolic reaction networks that can be tailored to reflect different environmental conditions. Using context-dependent flux distributions from Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), we produce directed networks with weighted links representing the amount of metabolite flowing from a source reaction to a target reaction per unit time. Such networks are analyzed with tools from network theory to reveal salient features of metabolite flows in each biological context. We illustrate our approach with the directed network of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, and study its properties in four relevant biological scenarios. Our results show that both flow and network structure depend drastically on the environment: networks produced from the same metabolic model in different contexts have different edges, components, and flow communities, capturing the biological re-routing of metab...

  18. Modeling trust context in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Adali, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    We make complex decisions every day, requiring trust in many different entities for different reasons. These decisions are not made by combining many isolated trust evaluations. Many interlocking factors play a role, each dynamically impacting the others.? In this brief, 'trust context' is defined as the system level description of how the trust evaluation process unfolds.Networks today are part of almost all human activity, supporting and shaping it. Applications increasingly incorporate new interdependencies and new trust contexts. Social networks connect people and organizations throughout

  19. Distributed context-aware systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Context-aware systems aim to deliver a rich user experience by taking into?account the current user context (location, time, activity, etc.), possibly?captured without his intervention. For example, cell phones are now able to?continuously update a user's location while, at the same time, users execute?an increasing amount of activities online, where their actions may be easily?captured (e.g. login in a web application) without user consent. In the last decade, this topic has seen numerous developments that demonstrate its relevance and usefulness. The?trend was accelerated with the widespread

  20. Middleware Support for Quality of Context in Pervasive Context-Aware Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, K.; Wegdam, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Middleware support for pervasive context-aware systems relieves context-aware applications from dealing with the complexity of context-specific operations such as context acquisition, aggregation, reasoning and distribution. The middleware decouples applications from the underlying heterogeneous

  1. Bringing Context and Methodology Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Responds to comments made by Jeremy Harmer about an earlier article written by the author that argued the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. (Author/VWL)

  2. Motivational Interviewing in Relational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to M. Stanton's comments on the current author's original article. One of the puzzles of motivational interviewing is why it works at all. How can it be that an individual interview or two yields change in a long-standing problem behavior even without any effort to alter social context? The time involved is such a tiny part of the…

  3. When Context is an event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT 2010/2011 består af 16 artikler og essays, forfattet af forskere og undervisere på Arkitektskolen Aarhus. Forfatterne præsenterer hér deres individuelle, faglige tilgange til kontekstbegrebet, som det helt aktuelt anvendes i forskning og undervisning på Arkitektskolen. Teksterne ledsages ...

  4. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  5. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  6. Web-tutorials in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Pors, Niels Ole

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research is to investigate Norwegian web‐tutorials in contexts consisting of organizational issues and different forms of usability in relation to students’ perception and use of the system. Further, the research investigates the usefulness of the concepts concerning...

  7. Musicians working in community contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of

  8. Health Behavior in Ecological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly…

  9. When Context is an event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT 2010/2011 består af 16 artikler og essays, forfattet af forskere og undervisere på Arkitektskolen Aarhus. Forfatterne præsenterer hér deres individuelle, faglige tilgange til kontekstbegrebet, som det helt aktuelt anvendes i forskning og undervisning på Arkitektskolen. Teksterne ledsages ...

  10. Genre: Language, Context, and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on genre and its application in language teaching and learning. Suggests genre approaches have had an impact on how we understand discourse and transform literacy education in different contexts around the world. Describes studies on generic integrity and variation, and the ways that genres are seen as similar and different in terms of…

  11. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  12. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    of knowledge. The language of Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, is suggested for defining constraint solvers that reflect “world knowledge” for the given domain, and driver algorithms may be ex- pressed in Prolog or additional rules of CHR. It is argued that this way of doing context comprehension is an instance...

  13. Words in a Cultural Context*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My approach in this paper is not that of an academic who has spent several .... involves background knowledge, shared information about context, traditions, and attitudes ... I would suggest that many a dictionary user would like to know more ... the arts in Europe, but it has since absorbed cultural achievement from the rest.

  14. Creativity development in community contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the development of creativity in the context of folk art within an urban and rural community in Romania. It adopts a cultural psychological perspective on development, linking it to children's participation in community activities, as well as creativity, considered in relation...... of developmental tendencies and socialisation practices, as well as their implications for how we understand and foster children's creative expression....

  15. Approaches for a Postmodern Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lori

    2005-01-01

    This article is on the culture of conversation in the studio art classroom. What can be assumed as simple pedagogical acts, talking to one another, become increasingly complex in the context of postmodernism. Breakdowns in perceived truths, agreed-upon styles, and monoculturalism demand that conversation is looked at in a metasense -- what is it?…

  16. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  17. Context and English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萌珏

    2009-01-01

    Context refers to all the different situations involved in language communication.Translation is a linguistic activity,which tries to change speech or written article from one language into another.In English-Chinese translation the correct decoding and encoding both depend on the context.Context helps to solve the polysemous of language and understand the specific meaning of language in the specific settings.To be a good wanslator,one should have sense of language context while he/she does translation.This paper is an attempt to illustrate how context influences translation,mainly tackle the verbal context,time context,place context,stylistic context, cultural context and grammatical context.

  18. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  19. Context and the Choice of Word meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of context is the base of correct understanding and translation of words.The word meaning varies with its position in the whole passage.And this thesis will discuss the determined effect of context from two aspects: linguistic context,situational context.

  20. Context and the Choice of Word meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶爽

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of context is the base of correc understanding and translation of words.The word meaning varie with its position in the whole passage.And this thesis will discus the determined effect of context from two aspects: linguistic context,situational context.

  1. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  2. he Role of Context in English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝钧瑶

    2016-01-01

    Since the term context appeared, it has been gaining more and more attention for researchers, language teachers and learners are trying to find an effective way mastering a language, especially a foreign language. This paper is composed of four chapters and a brief conclusion . Chapter One is about the introduction of the context. Chapter Two presents the functions of context. Chapter Three is the classification of context . Chapter Four talks about teaching practice of the concepts related to cul-tural context and siutational context. The last part concludes the importance to apply context to English teach-ing in schools.

  3. Context-awareness and Mobile HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiangang; Tan, Chee Wee; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    Context-awareness endows mobile devices and services with the capability of interacting with users in an efficient, intelligent, natural and smart fashion. Consequently, context-awareness makes a significant difference to mobile HCI. However, the challenges brought by context-awareness to users...... of mobile devices are rarely examined in depth. In this paper, previous conceptions of context and their contribution to context-awareness in mobile HCI is scrutinized and a preliminary context-computer interaction (CCI) model is advanced to illustrate the interaction characterized by mobile context...

  4. Usability in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sabine; Nielsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils for ...... for Independent Research in Culture and Communication. The project aimed at innovating processes in Information and Communication Technology development through an understanding of culturally sensitive aspects of usability evaluation methods.......This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils...

  5. The contexts of penitentiary pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Szczepaniak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a sketch of the interpretation of penitentiary pedagogy. There arediscussed, among others, etymology and the definition of penitentiary pedagogy, its subject- matter, goals, axiological, teleological, theoretical and methodological foundations and its place and role among other scientific disciplines. Along with the development of multiple methodological options and changes in social life, the reflection concerning the identity and place of penitentiary pedagogy demands a new articulation. The author submits and gives grounds for a proposition for the penitentiary pedagogy to reap gain in a wider scope from the achievements of social pedagogy, which in the context of citizens’ life deals with designing, carrying out and evaluating educational efforts and the regulation of social relations in the context of social policy, according to an open citizen society (inclusive idea.

  6. School context, gender, and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiqueira-McDonough, J

    1986-02-01

    This study compares two high schools serving the same community and compares student bodies with similar background characteristics. The purpose is to examine how control/strain variables predict delinquency in two distinct school contexts. It was found that minor delinquency occurred more often in the environment dominated by competitive academic achievement, routine handling of discipline, and unpredictable supervision. Examination of the model paths suggest that this environment is also conservative and unlikely to offer legitimate opportunities to girls with gender-egalitarian orientation. The school context characterized by a broader definition of success, more specialized discipline, and predictable supervision promotes stronger bonds with its students and lower levels of delinquency for both genders.

  7. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces o...... of abductive reasoning. The approach fits with possible worlds semantics that allows both standard first-order and non-monotonic semantics....

  8. The Influences of Context on Business Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明蓉

    2013-01-01

    With the further opening of China and the consequent increase of foreign business activities, the writer of this paper choose one of the most significant factors, context, as the topic to study. Based on the summary of previous viewpoints of theories on context and business translation, and through the analysis of a large number of examples, this paper discusses the influences of con⁃text on business translation from three aspects i.e. linguistic context, situational context and cultural context.

  9. Multiplicative contexts in associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, E; Pomi, A; Alvarez, F

    1994-01-01

    A system of networks, consisting of a first net that constructs the Kronecker product between two vectors and then sends it to a second net that sustains a correlation memory, defines a context-dependent associative memory. In the real nervous system of higher mammals, the anatomy of the neural connections surely exhibits a considerable amount of local imprecision superimposed on a regular global layout. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the multiplicative devices to constitute plausible biological models, we analyse the performances of a context-dependent memory when the multiplicative net, responsible of the construction of the Kronecker product, presents an incomplete connectivity. Our study shows that a large dimensional system is able to support a considerable amount of incompleteness in the connectivity without a great deterioration of the memory. We establish a scaling relationship between the degree of incompleteness, the capacity of the memory, and the tolerance threshold to imperfections in the output. We then analyse some performances that show the versatility of this kind of network to represent a variety of functions. These functions include a context-modulated novelty filter, a network that computes logical modalities and an adaptive searching device.

  10. On Cloning Context-Freeness

    CERN Document Server

    Mönnich, U

    1997-01-01

    To Rogers (1994) we owe the insight that monadic second order predicate logic with multiple successors (MSO) is well suited in many respects as a realistic formal base for syntactic theorizing. However, the agreeable formal properties of this logic come at a cost: MSO is equivalent with the class of regular tree automata/grammars, and, thereby, with the class of context-free languages. This paper outlines one approach towards a solution of MSO's expressivity problem. On the background of an algebraically refined Chomsky hierarchy, which allows the definition of several classes of languages---in particular, a whole hierarchy between CF and CS---via regular tree grammars over unambiguously derivable alphabets of varying complexity plus their respective yield-functions, it shows that not only some non-context-free string languages can be captured by context-free means in this way, but that this approach can be generalized to the corresponding structures. I.e., non-recognizable sets of structures can---up to homo...

  11. Effects of extended context discrimination training and context extinction on transfer of context dependency of conditioned flavor aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid (a sodium chloride solution) was affected by two post-discrimination training treatments, an extended context discrimination training, and non-reinforced exposure to the conditioning context (context extinction). We found that the context-dependent flavor aversion that had been specific to sucrose transferred to the test fluid after the extensive training (Experiment 1). Context extinction eliminated the transfer effect that had been observed immediately after the context discrimination training (Experiment 2). In addition, an aversion acquired by sucrose through a simple conditioning of sucrose-LiCl pairings did not generalize to the test fluid (Experiment 3). These results emphasize the importance of a Pavlovian excitatory association between the conditioning context and nausea as a primary source of transfer of the context dependency, rather than a generalization of aversion acquired by the conditioned fluid to the test fluid.

  12. A General Exploitation to Cognitive Context and Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宇

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive context of grammar refers to morpheme context,word or phrase context,syntax context,sentence context,semantic context of sentences,and discourse context.Cognitive context constraints the meaning of grammatical structure,and the grammatical structure depends on the cognitive context.

  13. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work.

  14. Internet of Thing Context Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Ntalasha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address key concept of context awareness in the Internet of Things (IoT domain by providing a model that proactively monitors behaviour of devices and services. This concept represents context into two types of information representation, namely set based and mark-up based ontology for the purpose of defining a context awareness model that accurately represent context in IoT. The context model is defined using Resources, Actors, Ambients and Policies. The model adds value to the next stage of IoT evolution by using context ambients to bring about predictive and proactive modelling in understanding context and context awareness. IoT context is represented using the hierarchical hybrid context model. This model provides a method of representing contexts based on context quality and availability in an entity relation hierarchy form. The model is exemplified using the context management application based on agents. Experimental results indicate that context awareness in the Internet of Things can be enhanced by the proposed model.

  15. Clinical supervision training across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna; Bearman, Margaret; Edouard, Vicki; Kent, Fiona; Nestel, Debra; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians require specific skills to teach or supervise students in the workplace; however, there are barriers to accessing faculty member development, such as time, cost and suitability. The Clinical Supervision Support Across Contexts (ClinSSAC) programme was designed to provide accessible interprofessional educator training to clinical supervisors across a wide range of clinical settings. In Australia there are increasing numbers of health care students, creating pressure on existing placements. Students are now increasingly learning in community settings, where clinicians have traditionally had less access to faculty member development. An interprofessional team collaborated in the development and implementation of ClinSSAC. A total of 978 clinicians participated in a face-to-face, interactive, introductory module to clinical supervision; 672 people accessed the equivalent online core module, with 23 per cent completing all activities. Additional profession-and discipline-specific modules were also developed. Formal project evaluation found that most participants rated the workshops as helpful or very helpful for their roles as clinical supervisors. Interdisciplinary learning from the workshops was reported to enable cross-discipline supervision. Large participant numbers and favourable ratings indicate a continuing need for basic training in education. Key factors to workshop success included expert facilitators, the interprofessional context and interactive model. The online modules were an important adjunct, and provided context-specific resources, but the low online completion rate suggests protected face-to-face time for faculty member development is still required. Programmes such as ClinSSAC have the capacity to promote interprofessional education and practice. There are barriers to accessing faculty member development, such as time, cost and suitability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Repeated Lexical Comprehension in Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑾

    2009-01-01

    in the understanding of word meaning, two current semantic theories are popular: one is the referential approach, the other is the representational approach. Logogcn model is one of the models used to comprehend lexicon both by sensory input and by contextual information. Under certain context, four types of lexical repe-tition exist: simple lexical repetition, complex lexical repetition, simple paraphrase, complex paraphrase. How these different repetition patterns are comprehended is our main concern. According to our analysis, they go under different process in the course of comprehension.

  17. Persuasion, Learning and Context Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Ryberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper further develops the notion of distinguishing between Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Design, and considering Persuasive Design a meta-perspective which may be applied to more established design traditions as an ethics and context-oriented perspective. The paper addresses...... a challenge often met when aiming to apply persuasive design principles to more established design fields, namely that the unique claim of persuasive design and the relevance of taking it into consideration is unclear. Furthermore, this paper aims to extend the argumentation and exemplify how this new...... understanding of Persuasive Design may potentially facilitate the more established field of technology enhanced learning....

  18. Language Context and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉波

    2006-01-01

    Improvisation or transfer is the core of a course,based on the communicative approach. That is,the students are required to transfer what they learned in the textbook to real-life situation as far as possible. And in the present-day textbook of Middle School, the courses are organized in authentic everyday situations in which students can easily identify. So in the process of English teaching,it is very important for the teachers to set the language contexts correctly and flexibly.

  19. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  20. Space as an inspiring context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Using space as context to inspire science education tapps into the excitement of generations of discovering the unknown resulting in unprecedented public participation. Educators are finding exciting and age appropiate materials for their class that explore science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Possible misconceptions are highlighted so that teachers may plan lessons to facilitate correct conceptual understanding. With a range of hands-on learning experiences, Web materials and online ,opportunities for students, educators are invited to take a closer look to actual science missions. This session leverages resources, materials and expertise to address a wide range of traditional and nontraditional audiences while providing consistent messages and information on various space agencies programs.

  1. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  2. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  3. Language teaching and its contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Byram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title of this new journal provides opportunity to review the many contexts which need to be taken into account in reflecting upon foreign language teaching. These contexts include the educational, the fact that much language teaching takes place within general educational and often compulsory educational settings and institutions. Learners thus encounter foreign languages alongside other languages – their language of the home, the official language of the country, languages of minorities and others – and this needs to be part of the thinking about learning and teaching. Furthermore, since language is the tool for learning throughout life and especially in educational institutions, where the languages of other subjects are languages in themselves which learners have to learn if they are to be successful in education, teachers of all subjects need to be aware of language as the tool of learning. Yet another issue is the relationship of language teaching with citizenship education and the development of ‘intercultural citizenship’. The title of the journal also refers to ‘research’ and here too there is potential for reflection on the modes and paradigms of research which are relevant to investigating language teaching and learning. Distinctions of quantitative and qualitative research are misleading and need to be reviewed. The higher order distinctions are between research which seeks explanation, that which seeks understanding and that which involves advocacy.

  4. Motor interference in interactive contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris eChinellato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Action observation and execution share overlapping neural substrates, so that simultaneous activation by observation and execution modulates motor performance. Previous literature on simple prehension tasks has revealed that motor influence can be two-sided: facilitation for observed and performed congruent actions and interference for incongruent actions. But little is known of the specific modulations of motor performance in complex forms of interaction. Is it possible that the very same observed movement can lead either to interference or facilitation effects on a temporally overlapping congruent executed action, depending on the context? To answer this question participants were asked to perform a reach-to-grasp movement adopting a precision grip (PG while: (i observing a fixation cross, (ii observing an actor performing a PG with interactive purposes, (iii observing an actor performing a PG without interactive purposes. In particular, in the interactive condition the actor was shown trying to pour some sugar on a large cup located out of her reach but close to the participant watching the video, thus eliciting in reaction a complementary whole-hand grasp. Notably, fine-grained kinematic analysis for this condition revealed a specific delay in the grasping and reaching components and an increased trajectory deviation despite the observed and executed movement’s congruency. Moreover, early peaks of trajectory deviation seem to indicate that socially relevant stimuli are acknowledged by the motor system very early. These data suggest that interactive contexts can determine a prompt modulation of stimulus–response compatibility effects.

  5. Design in new industrial contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The output of industrial process is becoming more and more complex as a result of saturation of markets and the fine segmentation of the demand, which follows the multiplication of needs, lifestyles and behaviours. Services addressing such needs, are replacing material products as an object of ex...... operative paradigm to address concrete design solutions. This paper focuses on the development of such and operative paradigm, which should include methods and tools to develop innovative product service systems (PSS) for the new industrial context.......The output of industrial process is becoming more and more complex as a result of saturation of markets and the fine segmentation of the demand, which follows the multiplication of needs, lifestyles and behaviours. Services addressing such needs, are replacing material products as an object...... of exchange in modern markets. This context is addressing industrial production towards new models, characterised by highly personalised and localised solutions, to be developed by a network of actors, rather than a single company. New solution oriented partnerships (SOP) need to be created, involving...

  6. Focus+context metro maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. © 2011 IEEE

  7. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  8. Context-aware visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Hua, Gang

    2009-07-01

    Enormous uncertainties in unconstrained environments lead to a fundamental dilemma that many tracking algorithms have to face in practice: Tracking has to be computationally efficient, but verifying whether or not the tracker is following the true target tends to be demanding, especially when the background is cluttered and/or when occlusion occurs. Due to the lack of a good solution to this problem, many existing methods tend to be either effective but computationally intensive by using sophisticated image observation models or efficient but vulnerable to false alarms. This greatly challenges long-duration robust tracking. This paper presents a novel solution to this dilemma by considering the context of the tracking scene. Specifically, we integrate into the tracking process a set of auxiliary objects that are automatically discovered in the video on the fly by data mining. Auxiliary objects have three properties, at least in a short time interval: 1) persistent co-occurrence with the target, 2) consistent motion correlation to the target, and 3) easy to track. Regarding these auxiliary objects as the context of the target, the collaborative tracking of these auxiliary objects leads to efficient computation as well as strong verification. Our extensive experiments have exhibited exciting performance in very challenging real-world testing cases.

  9. Belief Contexts and Epistemic Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylarie Kochiras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although epistemic possibility figures in several debates, those debates have had relatively little contact with one another. G. E. Moore focused squarely upon analyzing epistemic uses of the phrase, ‘It’s possible that p’, and in doing so he made two fundamental assumptions. First, he assumed that epistemic possibility statements always express the epistemic position of a community, as opposed to that of an individual speaker. Second, he assumed that all epistemic uses of ‘It’s possible that p’ are analyzable in terms of knowledge, not belief. A number of later theorists, including Keith DeRose, provide alternative accounts of epistemic possibility, while retaining Moore’s two assumptions. Neither assumption has been explicitly challenged, but Jaakko Hintikka’s analysis provides a basis for doing so. Drawing upon Hintikka’s analysis, I argue that some epistemic possibility statements express only the speaker’s individual epistemic state, and that contra DeRose, they are not degenerate community statements but a class in their own right. I further argue that some linguistic contexts are belief- rather than knowledge-based, and in such contexts, what is possible for a speaker depends not upon what she knows, but upon what she believes.

  10. HOW CONTEXT AFFECTS COUPLE SATISFACTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzana Sánchez-Aragón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies that focus on the influence that contextual aspects have in marital satisfaction (Meléndez, Aleixandre,& Saez, 1993.However, nowadays the reasons for a divorce are related to the actual social situation (Khalfani-Cox, 2009. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify contextual aspects that are associ-ated with marital satisfaction; in order to accomplish this objective, we conducted two studies. The purpose of the first study was to identify recent context aspects that influence marital satisfaction throughout an open question, which was ap-plied to 131 people. The results indicate that the dimensions of economic, labor time, home safety, stress in the environment, and the place where they live influ-ence marital satisfaction. In the second study, based on the information obtained previously, we formed indicators that were applied together with a scale of mari-tal satisfaction to105 couples. The results show that the context is closely related to marital satisfaction. In addition, the results determine that men give greater importance to the economic and employment situation than women do. Overall, this study indicates that sex differences prove that the roles and cultural expecta-tions have remained in the dynamics of the relationship and thus influence the assessment of marital satisfaction.

  11. Child Social Development in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin S. Ashiabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In his later writings, Bronfenbrenner revised his ecological theory, resulting in the bioecological model that gave prominence to proximal processes and the relationship between the context and individual characteristics. Drawing on the bioecological model, we hypothesized that (a contextual influences will be mediated by proximal processes, (b proximal processes will have a more powerful impact on children’s development than contextual factors, and (c the effect of contextual and proximal processes will vary as a function of child characteristic and developmental outcome. Data used were from a sample of 28,064 six- to eleven-year-olds in the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. A multigroup structural equation model that employed a process-person-context research design was used to analyze the data. In general, support was found for the meditational hypothesis and the hypothesis that the impact of contextual factors and proximal processes varies as a function of person and the developmental outcome. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that proximal processes exert a more powerful effect on development than contextual factors.

  12. Literature Review on Context Translation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚杨杨

    2016-01-01

    The theory context translation mode a new theory concerning context involves three dimensions including communicative dimension, pragmatic dimension and semiotic dimension. This paper aims to explain the progress of its development.

  13. Context based games for mobile learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Kelle, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Ternier, S., De Jong, T., & Kelle, S. (2009). Context based games for mobile learning. Presentation given at Symposium Mobile Learning in Context. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  14. Context based games for mobile learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Kelle, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Ternier, S., De Jong, T., & Kelle, S. (2009). Context based games for mobile learning. Presentation given at Symposium Mobile Learning in Context. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  15. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  16. The Role of Context in Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂花

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we'll explore the role of context in the interpretation of a piece of discourse. We'll present three context models put forward respectively by Firth, Hymes and Lewis. We'll also take into consideration the features of co-text and expanding context. At last, we'll throw some light on the problem of what aspects of the apparently illimitable features of context are relevant to a particular communicative act.

  17. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  18. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  19. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  20. Context Management Platform for Tourism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-01-01

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model. PMID:23797739

  1. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  2. The Role of Context in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan-hua

    2015-01-01

    [Abstrac]This paper intends to make an analysis on the inherent attributes and functions of the context to help translation beginners to better understand the meanings of words in a specific context and author's profound sentiment contained in the context.

  3. Context management platform for tourism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-06-24

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model.

  4. Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and

  5. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The

  6. Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and p

  7. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  8. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  9. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  10. Stress Disrupts Context-Dependent Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2009-01-01

    Memory is facilitated when the retrieval context resembles the learning context. The brain structures underlying contextual influences on memory are susceptible to stress. Whether stress interferes with context-dependent memory is still unknown. We exposed healthy adults to stress or a control procedure before they learned an object-location task…

  11. Design in new industrial contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The output of industrial process is becoming more and more complex as a result of saturation of markets and the fine segmentation of the demand, which follows the multiplication of needs, lifestyles and behaviours. Services addressing such needs, are replacing material products as an object...... of exchange in modern markets. This context is addressing industrial production towards new models, characterised by highly personalised and localised solutions, to be developed by a network of actors, rather than a single company. New solution oriented partnerships (SOP) need to be created, involving...... and localised solutions should be expressed according to an industrial logic. The cooperation, within the production system of companies, local actors and even users may address this problem, however the industrialisation of such solutions is a methodological approach that has not yet generated an appropriate...

  12. Recommender systems in industrial contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: - An analysis of the core functions and the prerequisites for recommender systems in an industrial context: we identify four core functions for recommendation systems: Help do Decide, Help to Compare, Help to Explore, Help to Discover. The implementation of these functions has implications for the choices at the heart of algorithmic recommender systems. - A state of the art, which deals with the main techniques used in automated recommendation system: the two most commonly used algorithmic methods, the K-Nearest-Neighbor methods (KNN) and the fast factorization methods are detailed. The state of the art presents also purely content-based methods, hybridization techniques, and the classical performance metrics used to evaluate the recommender systems. This state of the art then gives an overview of several systems, both from academia and industry (Amazon, Google ...). - An analysis of the performances and implications of a recommendation system developed during this thesis: ...

  13. [The contradictory contexts of interdisciplinarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, T; Haverich, A

    2012-04-01

    The benefits of interdisciplinary approaches in patient care, research and education are quite obvious and set the trend for more interdisciplinary structures. In order to achieve sustained success, however, there are numerous risks of interdisciplinary collaboration that have to be considered. Interdisciplinarity leads to an increasing degree of specialization and consequently to a greater experience of specialists in highly specific procedures. Nevertheless, this is accompanied by a loss of experience of those who do not perform these procedures anymore. Not least, due to the high specialization, the surgeon's profession is changing from generalist to specialist. Hence, the education of young physicians, students and researchers has to be adapted to this reality. It remains unanswered if these changes contribute to the decline in the number of applicants in surgery. In conclusion, the risks of the contradictory contexts of interdisciplinarity can be counteracted with simple principles of fair and cooperative partnership.

  14. Context and the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Birmingham, Amanda; Knight, Rob

    2015-11-04

    Human microbiome reference datasets provide epidemiological context for researchers, enabling them to uncover new insights into their own data through meta-analyses. In addition, large and comprehensive reference sets offer a means to develop or test hypotheses and can pave the way for addressing practical study design considerations such as sample size decisions. We discuss the importance of reference sets in human microbiome research, limitations of existing resources, technical challenges to employing reference sets, examples of their usage, and contributions of the American Gut Project to the development of a comprehensive reference set. Through engaging the general public, the American Gut Project aims to address many of the issues present in existing reference resources, characterizing health and disease, lifestyle, and dietary choices of the participants while extending its efforts globally through international collaborations.

  15. Dance in the Educational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Vicente Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the phenomenon of dance in the field of education. At first, it is made a presentation of the different components or aspects of human beings on that dance impacts in a more obvious way. Subsequently, we present a review of the definitions proposed by different authors that we consider most relevant and it is included a personal definition of the concept. It also highlights the contributions of dance to education in terms of social, physical, intellectual and emotional development and identifies the major problems that this discipline has had to be included as a subject: lack of teacher training, lack of adequate space and resources and gender discrimination. Finally, it concludes with a reflection on the most appropriate forms of dance in the educational context.

  16. Epigenetics in an ecotoxicological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetics can play a role in interactions between chemicals and exposed species, between species and abiotic ecosystem components or between species of the same or another population in a community. Technological progress and advanced insights into epigenetic processes have led to the description of epigenetic features (mainly DNA methylation) in many ecologically relevant species: algae, plants, several invertebrates and fish. Epigenetic changes in plants, insects and cladocerans have been reported to be induced by various environmental stress factors including nutrition or water deficiency, grazing, light or temperature alterations, social environment, and dissolved organic matter concentrations. As regards chemicals, studies in rats and mice exposed to specific pesticides, hydrocarbons, dioxins, and endocrine disrupting chemicals demonstrated the induction of epigenetic changes, suggesting the need for further research with these substances in an ecotoxicological context. In fish and plants, exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals, and soluble fractions of solid waste affected the epigenetic status. A novel concept in ecotoxicological epigenetics is the induction of transgenerational stress resistance upon chemical exposure, as demonstrated in rice exposed to metals. Evaluating epigenetics in ecotoxicological field studies is a second relatively new approach. A cryptic lineage of earthworms had developed arsenic tolerance in the field, concurrent with specific DNA methylation patterns. Flatfish caught in the framework of environmental monitoring had developed tumours, exhibiting specific DNA methylation patterns. Two main potential implications of epigenetics in an ecotoxicological context are (1) the possibility of transgenerationally inherited, chemical stress-induced epigenetic changes with associated phenotypes and (2) epigenetically induced adaptation to stress upon long-term chemical exposure. Key knowledge gaps are concerned with the causality of

  17. Use of Context in Video Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Aghajan, Hamid

    Interpreting an event or a scene based on visual data often requires additional contextual information. Contextual information may be obtained from different sources. In this chapter, we discuss two broad categories of contextual sources: environmental context and user-centric context. Environmental context refers to information derived from domain knowledge or from concurrently sensed effects in the area of operation. User-centric context refers to information obtained and accumulated from the user. Both types of context can include static or dynamic contextual elements. Examples from a smart home environment are presented to illustrate how different types of contextual data can be applied to aid the decision-making process.

  18. Service Degradation in Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2011-01-01

    Context aware network services are a new and inter-esting way to enhance network users experience. A context aware application/service enhances network performance in relation to dynamic context information, e.g. mobility, location and device information as it senses and reacts to environment...... changes. The reliability of the information accessed is a key factor in achieving reliable context aware application. This paper will review the service degradation in Context Management Frameworks (CMF) and the effect of high network utilization, with particular focus on the reliability of the accessed...

  19. Concepts of context in music therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199

  20. Context Aware Adaptable Applications - A global approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dalmau, Marc; Laplace, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Actual applications (mostly component based) requirements cannot be expressed without a ubiquitous and mobile part for end-users as well as for M2M applications (Machine to Machine). Such an evolution implies context management in order to evaluate the consequences of the mobility and corresponding mechanisms to adapt or to be adapted to the new environment. Applications are then qualified as context aware applications. This first part of this paper presents an overview of context and its management by application adaptation. This part starts by a definition and proposes a model for the context. It also presents various techniques to adapt applications to the context: from self-adaptation to supervised approached. The second part is an overview of architectures for adaptable applications. It focuses on platforms based solutions and shows information flows between application, platform and context. Finally it makes a synthesis proposition with a platform for adaptable context-aware applications called Kalimuch...

  1. High-context and Low-context communication:A Case Study of A Chinese Refusal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 钱敏

    2013-01-01

    Edward Hall offers us an effective means of examining cultural similarities and differences, that is the classification of high-context and low-context culture. The paper attempts to analyze a case of a Chinese refusal from the perspective of high-context and low-context communication and explores the differences between the two types of communication.

  2. Spatiotemporal Context Modelling in Pervasive Context-Aware Computing Environment: A Logic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Ameyed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive context-aware computing, is one of the topics that received particular attention from researchers. The context, itself is an important notion explored in many works discussing its: acquisition, definition, modelling, reasoning and more. Given the permanent evolution of context-aware systems, context modeling is still a complex task, due to the lack of an adequate, dynamic, formal and relevant context representation. This paper discusses various context modeling approaches and previous logic-based works. It also proposes a preliminary formal spatiotemporal context modelling based on first order logic, derived from the structure of natural languages.

  3. 关于Quotient Context of Morita Context的讨论%A Discussion on Quotient Context of Morita Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓培民

    2000-01-01

    本文讨论了Quotient Context of Morita Context的一些性质,并在此基础上证明了:如果DR是一个完备Gabriel拓扑,则一个〈P,Q〉的商〈^P,^Q〉作为^R与^S之间的MC,它的商同构于〈P,Q〉的一个商.%In this paper, after discussing some properties of quotient contexts of a Morita context, we'll show that if DR is a perfect Gabriel topology, the quotient context of 〈^P,^Q〉, where 〈^P,^Q〉 as an MC between rings ^R and S is the quotient context of 〈P, Q〉, is isomorphic to a quotient context of 〈P, Q〉.

  4. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, A J

    2013-01-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every 2 minutes through BVriz filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of 0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-comp...

  6. Life Stories in Context: Using the Three-Sphere Context Model To Analyze Amos's Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Rivka Tuval-Mashiach

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wide theoretical consensus among narrative researchers about the importance of referring to context in analyzing narratives, it seems that the various contexts at work in individual life stories and the specific methodological implications of the importance of context are not that clear. In this paper, I will describe a model for context analysis, which refers to three distinct spheres of contexts in which narrators situate their life stories (Zilber, Tuval-Mashiach, & Lieblich, 200...

  7. Toward Sensor-Based Context Aware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Takada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information.

  8. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  9. the Context of Mystic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanubar Baghirova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on poetry and music of the medieval Azerbaijani ashyg in the context of mystic practices. The ashygs are the bearers of the syncretic art form that came into being at the end of the 15th – early of the 16th centuries and has reached to date. Both medieval and modern ashygs – ustads (masters were and are poets, composers and performers in one person. Poetry of early medieval ashygs, such as, Dirili Gurbani, Miskin Abdal (15th -16th century, Abbas Tufarganly, Khaste Gasym, Sary Ashyg (17th century was thought to convey the God`s message; these ashygs called themselves ‘haqq ashiqi’, that is ‘those who fell in love with Truth’ meaning by Truth the Higher Principle, the Absolute. Some of the early ashygs, for instance, Dirili Gurbani and Miskin Abdal, were Sufi mystics and members of Sufi brotherhoods. Poetry and music of the medieval Azerbaijani ashygs was often a part of the Zikr, the mystic musical rites of sama` practiced by various Sufi dervish orders. A number of songs from the repertoire of modern ashyg sometimes are called ‘samavi havalar’ (sama` tunes and do sound particularly archaic; it is believed to date back to the music performed at sama`. In the 19th century the art of ashyg lost its ideological function but religious and mystical motifs remained an inspiration for the ashyg even in the 20th century. These motifs were mainly associated with the name and cult of Imam Ali, the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, and the Twelve Imams. Core notions of the article are: Ashyg, ’haqq ashiqi’, sama`, zikr, madh, meddah of Imam Ali, mürid, mürshid, khanegah, tekye.

  10. Concepts of context in music therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental...

  11. How to teach in the context effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄有明

    2015-01-01

    I.Introduction A language is used to communicate with others.However context and meaning are usually neglected by many people.The context-based teaching method is an approach which deals with more varied learning situations.Students need more opportunities to participate actively by formulating and evaluating problems,qu estions,conjectures,conclusions,arguments,and examples.II.Theoretical background2.1 General idea of context-based teaching method The context-based teaching method is a language teaching

  12. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  13. Using context to treat traumatized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2009-01-01

    When treating childhood psychic trauma, context means "putting a perspective to the terrifying experience"--"seeing it in a new light", one might say, or understanding its magnitude and meaning. Of three essential mechanisms behind a young person's psychological recovery from a stress disorder--abreaction, context, and correction-context is the most reflective, cognitive, and conscious of these processes; while abreaction is primarily emotive, and correction is primarily behavioral (involving real or fantasied action). Because context, newly introduced by this author to the psychiatric literature (Terr, 2003), is the most recent and the least well understood of the three mechanisms, it will be the sole focus here.

  14. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  15. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  16. Discourse Context, Word Identification and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.

    One model of interactive processing useful in describing word identification processes in discourse context is of a weakly interactive type. This type assumes that the time to identify a word in context is an activation function, whereas the time to activate a word in memory beyond some criterial identification threshold is a multiplicative…

  17. Shifting Context: A Better Approach to Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkoe, Morty

    1985-01-01

    Context shifting is an approach to training that aims to transform the participants' point of view, allowing them to create a new context in which to perform their jobs, a new way of defining their roles that motivates them to exhibit skills and use information. (SK)

  18. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general framework that extends choice models by including an explicit representation of the process and context of decision making. Process refers to the steps involved in decision making. Context refers to factors affecting the process, focusing in this paper on social networks. The...

  19. The Variance of Language in Different Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申一宁

    2012-01-01

    language can be quite different (here referring to the meaning) in different contexts. And there are 3 categories of context: the culture, the situation and the cotext. In this article, we will analysis the variance of language in each of the 3 aspects. This article is written for the purpose of making people understand the meaning of a language under specific better.

  20. Children's Context Inappropriate Anger and Salivary Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Some children show emotion that is not consistent with normative appraisal of the context and can therefore be defined as context inappropriate (CI). The authors used individual growth curve modeling and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine whether CI anger predicts differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as…

  1. Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...

  2. Assessing Pain in Infancy: The Caregiver Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pillai Riddell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is largely accepted as being influenced by social context. Unlike most other developmental stages throughout the lifespan, infancy is marked by complete dependence on the caregiver. The present paper discusses the primary importance of understanding the caregiver context when assessing infant pain expression.

  3. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    that students’ context awareness can significantly be enhanced by the use of appropriate external representations which guide them to activate context inducing cognitive processes. By embedding such representations in a case based learning environment we expect to guide students’ processing of the rich...

  4. REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic

  5. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  6. Contexts of Knowing: Their Shape and Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses constitutive and regulative knowledge; considers a knowledge community; discusses knowledge codes; describes a heuristic framework for knowledge contexts; and examines the problem of scientific misconduct, suggesting that its definition depends on the knowledge context in which it presents itself. (37 references) (LRW)

  7. Dimensions of Leadership in the Childcare Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The contextual leadership theory provides a frame to investigate the leadership phenomenon in a childcare context. According to the contextual leadership theory, leadership is perceived of as a socially constructed, situational and interpretive phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to investigate leadership in a Finnish childcare context based…

  8. Student Reasoning about Graphs in Different Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the…

  9. Dimensions of Leadership in the Childcare Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The contextual leadership theory provides a frame to investigate the leadership phenomenon in a childcare context. According to the contextual leadership theory, leadership is perceived of as a socially constructed, situational and interpretive phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to investigate leadership in a Finnish childcare context based…

  10. Designing narrative games for a serious context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutz, E.; Markussen, T.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Visch, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater empha

  11. Context Management Framework for MAGNET Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Jacobsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss architectural issues that are especially relevant in a context management system for Personal Networks. We identify the needs and requirements for a solution, based on a set of use cases, which can manage context information within one Personal Network (PN) or a federatio...

  12. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  13. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  14. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  15. Philosophy in Context: Reply to Trohler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to Trohler's charge that my paper "As if by Machinery: The levelling of educational research" takes Francis Bacon's vision of scientific research out of context. I distinguish four senses of "decontextualisation": as ignorance, as belief in "timeless truths", as comparison of contexts, and as genealogy. I argue that Trohler has…

  16. Completion Mindsets and Contexts in Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pam; Bowden, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Doctoral candidates are now located within a research context of performativity where the push to successfully complete in a timely manner is central. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of completion mindset within a completion context to assist research students and supervisors. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  17. From focus to context and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigel, Martin; Boring, Sebastian; Marquardt, Nicolai

    Focus plus context displays combine high-resolution detail and lower-resolution overview using displays of different pixel densities. Historically, they employed two fixed-size displays of different resolutions, one embedded within the other. In this paper, we explore focus plus context displays ...

  18. A Formal Model for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...

  19. Enhanced Latent Inhibition in Context Aversion Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey; Symonds, Michelle; Rodriguez, Marcial

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated the effect of giving rats exposure to a distinctive environmental context before a phase of training in which an injection of LiCl was paired with that context. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 were consistent with the possibility that such preexposure served to retard subsequent conditioning to the context…

  20. Harnessing Context for Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmish Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of collaborative social media (CSM applications such as Wikipedia to modern free societies can hardly be overemphasized. By allowing end users to freely create and edit content, Wikipedia has greatly facilitated democratization of information. However, over the past several years, Wikipedia has also become susceptible to vandalism, which has adversely affected its information quality. Traditional vandalism detection techniques that rely upon simple textual features such as spammy or abusive words have not been very effective in combating sophisticated vandal attacks that do not contain common vandalism markers. In this paper, we propose a context-based vandalism detection framework for Wikipedia. We first propose a contextenhanced finite state model for representing the context evolution ofWikipedia articles. This paper identifies two distinct types of context that are potentially valuable for vandalism detection, namely content-context and contributor-context. The distinguishing powers of these contexts are discussed by providing empirical results. We design two novel metrics for measuring how well the content-context of an incoming edit fits into the topic and the existing content of a Wikipedia article. We outline machine learning-based vandalism identification schemes that utilize these metrics. Our experiments indicate that utilizing context can substantially improve vandalism detection accuracy.

  1. REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic

  2. Generating personalized web search using semantic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Chen, Hai-Yan; Yu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The "one size fits the all" criticism of search engines is that when queries are submitted, the same results are returned to different users. In order to solve this problem, personalized search is proposed, since it can provide different search results based upon the preferences of users. However, existing methods concentrate more on the long-term and independent user profile, and thus reduce the effectiveness of personalized search. In this paper, the method captures the user context to provide accurate preferences of users for effectively personalized search. First, the short-term query context is generated to identify related concepts of the query. Second, the user context is generated based on the click through data of users. Finally, a forgetting factor is introduced to merge the independent user context in a user session, which maintains the evolution of user preferences. Experimental results fully confirm that our approach can successfully represent user context according to individual user information needs.

  3. Context Ontology Implementation for Smart Home

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai; Lee, Chilwoo

    2010-01-01

    Context awareness is one of the important fields in ubiquitous computing. Smart Home, a specific instance of ubiquitous computing, provides every family with opportunities to enjoy the power of hi-tech home living. Discovering that relationship among user, activity and context data in home environment is semantic, therefore, we apply ontology to model these relationships and then reason them as the semantic information. In this paper, we present the realization of smart home's context-aware system based on ontology. We discuss the current challenges in realizing the ontology context base. These challenges can be listed as collecting context information from heterogeneous sources, such as devices, agents, sensors into ontology, ontology management, ontology querying, and the issue related to environment database explosion.

  4. Shifting Contexts in Invisible Computing Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, David R.; Pavel, Misha; Cohen, Philip R.; A K Dey, P Ljungstrand, A Schmidt.

    2001-03-30

    Invisible computing systems are highly context-dependent. Consequently, the influence that language has on contextual interpretation cannot be ignored by such systems. Rather, once language and other forms of human action are perceived by a system, its interpretative processes will of necessity be context-dependent. As an example, we illustrate how people simply and naturally create new contexts for interpretation by creating new names and referring expressions. We then describe Rasa, a mixed-reality system that invisibly observes and understands how users in a military command post create such contexts as part of the process of maintaining situational awareness. Rasa augments both the commander?s map and the Post-it notes pasted on it, which represent units in the field, with multimodal language, thereby allowing paper-based tools to interact with digital information. Finally, we argue that architectures for such context-aware systems must reduce the inherent ambiguity and uncertainty through fusion and other means.

  5. Service-oriented Context-aware Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kovács, László; Pataki, Balázs; 10.4204/EPTCS.2.2

    2009-01-01

    Location- and context-aware services are emerging technologies in mobile and desktop environments, however, most of them are difficult to use and do not seem to be beneficial enough. Our research focuses on designing and creating a service-oriented framework that helps location- and context-aware, client-service type application development and use. Location information is combined with other contexts such as the users' history, preferences and disabilities. The framework also handles the spatial model of the environment (e.g. map of a room or a building) as a context. The framework is built on a semantic backend where the ontologies are represented using the OWL description language. The use of ontologies enables the framework to run inference tasks and to easily adapt to new context types. The framework contains a compatibility layer for positioning devices, which hides the technical differences of positioning technologies and enables the combination of location data of various sources.

  6. Le "Contexte": Aspects linguistiques et didactiques. ("Context": Linguistic and Didactic Aspects.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Avraham

    1982-01-01

    A study investigated the ability of socially handicapped Israeli students to determine a word's meaning from its linguistic context. The results and their implications for second language instruction are examined in light of current theories of context. (MSE)

  7. Academic Success in Context-Based Chemistry: Demonstrating Fluid Transitions between Concepts and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna Therese; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum developers and researchers have promoted context-based programmes to arrest waning student interest and participation in the enabling sciences at high school and university. Context-based programmes aim for student connections between scientific discourse and real-world contexts to elevate curricular relevance without diminishing…

  8. "No Context, No text"--The Importance of Context in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Dan-dan

    2001-01-01

    Translation is the replacement of contextual meanings in one language by the equivalent contextual mean-ings in another language. Generally speaking, text exists within context and context always accompanies text. Thispaper will be devoted to an analysis about the importance of context in translation.

  9. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the

  10. Fuzzy Context-Free Languages. Part 1: Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  11. Dissociation between Complete Hippocampal Context Memory Formation and Context Fear Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Jessica; Zinn, Raphael; Corbit, Laura; Vissel, Bryce

    2017-01-01

    Rodents require a minimal time period to explore a context prior to footshock to display plateau-level context fear at test. To investigate whether this rapid fear plateau reflects complete memory formation within that short time-frame, we used the immediate-early gene product Arc as an indicator of hippocampal context memory formation-related…

  12. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These fuzzy context-free K-grammars provide a general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism. They model the sit

  13. Fuzzy context-free languages. Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by aspects of robustness in parsing a context-free language, we study generalized fuzzy context-free grammars. These so-called fuzzy context-free $K$-grammars provide a very general framework to describe correctly as well as erroneously derived sentences by a single generating mechanism.

  14. Supporting Pervasive Computing Applications with Active Context Fusion and Semantic Context Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Nirmalya; Gu, Tao; Das, Sajal

    2010-01-01

    Future pervasive computing applications are envisioned to adapt the applications’ behaviors by utilizing various contexts of an environment and its users. Such context information may often be ambiguous and also heterogeneous, which make the delivery of unambiguous context information to real app...

  15. Academic Success in Context-Based Chemistry: Demonstrating Fluid Transitions between Concepts and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna Therese; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum developers and researchers have promoted context-based programmes to arrest waning student interest and participation in the enabling sciences at high school and university. Context-based programmes aim for student connections between scientific discourse and real-world contexts to elevate curricular relevance without diminishing…

  16. Social Context as an Indirect Trigger in EFL Contexts: Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Reza; Rahman, Sharifah Zainab Abd; Mustapha, Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the value of the social context and its role in learning a second language in different contexts. Social context is believed to be able to influence attitude and motivation. It also provides learning opportunities which give rise to learner's outcomes. In fact, students acquire a language by using it in social interaction…

  17. Emotional context influences micro-expression recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Micro-expressions are often embedded in a flow of expressions including both neutral and other facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether the types of facial expressions appearing before and after the micro-expression, i.e., the emotional context, influence micro-expression recognition. To address this question, the present study used a modified METT (Micro-Expression Training Tool paradigm that required participants to recognize the target micro-expressions presented briefly between two identical emotional faces. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that negative context impaired the recognition of micro-expressions regardless of the duration of the target micro-expression. Stimulus-difference between the context and target micro-expression was accounted for in Experiment 3. Results showed that a context effect on micro-expression recognition persists even when the stimulus similarity between the context and target micro-expressions was controlled. Therefore, our results not only provided evidence for the context effect on micro-expression recognition but also suggested that the context effect might result from both the stimulus and valence differences.

  18. Exploiting Context to Identify Lexical Atoms A Statistical View of Linguistic Context

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, C

    1997-01-01

    Interpretation of natural language is inherently context-sensitive. Most words in natural language are ambiguous and their meanings are heavily dependent on the linguistic context in which they are used. The study of lexical semantics can not be separated from the notion of context. This paper takes a contextual approach to lexical semantics and studies the linguistic context of lexical atoms, or "sticky" phrases such as "hot dog". Since such lexical atoms may occur frequently in unrestricted natural language text, recognizing them is crucial for understanding naturally-occurring text. The paper proposes several heuristic approaches to exploiting the linguistic context to identify lexical atoms from arbitrary natural language text.

  19. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte

    different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating...... and contributing to different activities of their life. Following children in their everyday life across contexts has highlighted a theme about how children ‘arrange’ their social communities and their personal participation in varying and shifting activities. In this way the paper will emphasize the active...... seems closely connected to analysis of the social practices where children are taking part....

  20. Discourse Coherence:Receiver’s Context Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董淑新

    2012-01-01

      Discourse is a kind of ostensive-inferential communication. Discourse as a communication always occurs in certain context which helps us interpret an utterance. Obviously, context or contextual assumptions play a crucial role in answering these questions. Therefore, the crucial point to solve the problem of discourse coherence is how to select the contexts. Con⁃text selection is not random but limited by the language users’cognitive environment. According to Relevance Theory, con⁃text selection is achieved through seeking for relevance.

  1. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Context-Free Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Jin

    2013-01-01

    automata theory. Additionally, we introduce the concepts of Chomsky normal form grammar (IFCNF and Greibach normal form grammar (IFGNF based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The results of our study indicate that intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages generated by IFCFGs are equivalent to those generated by IFGNFs and IFCNFs, respectively, and they are also equivalent to intuitionistic fuzzy recognizable step functions. Then some operations on the family of intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages are discussed. Finally, pumping lemma for intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages is investigated.

  2. Context-dependent feature selection using unsupervised contexts applied to GPR-based landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Context-dependent classification techniques applied to landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have demonstrated substantial performance improvements over conventional classification algorithms. Context-dependent algorithms compute a decision statistic by integrating over uncertainty in the unknown, but probabilistically inferable, context of the observation. When applied to GPR, contexts may be defined by differences in electromagnetic properties of the subsurface environment, which are due to discrepancies in soil composition, moisture levels, and surface texture. Context-dependent Feature Selection (CDFS) is a technique developed for selecting a unique subset of features for classifying landmines from clutter in different environmental contexts. In past work, context definitions were assumed to be soil moisture conditions which were known during training. However, knowledge of environmental conditions could be difficult to obtain in the field. In this paper, we utilize an unsupervised learning algorithm for defining contexts which are unknown a priori. Our method performs unsupervised context identification based on similarities in physics-based and statistical features that characterize the subsurface environment of the raw GPR data. Results indicate that utilizing this contextual information improves classification performance, and provides performance improvements over non-context-dependent approaches. Implications for on-line context identification will be suggested as a possible avenue for future work.

  3. A Study of the Context(s) in a Specific Type of Texts Car Accident Reports

    CERN Document Server

    Estival, D; Estival, Dominique; Gayral, Francoise

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of defining context, and more specifically the different contexts needed for understanding a particular type of texts. The corpus chosen is homogeneous and allows us to determine characteristic properties of the texts from which certain inferences can be drawn by the reader. These characteristic properties come from the real world domain (K-context), the type of events the texts describe (F-context) and the genre of the texts (E-context). Together, these three contexts provide elements for the resolution of anaphoric expressions and for several types of disambiguation. We show in particular that the argumentation aspect of these texts is an essential part of the context and explains some of the inferences that can be drawn.

  4. A Context of Translational Science Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Sies reviews the context of oxidative stress and its impact on redox biology and medicine. ... primarily Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, has been linked to the devastating .... suggestive social or family history. The patient was on ...

  5. The Many Contexts of Translation (Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriu Rodica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which, in just a couple of decades, and in view of the interdisciplinary nature of Translation Studies, the key notion of context has become increasingly broader and diversified within this area of research, allowing for complex analyses of the translators’ activities and decisions, of translation processes and, ultimately, of what accounts for the meaning(s of a translated text. Consequently, some (brief incursions are made into a number of (main directions of the discipline and the related kinds of contexts they prioritized in investigating translation both as process and product. In the second section of this introductory article, the issue of context is particularized through references to the contributions in this special volume, which add new layers of meaning to context, touching upon further perspectives from which this complex notion could be approached.

  6. Functions of Cognitive Context in Utterance Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越; 李美涵

    2015-01-01

    Utterance understanding is a two-way activity which includes the generation and reception of information,in the process of utterance understanding,cognitive context functions utterance understanding from three aspects.

  7. The Texts and Contexts of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Uses case studies of intensive writing courses in government, history, and computer science to explain the differences between the disciplinary contexts for writing, and to help tutors in their work with students from those disciplines. (RS)

  8. Music Therapy - History and Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even Ruud

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available An essay review 1 of Horden, Peregrine (Ed. (2000. Music as Medicine. The History of Music Therapy since Antiquity. Aldershot: Ashgate. Gouk, Penelope (Ed. (2000. Musical Healing in Cultural Contexts. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  9. Trajectory behaviour at different phonemic context sizes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available models, different types of context modelling (clustered triphones versus biphones) have complimentary behaviours. The authors discuss how this complimentarity may be useful for data-efficient ASR....

  10. Context based semantics for multimodal retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandra; Santini, Simone

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative to formal annotation for the representation of semantics, and presents an extension to it capable of handling multimedia (text and images) documents. The article argues that meaning is not a property of a document, but an outcome of a contextualized and situated process of interpretation. The consequence of this position is that one should not quite try to represent the meaning of a document (the way formal annotation does), but the context of the activity of which search is part. We present some general considerations on the representation and use of the context, and a simple example of a technique to encode the context represented by the documents collected in the computer in which one is working, and to use them to direct search. We show preliminary results showing that even this rather simpleminded context representation can lead to considerable improvements with respect to commercial search engines both for text and images.

  11. Context based support for Clinical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence, Knowledge Management Systems and Business Intelligence to make context sensitive, patient case specific analysis and knowledge management. The knowledge base consists of patient health records, reasoning process information and clinical guidelines. Patient specific information and knowledge...

  12. A survey of context-aware middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of a chosen set of context aware middleware systems, and categorises their properties and use according to a taxonomy. An overview of each system is provided, as well as descriptions of the different properties.......This paper provides a survey of a chosen set of context aware middleware systems, and categorises their properties and use according to a taxonomy. An overview of each system is provided, as well as descriptions of the different properties....

  13. Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...... and capabilities. The calculus is a step in the direction of making formal methods applicable in the area of pervasive computing....

  14. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science concept...

  15. Adolescent Literacies in a Multicultural Context

    CERN Document Server

    Cumming, Alister

    2012-01-01

    This book presents results from a four-year project addressing the central question: What factors, challenges, and contexts contribute to and constrain literacy achievement among at-risk adolescent learners with culturally diverse backgrounds? Researchers consider the importance of several, interrelated factors that support the development of adolescents' literacies in multilingual contexts: support from educators, community groups, families, and peers; recognition of the multi-faceted complexity of literacy through multiple, complementary methods of research and assessment; approaches to peda

  16. Context: The strategic management Rosetta Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Weeks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse context as a means for interpreting and making sense of evolving strategic management theory and practice. Problem investigated: Traditional strategic management theory based on rational deductive methodologies assumes contextual predictability, yet contemporary conditions tend to contradict this assumption. In response, alternative theories and practices for dealing with complex contexts have emerged (Brews & Purohit, 2006; Grant, 2003; Kurt & Snowden, 2003and Stacey, 1995. Methodology: A literature study was undertaken to determine the nature of emergent strategic management theory and practice, in response to contextual complexity and how it differs from traditional practice (Mintzberg, 1994 and Weeks &Lessing, 1993. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that context acts as a determinant for making sense of the evolution of strategic management theory and practice. While traditional strategic management practice still assumes relevance in contexts of linear causality, it breaks down in complex contexts. Emergent strategic management theory, based on complex adaptive systems, is increasingly assuming relevance. Notably, many institutions are still attempting to make use of scenario planning in an attempt to deal with contextual complexity, a practice not supported by leading researchers(Stacey, 1995 and Kurt & Snowden, 2003. Value of the research: The insights gained from the study assume relevance, in view of the contextual complexity confronting modern-day institutions. The findings suggest that emergent strategy based on complex adaptive system theory needs to be considered as a means for dealing with increasing environmental turbulence. Conclusion: It is concluded that context serves as the Rosetta stone for making sense of strategic management theory and practice. In view of the research findings, as reflected in the literature, it would seem that the use of complex

  17. Conditional Reasoning: Scenario or context effects

    OpenAIRE

    Valiña, Mª Dolores; Seoane, Gloria; Ghering, Sonnya; Ferraces, Mª José; Fernández-Rey, Xosé

    1992-01-01

    This paper study the importance of contextual factors in reasoning with conditional inference tasks. In this experiment subjects were given conditional sentences in the context of narrative texts, Short stories about scenarios of the daily life were described in this texts. The experiment manipulated: a) context (causal or promises/threats), b) degree of factual relation between antecedent and consequent of conditional (deterministic, probabilistic or without relation), c) congruence betwe...

  18. Context Based Reasoning in Business Process Models

    OpenAIRE

    Balabko, Pavel; Wegmann, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Modeling approaches often are not adapted to human reasoning: models are ambiguous and imprecise. A same model element may have multiple meanings in different functional roles of a system. Existing modeling approaches do not relate explicitly these functional roles with model elements. A principle that can solve this problem is that model elements should be defined in a context. We believe that the explicit modeling of context is especially useful in Business Process Modeling (BPM) where the ...

  19. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  20. Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Arash; Healey, Patrick G T

    2016-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a corpus study of multiparty dialog which shows that, in certain circumstances, people with different levels of overt involvement in a conversation, that is, one responding and one not, can nonetheless access the same shared context. We argue that contemporary models of shared context need to be adapted to capture this situation. To address this, we propose "grounding by proxy," in which one person can respond on behalf of another, as a simple mechanism by which shared context can accumulate for a coalition as a whole. We explore this hypothesis experimentally by investigating how people in a task-oriented coalition respond when their shared context appears to be weakened. The results provide evidence that, by default, coalition members act on each other's behalf, and when this fails they work to compensate. We conclude that this points to the need for a new concept of collective grounding acts and a corresponding concept of collective contexts in psycholinguistic and semantic models of dialog.

  1. Hippocampal place cells, context, and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2006-01-01

    Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the primary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory processes. The well-documented spatial firing patterns (place fields) of hippocampal neurons in rodents, along with the spatial learning impairments observed with hippocampal damage support the cognitive mapping hypothesis. The amnesia for personally experienced events seen in humans with hippocampal damage and the data of animal models, which show severe memory deficits associated with hippocampal lesions, support the episodic memory account. Although an extensive literature supports each of these hypotheses, a specific contribution of place cells to episodic memory has not been clearly demonstrated. Recent data from our laboratory, together with previous findings, indicate that hippocampal place fields and neuronal responses to task-relevant stimuli are highly sensitive to the context, even when the contexts are defined by abstract task demands rather than the spatial geometry of the environment. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that place fields reflect a more general context processing function of the hippocampus. Hippocampal context representations could serve to differentiate contexts and prime the relevant memories and behaviors. Since episodic memories, by definition, include information about the time and place where the episode occurred, contextual information is a necessary prerequisite for any episodic memory. Thus, place fields contribute importantly to episodic memory as part of the needed context representations. Additionally, recent findings indicate that hippocampal neurons differentiate contexts at progressively finer levels of detail, suggesting a hierarchical coding scheme which

  2. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  3. The Role of Context in Interpreting Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓燕; 刘红梅

    2009-01-01

    Meaning is a central topic in semantics, but it exists in context.Context plays an important role in interpreting word meaning. It will be analyzed as follows: (1)Context determines the referents of deietic words; (2)Context eliminates word ambiguity; (3)Context provides clues for interference of word meaning.

  4. The Application of Context Theory in English Teaching of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Han, Lemeng

    2010-01-01

    Context theory is a very important theory in English teaching, especially the teaching of reading. This paper first analyzes the theory of context, including the features of context and some principles in context theory. Then the paper discusses the application of context theory in English teaching of reading, including some problems met in…

  5. Challeng es for context manag ement s ystems imposed by context inference

    OpenAIRE

    Korbinian Frank; Nikos Kalatzis; Ioanna Roussaki; Nicolas Liampotis

    2009-01-01

    This work gives an overview over the challenges for context management systems in Ubiquitous Computing frameworks or Personal Smart Spaces. Focused on the integration of context inference in today’s context management systems (CMSs) we address important design decisions for future frameworks. The inference system we have in mind is probabilistic and relies on the concept of Bayeslets, special inference rules extending Bayesian networks. We show that for inference rule creation, storage, infer...

  6. Preserving the Context of Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.

    2008-12-01

    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, digitalpreservation.gov) that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  7. Context-aware approach for formal verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benabbou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Context-aware approach has proven to be an effective technique for software model-checking verification. It focuses on the explicit modelling of environment as one or more contexts. In this area, specifying precise requirement is a challenged task for engineer since often environmental conditions lack of precision. A DSL, called CDL, has been proposed to facilitate the specification of requirement and context. However, such language is still low-level and error prone, difficult to grasp on complex models and assessment about its usability is still mitigated. In this paper, we propose a high level formalism of CDL to facilitate specifying contexts based on interaction overview diagrams that orchestrate activity diagrams automatically transformed from textual use cases. Our approach highlights the boundaries between the system and its environment. It is qualified as model checking context-aware that aims to reduce the semantic gap between informal and formal requirements, hence the objective is to assist and encourage engineers to put sufficient details to accomplish effectively the specification process.

  8. Student reasoning about graphs in different contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. Students were asked to provide explanations and/or mathematical procedures with their answers. Students' main strategies and difficulties identified through the analysis of those explanations and procedures are described. Student strategies of graph interpretation were found to be largely context dependent and domain specific. A small fraction of students have used the same strategy in all three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts) on most sets of parallel questions. Some students have shown indications of transfer of knowledge in the sense that they used techniques and strategies developed in physics for solving (or attempting to solve) other context problems. In physics, the preferred strategy was the use of formulas, which sometimes seemed to block the use of other, more productive strategies which students displayed in other domains. Students' answers indicated the presence of slope-height confusion and interval-point confusion in all three domains. Students generally better interpreted graph slope than the area under a graph, although the concept of slope still seemed to be quite vague for many. The interpretation of the concept of area under a graph needs more attention in both physics and mathematics teaching.

  9. Generating Personalized Web Search Using Semantic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “one size fits the all” criticism of search engines is that when queries are submitted, the same results are returned to different users. In order to solve this problem, personalized search is proposed, since it can provide different search results based upon the preferences of users. However, existing methods concentrate more on the long-term and independent user profile, and thus reduce the effectiveness of personalized search. In this paper, the method captures the user context to provide accurate preferences of users for effectively personalized search. First, the short-term query context is generated to identify related concepts of the query. Second, the user context is generated based on the click through data of users. Finally, a forgetting factor is introduced to merge the independent user context in a user session, which maintains the evolution of user preferences. Experimental results fully confirm that our approach can successfully represent user context according to individual user information needs.

  10. Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chung, N. T.; Mukherjee, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) program is a portfolio of programs, managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was established to revolutionize how DoD designs, verifies, and manufactures complex defense systems and vehicles. The Component, Context, and Manufacturing Model Library (C2M2L; pronounced "camel") seeks to develop domain-specific models needed to enable design, verification, and fabrication of the Fast Adaptable Next-Generation (FANG) infantry fighting vehicle using in its overall infrastructure. Terrain models are being developed to represent the surface/fluid that an amphibious infantry fighting vehicle would traverse, ranging from paved road surfaces to rocky, mountainous terrain, slope, discrete obstacles, mud, sand snow, and water fording. Context models are being developed to provide additional data for environmental factors, such as: humidity, wind speed, particulate presence and character, solar radiation, cloud cover, precipitation, and more. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is semantic web data system that enables context artifacts to be registered and searched according to their meaning, rather than indexed according to their syntactic structure alone (as in the case for traditional search engines). The system leverages heavily on the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to model physical terrain environment and context model characteristics. In this talk, we focus on the application of the SWEET ontologies and the design of the OSCAR system architecture.

  11. Modeling Musical Context With Word2Vec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Dorien; Chuan, Ching-Hua

    2017-05-01

    We present a semantic vector space model for capturing complex polyphonic musical context. A word2vec model based on a skip-gram representation with negative sampling was used to model slices of music from a dataset of Beethoven's piano sonatas. A visualization of the reduced vector space using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding shows that the resulting embedded vector space captures tonal relationships, even without any explicit information about the musical contents of the slices. Secondly, an excerpt of the Moonlight Sonata from Beethoven was altered by replacing slices based on context similarity. The resulting music shows that the selected slice based on similar word2vec context also has a relatively short tonal distance from the original slice.

  12. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  13. Compose Real-world Service With Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the areas of smart embedded devices, computing and networking are leading to the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT composed of millions of heterogeneous devices. These devices will be interconnected, providing and consuming information available on the network and cooperate. As the improvement of the performance of industrial processes, the service-oriented approach can be adopted for smart embedded devices. Each device can offer its functionality as services. In such infrastructures, traditional web service compositions can not adapt to the dynamic environment for the Internet of Things. In this paper, we propose an approach to compose services with context. It can not only adapt to dynamic environment for the Internet of Things, but also satisfy the user’s preferences. We first build context ontology to describe the scenario for user. According to context information, the service composition process is presented.

  14. Temporal context and conditional associative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Jochen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated how temporal context affects the learning of arbitrary visuo-motor associations. Human observers viewed highly distinguishable, fractal objects and learned to choose for each object the one motor response (of four that was rewarded. Some objects were consistently preceded by specific other objects, while other objects lacked this task-irrelevant but predictive context. Results The results of five experiments showed that predictive context consistently and significantly accelerated associative learning. A simple model of reinforcement learning, in which three successive objects informed response selection, reproduced our behavioral results. Conclusions Our results imply that not just the representation of a current event, but also the representations of past events, are reinforced during conditional associative learning. In addition, these findings are broadly consistent with the prediction of attractor network models of associative learning and their prophecy of a persistent representation of past objects.

  15. Capability Development in an Offshoring Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya

    Capability development can be defined as deliberate firm-level investment involving a search and learning process aimed at modifying or enhancing existing capabilities. Increasingly, firms are relocating advanced services to offshore locations resulting in the challenge of capability development...... in the offshore unit. Guided by the research question – what drives or impedes capability development in an offshoring context – the purpose of this thesis is to investigate how an idiosyncratic offshoring context affects capability development. The thesis consists of three papers using various datasets...... and qualitative methods that investigate capability development in an offshoring context. The first paper investigates how capability development takes place for a service-provider firm at the activity level. The second paper examines the transition made by a captive offshore unit, from performing standardized...

  16. Stakeholders in the Political Marketing Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert

    Stakeholders influence the ability of organisations to achieve their aims, but little work has been carried out into understanding the stakeholder concept as applied to the political marketing context. This paper first discusses the contextual nature of stakeholders using normative....../strategic and broad/narrow dimensions. Building on the assumption that ‘political marketing is different’, the paper argues that stakeholders can be considered as direct or indirect depending on which of the three interaction marketplaces of the political exchange triad the political actor-stakeholder interaction...... occurs in. Finally, it is proposed that in the political marketing context, the stakeholder concept can be defined as ‘context-specific actors that directly or indirectly influence or are influenced by the political actor’....

  17. Designing middleware for context awareness in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    , and increasingly advanced GPS units. However, except for location based services, like knowing your location based on GPS, context awareness has not really materialised yet. In modern agriculture, computers are pervasive, but only in the sense that they are present everywhere. All types of equipment, ranging from...... context about the individual agricultural worker, e.g. in the form of location or current activity. Knowing the context of the farm and the workers may then be utilised for building pervasive computing applications to support the daily work at farms, e.g. by easing access to information which is useful...... to overcome these challenges, using semantic technologies. We also study new ways of designing such middleware, in that we make the end user of the applications built with the middleware participate in the requirement gathering and design phases....

  18. Collaborative product development and situated knowledge contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2009-01-01

    situated knowledge contexts. The authors aim to focus on how this influences the marketability of new product ideas. Design/methodology/approach - The empirical data are derived from exploratory observation studies of NPD meetings and interviews of involved managers and specialists in three business dyads....... The cases involve ingredient and meat suppliers, retail chains and marketing agencies located in Denmark. Findings - The authors show that the scope and organization of NPD activities indeed are shaped by the combinations of situated knowledge contexts involved. An important intervening variable however...... concerns the atmosphere of the relationship, involving emotions and attitudes of the actors involved from foregone exchange situations. Practical implications - For managers of NPD activities, the relationship between the knowledge contexts involved, the concept development outcomes and the marketability...

  19. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  20. Credibility Assessment of Online Information in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieh, Soo Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the context in which people interact with online information affects people's credibility perceptions. In this study, credibility assessment is defined as perceptions of credibility relying on individuals' expertise and knowledge. Context has been characterized with respect to three aspects: Context as user goals and intentions, context as topicality of information, and context as information activities. The data were collected from two empirical studies. Study 1 was a diary study in which 333 residents in Michigan, U.S.A. submitted 2,471 diary entries to report their trust perceptions associated with ten different user goals and nine different intentions. Study 2 was a lab-based study in which 64 subjects participated in performing four search tasks in two different information activity conditions - information search or content creation. There are three major findings of this study: (1 Score-based trust perceptions provided limited views of people's credibility perceptions because respondents tended to score trust ratings consistently high across various user goals and intentions; (2 The topicality of information mattered more when study subjects assessed the credibility of user generated content (UGC than with traditional media content (TMC; (3 Subjects of this study exerted more effort into making credibility judgments when they engaged in searching activities than in content creation. These findings indicate that credibility assessment can or should be seen as a process-oriented notion incorporating various information use contexts beyond simple rating-based evaluation. The theoretical contributions for information scientists and practical implications for web designers are also discussed.

  1. Self-face recognition in social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  2. Global Contexts for Learning: Exploring the Relationship between Low-Context Online Learning and High-Context Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Timothy Paul

    2014-01-01

    Current research on culture and distance education suggests that cultural variables influence student success online. When online courses are writing-based, they may provide easy information dissemination; however, the low-context medium may restrict the learning experience and class dynamic due to the lack of nonverbal communication. Students who…

  3. HTML Validation of Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm that generalizes HTML validation of individual documents to work on context-free sets of documents. Together with a program analysis that soundly approximates the output of Java Servlets and JSP web applications as context-free languages, we obtain a method for statically...... positives. It produces detailed error messages that help the programmer locate the sources of the errors. After manually correcting the errors reported by the tool, the soundness of the analysis ensures that no more validity errors exist in the applications....

  4. NEGOTIATING IN A CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on negotiation in the last 50 years has only considered that negotiation occurs in a stable economic environment. This paper analyses negotiation in changing contexts with a focus on two aspects: first, we examine the psychological processes affecting negotiation in a changing environment, whether one of prosperity or economic crisis; second, we study collective bargaining, focusing on the role of union representatives in a context of economic crisis. The first line of research is highly experimental; the second is applied and based on field studies using interviews and focus groups.

  5. Trusted Anomaly Detection with Context Dependency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xin-guang; YAN Mei-feng

    2006-01-01

    Anomaly detection of privileged processes is one of the most important means to safeguard the host and system security. The key problem for improving detection performance is to identify local behavior of the short sequences in traces of system calls accurately. An alternative modeling method was proposed based on the typical pattern matching of short sequences, which builds upon the concepts of short sequences with context dependency and the specially designed aggregation algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the modeling method considering the context dependency improves clearly the sensitive decision threshold as compared with the previous modeling method.

  6. Context sensitivity in the force concept inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Stewart

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The force concept inventory and a 10-question context-modified test were given to 647 students enrolled in introductory physics classes at the University of Arkansas. Context changes had an effect ranging from −3% to 10% on the individual questions. The average student score on the ten transformed questions was 3% higher than the average student score on the corresponding 10 force concept inventory questions. Therefore, the effect of contextual changes on the total of the 10 questions is not sufficient to affect normal use of the force concept inventory as a diagnostic instrument.

  7. Context and Content: From Language to Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCOIS RECANATI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present an overview of my research in the philosophy of language in mind over more than tmrty years, from my early work on speech act theory to my current work on mental files. The unifying theme is context-dependence, both in language and thought. I distinguish several varieties of context-dependence and, along the way, provide tentative accounts of various phenomena: performative utterances, indexicals, modulation (metonymy and loose talk, free enrichment), de se thought, the content of experiential states, and immunity to error through misidentification.

  8. Designing middleware for context awareness in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    More than a decade ago, pervasive computing and context awareness where envisioned as the future of computing [16], initial work concentrating on location, typically indoor. Today, small, handheld computers of various forms and purposes are becoming pervasive in the form of PDAs, mobile phones......, and increasingly advanced GPS units. However, except for location based services, like knowing your location based on GPS, context awareness has not really materialised yet. In modern agriculture, computers are pervasive, but only in the sense that they are present everywhere. All types of equipment, ranging from...

  9. Perceptual processing of a complex musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds. It reflects the perception of change in low-level sound features and reliably measures auditory memory and predictive processes. MMN is a valuable tool for the study of music perception. However......, most designs use simple tone patterns as stimuli, failing to represent the complexity of everyday music. We aim to develop a new MMN paradigm using more real-sounding stimuli. We want to determine how the complexity of the context affects auditory predictions as reflected by the MMN. For this purpose...... about music perception and learning in more realistic sound contexts....

  10. Learning in the context of distribution drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0039 Learning in the context of distribution drift Geoff Webb MONASH UNIVERSITY Final Report 05/09/2017 DISTRIBUTION A...Department of Defense, Executive Services, Directorate (0704-0188).   Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person ...23 Apr 2015 to 22 Apr 2017 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Learning in the context of distribution drift 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1

  11. Entrepreneurial Leapfrogging in the Context of ISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We know little regarding the underlying contexts and mechanisms for disruptive innovation initiated by the entrepreneurial firms in the emerging economies. Further, there is limited knowledge about the contexts and mechanisms for global latecomers to catch up with and leapfrog global early......-movers. The cross-fertilization between such two research streams provides a great opportunity to shed light on their link toward an interdisciplinary domain of international strategic entrepreneurship (ISE). This article will develop an integrative typology of global innovations as well as a dynamic model...

  12. Inclusive education in risk’s contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausta Sabatano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to propose a reflection on the meaning of inclusion in emergency situations, the aim of realizing educational actions that really allow the emancipation of the subjects. For this purpose reference is made to an action-research, made in a project that for about ten years is realized in the Campania Region. The research proposal, which fits inside the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, identifies its focus in the relationship seen as privileged context of the educational process. You intend identifying possible elements of transferability in similar contexts, documenting the educational activity, assessing the efficacy and validity, and systematizing the methodological choices made.

  13. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  14. Context representation for web search results

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Jesus; Crestani, Fabio; De La Fuente, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Context has long been considered very useful to help the user assess the actual relevance of a document. In Web searching, context can help assess the relevance of a Web page by showing how the page is related to other pages in the same Web site, for example. Such information is very difficult to convey and visualise in a user friendly way. In this paper we present the design, implementation and evaluation of a graphical visualisation tool aimed at helping users to determine the relevance of ...

  15. Academic Success in Context-Based Chemistry: Demonstrating fluid transitions between concepts and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna Therese; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2013-05-01

    Curriculum developers and researchers have promoted context-based programmes to arrest waning student interest and participation in the enabling sciences at high school and university. Context-based programmes aim for student connections between scientific discourse and real-world contexts to elevate curricular relevance without diminishing conceptual understanding. This interpretive study explored the learning transactions in one 11th grade context-based chemistry classroom where the context was the local creek. The dialectic of agency/structure was used as a lens to examine how the practices in classroom interactions afforded students the agency for learning. The results suggest that first, fluid transitions were evident in the student-student interactions involving successful students; and second, fluid transitions linking concepts to context were evident in the students' successful reports. The study reveals that the structures of writing and collaborating in groups enabled students' agential and fluent movement between the field of the real-world creek and the field of the formal chemistry classroom. Furthermore, characteristics of academically successful students in context-based chemistry are highlighted. Research, teaching, and future directions for context-based science teaching are discussed.

  16. Analysing Policy in the Context(s) of Practice: A Theoretical Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to the construction of a critically informed toolbox of diverse concepts for education policy analysis. Focusing on the context(s) of practice of the policy cycle, the article outlines an interpretative framework to grasp policy enactment across different localities, the influences bearing upon those enactments as well as…

  17. Life Stories in Context: Using the Three-Sphere Context Model To Analyze Amos's Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Tuval-Mashiach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide theoretical consensus among narrative researchers about the importance of referring to context in analyzing narratives, it seems that the various contexts at work in individual life stories and the specific methodological implications of the importance of context are not that clear. In this paper, I will describe a model for context analysis, which refers to three distinct spheres of contexts in which narrators situate their life stories (Zilber, Tuval-Mashiach, & Lieblich, 2008. The first context involves the immediate inter-subjective relationships within and involving which a narrative is produced; the second comprises the collective social field in which a life and story have evolved; and the third surrounds the systems of broad cultural meaning or meta-narratives that underlie and give sense to any particular life story. In the second part of the paper, I will illustrate the three contexts in Amos's story, and claim that viewing his story as it is embedded through these three contexts not only situates it within a more general social framework, but also enables a deeper understanding of his identity and the core themes of his life-story.

  18. Architectural support for context-aware applications: from context models to services platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dockhorn Costa, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Context-awareness has emerged as an important and desirable feature in ubiquitous applications. This feature deals with the ability of applications to utilize information about the user’s environment (context) in order to tailor services to the user’s current situation and needs. This thesis aims at

  19. Analysing Policy in the Context(s) of Practice: A Theoretical Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This essay contributes to the construction of a critically informed toolbox of diverse concepts for education policy analysis. Focusing on the context(s) of practice of the policy cycle, the article outlines an interpretative framework to grasp policy enactment across different localities, the influences bearing upon those enactments as well as…

  20. The Relationship between Context and the Teaching of English Listening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫琴

    2015-01-01

    Context, as a main domain for linguistic research, greatly influences the understanding in communication. In English listening, context is one of the factors affecting the listening comprehension. However, it is often neglected and as a result, stu⁃dents’listening can’t be improved effectively. In order to improve students English listening comprehension, this thesis introduc⁃es the theory of context and the substance of English listening, analyses the roles that context plays in English listening from three factors:context of vocabulary、context of situation and context of cultural. It also introduces how to use the context freely when students are listening.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Beţianu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability tends to become in the new millennium the most important characteristic of economic and social development. The possibility to ensure economic development in the context of a reasonable use of raw materials, energy and natural resources in general and to decrease the impact of all human activities on the environment makes the essence of the sustainable development of these activities.

  2. Motivational Interviewing and the Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the article by Miller and Rose (September 2009). As Miller and Rose opened "the black box of treatment to examine linkages between processes of delivery and client outcomes" (p. 529) in motivational interviewing (MI), it is important that their model include factors from the social context that may explain conditions that enhance or…

  3. Evaluation of context effects in sentence recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.; Brand, T.; Wagener, K.

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated whether the model for context effects, developed earlier by Bronkhorst et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 499-509 (1993)], can be applied to results of sentence tests, used for the evaluation of speech recognition. Data for two German sentence tests, that differed with respect to th

  4. Finding and Visualizing Dutch Legislative Context Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Boer, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research on automatically determining relevant context to display to a user of a legislative portal given the article they are retrieving, purely based on ‘objective’ criteria inferred from the network of sources of law. Two prototypes doing this, visualizing the res

  5. The Moroccan Educational Context: Evolving Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    This article begins an investigation of the educational system of Morocco and its context of language diversity. It examines the Moroccan cultural environment and the ways the multilingualism and education of its people has been and continues to be influenced by geography, colonization periods, religion, and history. The effects of the Educational…

  6. The Nuclear Age: Context for Family Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek, Carmen

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that concerns regarding the nuclear threat are prevalent among family members; parents and children feel powerless in response to the nuclear threat; response to the nuclear threat is a family issue; responding to the nuclear threat requires empowering families and changing the social context; and nuclear concerns need to be addressed in…

  7. Regular and context-free nominal traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezzetti, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...

  8. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  9. Supporting learning experiences beyond the school context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this workshop you’ll become familiar with two examples of how technology can support learning experiences that go beyond, but still connect to, the school context. The first example, called Elena, is for primary schools. The second example, called weSPOT, is for secondary schools. The Elena

  10. Marriage and Family Counseling: Ethics in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.; Oliver, Marvarene

    2005-01-01

    Codes of ethics typically provide rules and guidelines for best practices in marriage and family counseling. An emerging model for ethical decision making emphasizes the ethics of virtues and aspirations. Exploring fundamental models of helping, as well as contemporary issues in community systems, affords context for examining the professional…

  11. Supporting learning experiences beyond the school context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this workshop you’ll become familiar with two examples of how technology can support learning experiences that go beyond, but still connect to, the school context. The first example, called Elena, is for primary schools. The second example, called weSPOT, is for secondary schools. The Elena proje

  12. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  13. Evaluating Mobile Proactive Context-Aware Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegon, Davide; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena

    We present the evaluation of a novel application for Web content perusal by means of context-aware mobile devices that proactively query an external search engine. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark and we use it to evaluate different strategies for automatic query construction...

  14. Researching Motivation in Context: Rethinking Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Susan

    Recent theory and research on motivation has shifted in its focus from a study of more general characteristics of individuals such as personal motivational goals, to an examination of the motivation of individuals within specific domains or contexts. This change in focus has led to a broadening of the methodologies used to examine motivation. Many…

  15. "Huck Finn" in Context: A Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulten, Katherine

    This guide contains a detailed, six-section curriculum that frames the debate over Mark Twain's novel "Huck Finn," asks students to think critically about it, and helps them to see the novel in a richer historical and literary context. The first section introduces students to the history of the controversy surrounding "Huck Finn" and touches on…

  16. Beauty in the Context of Particular Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on empirical research by the author into the everyday lives of people living in a small village. Everyday life is approached as a subjective process in time and space, experienced by particular people in a particular environmental and social context. The data of this research has been collected through correspondence in which…

  17. Supporting Authentic Learning Contexts Beyond Classroom Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

    At the classroom level, contexts for learning are often limited in the experiential component. Teachers and trainers feel overwhelmed by the difficulty of inventing authentic learning contexts, and creating tasks that truly reflect the way knowledge would be used in the real world (Herrington et al. 2004). However, there are growing numbers of examples of how such authentic learning environments are being used in schools, higher education, and professional development in a variety of contexts and discipline areas, such as in literacy education (Ferry et al. 2006), in physical activity fitness and health (Rice et al. 1999), in Indigenous education (Marshall et al. 2001), in evaluation (Agostinho 2006), in multimedia and ICT (Bennett et al. 2001), in literature (Fitzsimmons 2006), and in business writing (Pennell et al. 1997). Teachers and trainers who subscribe to this approach to learning can be very inventive in developing learner perceptions of authentic contexts, but often financial, situational and time constraints limit the experiential elements of authentic learning settings.

  18. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design metho

  19. Close-Up and Expanded Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink Jakobsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    as a sequence of images being connected through movement of the body - for instance as one approaches the Parthenon. The visitor’s movement through the exhibition of the Acropolis findings is the key concept of Tschumi’s museum. Being built in this culturally significant context the museum is however not only...

  20. Context-Based Science Curriculum Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, several science courses have been developed which could be labelled “context-based.” In some areas of the world, these courses are named Science-Technology-Society (STS). The aims of such courses are usually to make science more relevant to students by linking science to

  1. Family Context and Criminal Victimization in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Huizinga, David; Menard, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Reports using data from the Denver Youth Survey to investigate the influence of family factors in predicting adolescent victimization. Results indicate that family context (particularly parental problem behavior), family involvement, adolescent social isolation from the family, and positive parenting were predictive of adolescent victimization,…

  2. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...

  3. Fuzzy Set Approximations in Fuzzy Formal Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingwen Shao; Shiqing Fan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of multi-level formal concept is introduced. Based on the proposed multi-level formal concept, we present a pair of rough fuzzy set approximations within fuzzy formal contexts. By the proposed rough fuzzy set approximations, we can approximate a fuzzy set according to different precision level. We discuss the properties of the proposed approximation operators in detail.

  4. Tragic Characters in the Modern Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义慧

    2014-01-01

    This thesis conducts a research on Tennessee Williams’masterpiece The Glass Menagerie from the perspective of Ray-mond Williams’tragic idea, demonstrating the characters’social status, dilemma in the social context and escapism against the un-pleasant realities through engaging in fantacy, which represents people’s constraint situation and social psychology of the times.

  5. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design

  6. Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthman, Forrest

    Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

  7. Improving new vocabulary learning in context

    OpenAIRE

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  8. Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

  9. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We...

  10. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  11. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  12. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings…

  13. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  14. Healthy Academic Processes in the University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cedeño, Ileana; Flores-Davis, Luz Emilia; Miranda-Cervantes, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    This scientific article aims to identify the perceptions of healthy academic administrative processes in the university context. This contribution was directed by socio-educational research processes generated at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA), in the Center for Research and Teaching in Education (CIDE). The issue of health is part of…

  15. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W

    2012-01-01

    has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. We show...

  16. Embedding Context in Teaching Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Xaver; Chen, Wei; McKenna, Ann F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the global, societal, environmental and economic (GSEE) context of a product, process or system is critical to an engineer's ability to design and innovate. The already packed curricula in engineering programs provide few occasions to offer meaningful experiences to address this issue, and most departments delegate this requirement…

  17. Visualisation in Applied Learning Contexts: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This literature review explores visualisation within the context of learning in design, engineering and technology education. The investigation first defines visualisation, providing examples of activities that utilise visualisation skills within an applied field. Then exploration of the mental mechanisms of visualisation used to engage with those…

  18. Supporting learning experiences beyond the school context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this workshop you’ll become familiar with two examples of how technology can support learning experiences that go beyond, but still connect to, the school context. The first example, called Elena, is for primary schools. The second example, called weSPOT, is for secondary schools. The Elena proje

  19. Internet Safety in Emerging Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Concern has arisen for the safety of children using the Internet to support their education outside the school context. Inappropriate material such as pornography, inflammatory and racist writings can be accessed both by accident and with deliberate intent to view. Children are also perceived to be at risk from approaches by strangers,…

  20. Teaching & Learning Across Collaborative Digital contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This paper addresses the challenge of teaching and learning in a blended, collaborative Digital Context. It reports on a case study in which the promotion of learners empowerment and meta-learning are key objectives. The findings of the case study suggest the presence of a promising potential in ...

  1. Situationally Embodied Curriculum: Relating Formalisms and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barab, Sasha; Zuiker, Steve; Warren, Scott; Hickey, Dan; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Kwon, Eun-Ju; Kouper, Inna; Herring, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes an example of design-based research in which we make theoretical improvements in our understanding, in part based on empirical work, and use these to revise our curriculum and, simultaneously, our evolving theory of the relations between contexts and disciplinary formalisms. Prior to this study, we completed a first cycle of…

  2. User producer interaction in context: a classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Roel; Moors, Ellen; Smits, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation Studies show that intensified user producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations, especially in the case of emerging technology. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This paper pro

  3. Context, "Cuckoo's Nest," and the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The community college is an excellent place for the creation of a special, more empowering learning context. Unlike the university, where students are supposed to adjust to the world of scholarly erudition, the community college is the crazy academic brother that has the freedom to be different and to liberate students to build upon their own…

  4. Cultural Context and Development of Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Devendra; Williams, David D.

    A university-public school partnership analysis reveals how the cultural context associated with existing institutions can both facilitate and impede the emergence of a new culture that those institutions attempt to create and often involves entire cultural reforms and organizational conversion. Brigham Young University and five surrounding school…

  5. The textbook as classroom context variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, Hein P.M.

    1985-01-01

    To explore the role of the textbook as a context variable in process—product relationships, data on teaching practices and learning outcomes from the IEA Classroom Environment Study in The Netherlands were used. The sample consisted of 50 secondary school mathematics classes and their teachers. Thre

  6. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  7. Evaluation of context effects in sentence recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.; Brand, T.; Wagener, K.

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated whether the model for context effects, developed earlier by Bronkhorst et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 499-509 (1993)], can be applied to results of sentence tests, used for the evaluation of speech recognition. Data for two German sentence tests, that differed with respect to

  8. CLT in the Chinese Language Teaching Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2009-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching is considered as an efficient approach to second language acquisition,.This article tries to give a general introduction to CLT and its current situation in English teaching in China by pointing out the difficulties CLT faces in China as well as giving some suggestions for the perfection of CLT in Chinese language teaching context.

  9. Situating Cognition: Knowledge and Power in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Catherine A.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    Although adult education as a field has shown interest in theories of situated cognition, it has misappropriated some of its central concepts. Proponents of situated cognition posit that learning is not something that happens in independent isolation, or just inside the head, but instead is shaped by the context, culture, and tools of the learning…

  10. ANTHROPOLOGY AND HERITAGE IN THE MULTICULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Núñez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This reflection is focused on the role of anthropology in the issue of cultural heritage and cultural policies and their relation with the local identities in the Colombian multicultural context, highlighting the archaeological heritage and the museums as important fields to explore the topic with an anthropological perspective

  11. Interpretation of Inconsistencies via Context Consistency Diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degeler, Viktoriya; Lazovik, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive context-aware systems base their responses on information about the environment collected from ubiquitous sensors. The inevitable drawback of such systems is that raw data collected from sensors is often noisy, corrupted, and imprecise. Erroneous sensor readings create uncertainties and am

  12. Applying design thinking elsewhere: Organizational context matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Dorst, K.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution design thinking is taken as a transfer of design methods from product development to other domains. It is argued that the success of this transfer depends on the organisational context offered to design thinking in these other domains. We describe the application of design metho

  13. Network Structure, Collaborative Context, and Individual Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Soda, Giuseppe; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Network research has yet to determine whether bonding ties or bridging ties are more beneficial for individual creativity, but the debate has mostly overlooked the organizational context in which such ties are formed. In particular, the causal chain connecting network structures and individual ou...

  14. Supervisory Bullying, Status Inequalities and Organizational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Lopez, Steven H.; Hodson, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Bullying has been increasingly identified as a significant social problem. Although much of this attention has centered on the context of schooling, researchers are now beginning to recognize that workplaces are also arenas rife with abusive, bullying behaviors. Personality attributes of bullies and victims have received attention, but much less…

  15. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  16. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  17. Morning Receptions in a Danish ECE Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Gravgaard, Mette Lykke

    2017-01-01

    This paper focus on a special pedagogical context; morning receptions as a learning environment. The studies of mornings are part of a 3 year long research project in which different types of learning environments were investigated. Few studies have researched morning receptions in this perspecti...

  18. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  19. Awareness of Entities, Activities and Contexts in Ambient Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Ambient systems are modeled by entities, activities and contexts, where entities exist in contexts and engage in activities. A context supports a dynamic collection of entities by services and offers awareness information about the entities. Activities also exist in contexts and model ongoing...

  20. Approach and Challenges of Teaching English in EFL Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘又菲

    2014-01-01

    It is significant to connect contexts and approaches to English language teaching, and it is also necessary to realize the challenges faced by English language learners in particular contexts so that we can get a better understanding of teaching based on our own contexts and approaches. This article is the discussion of approach and the challenges in EFL context.

  1. Non-verbal Context in the Teaching of EFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal context in foreign language learning and teaching .The first part introduces the development of the context theory. The second part covers the relevance of context to language learning. The last part recommends some ways to use non-verbal context in the teaching of EFL.

  2. The Significance of Context in Understanding the Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨渊

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews the significance of context in understanding the words. Firstly, two types of context(linguistic context and extra-linguistic context) are discussed. Then the functions of context in determining the word meaning is analyzed for clearer understanding. Thirdly, the essay focuses on the meaning transfer resulting from the change of situation and-suggests the strategies of enlarging vocabulary . In order to well grasp the correct word meaning from contexts, we should know better about the contexts and have a good command of knowledge of cross culture and background information.

  3. Context-aware Mobile Hypermedia: Concepts, Framework, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    Context-aware computing focuses on developing systems which through different kinds of sensory systems are able to collect information about the physical environment in order to, more or less automatically, adapt data and behavior to the user’s current context. The aim is to create systems that...... the requirements for context aware mobile hypermedia, both theoretically and practically, and is realized by: • A conceptual model for context-aware hypermedia, • HyCon, a framework for context-aware mobile hypermedia, • A range of hypermedia applications utilizing context-awareness to support mobile fieldwork....... The conceptual model divides the concerns of context-aware hypermedia into three sub-domains: the digital context, the physical context, and the user’s conceptual context and provides techniques for integrating these three conceptual domains. The model is experimentally evaluated through the development...

  4. Joint perception: Gaze and social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Richardson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We found that the way people looked at images was influenced by their belief that others were looking too. If participants believed that an unseen other person was also looking at what they could see, it shifted the balance of their gaze between negative and positive images. The direction of this shift depended upon whether participants thought that later they would be compared against the other person or would be collaborating with them. Changes in the social context influenced both gaze and memory processes, and were not due just to participants’ belief that they are looking at the same images, but also to the belief that they are doing the same task. We believe that this new phenomenon of joint perception reveals the pervasive and subtle effect of social context upon cognitive and perceptual processes.

  5. The Relationship Context of Premarital Serial Cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica; Manning, Wendy

    2010-09-01

    Even though serial cohabitation is on the rise, it has not been integrated into recent family research. We analyze the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) cycle 6 to explore the relationship context of serial cohabitation for women throughout emerging adulthood (N=3,397). We provide a relationship context for serial cohabitation by examining the age at first cohabitation, duration of cohabiting unions, marital expectations and transitions, as well as premarital sexual histories. Furthermore, we examine the change in these relationship indicators across women's birth cohorts. We find that serial cohabitors' co-residential unions are about the same duration as single-instance cohabiting unions. Serial cohabitors start cohabiting younger, report lower marital expectations than single-instance cohabitors and a smaller proportion marry before age 30. Women who have more premarital sex partners have significantly greater odds of serial cohabiting. These findings indicate that women face increasingly complex relationship trajectories during emerging adulthood.

  6. Teaching Practice in a Realistic Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction For two academic years, Teaching Practice (TP), an important component of the in-service Advanced Teacher Training Course at Chongqing University, was set up in an almost ideal context: students specially recruited, materials selected by the trainees and photo-copying facilities provided. While trainees felt very excited by their performances during TP, when all the excitement had gone, they felt less optimistic at the thought of the constraints which would be placed on their teaching in their own institutions. So their evaluation of TP ended with a "Yes, but" statement. Drawing on insights gained from those two years, the British lecturers and Chinese counterparts generally felt that TP should, in future, operate within a realistic context. In this paper, we shall report how TP was conducted within our Foreign Languages Department.

  7. Human subjects protection in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embry Howell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research and evaluation are growing in Africa. All evaluators have an ethical responsibility to protect their research subjects from harm that could occur if sensitive data are revealed. In this article, we use a literature and document review to provide an overview of the protection of human subjects internationally and in Africa; we then use interviews with evaluators working in Africa to place human subjects protection principles and practice in an African context. We conclude that human subjects protection must be supported by improved guidelines tailored to the African context and local conditions; improved infrastructure for implementing and enforcing the guidelines; and increased training in awareness of human subjects principles and approaches. These efforts could stimulate increased research and evaluation and more confidence in results in the communities where research is conducted.

  8. Context-Aware user interfaces in automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Holm

    2007-01-01

    Automation is deployed in a great range of different domains such as the chemical industry, the production of consumer goods, the production of energy (both in terms of power plants and in the petrochemical industry), transportation and several others. Through several decades the complexity...... of automation systems and the level of automation have been rising. This has caused problems regarding the operator's ability to comprehend the overall situation and state of the automation system, in particular in abnormal situations. The amount of data available to the operator results in information overload....... Since context-aware applications have been developed in other research areas it seems natural to analyze the findings of this research and examine how this can be applied to the domain of automation systems. By evaluating existing architectures for the development of context-aware applications we find...

  9. Vertex Nomination via Content and Context

    CERN Document Server

    Coppersmith, Glen A

    2012-01-01

    If I know of a few persons of interest, how can a combination of human language technology and graph theory help me find other people similarly interesting? If I know of a few people committing a crime, how can I determine their co-conspirators? Given a set of actors deemed interesting, we seek other actors who are similarly interesting. We use a collection of communications encoded as an attributed graph, where vertices represents actors and edges connect pairs of actors that communicate. Attached to each edge is the set of documents wherein that pair of actors communicate, providing content in context - the communication topic in the context of who communicates with whom. In these documents, our identified interesting actors communicate amongst each other and with other actors whose interestingness is unknown. Our objective is to nominate the most likely interesting vertex from all vertices with unknown interestingness. As an illustrative example, the Enron email corpus consists of communications between ac...

  10. Materialism In The Context Of Luxury Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosa Acevedo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the established objective is to identify the relationship between socio demographic variables and materialism of the construct in the context of luxury consumer segment. To measure materialism used the theoretical model Richins (2004, tested and adapted nationally by Ponchio and Spider (2007. Through a quantitative survey of 320 consumers in São Paulo, we tested the relationship between the variables revealing results were compared to previous studies on the difference between the sociodemographic contexts. In conclusion, it can be seen that the luxury segment responds differently to the previous study. And unlike materialism identified himself only for the age group of 18 and 29, in relation to the other. The variables gender and financial income showed no distinction between established categories.

  11. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  12. How spatial context influences entrepreneurial value creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how rural communities are enriched by entrepreneurial value-creating activities that go beyond job creation and growth. In addition, this study explores how spatial context influences these value-creating activities. This qualitative case-based study shows that rural......-being of the community. Thus, this study contributes to an in-depth understanding of how and why entrepreneurship can create multiple forms of value in rural areas as well as how value creation behaviours are motivated by the spatial context. In addition, it provides explanations why not all rural entrepreneurs...... contribute or at least intend to contribute equally and in a similar way to local development. Thus, by adding contextualized explanations of rural entrepreneurial behaviour to the literature, this study places itself in the recent debate and call for contextualizing entrepreneurship research....

  13. Cognitive context detection using pupillary measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaru, Pujitha; Balasingam, Balakumar; Pattipati, Krishna; Sibley, Ciara; Coyne, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of pupillary measurements as indices of cognitive workload. We analyze the pupillary data of twenty individuals engaged in a simulated Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) operation in order to understand and characterize the behavior of pupil dilation under varying task load (i.e., workload) levels. We present three metrics that can be employed as real-time indices of cognitive workload. In addition, we develop a predictive system utilizing the pupillary metrics to demonstrate cognitive context detection within simulated supervisory control of UAS. Further, we use pupillary data collected concurrently from the left and right eye and present comparative results of the use of separate vs. combined pupillary data for detecting cognitive context.

  14. Migration of Cells in a Social Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savas; Johnston, Darius M.

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. While this is essential for the basic processes of life such as embryonic development, wound healing and unregulated migration furthermore is implicated in diseases such as cancer, the influence of neighboring c...... a test-bed for future studies of collective migration of individual cells.......In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. While this is essential for the basic processes of life such as embryonic development, wound healing and unregulated migration furthermore is implicated in diseases such as cancer, the influence of neighboring...... cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has revealed a stereotypical migratory behavior, however many aspects of the migration characteristics of cells in populations remained unknown exactly because of this lack of characterization of neighbour-cell influence...

  15. Migration of cells in a social context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savas; Johnston, Darius M

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory b...... and pseudopod collapse following collisions. The model demonstrates how aspects of complex biology can be explained by simple rules of physics and constitutes a rapid test bed for future studies of collective migration of individual cells.......In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory...

  16. Designing Narrative Games for a Serious Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Desmet, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater....... Moreover, we discuss how narrative plots in a game may open up for developing player’s emotional experiences over time and grow social relationships between inmate and child. On the basis of our case analysis we discuss, in more detail, how our approach differs from Serious Games and we single out some key...... emphasis on fiction and narratives. The approach is exemplified through three game prototypes designed to be played by an inmate and his child in a prison during visiting hours. By analyzing these game prototypes we demonstrate how a game can be structured around a narrative plot in three different ways...

  17. Mobile Context Toolbox - an extensible context framework for S60 mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on S60 mobile phones enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new sensors and features to be added to the context framework as they become...... available on mobile phone platforms. The framework provides access to multiple sensors to derive user context, and we present results from experiments with two prototype applications built using the toolbox. Initial experiments have been carried out to validate the data obtained by the tool....... In the experiments 14 participants have been continuously using a Nokia N95 mobile phone with a context logger application for an average of 48 days per user and covering 70% of the time. The study has provided valuable insights into the performance issues of the system in real-life usage situations, including...

  18. Mobile Context Toolbox - an extensible context framework for S60 mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on S60 mobile phones enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new sensors and features to be added to the context framework as they become...... available on mobile phone platforms. The framework provides access to multiple sensors to derive user context, and we present results from experiments with two prototype applications built using the toolbox. Initial experiments have been carried out to validate the data obtained by the tool....... In the experiments 14 participants have been continuously using a Nokia N95 mobile phone with a context logger application for an average of 48 days per user and covering 70% of the time. The study has provided valuable insights into the performance issues of the system in real-life usage situations, including...

  19. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  20. Verbal Communication Skills in Different Tourism Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problems verbal communication conducts to in the tourism sector. Language plays a major role in determining the causes and the means of overcoming communication barriers. The theoretical part of the present paper sustains the importance of various elements verbal communication consists of, pointing out its roots and determinants. The practical part reveals the fact that, along with an ever growing number of tourism contexts, language has gained its position of...

  1. Context-free parsing with connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanty, M. A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a simple algorithm which converts any context-free grammar into a connectionist network which parses strings (of arbitrary but fixed maximum length) in the language defined by that grammar. The network is fast, O(n), and deterministicd. It consists of binary units which compute a simple function of their input. When the grammar is put in Chomsky normal form, O(n3) units needed to parse inputs of length up to n.

  2. SOCIAL ETHICAL CONTEXT OF SOCIAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Mesía Maraví, Teodoro Rubén; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The article at hand is intended to examine briefly the delicate ethical question that has to be considered when social researches are carried out, as a result of educational investigations. The ethical question is not always an obvious one, it is frequently ambiguous or something no one is aware of. That’s why it is necessary to have certain formal codes that can define acceptable behaviors. In other words, the existence of specific norms will be responsible, in the context of investigations,...

  3. China's Domestic Transformation in a Global Context

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The phrase ‘New Normal’ captures the ongoing shift in the pattern and drivers of China’s economic growth. China’s new growth rate is both slower and imposing difficult structural change. These new economic conditions are challenging yet offer opportunities for China and its economic partners. Reforms must be deepened but also make growth more inclusive and environmentally sustainable, over this decade and beyond. This year’s Update offers both global context and domestic insight into this ch...

  4. Definitions of Critical Thinking in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenes, Adam

    2015-01-01

    With the impact of increasing global competition, calls for greater emphasis on critical thinking in secondary and higher education are frequently heard in Japan, yet there is a lack of agreement on what is meant by the term “critical thinking.” This paper provides a review of selected literature, charting the chronological development of definitions of critical thinking in education during the twentieth century, and reflections on the application of critical thinking to different contexts. W...

  5. Efficient Accurate Context-Sensitive Anomaly Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For program behavior-based anomaly detection, the only way to ensure accurate monitoring is to construct an efficient and precise program behavior model. A new program behavior-based anomaly detection model,called combined pushdown automaton (CPDA) model was proposed, which is based on static binary executable analysis. The CPDA model incorporates the optimized call stack walk and code instrumentation technique to gain complete context information. Thereby the proposed method can detect more attacks, while retaining good performance.

  6. Sex trafficking in Nepal: context and process

    OpenAIRE

    Hennink, Monique; Simkhada, Padam

    2004-01-01

    This study has developed a conceptual framework to provide a clearer understanding of the process and context of sex trafficking from Nepal. Quantitative data were analysed from case records of 202 sex-trafficked women at rehabilitation centres in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 42 sex trafficked women, mostly residing at rehabilitation centres in Kathmandu, provide contextual information on the process and circumstances of sex trafficking. The results of this study provide a clearer understa...

  7. A Context-dependent Service Model

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In service-oriented systems a service invariably is bound to a contract. This contract includes the functionalities and quality of services guarantees that the provider can make. But such guarantees are not absolute. A service cannot guarantee its contract in all situations. It can only guarantee its contract in a predefined set of conditions. These conditions are usually related to the context of the service provider and requester. Yet, most of service-oriented applications use only service ...

  8. Heavy context dependence --- decisions of underground soldiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J

    2015-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.

  9. Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of m...

  10. Improving New Vocabulary Learning in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombia Ovalle María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to help students increase their vocabulary learning in context because when learners participate in a special class with different activities and keep in mind the situation, they remember new words. The study was carried out in the action research method, and the activities provided to students encouraged learning and motivated them to practice English more.

  11. Teaching & Learning Across Collaborative Digital contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This paper addresses the challenge of teaching and learning in a blended, collaborative Digital Context. It reports on a case study in which the promotion of learners empowerment and meta-learning are key objectives. The findings of the case study suggest the presence of a promising potential...... in a marriage between theory-led designs, digital technology, and dialogic collaborative knowledge building for cultivating and enhancing student empowerment....

  12. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  13. Work engagement in the public service context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Work engagement has increasingly captured the attention of researchers and practitioners due to its positive impact on employee level outcomes and overall organizational performance (e.g. Bakker and Bal, 2010, Hallberg and Schaufeli, 2006). Therefore, several studies have been conducted in variou...... investigates the role of public service motivation (PSM) in relation to engagement and how it may be used to enhance engagement in a challenging public context characterized by high levels of emotional labor, control and increasing demands for efficiency....

  14. Best Practices: Exploring the Effect of Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    The best practice stream of manufacturing strategy literature has emerged and grown significantly during the last decades. Still, the understanding of how context affects the adoption and usefulness of best practices is limited. This paper analyses the relationships between fourteen contingency...... factors and six best practices, the direct performance effects of four of these contingency factors, and the moderating effects of these four factors on the best practice-performance relationships....

  15. Estonian georesources in the European context

    OpenAIRE

    Raudsep, Rein

    2008-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the southern buried slope of the Baltic Shield where the sedimentary bedrock overlies the Precambrian crystalline basement. The Cambrian section contains mainly sandstone and clay (e.g. famous “blue clay”), Lower Ordovician is represented by sandstone, including phosphate Obolus sandstone (shelly phosphorite), and Upper Ordovician by oil shale (kukersite). Estonia is not very rich in useful minerals, but we have some georesources sizeable in European context: oil shale ...

  16. Best Practices: Exploring the Effect of Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    The best practice stream of manufacturing strategy literature has emerged and grown significantly during the last decades. Still, the understanding of how context affects the adoption and usefulness of best practices is limited. This paper analyses the relationships between fourteen contingency...... factors and six best practices, the direct performance effects of four of these contingency factors, and the moderating effects of these four factors on the best practice-performance relationships....

  17. Sociocultural context of women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Marie-Claude; Raine, Kim

    2004-09-01

    In our society, women's bodies are the locus of both increasing rates of obesity and body dissatisfaction. While these trends may seem contradictory or to result from each other, an alternative explanation is that they are both the products of an unfavourable sociocultural environment in the area of food and weight. Both body dissatisfaction and excess weight can seriously impact women's physical and emotional health. The strong cultural value placed on thinness, especially for women, unfortunately may take precedence over health. To effectively address the impact of women's body image dissatisfaction requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of women's lives. This study used a naturalistic paradigm to explore how women's personal and sociocultural context influences their body image. Forty-four non-eating disordered women ranging from 21 to 61 years old were interviewed twice using a semi-structured interview guide. Women's narratives revealed that body image is not a static construct, but is dynamic and fluctuates as women encounter new experiences and re-interpret old ones. The powerful and unconscious impact of the media on body image was mediated by women's internal contexts (self-confident and self-critical) and their relationships with others, such as partners and other women. Body image was not so much influenced by the nature of others' comments but interpretation of their meaning. However, health professionals' comments were typically not reinterpreted due to the health context in which they were given. While some women's narratives expressed their internalized sociocultural norms, others' described acceptance of their bodies following a process of reflection and empowerment. In light of these findings, efforts to improve women's body image, and by extension their health, can no longer only focus on diminishing the tangible power of industry and media, but must include transforming the social ties, practices and conventions in everyday

  18. Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module

    CERN Document Server

    Hmood, Ali K; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami; Al-Nabhani, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Without a doubt, the electronic learning makes education quite flexible. Nowadays, all organizations and institutions are trying to avoid Monotony and the delay and inertia. As well the universities should be improving their systems continually to achieve success. Whereas, the students need to access the dissertations in the library. In this paper we will present Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module to allow the students to benefit the dissertations which is in the library flexibly.

  19. Some thoughts on power: International context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a polemical essay that enters into broad dialogue with the contemporary literature concerning the dynamic of power. It refers to the appropriate material and results from the research of different theories. It proposes the constitutive position of the power in the international situation. In contrast to some current theories, we emphasize the importance of the politicoeconomical approach, denoting that only the methodology based on the logics of political economy can explain the dynamics of power in the international context. The main thread of this essay is that the international constellation is not a neutral environment, but a framework that is deeply determined by the power-relations. The central idea is that these relations should be explicated by the complex relationships between freedom and order. We analyze the interaction between the politics and economy as the constitutive feature of the structure of international context. This essay is divided into three sections. First, we are treating the meaning of order in an international context, in respect to the political-economic aspects of late capitalism. The notion of this order has a great importance in the economic reflections. The dynamic of the interconnectedness of global capitalism is examined considering the systematic aspects of power. After that we are analyzing different, and selected, aspects of the international sphere including: the spatiality of the world order, that is, the spatial aspects of the international dynamics in the context of globalization, the convergence or divergence between the capitalist and territorial logic, the “legaleconomic nexus” in international “chain”, the processes of the modification of the forms of competition within recent globalization, and the political-economic conflicts in relation to the regime of economic measurement. Starting with these considerations we explain the current debates on “demondialization”, or the

  20. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  1. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  2. Peer Review in Collective Context of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀峰

    2013-01-01

    Peer review, which incorporates the U.S. ideology of individualism, is regarded as an effective tool in writing classes for improving students’ writing proficiency and fostering their critical writing/revising skills (Ramanathan&Atkinson, 1999). Collectivism seems to be an impediment in peer reviewing according to Ramanathan&Atkinson (1999);however, it may not be the case due to the different contexts or cultural beliefs that students carry with.

  3. The role of fantasy contexts in word problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lynda

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of different contexts for word problems given to Grade Four and Grade Six students. In particular, the use of fantasy contexts were examined and compared with both adult and children/s real-world contexts. The study found that students expressed an interest in the fantasy contexts, and solved problems using these contexts as well as or better than real-world problems.

  4. Context-aware Readings with Inbooki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Grassi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available E-books are more and more spreading among readers, who take advantage from the capability of reading them on different devices and of storing a whole library of books in a light and portable device. What is still missing is a technology that enables not only the adaptation to the exploited device, but also to the context in which the books are read. The experience of the users can be more immersive if the flow of t he book content c an be modified by the reading device depending on different aspects related to the moment and place of reading. To overcome this limit, we have developed Inbooki, a system for writing and reading e-books that can take into consideration the context in which they are read and can adapt to it, making the experience of the readers more immersive in the story told by the book. The proposed model of the context take into consideration the information from the device sensors, the user profile, and the user choices.

  5. Emotional context modulates embodied metaphor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Dalya; Lai, Vicky T; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M

    2015-11-01

    Emotions are often expressed metaphorically, and both emotion and metaphor are ways through which abstract meaning can be grounded in language. Here we investigate specifically whether motion-related verbs when used metaphorically are differentially sensitive to a preceding emotional context, as compared to when they are used in a literal manner. Participants read stories that ended with ambiguous action/motion sentences (e.g., he got it), in which the action/motion could be interpreted metaphorically (he understood the idea) or literally (he caught the ball) depending on the preceding story. Orthogonal to the metaphorical manipulation, the stories were high or low in emotional content. The results showed that emotional context modulated the neural response in visual motion areas to the metaphorical interpretation of the sentences, but not to their literal interpretations. In addition, literal interpretations of the target sentences led to stronger activation in the visual motion areas as compared to metaphorical readings of the sentences. We interpret our results as suggesting that emotional context specifically modulates mental simulation during metaphor processing.

  6. Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2013-08-06

    Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.

  7. How Experimental Trial Context Affects Perceptual Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Palmeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

  8. Conditionals, Context, and the Suppression Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, Fabrizio; Rips, Lance J

    2016-02-01

    Modus ponens is the argument from premises of the form If A, then B and A to the conclusion B (e.g., from If it rained, Alicia got wet and It rained to Alicia got wet). Nearly all participants agree that the modus ponens conclusion logically follows when the argument appears in this Basic form. However, adding a further premise (e.g., If she forgot her umbrella, Alicia got wet) can lower participants' rate of agreement-an effect called suppression. We propose a theory of suppression that draws on contemporary ideas about conditional sentences in linguistics and philosophy. Semantically, the theory assumes that people interpret an indicative conditional as a context-sensitive strict conditional: true if and only if its consequent is true in each of a contextually determined set of situations in which its antecedent is true. Pragmatically, the theory claims that context changes in response to new assertions, including new conditional premises. Thus, the conclusion of a modus ponens argument may no longer be accepted in the changed context. Psychologically, the theory describes people as capable of reasoning about broad classes of possible situations, ordered by typicality, without having to reason about individual possible worlds. The theory accounts for the main suppression phenomena, and it generates some novel predictions that new experiments confirm.

  9. LSTM recurrent networks learn simple context-free and context-sensitive languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers, F A; Schmidhuber, E

    2001-01-01

    Previous work on learning regular languages from exemplary training sequences showed that long short-term memory (LSTM) outperforms traditional recurrent neural networks (RNNs). We demonstrate LSTMs superior performance on context-free language benchmarks for RNNs, and show that it works even better than previous hardwired or highly specialized architectures. To the best of our knowledge, LSTM variants are also the first RNNs to learn a simple context-sensitive language, namely a(n)b(n)c(n).

  10. Loss of nondrug reinforcement in one context produces alcohol seeking in another context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.

  11. Location and social context does matter when conducting consumer studies!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Kraggerud, Hilde; Bruun Brockhoff, Per

    2015-01-01

    an adequate level of research conducted in realistic eating contexts. In the aim to study how location and social context affected consumers’ feeling of food satisfaction and physical well-being a study was set up with, combined yoghurt with muesli products in two settings; a) in a sensory lab facility (n...... = 107), and b) a natural eating context (n = 132). In the natural eating context the consumer could bring the product along and eat it in a context where it felt natural. This further facilitated analysis of effect of eating location, social context and at which meal the product was consumed on feeling......, and food satisfaction, and one hour post intake of satisfaction. Overall the differences indicate that it takes more of a product to reduce appetite and increase food satisfaction in a natural context than it does in a lab context. Analysis of the natural eating context further showed an effect of social...

  12. Context Aware End-to-End Connectivity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Chandra, M Girish; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamic heterogeneous environment, such as pervasive and ubiquitous computing, context-aware adaptation is a key concept to meet the varying requirements of different users. Connectivity is an important context source that can be utilized for optimal management of diverse networking resources. Application QoS (Quality of service) is another important issue that should be taken into consideration for design of a context-aware system. This paper presents connectivity from the view point of context awareness, identifies various relevant raw connectivity contexts, and discusses how high-level context information can be abstracted from the raw context information. Further, rich context information is utilized in various policy representation with respect to user profile and preference, application characteristics, device capability, and network QoS conditions. Finally, a context-aware end-to-end evaluation algorithm is presented for adaptive connectivity management in a multi-access wireless network. Unlike t...

  13. Context Management Middleware in Heterogeneous Mobile Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Salim Raza

    2010-11-01

    Mobile computing environments are characterized by heterogeneity—systems consisting of different device types, operating systems, network interfaces, and communication protocols. Such heterogeneity calls for middleware that can adapt to different execution contexts, hide heterogeneity from applications, and transparently and dynamically switch between network and sensor technologies. Additionally, middleware for context-aware systems must keep a context model (a model of their environment), taking into account several aspects of the environment. The more complex and heterogeneous an execution environment is, the more complicated its underlying context model. Moreover, because systems can evolve, context management must also support model evolution without restarting, reconfiguring, or redeploying applications and services. We describe a context management middleware that can efficiently handle context despite the execution environment's heterogeneity and evolution. It uses context meta-information to improve a context-aware system's overall performance.

  14. Neural Mechanisms of Context Effects on Face Recognition: Automatic Binding and Context Shift Decrements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M.; Baena, Elsa; Truong, Trong-Kha; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although people do not normally try to remember associations between faces and physical contexts, these associations are established automatically, as indicated by the difficulty of recognizing familiar faces in different contexts (“butcher-on-the-bus” phenomenon). The present functional MRI (fMRI) study investigated the automatic binding of faces and scenes. In the Face-Face (F-F) condition, faces were presented alone during both encoding and retrieval, whereas in the Face/Scene-Face (FS-F) condition, they were presented overlaid on scenes during encoding but alone during retrieval (context change). Although participants were instructed to focus only on the faces during both encoding and retrieval, recognition performance was worse in the FS-F than the F-F condition (“context shift decrement”—CSD), confirming automatic face-scene binding during encoding. This binding was mediated by the hippocampus as indicated by greater subsequent memory effects (remembered > forgotten) in this region for the FS-F than the F-F condition. Scene memory was mediated by the right parahippocampal cortex, which was reactivated during successful retrieval when the faces were associated with a scene during encoding (FS-F condition). Analyses using the CSD as a regressor yielded a clear hemispheric asymmetry in medial temporal lobe activity during encoding: left hippocampal and parahippocampal activity was associated with a smaller CSD, indicating more flexible memory representations immune to context changes, whereas right hippocampal/rhinal activity was associated with a larger CSD, indicating less flexible representations sensitive to context change. Taken together, the results clarify the neural mechanisms of context effects on face recognition. PMID:19925208

  15. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus L. Steenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to describe and to eventually implement work space that can be defined as psychologically meaningful and which has increased during the past 5−10 years. Indications are that various researchers on different continents have embarked on a journey to describe the meaningful workplace. Such a workplace is more than a geographical location, it is psychological space; space where the individual employee performs tasks that construe his or her work role, in collaboration with other individuals, within a framework of predetermined time frames, according to certain procedures, based on identified needs and within a formal workflow structure that is normally referred to as the organisation. Within this framework employees become alienated as a result of which the organisation as well as the individual suffer. The organisation experiences a loss of productivity, quality, innovation, et cetera, and the employee a loss of meaning in life and work. Yet, the workplace remains the space where meaning can be gained. It is both the framework and context for meaningfulness at work. Within this framework certain factors and constitutive elements play a facilitating role in experiencing meaningfulness. Various factors including values, and imbedded therein, the Protestant Ethic (PE, (and various other factors, such as for instance spirituality, culture, leadership and management style, etc., play an important role as facilitating factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. Developing a framework and context, on a conceptual level for the positioning of these factors as contributories towards the meaningful workplace, is a first priority. This is what this article is about: to conceptualise the workplace as psychological space, framework and context for understanding the contributory role of PE (and other factors towards the experience of meaningfulness at work. The positioning of values and the PE as Max Weber understood the

  16. Communicating for results - organizations in albanian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Shkurti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, have changed many concepts, and perspectives, on decision-making; from the normative theories that wanted to improve their decision-making technology because of the limited human rationality, to descriptive theories that have studied the reasons for human actions, with the assumption that these were supplied with the content or meaning in the fact that they had, or that the link between action and its meaning was too poor. Organizational theories recognize the central role of information in organizations. Research gets access to communication information, to analyze how an organization is seeking information about alternative courses of action, to develop principles for designing the organizational structure and to understand the processes by which it creates a common interpretation of its environment. But the main concern of this research is managerial decision making in Albanian context and communication of information then is treated as a contribution to this primary activity. Access to information processing in organizational analysis seeks to understand and predict how organizations perceive the incentives, as they interpret as conserve, recover and transmit information, how form judgments and solve problems. A communication model of organizational information will provide us with a theoretical framework for analyzing organizational needs for information in Albanian context, the processes by which information is obtained and used, and the purposes on the basis of which use information. Focusing on organizational behavior using information, this perspective would be a modest contribution to the large number of studies on the application of information technology and information systems in organizations. The paper aims to compare a selection of perspectives and information in organizations in Albanian context in order to identify some conceptual elements that can be used to build a model of the organization of

  17. Using context to improve protein domain identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llinás Manuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying domains in protein sequences is an important step in protein structural and functional annotation. Existing domain recognition methods typically evaluate each domain prediction independently of the rest. However, the majority of proteins are multidomain, and pairwise domain co-occurrences are highly specific and non-transitive. Results Here, we demonstrate how to exploit domain co-occurrence to boost weak domain predictions that appear in previously observed combinations, while penalizing higher confidence domains if such combinations have never been observed. Our framework, Domain Prediction Using Context (dPUC, incorporates pairwise "context" scores between domains, along with traditional domain scores and thresholds, and improves domain prediction across a variety of organisms from bacteria to protozoa and metazoa. Among the genomes we tested, dPUC is most successful at improving predictions for the poorly-annotated malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for which over 38% of the genome is currently unannotated. Our approach enables high-confidence annotations in this organism and the identification of orthologs to many core machinery proteins conserved in all eukaryotes, including those involved in ribosomal assembly and other RNA processing events, which surprisingly had not been previously known. Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that this new context-based approach will provide significant improvements in domain and function prediction, especially for poorly understood genomes for which the need for additional annotations is greatest. Source code for the algorithm is available under a GPL open source license at http://compbio.cs.princeton.edu/dpuc/. Pre-computed results for our test organisms and a web server are also available at that location.

  18. Business model innovation in SME context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Ole; Brink, Tove

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reveal how small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable sustainable business model innovation (BMI) in the offshore wind turbine industry. A longitudinal empirical research on 10 SMEs within the wind turbine industry provides data for the findings....... The findings reveal interesting opportunities for BMI both within the SMEs, the SME network and in wider industrial context to increase awareness on business opportunities to act and hereby increase sustainable value. However, also boundaries occur for BMI, which can be difficult to crisscross. It is revealed...

  19. Effects of emotional context on impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew R G; Lebel, R Marc; Dolcos, Florin; Wilman, Alan H; Silverstone, Peter H; Pazderka, Hannah; Fujiwara, Esther; Wild, T Cameron; Carroll, Alan M; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Zedkova, Lenka; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Thompson, Angus H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

    2012-10-15

    High risk behaviors such as narcotic use or physical fighting can be caused by impulsive decision making in emotionally-charged situations. Improved neuroscientific understanding of how emotional context interacts with the control of impulsive behaviors may lead to advances in public policy and/or treatment approaches for high risk groups, including some high-risk adolescents or adults with poor impulse control. Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is an important contributor to response inhibition (behavioral impulse control). IFG also has a role in processing emotional stimuli and regulating emotional responses. The mechanism(s) whereby response inhibition processes interact with emotion processing in IFG are poorly understood. We used 4.7 T fMRI in 20 healthy young adults performing a rapid event-related emotional Go/NoGo task. This task combined the Go/NoGo task, which is a classic means of recruiting response inhibition processes, with emotionally neutral and aversive distractor images. In IFG, both response inhibition in an emotionally neutral context (neutral NoGo trials) and aversive emotional picture processing (aversive Go trials) evoked activation greater than the simple response baseline (neutral Go trials). These results are consistent with the literature. Activation for response inhibition in aversive contexts (aversive NoGo-neutral Go trials) was approximately the sum of response inhibition activation (neutral NoGo-neutral Go) and aversive emotional distractor activation (aversive Go-neutral Go). We conclude that response inhibition and aversive emotional stimulus processing activities combine additively (linearly) in IFG, rather than interfering with each other (sub-linearly) or mutually-enhancing each other (super-linearly). We also found previously undocumented interaction effects between response inhibition (NoGo vs. Go) and emotional context (aversive vs. neutral distractor pictures) in bilateral posterior middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, right

  20. A Calculus for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmer, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    In order to answer the challenge of pervasive computing, we propose a new process calculus, whose aim is to describe dynamic systems composed of agents able to move and react differently depending on their location. This Context-Aware Calculus features a hierarchical structure similar to mobile...... ambients, and a generic multi-agent synchronization mechanism, inspired from the join-calculus. After general ideas and introduction, we review the full calculus' syntax and semantics, as well as some motivating examples, study its expressiveness, and show how the notion of computation itself can be made...

  1. The social library in three contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel; Elbeshausen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Across different national contexts public libraries have dealt, in diverse yet comparable ways, with the multiple challenges stemming from globalization, migration, marginalization and technological developments. This article argues, by way of dissecting three cases of library planning programmes...... which focused on centring libraries in their neighbourhoods, that we in recent decades witness the contours of a social library. Discussing experiences from initiatives in the UK, Canada and Denmark we, notwithstanding significant national differences, highlight common features – that libraries bring...... together already existing, but hitherto isolated institutional knowledge and competencies. We conclude by proposing a tentative typology of ‘the social library’....

  2. Meaning and Context in the Thanksgiving Hymns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Trine Bjørnung

    This book attempts to find more sophisticated ways to approach the relationship between the ancient Dead Sea Scrolls, in this case the Hodayot prayers, and their socio-historical contexts. It challenges the consensus that the literary heterogeneity of the large cave 1 scroll, 1QHodayota, betrays...... of methods, most prominently from the field of sociolinguistics, a socio-religious pattern emerges from the collection, which is quite different from hierarchic socio-historical patterns often deduced from the Hodayot and other Dead Sea scrolls....

  3. Mapping Concepts of Agency in Educational Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Eugene; von Duyke, Katherine; Kayumova, Shakhnoza

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore and map the "espoused theories" (Argyris and Schön 1978) of agency used in educational contexts. More precisely, we limit the focus on the normative view of student agency assumed within dominant school practices, desired by educational practitioners, leaving out non-normative emerging agencies such as student agency of resistance. Agency is a "tricky" concept, and often scholars who use the concept of agency do not define or operationalize it (e.g., Archer 2000). One reason is that there is no consensus among scholars about the notion of agency, especially when applied to educational contexts (Hitlin and Elder Sociological Theory, 25 (2), 170-191, 2007). Moreover, the recent neoliberal framing of individuals' agency as fully autonomous, flexible, and self-entrepreneur is adding the dilemma of agency manipulation in the sphere of education (Gershon 2011; Sidorkin 2004). To tackle this dilemma in educational contexts, we suggest to further interrogating the normative notion of agency in all its modes and develop a more nuanced conceptualization. We hope that such conceptualization would produce an understanding of the diverse manifestations and definitions of agency within a human ideal, educational content, behaviors, and social settings. We observed diverse uses of the normative term "agency" in educational discourse. We examined the term as used by researchers and practitioners. We also looked at the different ways it has been used in philosophical discussions of education, political framing of the civic role of schooling, disciplinary policy statements, school mission statements, and in everyday common use. It is worthy to note that our categorization of the use and meaning of the normative term "agency" depends on the scholars' epistemological paradigmatic assumptions, socio-political and historical situatedness, and ontological projects being translated into diverse scholarships of education. As a result of

  4. Predicting Exemptions and Hardship in CISG Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution to the Liber Amicorum Festschrift in honor of Peter Møgelvang-Hansen, the author revisits and casts new light on force majeure and liability exemptions under the 1980 UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, including recent developments in CISG Article...... 79 theory and practice, as well as the advent of a highly controversial conundrum: how to handle ‘hardship’ in the liability-exemptions context? By way of introduction to this particular CISG topic area, the author sketches the larger Sales Convention picture and its relationship to domestic law...

  5. School vandalism: individual and social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Tamar; Tobaly, David

    2003-01-01

    Six hundred Israeli students responded to a questionnaire dealing with five motives for participating in vandalism: anger/frustration, boredom, erosion, aesthetics, and catharsis (Cohen, 1984). As we did not find a coherent pattern, we created a variable comprising all five motives: general motivation. Four factors accounted for motivation to participate in destructive behavior: perceived level of vandalism at school, attitude toward school, attitude toward teacher, and school anxiety. Punishment, father's level of education, sense of hope, and class level did not have an effect on motivation to participate in vandalism. It was concluded that the social context is a crucial element in school vandalism.

  6. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....

  7. Current trends in context-aware applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Loayza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/07 - Accepted: 2013/12/10Context-aware applications adapt their behavior and settings according to the environment conditions and to the user preferences. This state-of-the-art survey identifies the current trends related to the technics and tools for the development of this kind of software, as well as the areas of interest of the scientific community on the subject. It stands out the research on multimodal interfaces, localization, activity detection, interruptions control, predictive and wellbeing applications.

  8. Specifying Intonation from Context for Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Prevost, S; Prevost, Scott; Steedman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a theory and a computational implementation for generating prosodically appropriate synthetic speech in response to database queries. Proper distinctions of contrast and emphasis are expressed in an intonation contour that is synthesized by rule under the control of a grammar, a discourse model, and a knowledge base. The theory is based on Combinatory Categorial Grammar, a formalism which easily integrates the notions of syntactic constituency, semantics, prosodic phrasing and information structure. Results from our current implementation demonstrate the system's ability to generate a variety of intonational possibilities for a given sentence depending on the discourse context.

  9. The modern hospital in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, Max E; Leder, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The evolution and development of hospitals in their historical context is quickly reviewed, starting first as simple shelters for the sick and indigent, waiting essentially for death, up to the relatively recent concept of true health centers where patients face a high probability of actual recovery and rehabilitation. Anesthesia, microbiology, asepsia, antibiotics, virology, radiology, transfusion and different biomedical engineering technologies, along with other basic sciences knowledge, led to the intensive care and emergency units introduced in the 1960's, leading to the specialty of critical care medicine and underlining the patient as the center of care.

  10. Demystifying Pandemics in the Globalized Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋耀春

    2010-01-01

    The progress of globalization has inevitably and irrevocably been bringing about a series of ramifications,positive and negative,one of which is the frequent outbreak and rampant spread of pandemics across the planet.This paper,placing the issue in the globalized context,aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of pandemic.Through a comparative study of the globalization course and the major pandemics in human history as well as a close study on SARS,it explores and delineates the complicated interconnectedness between globalization and pandemics.

  11. Collaborative product development and situated knowledge contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Munksgaard, Kristin B.

    2009-01-01

    concerns the atmosphere of the relationship, involving emotions and attitudes of the actors involved from foregone exchange situations. Practical implications - For managers of NPD activities, the relationship between the knowledge contexts involved, the concept development outcomes and the marketability......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding how problem formulation, information search and division of work in new product development (NPD) activities is shaped by mind sets vested in organizations with diverging positions in the value chain and correspondingly...

  12. Language Acquisition and Use in Multilingual Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This volume brings together current linguistic research in a range of pre¬dominantly multilingual contexts. The authors draw on data from different languages and speech communities around the world, and together the chapters offer a broad picture of language acquisition, development and use – among both children and adults. While this is a valuable undertaking in its own right, the main reason for this collection is to pay tribute to Gisela Håkansson on her 65th birthday. Throughout her caree...

  13. The ecosystem and evolutionary contexts of allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inderjit; Wardle, David A; Karban, Richard; Callaway, Ragan M

    2011-12-01

    Plants can release chemicals into the environment that suppress the growth and establishment of other plants in their vicinity: a process known as 'allelopathy'. However, chemicals with allelopathic functions have other ecological roles, such as plant defense, nutrient chelation, and regulation of soil biota in ways that affect decomposition and soil fertility. These ecosystem-scale roles of allelopathic chemicals can augment, attenuate or modify their community-scale functions. In this review we explore allelopathy in the context of ecosystem properties, and through its role in exotic invasions consider how evolution might affect the intensity and importance of allelopathic interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acculturation through sport: Different contexts different meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Morela, Eleftheria

    2017-01-01

    Research on the role of sport as a social integrative agent for migrants has provided equivocal results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between ethnic–cultural identity and sport environmental factors. Young migrant male athletes from two different societal and sport...... contexts were studied: migrants from Eastern European countries living in Greece (n = 60) and from Latin America living in Spain (n = 60). Participants completed measures of ethnic and cultural identity, task-oriented motivational climate, and autonomysupportive coaching behaviour. Analysis of variance...

  15. Mobile Web Middleware of NFC Context-Awareness Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Zhi-Guang Qin; Jie Shen

    2013-01-01

    With the development of wireless networks and mobile computing, more advanced applications with context-awareness and adaptability to their changing context are needed. However, building context-aware applications is difficult due to the lack of adequate infrastructure support. In this paper, a web middleware architecture for the development of context-awareness applications using near field communication (NFC) is proposed. Based on it, the efficient support for acquiring, interpreting, and accessing context is provided, and the user’s quality of experience is improved. Moreover, a mobile web middleware for the testing and full realization of NFC context-awareness applications has been developed together with two application examples.

  16. Context management: toward assessing quality of context parameters in a ubiquitous ambient assisted living environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cabral Nazário

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an approach to assessing Quality of Context (QoC parameters in a ubiquitous Ambient Assisted Living (AAL environment. Initially, the study presents a literature review on QoC, generating taxonomy. Then it introduces the context management architecture used. The proposal is verified with the Siafu simulator in an AAL scenario where the user’s health is monitored with information about blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature. Considering some parameters, the proposed QoC assessment allows verifying the extent to which the context information is up-to-date, valid, accurate, complete and significant. The implementation of this proposal might mean a big social impact and a technological innovation applied to AAL, at the disposal and support of a significant number of individuals such as elderly or sick people, and with a more precise technology.

  17. Different uses of silence explained by observing high-context cultures and low-context cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕雯

    2011-01-01

    Silence, as a form of nonverbal communication, may be interpreted in various ways depending upon the culture. The pur- pose of this study is to explain misunderstanding concerned with the uses of silence in conversations situated in different cuhural backgrounds, and then give possible methods to avoid it. The explanation is mainly based on the two categories related to the context posed by Edward Hall: high-context culture & low-context culture. In this part, the study also contrasts distinct verbal styles in America & Japan, in addition, it analyses different attitudes towards silence from 3 aspects: traditional value, religion and power distance. At end, the study is concluded with 4 solutions that try to solve the problem.

  18. Personality in context: an interpersonal systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi; Ayduk, Ozlem N

    2002-12-01

    Because a significant part of individuals' lives involve close relationships, an important and substantial part of the situations they encounter consists of other people's behaviors. We suggest that individuals' characteristic ways of behaving, which are typically attributed to "personality," arise from two processes. One lies primarily within the individual, conceptualized as individual differences in one's cognitive and affective processing system. The other process, which has received less attention in personality research, lies outside the person in the individual differences in the situations that people encounter in their everyday lives. The interplay between these two processes can be particularly relevant for understanding close relationships. By assuming that each partner's behavior provides the situational context for the other partner, we conceptualize a dyadic relationship as the "interlocking" of the cognitive-affective processing systems of both partners. We illustrate this approach to personality-in-context with a hypothetical scenario and use this framework to organize research on attachment styles, rejection sensitivity, self-fulfilling prophecy, the self in relation to others, and interdependence theory.

  19. Context-aware sensing of physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Winston H; Batalin, Maxim A; Au, Lawrence K; Bui, Alex A T; Kaiser, William J

    2007-01-01

    Recent advancement in microsensor technology permits miniaturization of conventional physiological sensors. Combined with low-power, energy-aware embedded systems and low power wireless interfaces, these sensors now enable patient monitoring in home and workplace environments in addition to the clinic. Low energy operation is critical for meeting typical long operating lifetime requirements. Some of these physiological sensors, such as electrocardiographs (ECG), introduce large energy demand because of the need for high sampling rate and resolution, and also introduce limitations due to reduced user wearability. In this paper, we show how context-aware sensing can provide the required monitoring capability while eliminating the need for energy-intensive continuous ECG signal acquisition. We have implemented a wearable system based on standard widely-used handheld computing hardware components. This system relies on a new software architecture and an embedded inference engine developed for these standard platforms. The performance of the system is evaluated using experimental data sets acquired for subjects wearing this system during an exercise sequence. This same approach can be used in context-aware monitoring of diverse physiological signals in a patient's daily life.

  20. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  1. Memorability in Context: A Heuristic Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry; Willems, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    We examined children's ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which the items are presented. Specifically, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children were presented with high-, medium-, and low-memorability words, either mixed together (Experiment 1) or separated into two different lists (Experiment 2). Results revealed that only children with a higher level of executive functioning (9-year-olds) used the memorability-based heuristic when all types of items were presented within the same list. However, all children, regardless of age or executive level, implemented the metacognitive rule when high- and low-memorability words were presented in two separate lists. Moreover, the results of Experiment 2 showed that participants processed medium-memorability words more conservatively when they were presented in a low- than in a high-memorability list, suggesting that children's memorability expectations are sensitive to list-context effects.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  3. Reimagining SSR in Contexts of Security Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Price

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the repertoire of international stabilization interventions, security sector reform (SSR and other conventional efforts to strengthen security and governance institutions remain central. There is increasing recognition that the policies and practices operating under the rubric of SSR are blind to the empirical reality of 'security pluralism' in most stabilization contexts. In these contexts, both security providers directly authorized by the state (police, army and a multitude of other coercive actors engage in producing and reproducing order, and enjoy varying degrees of public authority and legitimacy. Recognizing this, research was undertaken in three cities (Beirut, Nairobi, and Tunis to discern the conditions enabling various security providers to forge constructive relations with local populations and governance actors. Drawing on insights generated by these case studies, this article problematizes conventional state-centric approaches and argues for a bold reimagining of SSR. It makes the case for an SSR approach that prioritizes promoting the accountability and responsiveness of all security providers, integrating efforts to strengthen the social determinants of security, and enabling a phased transition from relational to rules-based systems of security provision and governance.

  4. A Context-dependent Service Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In service-oriented systems a service invariably is bound to a contract. This contract includes the functionalities and quality of services guarantees that the provider can make. But such guarantees are not absolute. A service cannot guarantee its contract in all situations. It can only guarantee its contract in a predefined set of conditions. These conditions are usually related to the context of the service provider and requester. Yet, most of service-oriented applications use only service functionality as the basis of providing services and building system compositions. To remedy this situation, in this article both functionality and contract of a service are integrated into a single concept, called ConfiguredService, and formalized as a higher-order data type. The service part that includes the functionality, nonfunctional properties, service parameters, and data of the service requester, is loosely coupled to the contract part that includes trustworthiness claims, legal and business rules governing the service provision, and the context information pertaining to the provider and receiver. This loose coupling allows the creation of many ConfiguredServices, which share the same functionality but possess different contract parts. To facilitate dynamic service adaptation, we introduce a syntax and semantics for extending or modifying a ConfiguredService.

  5. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Youn Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one’s life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user’s surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  6. LED context lighting system in residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sook-Youn; Im, Kyoung-Mi; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  7. Communication skills in context: trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Doctor-patient communication has been well researched. Less is known about the educational background of communication skills training. Do we aim for optimal performance of skills, or rather attempt to help students become skilled communicators? An overview is given of the current view on optimal doctor-patient communication. Next we focus on recent literature on how people acquire skills. These two topics are integrated in the next chapter, in which we discuss the optimal training conditions. A longitudinal training design has more lasting results than incidental training. Assessment must be in line with the intended learning outcomes. For transfer, doctor-patient communication must be addressed in all stages of health professions training. Elementary insights from medical education are far from realised in many medical schools. Doctor-patient communication would benefit strongly from more continuity in training and imbedding in the daily working contexts of doctors. When an educational continuum is realised and attention for doctor-patient communication is embedded in the working context of doctors in training the benefits will be strong. Training is only a part of the solution. In view of the current dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication a change in attitude of course directors is strongly called for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Reasoning and Context Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesgen, Hans W.; Marsland, Stephen

    Smart homes provide many research challenges, but some of the most interesting ones are in dealing with data that monitors human behaviour and that is inherently both spatial and temporal in nature. This means that context becomes all important: a person lying down in front of the fireplace could be perfectly normal behaviour if it was cold and the fire was on, but otherwise it is unusual. In this example, the context can include temporal resolution on various scales (it is winter and therefore probably cold, it is not nighttime when the person would be expected to be in bed rather than the living room) as well as spatial (the person is lying in front of the fireplace) and extra information such as whether or not the fire is lit. It could also include information about how they reached their current situation: if they went from standing to lying very suddenly there would be rather more cause for concern than if they first knelt down and then lowered themselves onto the floor. Representing all of these different temporal and spatial aspects together is a major challenge for smart home research. In this chapter we will provide an overview of some of the methodologies that can be used to deal with these problems. We will also outline our own research agenda in the Massey University Smart Environments (MUSE) group.

  9. Autonomic Context-Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia G. S. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic Computing allows systems like wireless sensor networks (WSN to self-manage computing resources in order to extend their autonomy as much as possible. In addition, contextualization tasks can fuse two or more different sensor data into a more meaningful information. Since these tasks usually run in a single centralized context server (e.g., sink node, the massive volume of data generated by the wireless sensors can lead to a huge information overload in such server. Here we propose DAIM, a distributed autonomic inference machine distributed which allows the sensor nodes to do self-management and contextualization tasks based on fuzzy logic. We have evaluated DAIM in a real sensor network taking into account other inference machines. Experimental results illustrate that DAIM is an energy-efficient contextualization method for WSN, reducing 48.8% of the number of messages sent to the context servers while saving 19.5% of the total amount of energy spent in the network.

  10. Head pose estimation & TV Context: current technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Rocca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of low-cost high quality cameras, implicit user behaviour tracking is easier and it becomes very interesting for viewer modelling and content personalization in a TV context. In this paper, we present a comparison between three common algorithms of automatic head direction extraction for a person watching TV in a realistic context. Those algorithms compute the different rotation angles of the head (pitch, roll, yaw in a non-invasive and continuous way based on 2D and/or 3D features acquired with low cost cameras. These results are compared with a reference based on the Qualisys motion capture commercial system which is a robust marker-based tracking system. The performances of the different algorithms are compared function of different configurations. While our results show that full implicit behaviour tracking in real-life TV setups is still a challenge, with the arrival of next generation sensors (as the new Kinect one sensor, accurate TV personalization based on implicit behaviour is close to become a very interesting option.

  11. Healthy Academic Processes in the University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Castillo-Cedeño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to identify the perceptions of healthy academic administrative processes in the university context. This contribution was directed by socio-educational research processes generated at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA, in the Center for Research and Teaching in Education (CIDE. The issue of health is part of the institutional plan and the Center. Whereas health, like education, is a fundamental human right that deserves responsibilities from pedagogy as educational science research, which analyzes and transforms. Therefore, it is urgent, in the face of new global challenges to address planetary crises linked to health. This research is based on the naturalistic paradigm and a methodology that assumes a type of joint research, where using a semi-structured interview achieves a deeper analysis that allows contrasting perceptions, theories and practices by comparing qualitative and quantitative data. From the results of impact the concept of Healthy Pedagogy is unknown in the university context. The connection between education and health as a holistic theoretical, epistemological and axiological construction, it includes the complexity theory that allows the university to take challenges with an enormous potential; promoting environments, styles and healthy organizations from healthy academic administrations from both individual and collective aspects. It is possible to construct new sense of orders, which assume in a responsible manner to re-dignify the university life in its various spaces and dimensions. Research has the valuable potential to become a dynamic element of institutional policies in favor of life.

  12. Spatial context learning in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett M; Leber, Andrew B; Mehlman, Max L

    2015-10-01

    In a seminal paper in the cognitive sciences, Chun and Jiang (1998) described the contextual cueing paradigm in which they used artificial stimuli and showed that people became faster to locate a target when the background predicted the location of a target compared to when it did not. Here we examined contextual cueing in pigeons for the first time using artificial stimuli and procedures similar to those of Chun and Jiang. In the first test, we had pigeons search for a target among a display of seven distractors; during one condition, the position of the distractors predicted the location of the target, and in the second condition, there was no relationship between the two. In a second test, we presented the pigeons with the predictive displays from Test 1 and a second set of displays that also predicted the location of a target to see if learning about one set of predictive backgrounds disrupted learning about a second set. The pigeons were quick to acquire context-based knowledge and retain that information when faced with additional contexts. The results suggest that contextual cueing can occur for a variety of stimuli in nonhuman animals and that it may be a common mechanism for processing visual information across a wide variety of species.

  13. The Electronic ApJ in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemesderfer, C. D.

    1995-12-01

    The on-line edition of the Astrophysical Journal provides the first opportunity for astronomical researchers to interact with the literature in a network context. Other electronic journals will follow. Astronomers will continue to develop ways to take advantage of information on the network, and these will be most effective when ApJ articles, observations from data centers, proposals for telescope time, communications with collaborators, and so on, are meshed. Astronomical literature, as a resource on the Internet, is not unique from the viewpoint of function or management, and astronomers are not unique as scholars in their desire to use the Internet as a tool to advance their work. We need to ensure as a community that all our resources for research --- journals and data --- fit in a global context on an Internet being used by everyone. In other words, we have to be sure that the ApJ fits into all the digital libraries of the future, including the ones we don't build. This paper will present a scenario in which many varied forms of information, astronomical and otherwise, can be catalogued and distributed so that they can be discovered and used by the research community.

  14. Contextualized Language and Transferential Aspects of Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The analytic process, in which the patient's and the analyst's internal characters struggle to create a script through the analysand's mouth and the analyst's pen, resembles Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921): different characters come together on the analytic stage to rehearse the analyst's role as coauthor of a play that depicts the ongoing analytic saga. To compose the text for the interplay of characters, the author must search for contexts that may confer meaning upon the words and actions of characters. This involves a search for a mise en scène (stage) that will assign mise en sens (meaning) to the actors' role-specific dialogue. Yet mise en scène, in the theatrical sense, is a set of iconic signs set with its own décor, props, and costumes. In contrast, the psychoanalytic scene is a symbolic stage for the play of words--words that may contain unconscious codes for switching into particular language games. A clinical case report describes a struggle with the contextual analysis of an aspect of a treatment that involved reported episodes of verbal indiscretions "taken out of context" with unwanted consequences.

  15. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.

  16. Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng

    2014-10-01

    This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context.

  17. Monthly results of measurements: June 1995; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables.

  18. Report of Activity, July 1995 - June 1997; Rapport d`activite Juillet 1995 - Juin 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1997-12-31

    The LPC (Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire) dedicated the major part of its 50 years activity to the Physics of Heavy Ions research conducted at GANIL. The activity in last two years on which this report is focused refers to this domain. Of special priority was the topics of hot and /or compressed nuclear matter aiming at understanding the physics of multifragmentation.The new ionization chambers INDRA and development of control programming required special efforts. A second direction of activity was the study of exotic nuclei particularly of halo nuclei. Specific equipment like the multi-detectors of DEMON and TAPS were designed for approaching the hot nuclei. Projects based on SPIRAL beams and collaborations dedicated to investigation of different new branches of exotic radioactivity ({beta}, xn: TONNERRE project) or mechanisms of induced fusion by radioactive nuclei to produce superheavy nuclei are reported on. The LPC was implied also in two important research programs, PRACEN and GEDEON (treatment of radioactive wastes) which made clear the evolution of research for the next two years: the correct understanding of the mechanisms of light particle production in neutron induced collisions at 20 to 200 MeV. In the frame of NEMO Collaboration that approaches topics related to the weak interactions the Laboratory has developed and tested the trigger system of NEMO3. A program utilizing ion trapping on SPIRAL for efficient studies on {beta}-neutrino angular correlations in superallowed decays will be thus feasible. Contracts like COGEMA and DAMRI oriented toward applied research are also mentioned

  19. Report of activity july 1997 - june 1999; Rapport d'activite juillet 1997 - juin 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the activity of the laboratory of corpuscular physics between july 1997 and june 1999. The first parts present scientific results in the scope of: exotic nuclei properties, production and de-excitation of hot nuclei, theoretical and phenomenological physics, fundamental interactions and nuclear wastes processing. The last parts present the technical resources, the teaching, the number and titles of publications and a list of the laboratory members. (A.L.B.)

  20. Report of activity, July 1993 - June 1995; Rapport d`activite, Juillet 1993 - Juin 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Brun, C. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the activity of `Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire` of Caen from July 1993 to June 1995. From its inception, at GANIL the nuclear physicists aimed at creating far off-equilibrium nuclear systems in order to obtain a better understanding of their properties as well as of nuclear matter. The first direction of research was the study of the excited nuclear matter i.e. the way in which the energy of heavy ion collisions is deposed in the compound system and nuclear fragments and the corresponding channels of their de-excitation. By means of NAUTILUS data and from comparisons of data with simulations it is now possible to measure life-times (down to 10{sup -22} s), the nuclear flow and the form of fragment emitters. These methods will be extensively used in the analysis of data taken with INDRA, which already has made evident a vaporization threshold. A second direction of research is based on the possibility to produce by fragmentation nuclei with a very anomalous neutron and proton composition. LISE, SISSI, and SPIRAL are used to re-accelerate the exotic or radioactive ions. By utilisation of DEMON the neutron halos of several nuclei has been studied, among which the one-neutron halo in {sup 19}C. The laboratory has participated also in large collaborations (NEMO) which investigated the neutrino nature and its rest mass which are important problems related to the validity of the particle physics standard model and, in turn, to the problem of the dark matter of the universe. A significant effort was attached to the realization of the utilized detectors and associated electronics. A special neutron detector was conceived and certified for COGEMA. The help of other institutions among which IN2P3, an CNRS institute, is acknowledged. There financial support as well as that obtained through ISMRA and the university has permitted the fruitful integration of LPC Caen in large national and international collaborations

  1. Monthly results of measurements: June 2000; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables.

  2. Progress report, July 1999 - June 2001; Rapport d'activite juillet 1999 - juin 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the different research programs that have been performed in the Laboratory of Corpuscular Physics (LPC). The activities and achievements have been parted under 9 headings: 1) mechanisms of production and decay of hot nuclei; 2) exotic nuclei; 3) production and properties of super-heavy nuclei; 4) theoretical physics; 5) basic interactions; 6) management of radioactive wastes (Gedeon program); 7) technical assistance, engineering, hardware; and 8) teaching and training.

  3. Activity report june 1998 - may 2000; Rapport d'activite juin 1998 - mai 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the scientific activity of the ''Service de Physique Theorique'' (SPhT), during the period june 1998-may 2000: activity in terms of structure, scientific research programs and results, publications, training and contracts. SPhT is one of the service of the ''Direction des Sciences de la Matiere'' (DSM), itself depending of the CEA Institution. The scientific domains covered by this report are: the quantum field theory and mathematical physics (phase transitions, integrable systems, random matrix, gravity and strings, quantum chaos and dynamical systems, correlation and super-correlation); nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics (quantum chromodynamics, physic beyond the standard model, the early Universe, from cosmic microwave background anisotropies to galaxies); statistical physics and condensed matter (statistical physics and models, spin glasses, quantum systems, soft condensed matter and biological physics). (A.L.B.)

  4. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  5. Grade 9 Achievement Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test de Rendement. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This achievement test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination, with the use of calculators permitted. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical content including: positive and negative exponents; word…

  6. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  7. Areva half-year report june 30, 2007; Areva rapport semestriel 30 juin 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Information provided in this document concerns the AREVA group as a whole. It presents the highlights and Key data of the first half of 2007, the outlook, the events subsequent to half-year closing, and the Consolidated financial statements. Contents: 1 - Highlights of the period; 2 - Key data: Summary data, Segment reporting, Backlog, Income statement, Review by division, Cash flow, Balance sheet data; 3 - Outlook; 4 - Events subsequent to half-year closing; 5 - Consolidated financial statements: Statutory Auditors' report on half-year information for the period January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2007, Consolidated income statement, Consolidated balance sheet, Consolidated cash flow statement, Consolidated statement of change in equity, Segment reporting, Notes to the consolidated financial statements for the period ending June 30, 2007.

  8. Monthly results of measurements: Jun 1998; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report of the O.P.R.I. (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  9. Monthly results of measurements. Jun 1996; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables.

  10. Monthly results of measurements. Jun 1999; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    his report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables.

  11. Monthly results of measurements: Jun 1997; Tableaux mensuels des mesures. Juin 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report of the OPRI (Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations) exposes the principal results concerning the routine monitoring of environmental radioactivity in France: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sewage water, drinking water, food chain (milk, vegetables, fishes), sea water around nuclear sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables.

  12. Henry Spitzmuller - Un acteur des relations franco-roumaines (Juin 1940-Août 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bichiş

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’article analyse l’activité du diplomate français Henry Spitzmuller, représentant du Gouvernement de Vichy à Bucarest, qui décida de collaborer aussi avec la France Libre. On s’y proposa de comprendre l’attitude de ce diplomate de Vichy devant la dissidence qui a choisi d’adopter le « double jeu », c’est-à-dire de continuer à servir le régime de Vichy, mais aussi de prendre contact avec la France Libre. L’évolution de « Spitzmuller », « Spitz » ou «dr. Goudéa », premier secrétaire de la Légation de France à Bucarest, sera analysée dans le cadre des étapes établies par David Bobin dans un article de 2008, en essayant de prouver qu’elle ne représente pas un cas isolé. Notre analyse s’inscrit donc, dans le débat qui concerne l’apprentissage des difficultés auxquelles se heurta le corps diplomatique français pendant la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale.

  13. Calendrier des activités (de juillet 2011 à juin 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Année 201120-21 septembreAuxerre – Atelier Eginhard : Vie de Charlemagne.Michel Sot et Christiane Veyrard-Cosme20-21 octobreDijon – Élaborer un vocabulaire historique du vêtement et des textiles dans le cadre d’un réseau interdisciplinaire. Sophie Jolivet3-5 novembreClermont-Ferrand – Mausolées et églises, ive-viiie siècle. Pascale Chevalier et Christian Sapin18 novembreLuxeuil-les-Bains – Actualité de la recherche sur le « monachisme luxovien » : conditions de fondations des premiers monastè...

  14. La 15e Conférence internationale Tournesol (Toulouse, 13-15 juin 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SchweiSguth Bernard

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available L’ambition de la Conférence* était de faire un état des connaissances et des travaux de recherche concernant le tournesol dans des domaines très différents : économie, technologie et transformation industrielle, agronomie et environnement, biotechnologie, génétique et sélection. Des synthèses ont été faites par des personnalités invitées, lors de séances plénières, accessibles à tous, spécialistes ou non des domaines traités. Par ailleurs, les résultats et les programmes de recherches de tous les pays producteurs de tournesol étaient présentés par des affiches – environ 300, regroupées en 15 sections. Des ateliers ont été organisés pour faire des synthèses, donner l’occasion aux chercheurs de faire de très courtes présentations et de confronter leurs travaux et résultats. Ces ateliers d’une durée de 1 h 30 avaient lieu dans des salles séparées et non autour des affiches exposées. Ils ont connu un grand succès.

  15. Activity report june 1996 - may 1998; Rapport d'activite juin 1996 - mai 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the scientific activity of the ''Service de Physique Theorique'' (SPhT), during the period june 1996-may 1998: activity in terms of structure, scientific research programs and results, publications, training and contracts. SPhT is one of the service of the ''Direction des Sciences de la Matiere'' (DSM), itself depending of the CEA Institution. The scientific domains covered by this report are: the statistical physics (phase transition, biophysics, soft matter, quantum systems); mathematical physics and fields theory (strings theory, random matrix, quantum theory); astrophysics, nuclear physics and particles physics. (A.L.B.)

  16. Areva half-year report june 30, 2006; Areva rapport semestriel 30 juin 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document is the half-year financial report of the Areva group for 2006. It presents: 1 - Highlights of the period; 2 - Key data: Summary data, Segment reporting, Backlog, Income statement, Review by business division, Cash flow, Balance sheet data; 3 - Outlook; 4 - Events subsequent to the half-year end; 5 - Consolidated financial statements: Statutory auditors' report on the interim consolidated financial statements for the period January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2006, Consolidated income statement, Consolidated balance sheet, Consolidated cash flow statement, Consolidated statement of changes in equity, Segment reporting, Notes to the consolidated financial statements.

  17. Areva half-year report June 30, 2008; Areva rapport semestriel 30 juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document is the half-year financial report of the Areva group for 2008. It presents: 1 - the highlights of the period: key data (Summary data, Segment reporting, Backlog, Income statement, Review by division, Cash flow, Balance sheet data); Outlook; 2 - the events subsequent to half-year closing; 3 - the consolidated financial statements: Statutory Auditors' report on half-year 2008 information for the period January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2008, Consolidated income statement, Consolidated balance sheet, Consolidated cash flow statement, Consolidated statement of change in equity, Segment reporting, Notes to the consolidated financial statements for the period ending June 30, 2008.

  18. 正则QB环上的Morita Contexts%Morita Contexts Over Regular QB-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焕银; 刘大勇

    2009-01-01

    Let T be the ring of a Morita context (A,B,M,N,φ,φ).If A and B are regular QB-rings,we prove that every element in T is the sum of an idempotent and a pseudo-invertible element.%假设T是Morita Contexts(A,B,M,N,φ,φ)的环,如果A和B是正则QB环,本文证明了T中任何元素都是幂等元和伪逆元之和.

  19. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  20. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    culture in which the teacher has been educated affects how they interpret students, teaching and their teacher role. The study of CFL teachers teaching in intercultural contexts makes a connection between context, cultural issues, individual experience, teacher belief and teaching concerns, and it helps...... of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...... in an intercultural context in relation to the factors shaping teacher belief and how belief is changed to better suit the context. It also gives inspiration for the design of effective teacher preparation, development and training programs for CFL teachers in global contexts by addressing their prior experience...