WorldWideScience

Sample records for juices soft drinks

  1. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  2. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  3. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  4. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages.

  5. Correlates of soft drink and fruit juice consumption among Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågstrand, Karin; Linné, Yvonne; Karlsson, Jan; Elfhag, Kristina; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.

  6. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  7. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  8. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  9. Impact of citrus soft drinks relative to grapefruit juice on ciclosporin disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ute I; Johnston, Philip E; Bailey, David G; Kim, Richard B; Mayo, Gail; Milstone, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Aims A recent case report had suggested a citrus soft drink (Sun Drop®) may have caused clinically relevant elevations in ciclosporin levels through a grapefruit juice-like mechanism via inactivation of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study was conducted to investigate the effect of grapefruit juice and citrus sodas Sun Drop® and Fresca®, the latter soda containing 83-fold higher concentration of the proposed CYP3A4 inhibitor bergamottin than Sun Drop®, relative to water on oral ciclosporin pharmacokinetics. Methods In a randomized four-way crossover study with a washout of at least 1 week, 12 healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of ciclosporin (Neoral®) with Sun Drop®, Fresca®, grapefruit juice and water (control). Each drink (591 ml) was consumed twice on the prior day and three times on the study day. Whole blood concentrations of ciclosporin were measured up to 24 h with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Results Grapefruit juice increased area under the concentration–time curve by 186% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval of mean difference 3302–6240 ng ml h−1) and peak concentration by 150% (P < 0.0001) of ciclosporin with a significant decrease in oral clearance of 43% (P < 0.0001) when compared with water. Neither citrus soda altered significantly ciclosporin pharmacokinetic variables; changes in mean values ranged from ±3 to 11% of the corresponding water value. Conclusion Although our results do not support a clinically relevant grapefruit juice-like interaction between oral ciclosporin and citrus constituent containing sodas Sun Drop® or Fresca®, an effect in the setting of chronic ciclosporin therapy cannot be ruled out. PMID:16995870

  10. Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Jan, Nataša; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviors (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 Children (52% girls; mean age=11.7 ± 0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4 ± 5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.

  11. Consumption of soft drinks and juices and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in a European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Klinaki, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Wennberg, Maria; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Ward, Heather A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess associations between intake of combined soft drinks (sugar sweetened and artificially sweetened) and fruit and vegetable juices and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and biliary tract cancers (GBTC) using data from t

  12. Evaluating the buffering capacity of various soft drinks, fruit juices and tea

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    Singh, Smita; Jindal, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least. PMID:21116386

  13. Evaluation of Microleakage of RMGIC and Flowable Composite Immersed in Soft Drink and Fresh Fruit Juice: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Maganur, Prabha Devi; Prabhakar, A R; S, Sugandhan; Namineni, Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Aim : The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of a soft drink and a fresh fruit juice on the microleakage of flowable composite and resin modified glass lonomer cement (RMGIC). Methods and materials : 70 non-carious human premolars were collected and stored in saline until further use. Class-V cavities were prepared and restored with RMGIC on the buccal surface and flowable composite on the lingual surface for evaluating microleakage. The experimental groups (Group I and II ) comprised of 60 teeth, while the remaining 10 formed the control group (Group III-Water). The experimental groups were further divided into 2 groups (Group I-Cola drink and Group II-Fresh orange fruit juice) of 30 teeth each. Each group was then further divided into 3 subgroups (Short, Medium and Long-immersion) containing 10 teeth as shown in flow chart. Immersion regime was followed according to Maupome G et al and microleakage was evaluated by using Rhodamine B dye and examined under stereomicroscope. Results : Microleakage data obtained was statistically analyzed by Chi-square test. The teeth showed statistically significant microleakage as the immersion regime increased. Interpretation and Conclusion : Low pH soft drink caused highly significant microleakage at the tooth and restorative material interface in medium and high immersion regimes signifying that the leakage pattern was directly proportional to the number of immersions. Thus, the study conclusively proves that the 'sipping habit' associated with commonly available low pH beverages is detrimental to the longevity of restorations.

  14. Assessment of the exposure to Allura Red colour from the consumption of red juice-based and red soft drinks in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; Chiappara, E; Arena, E; Ballistreri, G

    2011-11-01

    This article reports the results of a survey and an exposure study, based on a probabilistic approach, concerning red juice-based and red soft drink products in Italy. It highlights the fact that the estimates of both the consumption rates and colorant intakes are related to the hypotheses of scenarios. In fact, the study estimates that, on average, consumers of red soft drinks consume 53.1 L year(-1), ranging from 39.1 to 70.7 L of soft drink products under one scenario, or 21.3 L, and from 12.7 and 35.9 L under another hypothesis; while 9.5 L of red juice-based drinks are consumed per year, ranging from 7.0 to 12.5 L, under one scenario, or on average 6.9 L, and ranging from 3.2 to 17.7 L under another scenario. The amount of colorant in a red beverage ranged from 10.9 mg l(-1) in a red soft drink up to 55.9 mg l(-1) in a red juice-based product. The risk evaluation process showed that in all cases the intake of E129 was always lower than the acceptable daily intake. The exposure assessment showed high average intakes of Allura Red in the worst-case scenario, on average, 6.5 and 13.9 mg day(-1), up to 25.0 and 33.0 mg day(-1) at the 95th percentile, for juice-based and soft drinks respectively. The most realistic scenario estimated a weighted average daily intake of Allura Red, on average from about 0.3 to 0.5 mg day(-1) at the 95th percentile, and from 0.4 to 0.6 mg day(-1) for the 95th percentile, from juice-based and soft drinks, respectively. Actually, the highest colorant intake was estimated in a 'health' juice-based drink. The intake of E129 significantly increased with a high level of colorant (>40 mg l(-1)).

  15. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  16. Sensitive determination of organic acid preservatives in juices and soft drinks treated by monolith-based stir cake sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fuhua; Nong, Shuyu; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-02-01

    A simple, efficient, and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of sorbic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and cinnamic acid (CA) in juices and soft drinks was developed by stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The SCSE based on polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith (PILM) as extractive medium was used to concentrate these three organic acid preservatives. Because hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions co-contributed to the extraction, the PILM-SCSE exhibited a high extractive capability towards analytes. To obtain optimum extraction performance, several SCSE parameters were investigated and discussed, including desorption solvent, pH value, ionic strength in the sample matrix, and the extraction and desorption time. Under the optimized extraction conditions, limits of detection of 0.16, 1.08, and 0.18 μg/L (S/N=3) and quantification limits of 0.52, 3.42, and 0.61 (S/N=10) were obtained for SA, BA, and CA, respectively. The method also showed good linearity and reproducibility, as well as advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and high feasibility. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SA, BA, and CA in real juices and soft drinks, and the recoveries ranged from 63.0 to 107 %.

  17. Analysis of consumer complaints related to microbial contamination in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Goto, Keiichi; Onoue, Youichi; Watanabe, Maiko; Lee, Ken-ichi; Kumagai, Susumu; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro

    2009-12-01

    Surveillance of consumer complaints related to microbial contamination in soft drinks indicated that tea drinks, and juice and juice drinks were major soft drinks involved in complaints. The frequency of complaints about juice and juice drinks is relatively high in relation to the production amount. Damage to containers during distribution and inappropriate storage of soft drinks by consumers are major causes of complaints. Molds were predominantly associated with complaints and symptoms caused by intake of contaminated soft drinks. To reduce complaints, more support for small companies, and greater education for carriers, dealers and consumers are needed.

  18. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Lucy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  19. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Claire; Wardle, Jane; Cooke, Lucy

    2008-12-02

    Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD) relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS.Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic) were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ.Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016), fruit squash (p = 0.042) and milk (p = 0.020) than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017) and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003). No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice.These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks.

  20. Taxing Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the practice of levying an excise tax on soft drinks in sub-saharan African countries, and evaluates this practice against theoretical norms for levying an excise tax. The question is whether such taxes are justified or whether they are discriminatory and impose a welfare cost on the country. The paper concludes that the sin tax justification does not hold for soft drinks, nor do income distribution justifications. Arguably the best reason for such a levy is revenue, but th...

  1. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

  2. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  3. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  4. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver advice in relation to „toothkind‟ juice drinks. The Panel was requested to consider whether conclusions for the substantiation of the beneficial effect, i.e. reduction...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...

  5. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shiva Shanker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO. The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorganisms are found in soft drinks as environmental or raw materials contaminants, but relatively can grow within the acidic and low oxygen environment. It is crucial for soft drink manufacturers to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients. Concern with consumer health, safety and the environment will continue to have a positive impact on trend in the soft drink industry.

  6. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  7. DESIGNING TONIC SOFT DRINKS COMPOUNDING WITH A PRONOUNCED PROPHYLACTIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodionova L. Y.; Stepovoy A. V.; Olhovatov E. A.; Piven M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the development of the material formulations of soft drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices and pectin extracts from of various raw materials. We have shown a possibility of designing healthy food with a creative approach to the task. The proposed products are very useful because they contain succinic acid - a natural participant in cellular respiration. Regular consumption of these drinks will help to combat fatigue and stress, and also makes it possible to cope wit...

  8. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  9. Soft drinks and dental health: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmassebi, J F; Duggal, M S; Malik-Kotru, G; Curzon, M E J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the role of commercial soft drinks in dental diseases namely as dental caries and erosion. The objective of this paper has been to review the past and current literature to determine the present knowledge on this subject. The literature related to dental caries, erosion, drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices was reviewed. The literature shows efforts have been taken to modify soft drinks by either adding or deleting certain components so as to reduce their harmful effects on teeth. A rational protocol to encourage the sensible use of drinks and the modification of drinks to render them less harmful would be advisable.

  10. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  11. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  12. DESIGNING TONIC SOFT DRINKS COMPOUNDING WITH A PRONOUNCED PROPHYLACTIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionova L. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the material formulations of soft drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices and pectin extracts from of various raw materials. We have shown a possibility of designing healthy food with a creative approach to the task. The proposed products are very useful because they contain succinic acid - a natural participant in cellular respiration. Regular consumption of these drinks will help to combat fatigue and stress, and also makes it possible to cope with the socially significant illnesses - high blood pressure, diabetes. This contributes to pectin that displays the body of toxins, normalizes blood pressure. The main technological stages of the process of obtaining drinks developed by us - obtaining pectin extract; obtaining juice from fruits, berries and vegetables; preparing sugar syrup solutions and acids; mixing the components; tasting the resulting mixture; adjustment of taste and composition. We have developed beverages suitable to all categories of consumers

  13. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke Lucy; Wardle Jane; Sweetman Claire

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how...

  14. [Factors associated with the consumption of soft drinks among Brazilian preschool children: national survey of 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juliana Bergamo; Poblacion, Ana Paula; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-08-01

    The rising consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks or artificial juices is associated with the prevalence of obesity in Brazil and around the world. This study seeks to verify the frequency of consumption of these beverages among Brazilian children aged 24-59 months and to investigate the association of soft drinks with demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Using data from the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children - 2006, the eating habits were obtained using the food and drink frequency questionnaire for the seven days preceding the interview, and anthropometry recorded the weight and height of children. Among preschoolers, 37.3% consumed soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. The factors significantly associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks were living in regions of higher economic development of the country, in urban areas, belonging to the higher income bracket, with mothers watching TV regularly and excess weight of the child, were associated with consumption of soft drinks and artificial juices 4 or more days per week. Further studies are needed to understand the effective contribution of soft drinks on the epidemic of childhood obesity.

  15. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study assessed the microbial quality of sixteen brands of soft drink ... from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). ... Visual inspection of packages, quality assessment of soft drinks ...

  16. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  17. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  18. Associação entre consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal em escolares da rede pública de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a associação entre o consumo de refrigerantes, sucos e leite, com o índice de massa corporal (IMC em 1.423 estudantes, entre 9 e 16 anos, de escolas públicas de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O consumo de bebidas foi avaliado por meio do recordatório alimentar de 24 horas e questionário de freqüência de consumo alimentar. Peso e estatura foram coletados para o cálculo do IMC. As análises de regressão linear foram estratificadas por sexo e ajustadas por atividade física, idade e efeito do conglomerado (classes. Verificou-se associação positiva entre freqüência de consumo de refrigerante e idade (p = 0,05 e negativa entre consumo de leite e idade (p = 0,004. Apenas para as meninas, o IMC associou-se positivamente com o consumo de sucos (β = 0,02; p = 0,03. Para as outras bebidas não foram encontradas associações entre IMC e freqüência usual de consumo. O consumo de refrigerantes e sucos representou cerca de 20% do total de energia média consumida diariamente. Os resultados indicam que esforços para reduzir a ingestão de energia por meio de bebidas devem enfatizar também os sucos.The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05 and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004. For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (β = 0.02; p = 0.03. For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and

  19. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed.

  20. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects o

  1. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate concentratio

  2. Morphological alterations on human radicular dentin after exposure to different fruit juice drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Leal ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Martins, Cínthia Oliveira [UNESP; CAVASSIM, Rodrigo; Rossa Júnior, Carlos; Abi-Rached, Ricardo Samih Georges [UNESP; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of different fruit juice drinks available in the Brazilian market on smear layer removal and dentinal tubules opening, as well as to verify the effect of toothbrushing subsequently to the juices exposure. Methods: Dentin specimens were prepared and randomly distributed into the control group (distilled water) and twelve types of fruit juice drinks (cashew, orange, mandarin, apple, passion fruit, guava, strawberry, grape, mango, pear, p...

  3. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes; Sonia Maria Freire; Maria Margarida Castel-Branco; Isabel Vitória Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized...

  4. Complications of orthodontic treatment: are soft drinks a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hilings H Y; Wong, Ricky W K; Hägg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has steadily increased in recent decades in both western and developing countries. The trend is most apparent among children and adolescents. This rise in soft drink consumption has raised concerns among health care professionals, including dental practitioners. Accordingly, the effects of soft drinks on dental health have been investigated. Several studies have shown that dental problems, such as caries, enamel erosion, and corrosion of dental materials, may be associated with soft drink consumption. Because orthodontic appliances restrict toothbrush access, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment need special oral care and advice. This article reviews the risks and implications of soft drink consumption for orthodontic patients.

  5. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-02-14

    Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; Phealth perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised.

  6. The Study on Mixed Drink Production from Asparagus officinalis Linu Juice and Aloc Juice%芦笋芦荟复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓敏; 顾文祥; 顾蓉芳

    2001-01-01

    利用正交实验设计,对芦笋、芦荟复合饮料制作进行探讨。芦笋汁的制作以芦笋头芽、主茎部分为主,辅以根基部分汁。芦笋的合理杀青条件为0.01mol/L柠檬酸,96℃,4min。芦荟汁中加入Vc、Na2SO3、柠檬酸均可增强其稳定性。芦笋汁和芦荟汁的最佳配比为V(芦笋):V(芦荟)=3:1。糖酸调整如下:加入m(蜂蜜)=10%~30%的蜂蜜,加入苹果酸调pH值为3.5~4。成品风味浓郁,口感柔和,具有保健、清凉止渴之功效。%The production of drink by mixing Asparagus officinalis Linu and aloe juice was studied by orthogonal test. Asparagus officinalis Linu juice was mainly drawing from Asparagus officinalis Linu bud and stem. The rational blanching condition was 0.01mol/L citric acid,96℃, 4 minutes. The stability of aloe juice could be improved by adding Vc, Na2SO3 or citric acid.The best quota of Asparagus officinalis Linu juice and aloe juice was 30% Asparagus officinalis Linu juice,10% aloe juice, 10%~30% honey, pH 3.5~4. The product has heavy flavour, soft taste and healthy function.

  7. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation h...

  8. Soft drinks and in vitro dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Brent L; Hagen Ii, Ted W; Mayhew, Susan L; Crumpton, Brooks; Sanders, Tyler; Horne, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the in vitro exposure of healthy teeth to various commonly consumed carbonated soft drinks may precipitate dental erosion. Forty-two healthy, extracted, previously unerupted human molars were weighed prior to, during, and after suspension in various sugared and diet or zero-calorie carbonated beverages for 20 days; the specimens were stored at room temperature while being stirred at 275 rpm. The percentage decrease in tooth weight from before to after exposure represented the weight loss due to enamel erosion; values in the experimental groups varied from 3.22% to 44.52% after 20 days' exposure. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe testing at a level of α = 0.05. Nonsugared drinks (diet and zero-calorie) as a whole were more erosive than sugared beverages. A significant positive correlation was found between the amount of titratable acid and percentage of tooth erosion, while a significant negative correlation was revealed between the beverage pH and percentage of tooth erosion. No significant correlations were found between calcium or phosphate ion concentrations and the amount of erosion. It appears that enamel erosion is dependent on not only the beverage flow rate, pH, and amount of titratable acid, but also whether the soft drink is of the diet or zero-calorie variety, which reflects the type of artificial sweetener present.

  9. Evidence of Rational Addiction to Carbonated Soft Drinks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez; Xiaoou Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply the Becker-Murphy theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks. The research aims to reveal the rational addiction evidence of carbonated soft drinks and derive policy implications under this evidence. Consumers' rational addictive evidence for carbonated soft drinks provides a warning for the Chinese government to regulate the industry, due to its bad health consequences. – The authors empirically apply a time-varying parameter mode...

  10. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; Nseir; Fares; Nassar; Nimer; Assy

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases.Inappropriate dietary fat intake,excessive intake of soft drinks,insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver,and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver.Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks,fructose 55% and glucose 45%.Soft drinks...

  11. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk of incident gout in men. Design Prospective cohort over 12 years. Setting Health professionals follow-up study. Participants 46 393 men with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of soft drinks and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Incident cases of gout meeting the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout. Results During the 12 years of follow-up 755 confirmed incident cases of gout were reported. Increasing intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks was associated with an increasing risk of gout. Compared with consumption of less than one serving of sugar sweetened soft drinks a month the multivariate relative risk of gout for 5-6 servings a week was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.68), for one serving a day was 1.45 (1.02 to 2.08), and for two or more servings a day was 1.85 (1.08 to 3.16; P for trend=0.002). Diet soft drinks were not associated with risk of gout (P for trend=0.99). The multivariate relative risk of gout according to increasing fifths of fructose intake were 1.00, 1.29, 1.41, 1.84, and 2.02 (1.49 to 2.75; P for trend soft drinks and fructose is strongly associated with an increased risk of gout in men. Furthermore, fructose rich fruits and fruit juices may also increase the risk. Diet soft drinks were not associated with the risk of gout. PMID:18244959

  12. THE SODIUM PREVALENCE IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS SOLD IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernanda Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbonated soft drinks intake has changed the children eating habits. This factor may be directly associated with arterial hypertension due the high consumption of sodium present in foods and drinks industrialized. This study was to compare sodium levels between two different types of carbonated soft drinks, carbonated sugar drinks and diet drinks to define what type of drink has the lowest sodium content and alerting healthcare professionals about the presence of sodium in industrialized beverages. The study included labels of carbonated soft drinks n = 33 – sugar drinks (n = 21 or diet drinks (n = 12 – of five different flavors.All carbonated soft drinks evaluated have sodium in its composition. However, the sodium presence in carbonated sugar drinks was significantly lower when compared with carbonated diet drinks (69.05 ± 16.55 vs. 145.30 ± 47.36mg Na/l, respectively.Studies to identify children's eating habits related with increased consumption of foods and drinks manufactured are needed to identify, reduce and prevent high blood pressure.

  13. Soft Drink Design. USMES Teacher's Resource Book, Preliminary Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This USMES unit challenges students to invent a new soft drink that would be popular and produced at a low cost. The teacher resource book for the Soft Drink Design unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature of the USMES…

  14. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  15. The comparison of BOPP and PET bottles applied to hot-filled juices and soft drinks%BOPP瓶与PET瓶 在热灌装果汁及饮料应用上之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区少梅; 黄冠宾

    2001-01-01

    以白柚果汁为例,分别热灌装于BOPP(biaxial oriented polypropyle与PET(polyethylene terephthalate)瓶内,藉分析贮藏35d于4℃、25℃及37℃之温度下样品之物理化学性质,探讨两种包材对于热罐装饮料品质影响。%With pomelo juice as an example, the effects of two different plastic bottles, BOPP (biaxial oriented polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate), on the physicochemical properties of the hot-filled pomelo juice during storage at 4, 25 and 37℃ for 35 days were investigated.

  16. Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Espel, Hallie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Lowe, Michael R; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present.

  17. The structure of the soft drinks supply at the market of Yekaterinburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Solov'eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays research of the regional markets and consumers’ preferences in the soft drinks segment are actual. This is associated with the saturation of the market and increasing competition within the segment. The research of the market is the base for the assessments of the prospects for the certain enterprise and for the sector development. Analysis of the assortment of the made and sold at the Yekaterin-burg soft drinks was realized. The article shows the position of the good relative to the all-marketing positions in the region. It has been established that assortment of the soft drinks is characterized by the diversity of the types and drinks on the basis of the aromatic staff prevail (41,6%, juice and juice-contained beverages (28,2%, mineral and drinkable bottled water (21,4% with different trademarks prevail. Leaders of the market are two big foreign companies. “Coca-Cola Company” with trademarks “Coca-cola”, “Fanta”, “Sprite”, “Nestea”, “Dobriy”, “Bon Aqua” and the company “Pepsi Co Russia” representing trademarks “Pepsi” “Mirinda”, “7up”, “Tonus”, “Russkiy Dar”. According to strength saturation with carbon dioxide medium carbonated drinks (40,4% and strong carbonated drinks (39,1% prevail. The light carbonated drinks are much smaller and account 13,5%, and non-carbonated drinks are the smallest part of the market (6,96%. The reason of that structure that the carbon dioxide is actively used by the soft drinks producers as a preservative, regulator of the acidity and antioxidant. The research of the package show that the producers use polymeric materials, metal, glass and combined pack. The main trends of the market are increasing consumer requirements to the quality and information about the proposed drinks, the growth of the number of consumers that attend to the ingredients and the impact of “the healthy food choice” on the market.

  18. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks: a comparative study among adolescents in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Cristina de Vasconcelos Martins Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and soft drinks among adolescents living in urban and rural areas of Pernambuco State. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of high school students in Pernambuco (n = 4,207, 14 - 19 years was conducted. Data were collected through a previously validated questionnaire. Adolescents who reported a daily consumption of soft drinks and occasional consumption of fruits, juices and vegetables were classified as exposed to inadequate standard of consumption of these foods. The independent variable was the place of residence (urban/rural. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, χ2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: It was observed that students residing in rural areas had a higher prevalence of occasional consumption of natural fruit juices (37.6%; 95%CI 36.1 - 39.0 than those living in urban areas (32.1%; 95%CI 30.7 - 33.6. The proportion of students exposed to daily consumption of soft drinks was higher among those who reported they lived in urban areas (65.0%; 95%CI 63.5 - 66.4 compared to those who reported living in rural areas (55.3%; 95%CI 53.8 - 56.9. Conclusion: Adolescent students living in rural areas had a higher prevalence of low consumption of natural fruit juices while those residing in urban areas had a higher prevalence of daily consumption of soda drinks.

  19. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseir, William; Nassar, Fares; Assy, Nimer

    2010-06-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver, and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver. Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks, fructose 55% and glucose 45%. Soft drinks are the leading source of added sugar worldwide, and have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The consumption of soft drinks can increase the prevalence of NAFLD independently of metabolic syndrome. During regular soft drinks consumption, fat accumulates in the liver by the primary effect of fructose which increases lipogenesis, and in the case of diet soft drinks, by the additional contribution of aspartame sweetener and caramel colorant which are rich in advanced glycation end products that potentially increase insulin resistance and inflammation. This review emphasizes some hard facts about soft drinks, reviews fructose metabolism, and explains how fructose contributes to the development of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  20. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Pfruit juice drinks.

  1. Is there a link between soft drinks and erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the potential role of soft drinks, particularly the sugar component, in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). We analyzed the hypothetical link between metabolic disorders, induced by sweetened soft drinks overconsumption, and ED. High caloric intake, high refined-carbohydrates, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) content and less satiety are main factors responsible for metabolic disorders contributing to ED development. Regular diet mistakes among human males, such as soft drink consumption, may lead to slow and asymptomatic progression of ED, finally resulting in full claimed manifestation of ED. PMID:24578881

  2. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  3. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  4. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Porange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  5. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink.

  6. Parental socioeconomic status and soft drink consumption of the child. The mediating proportion of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, Valerie; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Maes, Lea; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine

    2012-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study is twofold and states that parental socioeconomic status has an effect on the soft drink consumption of the child, and that this effect is mediated by the soft drink related parenting practices. One thousand six hundred and thirty-nine parents of 2.5-7 year old children from 34 Flemish pre-primary and primary schools, completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, soft drink consumption and soft drink related parenting practices. Causal mediation analyses showed an effect of socioeconomic status on soft drink consumption of the child: children from high socioeconomic status consume 0.42 times the amount of soft drinks of children from lower socioeconomic status. Interestingly, this effect is almost entirely mediated by three soft drink parenting practices: soft drinks served at meals, the child can take soft drink whenever he or she wants and having soft drinks at home. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Epidemiological evaluation of soft drinks consumption--students surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłapowska, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Non carious lesions, including erosion changes, are becoming increasingly apparent. There are multiple factors involved in the etiology of dental erosion i.a. acids in commercially available drinks. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of soft drink consumption that promote dental erosion among young adults. The 266 subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire inquired questions about consumption of drinks favouring tooth erosion. The students declared frequent drinking of isotonic drinks, energetic drinks, fizzy drinks and coca-cola type drinks. On the basis of a survey of Poznań University of Medical Sciences students it can be determined, that they have relatively high risk of dental erosion. To minimize the risk of dental erosion occurrence in young population there is a need to disseminate knowledge about the etiology.

  8. [Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Perico, Andrea; Colzi, Alessio; Bavazzano, Paolo; Di Giusto, Maurizio; Lamberti, Ilaria; Martino, Gianrocco; Puggelli, Francesco; Lorini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of benzene present in soft drinks sold in Florence (Italy). We analyzed 28 different types of soft drinks, by measuring concentrations of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, ascorbic acid (using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection) and benzene (using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Data was analysed by using SPSS 18.0.Traces of benzene were detected in all analyzed beverages, with a mean concentration of 0.45 µg/L (range: 0.15-2.36 µg/L). Statistically significant differences in mean benzene concentrations were found between beverages according to the type of additive indicated on the drink label, with higher concentrations found in beverages containing both ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate. Two citrus fruit-based drinks were found to have benzene levels above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 µg /L. Sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid were also detected in the two drinks.In conclusion, not all soft drink producers have taken steps to eliminate benzoic acid from their soft drinks and thereby reduce the risk of formation of benzene, as recommended by the European Commission. Furthermore, the presence of benzene in trace amounts in all beverages suggests that migration of constituents of plastic packaging materials or air-borne contamination may be occurring.

  9. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  10. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  11. Soft Drinks and Weight Gain: How Strong Is the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Emily; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Context Soft drink consumption in the United States has tripled in recent decades, paralleling the dramatic increases in obesity prevalence. The purpose of this clinical review is to evaluate the extent to which current scientific evidence supports a causal link between sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption and weight gain. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE search of articles published in all languages between 1966 and December 2006 containing key words or medical subheadings, such as “soft drinks” and “weight.” Additional articles were obtained by reviewing references of retrieved articles, including a recent systematic review. All reports with cross-sectional, prospective cohort, or clinical trial data in humans were considered. Evidence synthesis Six of 15 cross-sectional and 6 of 10 prospective cohort studies identified statistically significant associations between soft drink consumption and increased body weight. There were 5 clinical trials; the two that involved adolescents indicated that efforts to reduce sugar-sweetened soft drinks slowed weight gain. In adults, 3 small experimental studies suggested that consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks caused weight gain; however, no trial in adults was longer than 10 weeks or included more than 41 participants. No trial reported the effects on lipids. Conclusions Although observational studies support the hypothesis that sugar-sweetened soft drinks cause weight gain, a paucity of hypothesis-confirming clinical trial data has left the issue open to debate. Given the magnitude of the public health concern, larger and longer intervention trials should be considered to clarify the specific effects of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18924641

  12. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  13. Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks is associated with prevalent chronic bronchitis in U.S. Adults, ages 20–55 y

    OpenAIRE

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; Uribarri, Jaime; Tucker, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetened soft drink intake has been linked with asthma in US high-schoolers. Intake of beverages with excess free fructose (EFF), including apple juice, and HFCS sweetened fruit drinks and soft drinks, has been associated with asthma in children. One hypothesis for this association is that underlying fructose malabsorption and fructose reactivity in the GI may contribute to in situ formation of enFruAGEs. EnFruAGEs may be an overlooked source of adv...

  14. Identification of soft drinks using MEMS-IDT microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Karjathkar, Sonal; Jacesko, Stefany; Varadan, Vijay K.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2005-05-01

    Development of a taste sensor with high sensitivity, stability and selectivity is highly desirable for the food and beverage industries. The main goal of a taste sensor is to reproduce five kinds of senses of humans, which is quite difficult. The importance of knowing quality of beverages and drinking water has been recognized as a result of increase in concern in environmental pollution issues. However, no accurate measuring system appropriate for quality evaluation of beverages is available. A highly sensitive microsensor using horizontally polarized Surface Acoustic Waves (SH-SAW) for the detection and identification of soft drinks is presented in this paper. Different soft drinks were tested using this sensor and the results which could distinguish between two popular soft drinks like Pepsi and Coca cola is presented in this paper. The SH-SAW microsensors are fabricated on 36°-rotated Y cut X propagating LiTaO3 (36YX.LT) substrate. This design consists of a dual delay line configuration in which one line is free and other one is metallized and shielded. Due to high electromechanical coupling of 36YX.LT, it could detect difference in electrical properties and hence to distinguish different soft drinks. Measured electrical characteristics of these soft drinks at X-band frequency using free space system show distinguishable results. It is clear from these results that the microsensor based on 36YX.LT is an effective liquid identification system for quantifying human sensory expressions.

  15. Colour and label evaluation of commercial pasteurised red juices and related drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, B; Arena, E; Chiappara, E; Ballistreri, G

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing demand by consumers for healthy beverages, artificial colours are still widely used. Levels of anthocyanins and artificial colours were determined by HPLC with UV-Vis detection in red orange juices and other red beverages (nectar, juice-based, health, carbonated and sports drinks). The contribution of pigments to the visible colour of the beverage was calculated. Red orange juice samples contained about 34 mg l(-1) of anthocyanins, which were responsible for about 92% of the visible colour. Red juice-based drinks, containing from 0% to 30% of red orange, berry, grape or pomegranate juices, had low levels of anthocyanins (about 7 mg l(-1)) and high levels of E129 (about 32 mg l(-1)), which were responsible for about 90.7% of the colour of these beverages. Red health drinks, enriched with vitamins and polyphenols, contained from 3% to 50% of red fruit juices. Also in this case the E129 levels were higher (about 22 mg l(-1)) than anthocyanins (about 9 mg l(-1)), and were responsible for the colour of the beverages (76.1%). High levels of artificial colours were found in red orange carbonated drinks, but in comparable amounts with those found in the other beverage samples, while anthocyanins were only present in trace amounts. Although all of the beverages claimed to contain red fruits on the labels, no correlation was found between the level of anthocyanins and the declared percentage of red fruits. These labels generally conformed with the requirements of the law, but food product labels can often be misleading to consumers about the real characteristics of the product.

  16. Estimation of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines in drinking water and soft drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwan, S.M.; Jawad, I.M.; Abdul-Rahman, S.K.; Al-Kafaji, S.H.

    1987-09-01

    A survey for the determination of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in drinking water and selected soft drinks was achieved, using a GLC method. This shows that these substances occur predominantly in the drinks. The average contents of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine in drinking water were 4.1 ..mu..g/L and 0.2 ..mu..g/L respectively, while they were approximately 3.9 ..mu..g/L and 0.43 ..mu..g/L in soft drinks. Nitrite and nitrate contents in drinking water samples were also estimated, as potential factors for the formation of N-nitrosamines. The mean contents of nitrite and nitrate in drinking water were 65 g/L and 10.8 g/L respectively.

  17. The worldwide battle against soft drinks in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2010-04-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages are widely believed to be contributing to the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity around the world. One of the channels used by industry to encourage greater consumption and preferences for soft drinks is schools. But governments around the world are taking action to limit the availability of soft drinks in schools. More than 30 national and subnational governmental bodies have made efforts to restrict availability, and the soft drinks industry has also taken some limited voluntary action. Most government-led efforts-with some exceptions-restrict the availability of any drink with added sugar, but the voluntary pledges take less-restrictive approaches. There is little consensus on artificially sweetened drinks. Policies vary in other ways, too, presenting an opportunity to study the effects of different policy approaches on short- and long-term consumption and attitudes. In the meantime, the widespread condemnation of soft drinks in schools suggests that it is within the industry's interests to take more comprehensive action.

  18. Determination of Total Soluble Solids Content (Brix and pH in Milk Drinks and Industrialized Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite CAVALCANTI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC - Brix refratometry and pH values of milk drinks (yogurts and chocolate drink and fruit juices ready to drink (FJRD. Method: Twenty milk drinks and ten fruit juices were evaluated by random experiment, with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analyis of TSSC were made for Brix refratometry and pH were determined. Results: The TSS content of drinks ranged from 13.26 to 26.30 for milk drinks and 10.23 to 13.53 to ready to drink juice. The maximum and lower values to pH were, respectively, 3.58 and 7.01 for milk drinks and 3.07 and 3.72 to drink juice. Conclusion: The high the concentration of TSSC verified in the milk and juice drinks, associated to a low pH can contribute to the development of decay lesions in case they be consumed in excess by the children.

  19. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  20. Increased Soft Drink Consumption is Contributing to an Increased Incidence of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yule, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Regular, non-diet, soft drinks are responsible for one third of the excessive amount of added sweeteners in the diets of children and adolescents (5). Children and adolescents who drink regular soft drinks have a higher caloric intake than those who not drink regular soft drinks (3). Furthermore, BMI and the frequency of obesity were found to increase for each additional serving of sugar sweetened drink consumed by children (10 to 12 years) (6). The increased level of sweetener in regular sof...

  1. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice.

  2. Soft Drink Influence on Margin Integrity in Composite Resin Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente DDS, MS, Jose; Abad DDS, Karol

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that certain previously selected soda drinks could have on the integrity of the margins of composite restorations made on 25 human teeth, where the margins were placed both on enamel and dentin. Specimens were divided in different groups (n=5) to be exposed to soft drinks 30 minutes a day for 30 days. Selected drinks were: Coca Cola, Coca Cola Zero, Squirt, Gladiator and water. SEM pictures were taken at the beginning and at the 30 day mark...

  3. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks in adolescents in Slovakia: implications for paediatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bašková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study analyzed the consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks as well as attitudes towards their consumption. Design: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC is a cross-sectional school-based study focused on the target group of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents. It employs a universal, internationally standardized questionnaire. Methods: The study analyzes results of the HBSC survey carried out in Slovakia in 2014. A total of 10,179 schoolchildren from grades 5 through 9 participated (a response rate of 78.8%. Gender and age differences were analyzed in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old respondents. Results: The consumption of soft drinks varied from 16.9% (11-year-old girls to 29.0% (15-year-old boys. More than 8 in 10 respondents accepted the consumption of soft drinks. As much as 34.4% of boys and 18.8% of girls aged 15 years reported the use of energy drinks at least weekly, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all age groups and the rates increasing with age. Conclusion: In Slovakia, consumption of sweetened soft drinks and energy drinks is widely popular and socially accepted among adolescents. There is a need for more effective interventions including adoption of appropriate legislative norms. Pediatric nursing plays an important role through outpatient primary as well as hospital care.

  4. Evaluation of The Erosive Potential of Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; de Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study evaluated the capability of different soft drinks (Coca-Cola®-C, Coca-Cola Light®-CL, Guaraná®-G, Pepsi Twist®-P and Sprite Light®-SL) to erode dental enamel, relating the percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) to concentrations of fluoride and phosphate, buffering capacity and pH of these drinks. Methods The soft drinks were evaluated in respect to concentration of phosphate and fluoride spectrophotometrically using Fiske, Subarrow method and by specific electrode (Orion 9609), respectively. The pH and the buffering capacity were determined by glass electrode and by estimating of the volume of NaOH necessary to change the pH of the drink in one unit, respectively. One hundred specimens of bovine enamel were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 20 each. They were exposed to 4 cycles of demineralisation in the beverage and remineralisation in artificial saliva. The softening of enamel was evaluated by %SMHC. Results The mean %SMHC was: C=77.27%, CL= 72.45%, SL=78.43%, G=66.65% and P=67.95%. Comparing the %SMHC promoted by 5 soft drinks, SL = C > CL > P = G (Pdrinks (P>.05). Conclusions The five soft drinks caused surface softening of enamel (erosion). In respect to the chemical variables tested, despite not statistically significant, the pH seems to have more influence on the erosive potential of these drinks. (Eur J Dent 2007;1:10–13) PMID:19212490

  5. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s. In this analysis, soft drink samples were not subjected to pre-treatment. Good differentiation among all the analysed soft drinks was achieved using the voltammetric data. An analysis of the loading plots shows that the potentials of −0.65 V, −0.4 V, 0.4 V, and 0.750 V facilitated the discrimination process. The electrochemical processes related to this potential are the reduction of hydrogen ions and inhibition of the platinum oxidation by the caffeine adsorption on the electrode surface. Additionally, the single platinum microelectrode was useful for the quality control of the soft drink samples, as it helped to identify the time at which the beverage was opened.

  6. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  7. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  8. Soft drinks and obesity in Latvia: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin; Pudule, Iveta

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity is now firmly on the political agenda in western Europe but has received rather less attention in the eastern region of the European Union. This is a situation that cannot continue forever, especially in the light of evidence of the future social and economic cost of failure to act. Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Latvia were conducted in October 2004 to understand the Latvian response to childhood obesity and, specifically, to soft drink consumption as one of its key risk factors. Analysis was undertaken using the established principles of stakeholder analysis to assess the position and influence of the stakeholders on consumption of soft drink consumption within broader efforts to curb obesity in children. Twenty interviews were conducted and no one refused to be interviewed. Most stakeholders were concerned or convinced of the importance of restricting soft drinks consumption as part of initiatives to prevent childhood obesity. The most influential and supportive stakeholders were high school and primary school directors and parent groups. These findings help elucidate the actions of the Latvian government in November 2006 when it moved to ban certain foods and drinks from schools based on a concern for the adverse impact of additives on child health. The rapidity with which this poorly evidenced decision took place may have been supported by the unique context of an unstable government, nutrition leadership in dissolution, relatively weak industry influence and a surprisingly strong movement of teachers and parents.

  9. Commercial soft drinks: pH and in vitro dissolution of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Poonam; Nihill, Patricia; Sobkowski, Jason; Agustin, Ma Zenia

    2007-01-01

    Most soft drinks are acidic in nature and exposure to these drinks may result in enamel erosion. This study sought to measure the pH of 20 commercial brands of soft drinks, the dissolution of enamel resulting from immersion in these drinks, and the influence of pH on enamel loss. Comparison of the erosive potential of cola versus non-cola drinks as well as regular sugared and diet versions of the same brands was undertaken. The pH was measured immediately after opening the soft drink can. Enamel slices obtained from freshly extracted teeth were immersed in the soft drinks and weighed at baseline and after 6, 24, and 48 hours of immersion. Non-cola drinks had significantly higher pH values than cola drinks but showed higher mean percent weight loss. By contrast, sugared versions of the cola and non-cola drinks showed significantly lower pH values and higher mean percent weight loss than their diet counterparts. The pH value of the soft drink did not have a significant influence on the mean percent weight loss (r = -0.28). Prolonged exposure to soft drinks can lead to significant enamel loss. Non-cola drinks are more erosive than cola drinks. Sugared versions of cola and non-cola drinks proved to be more erosive than their diet counterparts. The erosive potential of the soft drinks was not related to their pH value.

  10. Trade and investment liberalization, food systems change and highly processed food consumption: a natural experiment contrasting the soft-drink markets of Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Schram, Ashley; Labonte, Ron

    2016-06-02

    Free trade agreements (FTAs) can affect food environments and non-communicable disease risks through altering the availability of highly-processed foods. Few studies have quantified such effects. Using a natural experiment this paper quantifies changes in Peru's soft-drink market before/after entry into the US-Peru FTA, compared with Bolivia, a county with no such agreement. Difference-in-difference models were used to test for between country differences in the rate of per capita foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, soft-drink imports, the volumes of various soft-drinks sold, and the volumes of sugar from soft-drinks before/after FTA ratification (2006) and enforcement (2009). In Peru average per capita FDI-inflows rose from US$103.11 in the pre-ratification period to US$269.79 post-ratification, with little change in Bolivia. This corresponded with a 122 % increase in Peruvian soft-drink production. There was a significant between-country difference in FDI-inflows pre-/post-ratification (DID:1.07, 95 % CI:0.19-1.96; p = 0.01). Despite little difference in total per capita soft-drink sales volumes there was a significant between-country difference in per capita sugar from soft-drinks pre-/post enforcement (DID:-0.99, 95 % CI: -1.91-0.06; p = 0.03) with stagnated growth in Peru and continued growth in Bolivia. This resulted from stagnated sugar sweetened carbonates growth and increased bottled water, juice and sports & energy drinks growth in Peru, with continued carbonates growth in Bolivia. There was a significant between-country difference in per capita carbonates (DID: -1.44, 95 % CI: -2.52-0.36, p = 0.01) and bottled water (DID:0.63; 95 % CI: -0.01-1.26; p = 0.04) sales volumes. The FTA may have resulted in increased FDI-inflows and soft-drink production and also contributed to the diversification of soft drinks produced and sold in Peru with some positive (stagnated carbonates and increased bottled water) and some negative (increased

  11. Bacteriological Examination of Unbottled Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, F. M.; Abd-Elnaby, H. A.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 300 samples, representing 14 different unbottled drinks, indicated that there are three vitally important criteria pertaining to their bacteriological examination. First, the total viable counts may be better accomplished by the pour-plate method, using enriched media, with incubation at either 30 or 37 C. Second, a comparative study of the coliaerogenes group and the enterococci as indices of pollution unquestionably favors the latter as the reliable indicator, owing to false interpretations of the presumptive test and to lack of accurate definition of fecal and nonfecal coliforms recovered from positive cases. The use of enterococci, however, did not provide as reliable an indicator as the pour-plate method. Third, the results with enterococci, in defining the probable source of pollution, are more precise. Experiments judiciously selected and simultaneously conducted revealed that the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests, and the tetrazolium-reduction test, matched in relating 98.9% of available enterococci to an animal source. Negligible but vital discrepancies were obtained with the two odd strains which qualified as human-derived according to the heat and heat-tellurite resistance tests. The differential criterion of Skadhauge and Barnes, based on the failure of animal-derived enterococci to grow in the presence of a low concentration of potassium tellurite, did not apply to the other two methods, since 99.5% of the recovered strains were found tolerant to the specified tellurite concentration. PMID:14490056

  12. Total antioxidant potential of juices, beverages and hot drinks consumed in Egypt screened by DPPH in vitro assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan-Hassanien, Mohamed Fawzy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant foods contain different classes and types of antioxidants and knowledge of their total antioxidant potential (TAP, which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge free radicals, would be useful for epidemiological purposes.To accomplish this, a variety of fruit juices, hot drinks and beverages commonly consumed in Egypt were analyzed using in vitro DPPH assay. The order of effectiveness of fruit juices in inhibiting free radicals was as follows: red grapes juice > mango juice > guava juice > cocktail juice > pineapple juice > orange juice > cherry juice > apple juice. Among beverages and hot drinks, teas followed by coffees had the greatest TAP. These data confirm grape juice, teas and coffees as good dietary sources of antioxidants.Las plantas comestibles contienen diferentes clases y tipos de antioxidantes y el conocimiento de su potencial antioxidante total (TAP, que es la capacidad acumulativa de los componentes de los alimentos para captar radicales libres, debería ser útil en estudios epidemiológicos. De acuerdo a esto, una variedad de zumos de fruta, bebidas calientes y bebidas consumidas habitualmente en Egipto fueron analizadas usando un ensayo in vitro con DPPH. El orden de efectividad de los zumos de frutas en inhibir los radicales libres fue el siguiente: zumo de uva tinta > zumo de mango > zumo de guayaba > zumo de macedonia de frutas > zumo de piña >zumo de naranja > zumo de cereza > zumo de manzana. Entre las bebidas y bebidas calientes, el té seguido por el café son los que tuvieron mayores TAPs. Estos datos confirman que el zumo de uva, el té y el café son buenas fuentes de antioxidantes.

  13. Market Power in the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Allender, William J.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the strategic pricing for leading brands sold in the carbonated soft drink (CSD) market in the context of a flexible demand specification (i.e. random parameter nested logit) and a structural pricing equation. Our approach does not rely upon the often used ad hoc linear approximations to demand and profit-maximizing first-order conditions. We estimate the structural pricing equation using four different estimators (i.e. OLS, LIML, 2SLS, and GMM) and compare the implied deviatio...

  14. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Bueno; Thiago R. L. C. Paixão

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s). In this ana...

  15. Soft drink wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation-electrooxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares Hernández, Ivonne; Barrera Díaz, Carlos; Valdés Cerecero, Mario; Almazán Sánchez, Perla Tatiana; Castañeda Juárez, Monserrat; Lugo Lugo, Violeta

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a coupled system, a monopolar Electrocoagulation (EC)-Electrooxidation (EO) processes, for the treatment of soft drink wastewater. For the EC test, Cu-Cu, anode-cathode were used at current densities of 17, 51 and 68 mA cm(-2). Only 37.67% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 27% of total organic carbon (TOC) were removed at 20 min with an optimum pH of 8, this low efficiency can be associated with the high concentration of inorganic ions which inhibit the oxidation of organic matter due to their complexation with copper ions. Later EO treatment was performed with boron-doped diamond-Cu electrodes and a current density of 30 Am(-2). The coupled EC-EO system was efficient to reduce organic pollutants from initial values of 1875 mg L(-1) TOC and 4300 mg L(-1) COD, the removal efficiencies were 75% and 85%, respectively. Electric energy consumption to degrade a kilogram of a pollutant in the soft drink wastewater using EC was 3.19 kWh kg(-1) TOC and 6.66 kWh kg(-1) COD. It was concluded that the coupled system EC-EO was effective for the soft drink wastewater treatment, reducing operating costs and residence time, and allowing its reuse in indirect contact with humans, thus contributing to the sustainable reuse as an effluent of industrial wastewater.

  16. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Deliens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm, finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control, being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy, having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling, and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices.

  17. Correlates of University Students’ Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students’ soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students’ beverage choices. PMID:26258790

  18. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-08-06

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency. Four hundred twenty-five university students completed a self-reported on-line questionnaire assessing socio-demographics, health status, soft and energy drink consumption, as well as personal and environmental factors related to soft and energy drink consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Students believing soft drink intake should be minimized (individual subjective norm), finding it less difficult to avoid soft drinks (perceived behavioral control), being convinced they could avoid soft drinks in different situations (self-efficacy), having family and friends who rarely consume soft drinks (modelling), and having stricter family rules about soft drink intake were less likely to consume soft drinks. Students showing stronger behavioral control, having stricter family rules about energy drink intake, and reporting lower energy drink availability were less likely to consume energy drinks. Gender and residency moderated several associations between psychosocial constructs and consumption. Future research should investigate whether interventions focusing on the above personal and environmental correlates can indeed improve university students' beverage choices.

  19. Determination of some heavy metal levels in soft drinks on the Ghanaian market using atomic absorption spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackah, Michael; Anim, Alfred Kwablah; Zakaria, Nafisatu; Osei, Juliet; Saah-Nyarko, Esther; Gyamfi, Eva Tabuaa; Tulasi, Delali; Enti-Brown, Sheriff; Hanson, John; Bentil, Nash Owusu

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-three soft drink samples (i.e., four pineapple-based fruit drinks, eight citrus-based fruit juices, one soya-based drink, three cola carbonated drinks, one apple-based fruit drink, and six cocktail fruit drinks) were randomly purchased from retail outlets in an urban market in Accra and analyzed for the concentrations of iron, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, lead, and copper using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentration of iron and cadmium were 0.723 ± 0.448 mg/L and 0.032 ± 0.012 mg/L, respectively. The mean cobalt concentration was 0.071 ± 0.049 mg/L, while the mean Zn concentration in the samples was 0.060 ± 0.097 mg/L. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cu in the fruit juice samples were 0.178 ± 0.091 mg/L and 0.053 ± 0.063 mg/L respectively. About 78 % of the samples exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 0.3 mg/L prescribed for iron, whereas all the samples exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 0.005 mg/L prescribed for cadmium. About 91 % of the samples exceeded the EU maximum contaminant level prescribed for lead insoft drinks.

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in fruit-based soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first worldwide reconnaissance study of the presence and occurrence of pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks. While there are strict regulations and exhaustive controls for pesticides in fruits, vegetables, and drinking water, scarce attention has been paid to highly consumed derivate products, which may contain these commodities as ingredients. In the case of the fruit-based soft drinks industry, there are no clear regulations, relating to pesticides, which address them, even when there is significant consumption in vulnerable groups such as children. In this work, we have developed a screening method to search automatically for up to 100 pesticides in fruit-based soft drinks extracts based on the application of liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The sample extracts injected were obtained by a preliminary sample treatment step based on solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymer-based reverse phase cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Subsequent identification, confirmation, and quantitation were carried out by LC-TOF MS analysis: the confirmation of the target species was based on retention time matching and accurate mass measurements of protonated molecules ([M + H]+) and fragment ions (obtaining accuracy errors typically lower than 2 ppm). With the proposed method, we measured over 100 fruit-based soft drink samples, purchased from 15 different countries from companies with brands distributed worldwide and found relatively large concentration levels of pesticides in most of the samples analyzed. The concentration levels detected were of the micrograms per liter level, low when considering the European maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for fruits but very high (i.e., 300 times) when considering the MRLs for drinking or bottled water. The detected pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and its main degradate, prochloraz and its main degradate, malathion, and

  1. Sensory attributes of soft drinks and their influence on consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Noemí; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2014-08-01

    Soft drinks are beverages composed of water and other ingredients that provide specific sensorial attributes. Soft drink consumption patterns have recently been changed partially influenced by an increased availability of different types of beverages during the last few years. Consumers' preferences to choose one drink over another are influenced, not only by genetic, psychological and environmental factors, but also by the beverage's specific attributes. In fact, beverage consumption is driven by the sensations it gives. Because the main component of soft drinks is water, an increase in the intake of soft drinks might improve fluid intake and the levels of water in the body if it is regarded as an "essential nutrient".

  2. Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.

  3. Maternal Milk Consumption Predicts the Tradeoff between Milk and Soft Drinks in Young Girls’ Diets1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls’ diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters’ milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters’ milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers’ calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters’ intakes. Mothers’ and daughters’ soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers’ beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters’ diets. In particular, mothers’ milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters’ calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. PMID:11160541

  4. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Niven, Philippa; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of high consumption of soft drinks (non-alcoholic sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks excluding energy drinks) among Australian adolescents and to explore the associations between high consumption and soft drink perceptions and accessibility. Cross-sectional self-completion survey and height and weight measurements. Australian secondary schools. Students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2012-13 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 7835). Overall, 14 % of students reported consuming four or more cups (≥1 litres) of soft drinks each week ('high soft drink consumers'). Demographic factors associated with high soft drink consumption were being male and having at least $AU 40 in weekly spending money. Behavioural factors associated with high soft drink consumption were low fruit intake, consuming energy drinks on a weekly basis, eating fast foods at least once weekly, eating snack foods ≥14 times/week, watching television for >2 h/d and sleeping for soft drinks to be usually available in their home, convenient to buy and good value for money were more likely to be high soft drink consumers, as were students who reported usually buying these drinks when making a beverage purchase from the school canteen/vending machine. High soft drink consumption clusters with other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among Australian secondary-school students. Interventions focused on reducing the availability of soft drinks (e.g. increased taxes, restricting their sale in schools) as well as improved education on their harms are needed to lower adolescents' soft drink intake.

  5. Hubungan Antara Tingkat Pengetahuan Dengan Konsumsi Terhadap Soft Drink Pada Siswa Kelas XI SMA Sutomo 1 Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Hardi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Soft drink is carbonated drink with added seasoning and sweetening such as sugar. Consumption of soft drink have bad effect for health and adolescence like to consume this kind of drink. Consumption of soft drink can be affected by factor of knowledge where knowledge have affection to development of behavior. This study aim to determine whether there is association between degree of knowledge with consumption about soft drink of student class XI SMA Sutomo 1 Medan year 2010. Thi...

  6. Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7-10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model particles adhered almost exclusively on the biofilms (i.e. on the bacterial aggregates and on the filamentous structures) and not directly on the uncolonized walls (glass or Plexiglas). Biofilm age (i.e. bacterial density and biofilm properties) and convective-diffusion were found to govern particle accumulation: older biofilms and higher wall shear rates both increased the velocity and the amount of particle deposition on the biofilm. Persistence of the polystyrene particles was measured over a two-month period after inoculation. Accumulation amounts were found to be very different between hard and soft particles as only 0.03 per thousand of the soft particles inoculated accumulated in the biofilm against 0.3-0.8% for hard particles.

  7. Bioavailability of multiple components following acute ingestion of a polyphenol-rich juice drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Mullan, Adam; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2010-07-01

    A healthy diet involves eating fruit and vegetables on a daily basis, the benefits of which are in part linked to the ingestion of bioactive compounds including polyphenols. As a convenient means of delivering additional polyphenols to the diet, a polyphenol-rich (P-R) juice drink was prepared and the bioavailability of its diverse spectrum of constituents investigated. Ten human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 days before drinking 350 mL of the P-R beverage. Plasma and urine were collected for 24 h and analyzed by HPLC-PDA-MS. The plasma pharmacokinetics and recoveries of urinary metabolites of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, dihydrochalcones and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, both in terms of their identity and quantity, were, in most instances, not markedly different to those reported in other feeding studies with green tea, orange juice, apple cider and coffee. This indicates that the combination of polyphenolic compounds in the P-R beverage are absorbed and excreted to a similar extent whether fed individually or together in a single beverage. It is concluded that the P-R beverage can deliver the intended blend of bioavailable polyphenols, which would normally require consumption of several different plant-derived foods.

  8. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  9. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  10. Are soft drinks getting a bum rap? We don't think so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adrienne A; Nitzke, Susan; Peterson, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    The viewpoint presented in this article is that soft drink consumption is a contributing factor in the rising incidence of overweight among school-aged children. Misinformation must be dispelled so that resources can be directed to real, evidence-based concerns. Child nutrition advocates have called for reducing access to soft drinks in schools as an important step in optimizing healthful environments for children. School nutrition policies are being revised at national, state, and local levels. Along with other stakeholders, soft drink manufacturers must acknowledge the problem of rising rates of overweight in children and work within their spheres of influence to limit access to soft drinks in schools.

  11. Correlates of University Students' Soft and Energy Drink Consumption According to Gender and Residency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personal and environmental correlates of Belgian university students' soft and energy drink consumption and investigated whether these associations were moderated by gender or residency...

  12. (1)H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals a Pedoclimatic Metabolic Imprinting in Ready-to-Drink Carrot Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alberta; Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Capuani, Giorgio; Delfini, Maurizio; Aureli, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2016-06-29

    Carrots are usually consumed in their native form or processed into many different products. Carrot juice is a popular beverage consumed throughout the world and is attracting increasing attention due to its nutritional value, being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Ready-to-drink carrot juices produced in the same factory were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The juices were made from carrot roots of the same cultivar grown in three different geographical areas in Italy. More than 30 compounds have been identified and quantified, and the data was subjected to univariate ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Clear geographical-dependent clustering was observed, and the metabolic profiles were related to the different pedoclimatic conditions. The proposed phytoprofiling approach could be employed on an industrial scale to evaluate finished products involving different sites of supply of the raw material, thus improving both the quality and uniformity of the juices.

  13. Microbial Community Analysis of Anaerobic Reactors Treating Soft Drink Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kim, Na-Kyung; Mei, Ran; Nobu, Masaru K.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic packed-bed (AP) and hybrid packed-bed (HP) reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95%) after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR) increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR. PMID:25748027

  14. Microbial community analysis of anaerobic reactors treating soft drink wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Narihiro

    Full Text Available The anaerobic packed-bed (AP and hybrid packed-bed (HP reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95% after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR.

  15. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules.

  16. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F

    2007-06-08

    We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and women, and their 12-year old children, originating from Swedish national databases. Associations to younger age and lower education in adults were in particular apparent for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was further associated to less restrained and more external eating in adults. In contrast, light soft drinks were associated with higher BMI, more restrained eating and also more emotional eating in adults. For the children these associations were generally weaker. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are consumed by persons with a lower education, who furthermore are less prone to attempt to restrict their calorie intake, and by some of those who are sensitive to external stimuli of foods. Light soft drinks are rather chosen by the more heavy persons who try to restrict their energy intake perhaps in order to control the body weight, and more unexpectedly, by adults who eat for comfort. Being more sensitive to an external stimulus of food such as taste seems to imply proneness to consume sugar-sweetened soft drinks instead of the light versions. Light soft drinks may be perceived as an adequate substitute in the use of foods for comfort, meaning the sweet taste may be sufficient for this purpose.

  17. Soft Drink Vending Machines in Schools: A Clear and Present Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James; Murnan, Judy; Moore, Bradene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the availability of soft drinks in schools ("pouring rights contracts") and its effects on the growing nutritional problems of American youth. Of special concern is the prevalence of overweight youth, which has been increasing at alarming rates. There has been a direct relationship found between soft drink consumption and…

  18. Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Mærsk; Sparre, Anita Belza; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD) may promote obesity, among other factors, owing to low-satiating effects. The effect of energy in drinks on appetite is still unclear. We examined the effect of two isocaloric, but macronutrient, different beverages (SSSD vers...

  19. Soft drinks, aggression and suicidal behaviour in US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnick, Sara J; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been rising among teens, and recent research has identified potential links to violence, depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour. We analyse a national data-set, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to examine the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggression, depression and suicidal behaviours among US adolescents. We find that higher soft drink consumption is associated with a range of undesirable behaviours: being in a physical fight, feeling sad or hopeless and having suicidal thoughts and actions. The data display a 'dose-response' relationship, with the percentage engaged in aggression or suicidal behaviour increasing steadily with greater quantities of soft drinks consumed. While further research is needed to determine if the association is causal, soft drink consumption may be a useful indicator for both aggression and suicidal behaviours among American high school students.

  20. Determination of synthetic food dyes in commercial soft drinks by TLC and ion-pair HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Francisca Ivani; Florindo Guedes, Maria Izabel; Pinto Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão; Pereira Mendes, Francisca Noélia; Salmito Rodrigues, Paula Alves; Costa Maia, Carla Soraya; Marques Ávila, Maria Marlene; de Matos Ribeiro, Luzara

    2014-08-15

    Synthetic food colourings were analyzed on commercial carbonated orange and grape soft drinks produced in Ceará State, Brazil. Tartrazine (E102), Amaranth (E123), Sunset Yellow (E110) and Brilliant Blue (E133) were extracted from soft drinks using C18 SPE and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), this method was used to confirm the composition of food colouring in soft drinks stated on label. The concentration of food colouring in soft drink was determined by ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The results obtained with the samples confirm that the identification and quantification methods are recommended for quality control of the synthetic colours in soft drinks, as well as to determine whether the levels and lables complies with the recommendations of food dyes legislation.

  1. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Robert A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total. Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136. Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001, branded beer (p = 0.0004, and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006. Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126. About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries.

  2. Portrayals of branded soft drinks in popular American movies: a content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Diana; Townsend, Marilyn; Bell, Robert A; Watnik, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines the portrayals of soft drinks in popular American movies as a potential vehicle for global marketing and an indicator of covert product placement. Methods We conducted a content analysis of America's top-ten grossing films from 1991 through 2000 that included portrayals of beverages (95 movies total). Coding reliabilities were assessed with Cohen's kappa, and exceeded 0.80. If there was at least one instance of branding for a beverage, the film was considered having branded beverages. Fisher's exact test was used to determine if soft drink portrayals were related to audience rating or genre. Data on the amount of time soft drinks appeared onscreen was log transformed to satisfy the assumption of normality, and analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA model. McNemar's test of agreement was used to test whether branded soft drinks are as likely to appear or to be actor-endorsed compared to other branded beverages. Results Rating was not associated with portrayals of branded soft drinks, but comedies were most likely to include a branded soft drink (p = 0.0136). Branded soft drinks appeared more commonly than other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0001), branded beer (p = 0.0004), and other branded alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0006). Actors consumed branded soft drinks in five times the number of movies compared to their consumption of other branded non-alcoholic beverages (p = 0.0126). About half the revenue from the films with portrayals of branded soft drinks come from film sales outside the U.S. Conclusion The frequent appearance of branded soft drinks provides indirect evidence that product placement is a common practice for American-produced films shown in the U.S. and other countries. PMID:16526959

  3. Intakes of apple juice, fruit drinks and soda are associated with prevalent asthma in US children aged 2-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo; Uribarri, Jaime; Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    High soft drink consumption has been linked with asthma. Anecdotal evidence links high-fructose corn syrup with asthma. The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has emerged as a mediator of asthma. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) assess the correlation between intake of beverages containing excess free fructose (EFF beverages) and asthma in children; and (ii) epidemiologically test the mechanistic hypothesis that intake of high EFF beverages, such as apple juice or beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup, is associated with increased risk of asthma. This hypothesis is based on the possible effect of increases in the in situ intestinal formation of advanced glycation end products (enFruAGE) with EFF, which may be absorbed and play a role in RAGE-mediated asthma. We examined cross-sectional associations between beverage intake and self-reported current or history of asthma. Exposure variables were EFF beverages, including apple juice (AJ), non-diet soft drinks (ndSD) and fruit drinks (FD). Orange juice (OJ), not an EFF beverage, was included as a comparison. Rao-Scott χ(2) analysis was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI and total energy intake. Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative survey. US children (n 1961) aged 2-9 years with complete responses on the dietary frequency questionnaire. Intakes of EFF beverages were significantly associated with asthma in 2-9-year-olds. Adjusted odds of asthma in children consuming EFF beverages ≥5 times/week was more than five times that in children consuming these beverages ≤1 time/month (OR=5·29, P=0·012). Children consuming AJ ≥5 times/week v. ≤1 time/month, adjusted for the other beverages, were more than twice as likely to have asthma (OR=2·43, P=0·035). In contrast, there was a tendency for OJ to be protective. These results

  4. Effects of energy drinks on soft tissue healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Mustafa; Toptas, Orcun; Akkas, Ismail; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Firat, Tulin; Ezirganli, Seref; Ozan, Fatih

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an energy drink (ED) on soft tissue wound healing in the rat model. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. A full-thickness paravertebral linear incision wound model was created. The experimental group (EG) received an ED (Red Bull), and the control group (CG) received water. Red Bull (3.57 mL/kg/d) was administered to the rats by the oral gavage method on the day before the skin incision and continued for 14 days. The rats were sacrificed (n = 6 in each group) on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th day of the study. Sections were obtained from excised linear wound healing site and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome for morphological analysis. To assess angiogenesis on the sections, immunohistochemical studies were carried out using vascular endothelial growth factor antibody and alpha smooth muscle actin Ab-1. The breaking strength of the wound healing site was measured in Newtons using a tensiometer. Morphological analysis showed that collagen deposition in the wound areas was statistically higher in the EG compared with that of the CG at both the third and seventh days (P soft tissue wound healing and that its effect may be due to increased collagen deposition, re-epithelialization, and new blood vessel formation in the wound.

  5. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  6. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  7. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (...

  8. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  9. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.

  10. Consumption of Soft Drinks and Hyperactivity, Mental Distress, and Conduct Problems Among Adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Lien, Nanna; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether high levels of consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental distress, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted with 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway (n = 5498). We used the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to assess mental health outcomes. Results. There was a J-shaped dose–response relationship between soft drink consumption and mental distress, conduct problems, and total mental health difficulties score; that is, adolescents who did not consume soft drinks had higher scores (indicating worse symptoms) than those who consumed soft drinks at moderate levels but lower scores than those with high consumption levels. The relationship was linear for hyperactivity. In a logistic regression model, the association between soft drink consumption and mental health problems remained significant after adjustment for behavioral, social, and food-related variables. The highest adjusted odds ratios were observed for conduct problems among boys and girls who consumed 4 or more glasses of sugar-containing soft drinks per day. Conclusions. High consumption levels of sugar-containing soft drinks were associated with mental health problems among adolescents even after adjustment for possible confounders. PMID:17008578

  11. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-05-13

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001-2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007-2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  12. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX, conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323. Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  13. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-15

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(•)) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.

  14. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  15. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions.

  16. Study of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of organic oxy acids in order to detect sophisticated wines and juice drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Helen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to International Code of Oenological Practices it is allowed to use acide L(+tartrique for wine acidification, while use of synthetic dihydroxysuccinic acid is forbidden. Today it is impossible to differentiate natural dihydroxysuccinic acid from synthetic one by standard techniques. Even by using very sensitive method of isotope mass spectrometry certain difficulties emerge because total isotope characteristics of carbon of dihydroxysuccinic acid of different nature have the same values. However, isotope characteristics of carbon of intramolecular structural groups of dihydroxysuccinic acid made of different raw materials differ significantly. This allows specifying the nature of dihydroxysuccinic acid that is used for making of wines and juice drinks. In Russia, scientific and research institute of beer brewing and wine-making industry carried out a work for studying isotope characteristics of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of dihydroxysuccinic acid from different origins in order to identify wines and juice drinks. Isotope characteristics of organic oxy acids from different origins were studied including them obtained by synthetic way and numeric range of value δ13 C,‰ were specified. The obtained results allow performing identification tests of wines and juice drinks to find out the products that contain not specified additives as that allowed for its use in production process.

  17. Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2008-03-01

    Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (Psoft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

  18. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  19. Calcium glycerophosphate supplemented to soft drinks reduces bovine enamel erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; MONTAGNOLLI, Lia Guimarães; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; SAMPAIO, Fábio Correia; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2012-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) supplemented to soft drinks on bovine enamel erosion. Material and methods Four pH-cycles were performed, alternating demineralization by the beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva. Results Mean wear (±SD, µm) was 7.91±1.13, 7.39±1.01, 7.50±0.91 and 5.21±1.08 for Coca-ColaTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, respectively, while no wear was detected for CaGP at 5.0 and 10.0 mM. Corresponding figures for Sprite ZeroTM without CaGP or containing CaGP at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 or 10.0 mM were 8.04±1.30, 7.84±0.71, 7.47±0.80, 4.96±0.81, 3.99±0.10 and 1.87±0.12, respectively. Conclusion Supplementation of both beverages with CaGP seems to be an alternative to reduce their erosive potential. PMID:23032201

  20. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2007-04-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.

  1. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (intake. The results...... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF CO2 RETENTION OF PET BOTTLES FOR CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Licciardello; C Coriolani; G Muratore

    2011-01-01

      One of the major aims pursued by the carbonated soft drinks industry is to extend the shelf-life of PET-packaged products, in order to guarantee the consumers with the original characteristics and quality...

  3. The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikhbihi Adam, Abdulfatah; Smed, Sinne

    though detrimental health effects in terms of increased intake of diet soft-drinks has to be considered. A flat tax on soft-drinks decrease the intake of sugar, but leave total calorie intake unaltered due to substitution with other SSB’s. A tax aimed at removing the value added from purchasing large...... the effects of taxation are evaluated. To add to the literature in this aspect we estimated a two-step censored dynamic almost ideal demand system where we include the possibilities that consumers have to substitute between diet and regular soft-drinks, between discount and non-discount (normal) brands...... differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even...

  4. Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non–industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. PMID:17329656

  5. Wastewater from the soft drinks industry as a source for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Miguel A; Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G

    2013-05-01

    Wastewaters from the soft drinks industry were examined as media for producing bioethanol using yeast-mediated fermentation. Fermentation assays were performed using cola-type, orange and lemon-lime soft drinks and the biomass, sugar and ethanol levels were monitored over time. The effect of the addition of yeast extract was evaluated; the results indicated that 15 g/L is a suitable value for successful fermentation. Depletion of the sugars contained in the soft drinks (10-12% w/v) was achieved in less than 12 h when the medium was inoculated with 2 g/L of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Windsor. Ethanol yields were close to the theoretical values. The performance of several kinetic models was evaluated, and their parameters were determined. A model including inhibition by ethanol enabled the best adjustment of the experimental results in all assayed media. Some soft drinks include sodium benzoate in their formulae, the effect of which on yeast metabolism is discussed.

  6. The effects of different types of taxes on soft-drink consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikhbihi Adam, Abdulfatah; Smed, Sinne

    differentiated tax on soft-drinks that remove the value for money obtained by purchasing large container sizes. The scenarios are scaled equally in terms of obtained public revenue. Largest effect in terms of reduced intake of calories and sugar are obtained by applying the tax on sugar in all beverages, even...... though detrimental health effects in terms of increased intake of diet soft-drinks has to be considered. A flat tax on soft-drinks decrease the intake of sugar, but leave total calorie intake unaltered due to substitution with other SSB’s. A tax aimed at removing the value added from purchasing large...... container sizes increase sugar and total calorie intake due to substitution towards discount brands. Hence the results show the importance of considering substitution between different sizes, brands and discount versus normal brands when simulating the effects of soft-drinks taxation and point toward a tax...

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level. Empirical results reveal unique non-linear patterns of household purchase response to sCSD-...

  8. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population

    OpenAIRE

    LANA, A.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The cohort was established ...

  9. Price Discrimination with Asymmetric Firms: The Case of the U.S. Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Shen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between price discrimination and vertical product differentiation, using National Brands and Private Labels in the Carbonated Soft Drink market as a case study. We decompose prices difference into quantity dis- count and cost difference across packagings and recover marginal cost by a structural demand model of consumer preference and firm behavior. Our results suggest that in the carbonated soft drinks market, both national brands and private labels o...

  10. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Franco eDelogu; Claire eHuddas; Katelyn eSteven; Souheila eHachem; Luv eLodhia; Ryan eFernandez; Macee eLogerstedt

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms ...

  11. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was positively associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls. PMID:26178725

  12. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  14. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  15. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  16. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  17. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran CHENG; Hui YANG; Mei-ying SHAO; Tao HU; Xue-dong ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks.

  18. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-05-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks.

  19. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the premolars and the molars. The review is to show the relationship between dental erosion and caries and soft drinks. Some efforts have been taken to reduce the harmful effect of soft drinks. PMID:19434767

  20. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42...... reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG....

  1. Roughness and pH changes of enamel surface induced by soft drinks in vitro-applications of stylus profilometry, focus variation 3D scanning microscopy and micro pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mie; Kitasako, Yuichi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate enamel surface roughness (Ra) and pH before and after erosion by soft drinks. Enamel was exposed to a soft drink (cola, orange juice or green tea) for 1, 5 or 60 min; Ra was measured using contact-stylus surface profilometry (SSP) and non-contact focus variation 3D microscope (FVM). Surface pH was measured using a micro pH sensor. Data were analyzed at significance level of alpha=0.05. There was a significant correlation in Ra between SSP and FVM. FVM images showed no changes in the surface morphology after various periods of exposure to green tea. Unlike cola and orange juice, exposure to green tea did not significantly affect Ra or pH. A significant correlation was observed between surface pH and Ra change after exposure to the drinks. Optical surface analysis and micro pH sensor may be useful tools for non-damaging, quantitative assessment of soft drinks erosion on enamel.

  2. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  3. Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Soft Drinks: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard C.; Robertson, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure for determining trihalomethanes (THMs) in liquids by gas chromatography. Provides recommendations for reactants and supplies to obtain acceptable results. Discusses the analysis of water from various sources: pools, lakes, and drinking water; compares these to three cola drinks. (ML)

  4. Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract.

  5. Point-of-Purchase Price and Education Intervention to Reduce Consumption of Sugary Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amitabh; McManus, Katherine D.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether a price increase on regular (sugary) soft drinks and an educational intervention would reduce their sales. Methods. We implemented a 5-phase intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital cafeteria in Boston, Massachusetts. After posting existing prices of regular and diet soft drinks and water during baseline, we imposed several interventions in series: a price increase of 35% on regular soft drinks, a reversion to baseline prices (washout), an educational campaign, and a combination price and educational period. We collected data from a comparison site, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, also in Boston, for the final 3 phases. Results. Sales of regular soft drinks declined by 26% during the price increase phase. This reduction in sales persisted throughout the study period, with an additional decline of 18% during the combination phase compared with the washout period. Education had no independent effect on sales. Analysis of the comparison site showed no change in regular soft drink sales during the study period. Conclusions. A price increase may be an effective policy mechanism to decrease sales of regular soda. Further multisite studies in varied populations are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:20558801

  6. Determination of some soft drink constituents and contamination by some heavy metals in Nigeria

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    Engwa Azeh Godwill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft drinks are consumed daily in Nigeria due to its affordability, characteristic taste, and thirst quenching potential. However, the high demand may compromise the quality of production with possible contamination of heavy metals which have shown to cause intoxication and death in humans. This study evaluated some constituents of twenty-six soft drinks in Nigeria and investigated the presence of some heavy metal contaminants. The soft drinks were screened for the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate and alcohol as well as the pH and acidity determined. The level of cadmium, mercury and lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study showed the presence of sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphate, and alcohol in the soft drinks. The soft drinks were acidic in nature, pH ranging from 3 to 5 with a mean of 3.6 and the acid concentration was relatively low between 3 and 12 g/L with a mean of 8.1 g/L. Lead was present in all the samples ranging from 0.17 to 3.39 mg/L with a mean of 0.8, mercury was present in 22 samples ranging from 0.29 to 11.32 mg/L with a mean of 2.08 mg/L while cadmium was present only in one sample (0.149 mg/L. When compared to EPA, WHO and NIS standards, the levels of the heavy metal contaminants were above the tolerated limits for good quality drinking water in most samples. These results suggest that soft drinks in Nigeria may be contaminated with heavy metals which constitute a major public health problem. Thus, quality control is recommended during the production process especially at the stages of sterilization and purification.

  7. Role of familiarity on effects of caffeine- and glucose-containing soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Grady, Melanie L; Finnegan, Yvonne E; Hughes, Sally-Anne C; Cotton, Jacqui R; Rogers, Peter J

    2006-02-28

    Familiarity, through conditioned responses and expectations, may play a significant role in the expression of liking for, and mood and performance effects of, food and drink constituents. The role of familiarity and the effects of caffeine and glucose in Lucozade Energy were investigated by testing this familiar soft drink, and its non-caffeine/non-CHO placebo match, against novel coloured/flavoured full and placebo drinks. Both the familiar drink and its placebo improved alertness, mental energy and mental performance compared to baseline and compared to the novel placebo drink. After repeated exposure, that is, after having gained familiarity with the novel drinks in addition to the already existing familiarity with Lucozade Energy, only the full (caffeine and CHO containing) drinks showed sustained beneficial effects compared to placebo drinks and baseline measures, as well as an increase in liking compared to placebo drinks. Therefore, participants appeared to have learned that beneficial effects were mainly linked to the full products. The results illustrate the restorative combination of caffeine and CHO in the drink, and emphasises the need to implement the appropriate placebo(s) in any study design employing familiar foods or drinks.

  8. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  9. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

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    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  10. Color stability of visible light cured composite resin after soft drink immersion

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    Alizatul Khairani Hasan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is a tooth-colored filling material containing Bis-GMA which exhibits water sorption properties. People tend to consume soft drink with various colors. Water sorption properties can alter the color stability of composite resin purpose. Purpose: This study was to determine the influence of immersion durations of composite resin in soft drink on color stability. Methods: The visible-light cured hybrid composite resin and soft drink were used. Ten disk specimens (2.5 mm thickness and 15 mm diameter of composite resin were prepared and light cured for 20 seconds, then stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37° C. The initial color of specimens were measured by Chromameter. After that, each specimen was immersed in 30 ml of soft drink up to 48, 72, and 96 hours at 37° C. The specimens’ color were measured again after each immersion. The color changes were calculated by CIE L*a*b* system formula. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD (α = 0.05. Result: The ANOVA showed that the immersion durations of composite resin in soft drinks had significant influence on the color stability (p < 0.05. The LSD0.05 tests showed significant differences among all groups. The least color change was detected from the group of 48 hours immersion, while the greatest color change was from the group of 96 hours immersion. Conclusions: The immersion of composite resin in soft drinks influenced the color stability (began after 48 hours immersion.

  11. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  12. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  13. Effect of soft drinks on the release of calcium from enamel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee

    2013-09-01

    Continuous consumption of soft drinks is the main cause of potential oral health problems, including dental caries and erosion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three different types of soft drinks on the release of calcium from the enamel surface of teeth. Forty bovine teeth were selected for the experiment. They were divided into four groups (n=10/group): Group 1 (Coke), Group 2 (Pepsi), Group 3 (Sprite), and Group 4 (distilled water, the control). The pH of each beverage was measured using a pH meter. The release of calcium ions was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at baseline, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results were assessed by analysis of variance and then by the Tukey test (psoft drinks. Coke, Pepsi, and Sprite showed no significant mean differences in the calcium released, but there was a significant mean difference of these soft drinks with distilled water at 60 minutes. We concluded that prolonged exposure to soft drinks could lead to significant enamel loss.

  14. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

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    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  15. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration.

  16. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhedaide, Adel; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; IBRAHIM, ZEIN SHABAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function...

  17. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Flood, A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, K.; Jacobs, E.J.; Krogh, V.; Larsson, S.C.; Marshall, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Robien, K.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Sieri, S.; Spiegelman, D.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Willett, W.C.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. MethodsWe investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a

  18. Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: Results from the SMILE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. de Vries (Hein); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAdolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208,

  19. Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: Results from the SMILE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. de Vries (Hein); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAdolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 6

  20. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Flood, A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, K.; Jacobs, E.J.; Krogh, V.; Larsson, S.C.; Marshall, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Robien, K.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Sieri, S.; Spiegelman, D.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Willett, W.C.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. MethodsWe investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a p

  1. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 1010 cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosacch...

  2. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

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    Mekdes K. Gebremariam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective: This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks among adolescents. Methods: In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results: A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions: There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents.

  3. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  4. The Effect of Different Soft Drinks on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

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    M Omid Khoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is proved that acidic soft drinks that are commonly used, have an adverse effect on dental structures, and may deteriorate oral heath of our patients and orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of yoghurt drink with other soft drinks on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and standard twin metal brackets were bonded on the center of buccal surface with No-Mix composite. The teeth were thermocycled for 625 cycles and randomly divided into five groups of artificial saliva, carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, non-carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, 7 up with citric acid base and Pepsi with phosphoric acid base. In all groups, the teeth were immersed in liquid for five-minute sessions three times with equal intervening intervals for 3 months. SBS was measured by a universal testing machine with a speed of 0.5mm/min. Data was analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA.Results: The results showed that mean values for the shear bond strength of carbonated yoghurt drinks, non-carbonated yoghurt drinks, 7up and Pepsi groups were 12.98(+_2.95, 13.26(+_4.00, 16.11(+_4.89, 14.73(+_5.10, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups (P-value= 0.238Conclusion: Soft drinks used in this study did not decrease the bond strength of the brackets bonded with this specific type of composite.

  5. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  6. Soft Drink Design - USMES Teacher Resource Book. Fourth Edition. Trial Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agro, Sally; Sampson, Sue Scott

    Inventing a new soft drink that is popular and can be produced at low cost is the challenge of this Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) unit. The challenge is general enough to apply to many problem-solving situations in mathematics, science, social science, and language arts at any elementary school level (grades 1-8).…

  7. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  8. CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENTS IN SOFT AND ENERGY DRINKS AVAILABLE ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

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    Mira Elena Ionică

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a stimulant that is commonly found in many foods and drinks that we consume. Concerns exist about the potential adverse health effects of high consumption of dietary caffeine, especially in children and pregnant women. Recommended caffeine intakes corresponding to no adverse health effects have been suggested recently for healthy adults (400 – 450 mg/day, for women contemplating pregnancy (300 mg/day, and for young children age 4 – 6 years (45 mg/day. Different brands of soft and energy carbonated beverages available on the Romanian market were analysed for caffeine by HPLC with a diode array UV-VIS detector at 217 nm. The column was a reverse phase C18 and the mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (0.02 mol/L, pH 4.3 and acetonitrile (88:12, v/v. The caffeine contents in energy drink samples ranged from 16.82 mg/100 mL to 39.48 mg/100 mL while the carbonated soft drink group showed caffeine content in the range of 9.79 – 14.38 mg/100 mL. In addition, the concentrations of caffeine have been converted into the daily intake doses based on beverages consumption. The mean values of caffeine daily intakes were 124 mg and 49 mg through the ingestion of energy drinks and soft drinks, respectively.

  9. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of “pushing” soft drink consumption. “Pouring rights” contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets. Imagesp308-ap313-a PMID:11059423

  10. Study of Trace and Heavy Metals Content of Soft Drinks in the State of Kuwait

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    H. M. Alzaid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 25 trace and heavy metals were determined in 29 brands of soft drinks collected from supermarkets and grand stores in Kuwait using an Agilent ICP/MS. Comparison of the elemental concentrations in the soft drinks samples with the international maximum allowable limits showed that the mean values as well as the ranges of all the investigated elements in all the samples analyzed were below both US-EPA and WHO regulatedlimits of drinking water. It was found that there is no significant effect on the material of the containers on the levels of the studied metals. In addition, these levels were found much lower than those found in other countries.

  11. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

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    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  12. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  13. Characteristics of Fermentation Drink made from Juice of Winged Bean Sprouts (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and Red Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelina Novelina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented milk is a product that was produced from fermentation of fresh milk using lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A variety of plant materials can also be used as raw material in making of  fermentation drinks, such as nuts and tubers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of fermentation drink made from juice of winged bean sprout and red sweet potatoes. The treatment in this study is the level of mixing between juice of winged bean sprout with red sweet potatoes , consist of ;A (30:70, B (40:60, C (50:50, D (60:40 and E (70:30. Completely randomized design had been used with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The data colected was pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, total lactic acid bacteria, total plate count and sensory evaluation. Data processing is performed using statistical 8, followed by Tuckey test HSD All-Pair wise Comparisons Test at level of 5%. Mixing of winged bean sprouts with red sweet potato can increase the value of pH, viscosity, protein content, fat content, total solids, total acid, ash content, calcium content, and total lactic acid bacteria. The best product was the product of B (40% winged bean sprout and 60% red sweet potatoes already meets SNI 7552:2009, contain : 2.36% protein content, fat content of 1.24%, 18.77% total solids, pH was 4, 2, 0.54% total acid, 0.23% ash content, 0.173% calcium content, viscosity was 3.56 DPA,  total  lactic acid bacteria (CFU / ml was 1.9 x1010 , total plate count was 2.1 x1010 (CFU / ml.

  14. Study to Assess the Prevalence of Soft Drinking and its Determinants among the School going Children of Gwalior city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05. A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05.Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest.

  15. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine; Toft, Ulla; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p intake. Compared to MSG 1, odds of an appropriate soft drink intake were significantly lower in MSG 3-4: OR = 0.87 (95%CI 0.83-0.91) and OR = 0.89 (95%CI 0.85-0.92), respectively. Compared to MSG 1, odds of a frequent soft drink intake were significantly higher in MSG 3-4: OR = 1.24 (95%CI 1.63-1.31) and 1.17 (95%CI 1.10-1.25), respectively. A significant interaction between MSG and educational level was found among individuals reporting a frequent soft drink intake (p = 0.02). The results show an encouraging reduction in frequency of soft drink intake among capital residents in the period of 2007-2013. A social gradient was observed in soft drink intake across MSG.

  16. Ultra-violet Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine in Soft and Energy Drinks Available in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos-Tautua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the pH and levels of caffeine in eight brands of carbonated and energy drinks available in local market in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Quantitative analysis of caffeine was performed by a simple and fast standard UV spectrophotometric method, using carbon tetrachloride as the extracting solvent. Results showed that the pH of the beverages were slightly acidic ranging from 5.92-6.44. The minimum caffeine level was observed in the carbonated soft drink Coca Cola (43.71±0.55 ppm, while the energy drink, Red Bull sample showed the highest caffeine content (58.31±0.35 ppm. The carbonated soft drinks showed caffeine levels in the range of 43.71 and 45.83 ppm with average concentration of 44.52 ppm, whereas in the energy drinks it ranged from 47.56 to 58.31 ppm with a mean concentration of 52.24 ppm. The caffeine content in all the beverage samples analyzed in this study are well below the maximum allowable limits set by the US Food and Drugs Administration.

  17. [Connection between of overweight and consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks. Widespread investigation Russian schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon', I Ia; Volkova, L Iu; Sannikova, N E; Dzhumagaziev, A A; Aleshina, I V; Toboleva, M A; Korosteleva, M M

    2010-01-01

    Overweight appear one of the serious problem in European region WHO today. Obesity is polyetiological disease and result of different factors. The aim of the current studies was investigation of connection between consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks and body-mass index (BMI). At the beginning, was inspection of 434 schoolchildren 7-18 age old. As a result, was determined, that confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks mach more popular, than ever stuffs. At the same time, was determined, that mean significance BMI was reliable above for children, who used confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks frequently.

  18. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review*

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran; Yang, Hui; Shao, Mei-ying; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential, resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years and had a poor oral hygiene. Severe decays were present in the incisors and the canines, while less severe lesions were noted on the ...

  19. Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R.

    1998-05-01

    Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. First, UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello YelloTM using the spectrophotometer's software and manually by the simultaneous equations method. The following week, caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using 45% methanol/55% aqueous phosphate, pH 3.0, as the mobile phase. In the third experiment, the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis using a pH 9.4 borate buffer. Students also determine the minimum detection limits for all three compounds by both LC and CE. The experiments demonstrate the analytical use and limitations of the three instruments. The reports and prelab quizzes also stress the importance of the chemistry of the three compounds, especially the relationships of acid/base behavior and polarity to the LC and CE separations.

  20. Consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, A; Lopez-Garcia, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-11-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence on the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), the industry has funded mass communication strategies promoting the idea that soft drinks, including SSB, may represent a source of well-being. This study assessed the association between consumption of soft drinks and health-related quality of life (HRQL), as a proxy of well-being, in the adult population of Spain. The cohort was established in 2008-2010 with 8417 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged 18-60 years. Habitual soft drink consumption was assessed with a validated diet history at baseline. HRQL was measured using the SF-12 questionnaire at baseline and in a subsample of 2132 study participants in 2012. The analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, those who drank ⩾1 serving/day of SSB had a lower (worse) score on the physical composite summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (adjusted linear regression coefficient: -1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.60 to -0.54) than those who drank 5 kg in the previous 4 years (-0.79; 95% CI: -1.87 to 0.29), and in those without morbidity (-1.18; 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.46). Neither SSBs nor artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) showed an association with the mental composite summary (MCS) of the SF-12. In the prospective analyses, no association was observed between baseline consumption of SSBs or ASBs and the changes in the PCS and MCS score from 2008/2010 to 2012. No evidence was found that soft drink consumption has a beneficial effect on either the physical or mental dimensions of HRQL.

  1. STRATEGIES (MARKETING DECISIONS) ADAPTATION AND CONCLUSIONS OF TRANSNATIONAL NEW BRANDS ON THE RUSSIAN MARKET SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna YAMPOLSKAYA; Veronika CHERNOVA

    2014-01-01

    For several years the Russian market of soft drinks is growing rapidly. According to experts, this trend will continue in the future, but because our country is attrac-tive for brands large multinational companies. This article describes various ways to enter the Russian market brands world's largest companies, studied the experi-ence of promotion beverage company Coca-Cola, The peculiarities of the Russian perception of brands, shows how they are reflected in the advertising campaigns of the...

  2. Consumer Attention, Engagement, and Market Shares: Evidence from the Carbonated Soft Drinks Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rui, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    among consumers and between consumers and brands. Social media users can now interact with brands directly through Facebook and Twitter. These new features make social media a very distinctive class of online WOM. In this paper, we formulate a random coefficient discrete choice model of consumer demand to study whether and how consumer engagement and attention on the Internet affect the consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs). We model consumer attention and engagement on social media as...

  3. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  4. Substitution between Online and Offline Advertising: Evidence from the Carbonated Soft Drink Industry

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xi; Rigoberto A. Lopez; Liu, Yizao

    2015-01-01

    As in previous studies on traditional media, previous work has assumed that online and offline advertising are substitutes. However, empirical evidence for this premise is lacking. This paper investigates the substitution between online advertising and offline advertising as well as the impact of the introduction of new media technology on the cost of advertising. Using a rich dataset of monthly observations for 52 carbonated soft drink brands between 2005 and 2011, we estimate a translog cos...

  5. Perceived rules and accessibility: measurement and mediating role in the association between parental education and vegetable and soft drink intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Lien, Nanna; Torheim, Liv Elin; Andersen, Lene F; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Bjelland, Mona

    .... The aims of this study were (a) to assess the psychometric properties of new scales assessing the perceived rules and accessibility related to the consumption of vegetables and soft drinks and (b...

  6. Temporal changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and variation across municipalities in the Capital Region of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Kamille Almer; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine the changes in sugar-sweetened soft drink intake across the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2013 and to examine the association between intake and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. The study included data from three health surveys in 2007 (n = 30,426), 2010 (n = 42......,218) and 2013 (n = 34,330) in the Capital Region of Denmark. Frequency of soft drink intake was derived from questionnaires among residents aged 25-79 years and linked with information from central registers. Municipality social groups (MSG) 1-4 of decreasing affluence were defined as a composite measure....... Logistic regression analyses were conducted for individuals with an appropriate soft drink intake (intake (≥ 3 times/week). The proportion of individuals reporting an appropriate soft drink intake increased by 71% during 2007-2013 (p

  7. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  8. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  9. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  10. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  11. Water resources management in soft drink industry-water use and wastewater generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Hsine, E; Benhammou, A; Pons, M N

    2005-12-01

    Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimisation. In Morocco, water use in the food and drink industry is extensive at approximately 24 million m3 per year including 14% of drinking water in 1994. This study was conducted in a carbonate soft drink industry plant, during two years, 2001 and 2002. We have investigated the state of consumption and use of fresh water and the generation of the effluent in the factory. The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities for reducing fresh water intake and minimising wastewater production by studying the posibility of reuse, recycling and treatment.

  12. Understanding the heterogeneous nature of the demand for soft drinks in Mexico: why social determinants also matter.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background. Soft drink consumption is a risk factor for obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases, and policies to reduce it have been proposed around the world, including taxation. Little is known about the role of other social and economic factors on the demand of such goods. In addition, heterogeneity of the demand due to different levels of consumption has been rarely explored. The aim of this study is to analyse the heterogeneous nature of the demand for soft drinks to understand the...

  13. Metabolism of isothiocyanates in individuals with positive and null GSTT1 and M1 genotypes after drinking watercress juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyba, Marcin; Wang, Antai; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Goerlitz, David; Shields, Peter; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Rivlin, Richard; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2010-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from cruciferous vegetables have been shown to be promising agents against cancer in human cell culture, animal models, and in epidemiological studies. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between intake of dietary isothiocyanates and the risk of cancers, particularly lung, colon, and breast. More importantly, the protective effects of dietary ITCs appear to be influenced by glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotype; specifically, individuals with glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) null are better protected than those with GSTT1 and M1 positive. Although the majority of studies, especially those conducted in populations exposed to ITC rich diets, demonstrated such effects, there are a few studies that showed opposite or no association. While evidence for the interactions of dietary ITCs with GST genes is relatively strong, the reasons for the differential effects remain unclear. In this study, we examined one possible mechanism: whether subjects with null genotypes excrete ITCs at a slower rate than those with positive genotypes after drinking watercress juice, a rich source of ITCs. A total of 48 subjects, 28 GSTT1 and M1 positive and 20 null genotypes were enrolled in the study. The rates of excretion were determined using five urine samples collected over a period of 24 h after drinking watercress juice. No statistically significant differences in the rates of isothiocyanate excretion and the time of peak excretion were observed between the two tested groups having positive and null genotypes. GSTT1 and M1 genotypes are not likely to be involved in the rate of excretion of ITCs in watercress. The demonstrated differences in protection among subjects with the two genotypes are not likely due to differences in overall ITC excretion rates, however, excretion rates of ITCs other than PEITC need to be investigated. Other yet to be identified mechanism

  14. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Density and refractometric methods can be used to obtain only the total amount of sugar. However .... The first coordinate is calculated so as to predict as much as pos- sible the ... spectrum i and wave number j, R0 corresponds to the back-.

  15. Soft drink, software and softening of teeth: a case report of tooth wear in the mixed dentition due to a combination of dental erosion and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 9-year-old boy with severe tooth wear as a result of drinking a single glass of soft drink per day. This soft drink was consumed over a period of one to two hours, while he was gaming intensively on his computer. As a result, a deep bite, enamel cupping, sensitivity of p

  16. Carbonated soft drinks induce oxidative stress and alter the expression of certain genes in the brains of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Terras, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Alkhedaide, Adel; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Alharthy, Abdullah; Banaja, Abdel Elah

    2016-04-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the consumption of carbonated soft drinks is common and often occurs with each meal. Carbonated soft drink consumption has been shown to exhibit effects on the liver, kidney and bone. However, the effects of these soft drinks on brain activity have not been widely examined, particularly at the gene level. Therefore, the current study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effects of chronic carbonated soft drink consumption on oxidative stress, brain gene biomarkers associated with aggression and brain histology. In total, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a control and was provided access to food and water ad libitum; and groups 2‑4 were given free access to food and carbonated soft drinks only (Cola for group 2, Pepsi for group 3 and 7‑UP for group 4). Animals were maintained on these diets for 3 consecutive months. Upon completion of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and serological and histopathological analyses were performed on blood and tissues samples. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze alterations in gene expression levels. Results revealed that carbonated soft drinks increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Carbonated soft drinks were also observed to downregulate the expression of antioxidants glutathione reductase (GR), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the brain when compared with that in the control rats. Rats administered carbonated soft drinks also exhibited decreased monoamine oxidase A (MAO‑A) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) serum and mRNA levels in the brain. In addition, soft drink consumption upregulated mRNA expression of dopamine D2 receptor (DD2R), while 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5‑HTT) expression was decreased. However, following histological examination, all rats had a normal brain structure. The results of this study demonstrated that that carbonated soft drinks induced oxidative stress and

  17. Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Casey, Valerie; Seaman, Steve; Tague, Brett; Becalski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    An automated, simple, and reproducible method was developed for the determination of benzene in soft drinks, based on isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. The method was used to assess benzene levels in samples of 124 soft drinks and beverages. Benzene was not detected in 60% of the 124 products. The average benzene levels in 6 products exceeded the Canadian maximum acceptable concentration of 5 microg/L for benzene in drinking water, and 2 of the 6 products had benzene levels above the World Health Organization guideline of 10 microg/L. The highest level of benzene, 23 microg/L, was found in a soft drink product specifically marketed to children.

  18. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  19. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  20. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption.

  1. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, Psoft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These data are not consistent with any specific role for NMES or caloric soft drinks in obesity among

  2. Soft drinks : time trends and correlates in twenty-four European countries. A cross-national study using the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) databank

    OpenAIRE

    Naska, Androniki; Bountziouka, Vasiliki; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate time trends in the availability of soft drinks, to identify food choices associated with their consumption and to assess the relationship between socio-economic status and daily soft drink availability in a wide range of European countries. Design: Data on food and beverage availability collected through the national household budget surveys and harmonized in the DAFNE (Data Food Networking) project were used. Averages and variability of soft drink availability were est...

  3. Soft drinks, sweets, and sugar - tracking and lifestyle: The Oslo Youth Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nymoen, Lena Lie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sugar intake has increased substantially in most parts of the world over the past 50 years. Soft drinks seem to be the largest contributor to this increase. A high intake of sugar is correlated with tooth decay, and has been linked to the risk of becoming overweight, developing diabetes type 2 and other lifestyle diseases. One part of the prevention strategy for these diseases may therefore be to promote a reduced intake of foods and beverages high in sugar. To be able to design a...

  4. The Dynamics of Brand Value in the Carbonated Soft Drinks Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Yizao

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how brand values of different carbonated soft drink (CSD) products change over time and how advertising and social media exposure contribute to brand building. The model consists of two stages. In the first stage, we adopt a structural approach to estimate the brand equities of 12 CSD products and measure the brand values in a Bertrand-Nash equilibrium. In the second stage, we study the impacts of marketing-mix variables on brand values. The empirical results show that bot...

  5. Soft food&drink, sistema para restaurantes bares y cafeterías

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Barrera, Alexandra; Solano Veloz, Seila; Freire Cobo, Lenin Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    El documento que se presenta a continuación, contiene el plan de negocios realizado por la empresa Innova Software S.A. empresa desarrolladora de software, encaminada a proveer soluciones a problemas existentes en diversos campos de la industria, a través del diseño y desarrollo de sistemas informáticos. El plan de negocios ofrece información del primer producto desarrollado por nuestra empresa denominado Soft Food&Drink, Sistema de Control de Restaurantes, Bares y Cafeterías; el cual fu...

  6. STRATEGIES (MARKETING DECISIONS ADAPTATION AND CONCLUSIONS OF TRANSNATIONAL NEW BRANDS ON THE RUSSIAN MARKET SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna YAMPOLSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For several years the Russian market of soft drinks is growing rapidly. According to experts, this trend will continue in the future, but because our country is attrac-tive for brands large multinational companies. This article describes various ways to enter the Russian market brands world's largest companies, studied the experi-ence of promotion beverage company Coca-Cola, The peculiarities of the Russian perception of brands, shows how they are reflected in the advertising campaigns of the leading players in the market, formulate conclusions regarding behaviors of TNCs in various conditions.

  7. Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Rafiony

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the emergence of obesity in adolescents. Obesity in adolescents at risk of becoming obese in adulthood and potentially can lead to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases Objective: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of obesity and to investigate risk factors for energy intake and frequency of consumption of fast food and soft drinks on the incidence of obesity in high school students in Pontianak. Method: This research was an observational study which involves case-control design. The samples in this study are 160 students consisting of 80 obese high school teenagers and 80 non-obese high school teenagers. The choice for a subject of research used proportional stratified random sampling. Measurement of obesity status subject was taken by the measurement of weight and height based on the reference standard WHO / NCHS. It also involves data intake of fast food and soft drinks based on interviews with SQFFQ. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak was 9.29%. The bivariate test result showed no association  between total  energy intake of fast food and obesity (p0.05. There was a relationship between the frequency of total  fast food and of the local fast food consumption with obesity (p0.05. Multivariable analysis showed that the total energy intake was the most dominant factor to the onset of obesity (p<0.05; OR=5.27; 95% CI: 1.64-16.97. Conclusion

  8. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    OpenAIRE

    Seri Nurmala; Hartiwi Hartiwi

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  9. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekas

    OpenAIRE

    Seri Nurmala; Hartiwi Prabowo

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions, this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  10. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing and diet (artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD. Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049, but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002 and %BF (p = 0.0001. Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  12. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  13. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas.

  14. Research of Processing Technology for Tomato Raw Juice Drink%番茄原汁饮料加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴英春; 陈杰; 王艳华; 孟双; 张馨文

    2013-01-01

    针对不同破碎方法、破碎温度对番茄汁黏度的影响及加工贮藏过程中极易分层和色泽变暗等不稳定现象、灭菌条件等进行了研究,以期获得均匀稳定、色泽鲜艳、口感好及营养保健效果强的番茄汁饮料.研究发现:85℃、30 s的热破碎工艺可提高番茄汁的黏度;0.08% CMC、0.06%黄原胶和0.06%琼脂配合,可有效保持该产品的稳定状态;添加0.1%的食品级VC可增强番茄汁色素的稳定性;100℃、15 min的杀菌工艺可使产品保持较好的口感风味及保质期.%The effects of different staving method and temperature on tomato juice viscosity, the unstable phenomenon of extremely easy to be layered and become darker in color during storage process and the sterilizing conditions were studied to obtain even steady tomato juice drink with bright colour, fine mouthfeel and good nutrition health care effect. The research discovered that heat staving for 30 seconds at 85℃ could enhance the viscosity of tomato juice; the stability of tomato juice could be enhanced by 0.08% CMC and 0. 06% xanthan gum combined with 0. 06% agar; adding 0. 1% food - grade Vc could strengthen the pigment stability of tomato juice; sterilizing at 100℃ for 15 minutes could obtain better taste and longer storage period.

  15. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage.

  16. Determination of water-soluble vitamins in soft drinks and vitamin supplements using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Matthias; Razzazi, Ebrahim; Luf, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    A method for the determination of six water-soluble vitamins based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) operated in micellar mode was developed. Thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), nicotinamide (vitamin B3), and cobalamin (Vitamin B12) could be separated in a single run. All CE parameters such as buffer composition and operation temperature were optimized in order to achieve better separation. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the described method ranged from 1.08 to 3.68% (intra-day precision) and 1.26 to 3.35% (inter-day precision). The method was then used for measuring various soft drinks and vitamin supplements directly without any step of sample cleanup. The determination of niacin was successful for all samples tested, reaching recoveries near 100%. Riboflavin and pyridoxine were quantified successfully in some but not all samples. Therefore, an evaluation on a case-by-case basis is mandatory. When applicable, this method provides a fast, accurate, simple, and inexpensive way to quantify selected vitamins, and is therefore well suited for routine analysis in soft drink industry.

  17. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezelli Jose D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15 and allowed to consume water (C, light Coca Cola ® (L or regular Coca Cola® (R as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats.

  18. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  19. Determination of rhodamine B in soft drink, waste water and lipstick samples after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Unsal, Yunus Emre; Yilmaz, Erkan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2011-08-01

    A new solid phase extraction method is described for sensitive and selective determination of trace levels of rhodamine B in soft drink, food and industrial waste water samples. The method is based on the adsorption of rhodamine B on the Sepabeads SP 70 resin and its elution with 5 mL of acetonitrile in a mini chromatographic column. Rhodamine B was determined by using UV visible spectrophotometry at 556 nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, amount of rhodamine B, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, resin amount, and sample volume were investigated. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of rhodamine B were investigated. The preconcentration factor was found 40. The detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the reagent blank for rhodamine B was 3.14 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were found as 5% in 1×10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ rhodamine B. The presented procedure was successfully applied to real samples including soft drink, food and industrial waste water and lipstick samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak Patterson, Pamela

    1999-10-01

    This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy. He designed an experiment to test the unknown sample and used samples of purified sugar, purified caffeine, purified citric acid, Coke, Diet Coke, Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Diet 7-Up, and Sam's Diet Cola as controls. The results were analyzed and presented in a final report. The student was able to determine if the unknown contained sugar, caffeine, Nutrasweet, or sodium benzoate. He learned how to compile relevant information, conduct an experiment, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and prepare and edit a formal report. In addition to learning the uses of NMR, he also learned some of its limitations. In the final report, he was encouraged to reflect on the difficulties a scientist might encounter when trying to identify NMR peaks without an "ingredient list" like those of the soft drink cans. The experience was rewarding for the student and all scientists involved.

  1. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks.

  2. Bisphenol A in soft drinks and canned foods and data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Karzi, Vasiliki; Vakonaki, Elena; Goumenou, Marina; Kavvalakis, Matthaios; Stivaktakis, Polychronis; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.4 ± 4.4 ng/g (4.90 ± 0.64-66.0 ± 8.6 ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.70 ± 0.08 ng/ml (1.90 ± 0.06-3.50 ± 0.11 ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.30 ± 0.18 ng/ml (0.40 ± 0.03-10.2 ± 0.8 ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.

  3. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  4. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15) and allowed to consume water (C), light Coca Cola ® (L) or regular Coca Cola® (R) as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats. PMID:20573247

  5. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, Marina Kjærgaard; Nilsson, C; Secher, A

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic...... astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were...... than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences...

  6. Influence of Soft Drinks with Low pH on Different Ni-Ti Orthodontic Archwire Surface Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, C.; Paul, A.; Mendoza, A.; Solano, E.; Palazon, C.; Gil, F. J.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soft drinks on the surface of Ni-Ti archwires and their corrosion behavior. Archwires with different patterns (smooth, scratch, dimple, and crack) were selected and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. Immersion tests were performed in artificial saliva (pH 6.7) with a soft drink with a pH of 2.5 for 28 days. The results showed an increase in the surface defects and/or roughness of the dimple, crack and scratch patterns with the immersion times, and a decrease in corrosion resistance. A relationship between the surface pattern and the extent of the corrosion in Ni-Ti archwires with soft drinks at low pH has been demonstrated. Pattern should be taken into account in future studies, and manufacturing processes that produce surface defects (especially cracks) should be avoided.

  7. Impact of two toothpastes on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink: an AFM in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Lombardini, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Bianchi, Stefano

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was the evaluation of two toothpastes (Sensodyne Pronamel and Biorepair Plus on repairing enamel erosion produced by a soft drink (Coca Cola), using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Fifty extracted human central incisors free of caries were selected and divided in a treatment and a control half; they were kept in artificial saliva during whole experimentation. The treatment halves were divided into five groups; group 1: demineralization with soft drink; group 2: demineralization with soft drink + Pronamel; group 3: demineralization with soft drink + Biorepair Plus; group 4: intact enamel + Pronamel; group 5: intact enamel + Biorepair Plus. Specimen demineralization was carried on in 4 intervals of 2 min. In groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 the toothpastes were applied for 3 min at 0, 8, 24 and 36 h. The surface of each specimen was imaged by AFM and R(rms), root-mean-square roughness, and Maximum Depth of the cavities were registered. Amongst treatment specimens of groups 1, 2, and 3 a statistically significant difference (P<0.01) in R(rms) and Maximum Depth values was registered: the toothpastes reduced enamel demineralization. No statistical differences in R(rms) values were registered between the two toothpastes. The toothpastes tested (Pronamel and BioRepair Plus) offer a degree of protection from erosive drinks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint Influence of Protein Supplements, Soft Drinks and Extreme Physical Activity on the Development of Acute Renal Failure and Hypokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, S; Kitic, D; Kostic, M; Apostolovic, B; Brankovic, S; Ciric, I M; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R

    2015-11-13

    We present a case of a 33-year old man who complained of weakness, fever and decreased urinating. A personal history revealed a consumption of creatine, protein supplements, soft drinks containing caffeine and stevia, and extreme physical activity which included lifting of heavy weights. The patient developed anuria, uraemia, fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and paradoxical hypokalaemia. After the patient had seven successive dialysis treatments, normal kidney function was restored. The report presents the first case of acute renal failure followed by hypokalaemia due to the combined action of the excessive consumption of supplements, soft drinks with stevia and caffeine, and extreme physical activity.

  9. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  10. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  11. Consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks in pregnancy and risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Maslova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. RESULTS: At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33 times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66 and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29 registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74 during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially

  12. Study on the fermentation drink of black fungus juice by lactobacillus%黑木耳乳酸发酵饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都风华; 田兰英; 崔永华; 王俊颖; 陈田甜

    2011-01-01

    主要探讨了以黑木耳为原料,利用乳酸菌发酵,制作具有黑木耳特殊芳香和营养价值的黑木耳乳酸发酵饮料.主要研制了黑木耳汁的制备、黑木耳汁乳酸发酵条件的筛选、黑木耳乳酸发酵饮料的调配及其稳定性,运用模糊数学对黑木耳乳酸发酵饮料进行了感官质量的评定,确定了最佳的工艺条件,即黑木耳汁制备的最佳条件为料水比1:200、浸泡温度90℃、浸泡时间120min;黑木耳汁发酵的最佳条件为黑木耳汁含量为50%,脱脂乳50%,发酵温度为41℃,发酵时向10h,接种量6%;黑木耳乳酸发酵饮料的最佳配方为黑木耳发酵原汁75%,柠檬酸0.09%,白砂糖2%,β-环糊精0.015%.这样制得的黑木耳汁饮料在加入0.09%黄原胶、0.03%海藻酸钠、0.2%CMC稳定剂后,在60℃25MPa条件下均质,可以达到良好的稳定状态.%Using black fungus as a material and fermented by lactobacillus,the development of black fungus drink by lactobacillus fermentation,which possessed special black fungus fragrance and nutrition value was studied. The preparation of black fungus juice, the optimal conditions of black fungus juice fermentation by lactobacillus, the formula selection of black fungus fermentation drink by lactobacillus were also studied. The optimal processing conditions were defined by sense evaluate of fuzzy mathematics for the fermentation drink of black fungus juice by lactobacillus. The optimal conditons of preparation of black fungus juice were:the ratio of black fungus to water was 1∶200, soaking temperature 90℃, soaking time 120min. The optimal fermentation conditons were: the content of black fungus juice 50%, the fermentation temperature 41℃, the fermentation time 10h, inoculum size 6% .The optimal formula was:black fungus fermented original juice 75%, citric acid 0.09%, sugar 2%, β-CyD 0.015% .The obtained black fungus drink posessed good stability in under 60℃ 25MPa homogenization and in the

  13. Global Brands and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Youth Soft Drink Consumers in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Haris Tasurru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a large market for consumer products targeting youth consumers, with populations of more than 70 million young inhabitants and market size of USD 155 billion. The large size of this potential market attracts foreign products with globallyrecognized brands to enter the Indonesian market. The objective of this study is to explain the purchase intention of youth consumers toward a particular brand of soft drink with global penetration by their perceptions and ethnocentrism. This study obtained response from 156 youths in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. The resulting data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with LISREL software package. The study found that consumer ethnocentrism decreases purchase intention, both directly and indirectly through brand image. Contrary to the hypothesis, consumer ethnocentrism does not influence corporate image of the global firm, which significantly influences brand image but only slightly impacts purchase intentions directly.

  14. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ≤ 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products.

  16. Manual handling risks and controls in a soft drinks distribution centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Haslam, R A

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes an investigation into manual handling risks and controls within a soft drinks distribution centre, presented as a case study regarding compliance with the requirements of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992. Methods used included semi-structured interviews, document analysis, analysis of training, OWAS postural analysis and use of the NIOSH equation. Warehouse operators and delivery drivers were studied, and two methods of work compared involving pallets and cages. Significant differences were found between the two work methods with respect to harmful postures. Manual handling risks were found in both warehouse and delivery areas, some being classed as "excessive" using the NIOSH equation. As this company has a good safety record and considers itself proactive in the area of health and safety, the investigation raises concerns about how organisations have responded to the Manual Handling Operations Regulations.

  17. Brand patronage and loyalty patterns: Store vs. manufacturer brands in the Greek soft drink category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Fotopoulos, Christos

    Nowadays, in most of the developed fast-moving consumer goods' markets store brands (i.e. retailer brands or private labels) have managed to establish a conciderable share in the retail market. Moreover, it is well known that store brands are perceived as strong competitors to manufacturer brands...... the potential existence of differences in the loyalty behavior between store brands and manufacturer brands, as expressed through certain brand performance and loyalty measures (e.g. market shares, penetration, purchase frequencies, repeat rate, etc.). In order to meet the above escribed objective, panel data...... from the soft-drinks market in Greece are used, with the premise to investigate brand performance and loyalty of store brands. Observed loyalty measures are benchmarked against predictions from the Dirichlet model (Ehrenberg, Uncles and Goodhardt 2004). The aim of this work is, first, to explore...

  18. Analysis of sugars and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Saudi Arabia with a brief review on their dental implications

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Ali Mohamed; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Almutari, Dhafi A.; Jafar, Mohammed A.; Boreak, Nezar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the amount of sugar and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. This was further compared with their labeled values in order to inform the regulations. The effects of these drinks on teeth is reviewed. Materials and Methods: Ten brands of popular soft drinks including 6 regular carbonated drinks and 4 energy drinks were obtained from the local markets. Their pH was determined using a pH meter. The amount of total sugar, glucose, fructose, and s...

  19. Analysis of sugars and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Saudi Arabia with a brief review on their dental implications

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Ali Mohamed; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Almutari, Dhafi A.; Jafar, Mohammed A.; Boreak, Nezar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the amount of sugar and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. This was further compared with their labeled values in order to inform the regulations. The effects of these drinks on teeth is reviewed. Materials and Methods: Ten brands of popular soft drinks including 6 regular carbonated drinks and 4 energy drinks were obtained from the local markets. Their pH was determined using a pH meter. The amount of total sugar, glucose, fructose, and s...

  20. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged

  1. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities.

  2. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-03-19

    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI.

  3. Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Francesca, Nicola; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mahony, Jennifer; De Martino, Simone; Stucchi, Carlo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levels of enteric bacteria in ice cubes produced in different environments (home-made, prepared in bars and pubs with ice machines and produced in industrial plants) and to determine their survival in different alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were found in almost all samples analysed. All industrial and the majority of home-made samples did not contain coliforms. Enterococci were not identified in domestic samples while they were detected in two industrial and three bar/pub samples. The samples collected from bars and pubs were characterized by the highest levels of enteric bacteria. Fourteen strains representing 11 species of eight bacterial genera were identified, some of which are known agents of human infections. The most numerous groups included Enterococcus and Stenotrophomonas. The survival of Enterococcus faecium ICE41, Pantoea conspicua ICE80 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ICE272, that were detected at the highest levels (100-400 CFU/100 mL thawed ice) in the ice cubes, was tested in six drinks and beverages characterized by different levels of alcohol, CO2, pH and the presence of antibacterial ingredients. The results showed a species-specific behaviour and, in general, a reduction of the microbiological risks associated with ice after its transfer to alcoholic or carbonated beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks are associated with poorer cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V

    2016-04-01

    The importance of adequate nutrition on cognitive performance is well recognised. Greater intakes of soft drinks are associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as other cardiometabolic diseases. A few studies have specifically examined whether the intake of soft drinks may be related to cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soft drink intakes, including both sugar-sweetened and diet beverages, are associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors, and stratified according to type 2 diabetes status. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken using 803 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Cognitive function was measured using an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Usual dietary intake of soft drinks was assessed using a FFQ. Stratification by type 2 diabetes indicated that a greater intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks was significantly associated with poorer performance in visual spatial memory, working memory, scanning and tracking, executive function, the global composite and the Mini-Mental State Examination in diabetic individuals. These relations were not attenuated with statistical control for BMI and other cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Diet soft drink intake was unrelated to cognitive performance. Frequent sugar-sweetened soft drink intake was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the underlying causal mechanisms are yet to be determined. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify these findings and the underlying causal mechanisms.

  5. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  6. Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction of preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a new polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared and used as the extraction medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of three organic acid preservatives, namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The adsorbent was synthesized by the copolymerization of 1-ally-3-vinylimidazolium chloride (AV) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The effect of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. To obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE/AVDVB for target analytes, key parameters including desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, ionic strength and pH value in sample matrix were studied in detail. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the SCSE/AVDVB could extract the preservatives effectively through multiply interactions. At the same time, a simple and sensitive method by combining SCSE/AVDVB and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of the target preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks. Low limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range of 0.012–0.23 μg/L and 0.039–0.42 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was found that the values were all below 10%. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect preservatives in different orange juice and tea drink samples successfully. The recoveries were in the range of 71.9–116%, and the RSDs were below 10% in the all cases

  7. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; SALAH-ELDIN, ALAA-ELDIN; ISMAIL, TAMER AHMED; ALSHEHIRI, ZAFER SAAD; ATTIA, HOSSAM FOUAD

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca-Cola, Pepsi and 7-Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca-Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2-macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7-Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1-acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca-Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca-Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression of certain genes

  8. Risk of Colon Cancer and Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Intake: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Albanes, Demetrius; Beeson, W. Lawrence; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Buring, Julie E.; Flood, Andrew; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Jacobs, Eric J.; Krogh, Vittorio; Larsson, Susanna C.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sieri, Sabina; Spiegelman, Donna; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Shumin M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. Methods We investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of primary data from 13 cohort studies. Among 731 441 participants followed for up to 6–20 years, 5604 incident colon cancer case patients were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable relative risks were 1.07 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.30, Ptrend = .68) for coffee consumption greater than 1400 g/d (about six 8-oz cups) and 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61, Ptrend = .01) for tea consumption greater than 900 g/d (about four 8-oz cups). For sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption, the pooled multivariable relative risk comparing consumption greater than 550 g/d (about 18 oz) to nonconsumers was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.32, Ptrend = .91). No statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for the highest category of each beverage consumed (P > .20). The observed associations did not differ by sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, or tumor site (P > .05). Conclusions Drinking coffee or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with colon cancer risk. However, a modest positive association with higher tea consumption is possible and requires further study. PMID:20453203

  9. Chronic effects of soft drink consumption on the health state of Wistar rats: A biochemical, genetic and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Salah-Eldin, Alaa-Eldin; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed; Alshehiri, Zafer Saad; Attia, Hossam Fouad

    2016-06-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effects of chronic soft drink consumption (SDC) on oxidative stress, biochemical alterations, gene biomarkers and histopathology of bone, liver and kidney. Free drinking water of adult male Wistar rats was substituted with three different soft drinks: Coca‑Cola, Pepsi and 7‑Up, for three consecutive months. The serum and organs were collected for examining the biochemical parameters associated with bone, liver and kidney functions. Semi‑quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to observe the changes in the expression of genes in the liver and kidney, which are associated with oxidative stress resistance. Histopathological investigations were performed to determine the changes in bone, liver and kidney tissues using hematoxylin and eosin stains. SDC affected liver, kidney and bone function biomarkers. Soft drinks increased oxidative stress, which is represented by an increase in malondialdehyde and a decrease in antioxidant levels. SDC affected serum mineral levels, particularly calcium and phosphorus. Soft drinks downregulated the expression levels of glutathione‑S‑transferase and super oxide dismutase in the liver compared with that of control rats. Rats administered Coca‑Cola exhibited a hepatic decrease in the mRNA expression of α2‑macroglobulin compared with rats administered Pepsi and 7‑Up. On the other hand, SDC increased the mRNA expression of α1‑acid glycoprotein. The present renal studies revealed that Coca‑Cola increased the mRNA expression levels of desmin, angiotensinogen and angiotensinogen receptor compared with the other groups, together with mild congestion in renal histopathology. Deleterious histopathological changes were reported predominantly in the bone and liver of the Coca‑Cola and Pepsi groups. In conclusion, a very strict caution must be considered with SDC due to the increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and disruption in the expression

  10. Jarrib Baleha--a pilot nutrition intervention to increase water intake and decrease soft drink consumption among school children in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Haidar, Gina; Lahham Salameh, Nina; Afifi, Rema A

    2011-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (2005) indicated that in Lebanon, 33% of students in grades 7-9 drink carbonated soft drinks two or more times per day. Observational evidence suggests that students do not drink enough water. A pilot project called Jarrib Baleha ['try without it'] was implemented with 110 students in grades 3 and 4 in two schools in Lebanon to promote drinking water instead of soft drinks. Specific objectives included increasing knowledge about the benefits of water and the harms of soft drinks, increasing confidence in choosing water over soft drinks, and increasing actual water drinking behavior while decreasing soft drink consumption. Four 50-minute theory-informed, interactive and participatory sessions were implemented --by a graduate student in partial fulfillment of requirements for a MPH degree--over a period of two weeks. The intervention sessions--based on the Health Belief Model--took place during a class period. Process evaluation measured satisfaction of the students with the sessions. Impact evaluation measured changes in knowledge, attitudes including self-efficacy, and behavior, using a self-administered questionnaire completed prior to and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis using crosstabs was carried out to compare pretest and posttest scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Comparison of the knowledge index between pretest and posttest indicated that, overall, knowledge increased from 6.0769 to 9.1500 (p = 0.000). Compared to pretest, students at posttest also felt more confident to drink less soft drinks and more water (p drink water when thirsty (p soft drinks when going to a restaurant (p drinking 6 or more cups of water increased from 27.7% to 59.1% (p = 0.000); and those drinking less than one can of soft drink/day increased from 25.5% to 57.6% (p = 0.000). These results are encouraging and suggest the Jarrib Baleha intervention could be implemented on a wider scale with students from both public

  11. Study on the Optimum Formula of Jujube Juice Drink%枣汁饮料配方的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国浩

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜红枣为主要原料,加入复合酸味剂、蔗糖、果胶,采用单因素和正交试验对枣汁饮料的加工配方进行优化研究.通过感官评定确定最佳的工艺配方为:复合酸味剂(柠檬酸:苹果酸=3∶1)0.2%、蔗糖18%、红枣汁20%、果胶0.12%.%Fresh red jujube were used as raw materials, added the compound acidifier , sugar, pectin , through single factor and orthogonal experiment, we studied the optimum formula of drink by jujube juice. The best optimum formula which we got by the sensory evaluation was: compound acidifier ( citric acid: malic acid = 3:1) 0. 2% , sugar 18% , red jujube juice 20% , pectin 0.12%.

  12. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Chinapaw, Mai J; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26-0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36-1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12-1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67-1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67-1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72-2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink consumption and this association was moderated

  13. Screen-based sedentary time: Association with soft drink consumption and the moderating effect of parental education in European children: The ENERGY study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K.; Chinapaw, Mai J.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Bere, Elling; Kovacs, Eva; Verloigne, Maïté; Stok, F. Marijn; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore if children who spend more time on screen-based sedentary behaviors (i.e.TV viewing and computer use) drink more sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The study also assessed whether these associations were independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption and whether they were moderated by parental education. Methods Data were collected from 7886 children participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) survey conducted in eight European countries. Self-report questionnaires were used. Multilevel linear regression analyses with soft drink consumption as dependent variable, TV viewing and computer use as independent variables and age, gender, parental education, attitude towards soft drinks, self-efficacy, parental modelling, parental rules and home availability of soft drinks as covariates were conducted. Further interactions were tested to explore if these associations were moderated by parental education. Country-specific analyses were conducted. Results In six of the eight included countries, a significant positive association was observed between TV viewing (min/day) and soft drink consumption (ml/day), independent of individual and home environmental correlates of soft drink consumption (B = 0.46 (0.26–0.66) in Greece, B = 0.77 (0.36–1.17) in Norway, B = 0.82 (0.12–1.51) in Hungary, B = 1.06 (0.67–1.46) in Spain, B = 1.21 (0.67–1.74) in Belgium and B = 1.49 (0.72–2.27) in Switzerland). There was no significant association between computer use and soft drink consumption in six of the eight included countries in the final models. Moderation effects of parental education in the association between TV viewing and soft drink consumption were found in Norway and Hungary, the association being stronger among those with low parental education. Conclusions TV viewing appears to be independently associated with soft drink

  14. Preparation of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for stir cake sorptive extraction of preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Xiaojia

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a new polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared and used as the extraction medium of stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of three organic acid preservatives, namely, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The adsorbent was synthesized by the copolymerization of 1-ally-3-vinylimidazolium chloride (AV) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of a porogen solvent containing 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The effect of the content of monomer and the porogen solvent in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. The adsorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. To obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE/AVDVB for target analytes, key parameters including desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, ionic strength and pH value in sample matrix were studied in detail. The results showed that under the optimized conditions, the SCSE/AVDVB could extract the preservatives effectively through multiply interactions. At the same time, a simple and sensitive method by combining SCSE/AVDVB and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of the target preservatives in orange juices and tea drinks. Low limits of detection (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range of 0.012-0.23 μg/L and 0.039-0.42 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was found that the values were all below 10%. Finally, the proposed method was used to detect preservatives in different orange juice and tea drink samples successfully. The recoveries were in the range of 71.9-116%, and the RSDs were below 10% in the all cases.

  15. Acute poisoning due to alkalis used during industrial cleaning of soft drinks' glass containers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Georgiou, M; Koupparis, M; Koutselinis, A

    1997-10-01

    Corrosive alkalis are used in the soft drink and beer industries for the cleaning of the non-disposable glass containers using several different methods. It is well understood that complete cleaning of these vessels by multiple and well-organized rinsing is an absolute necessity. In cases of disturbance of this process, some residuals of alkaline agents may be retained in the glass containers, causing severe health risks to consumers. This case of acute poisoning due to caustic alkalis concerns a young woman who consumed carbonated lemonade from a non-disposable glass container. Clinical signs and symptoms and the treatment of the affected woman are described. Toxicological analysis of the soft drink consumed led to the detection, identification and quantitative determination of the presence of the alkalis.

  16. Determination of 30 synthetic food additives in soft drinks by HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Minli; Wang, Minglin; Zhao, Yansheng; Cao, Ya; Chu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    A method combining SPE with HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS/MS was developed for simultaneous determination of 30 synthetic food additives, including synthetic colorants, preservatives, and sweeteners in soft drinks. All targets were efficiently separated using the optimized chromatographic and MS conditions and parameters in a single run within 18 min. The LOD of the analytes ranged from 0.01 to 20 microg/kg, and the method was validated with recoveries in the 80.8 to 106.4% range. This multisynthetic additive method was found to be accurate and reliable and will be useful to ensure the safety of food products, such as the labeling and proper use of synthetic food additives in soft drinks.

  17. Investigations on the stability of stevioside and rebaudioside a in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; Tomberg, Werner; Wawrzun, Andreas

    2010-12-08

    The stability of the two steviol glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A and the possible formation of the aglycon steviol in different soft drinks were analyzed in samples spiked with stevioside or rebaudioside A after 24, 48, and 72 h storage times at 80 °C. Degradation of up to 70% was observed, and stevioside was less stable than rebaudioside A. Stevioside and rebaudioside A and their degradation products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UV-HPLC) on a HILIC analytical column, and the identity of the degradation products was confirmed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(n)) in negative mode. A UV-HPLC method was developed using a C18 analytical column to exclude the presence of the aglycon steviol, which gave a positive response in the forward mutation assay using the sensitive Salmonella typhimurium TM677 strain. The recoveries of steviol with this method ranged from 95.9 to 109.2%, and the calibration curves were linear from 1 to 100 μg/mL with R(2) = 0.9999. The limit of detection was 1 μg/mL. Confirmation by LC-ESI-MS(n) resulted in a LOD of 6 ng/mL. The absence of steviol in the degraded samples could be unambiguously confirmed by UV-HPLC and by LC-ESI-MS(n).

  18. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.

  19. Distribution of filamentous fungi in a manufacturing factory for plastic caps for soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The distribution of filamentous fungi was studied in a production line for plastic caps for soft drinks. Of 52 samples from both the swab and air sampling tests, a total of 47 filamentous fungi were isolated. Of those 47 fungi, 32 (68.0%) were found in the swab test samples. As for the swab test results, the area where most of the filamentous fungi were isolated was the printing/inspection room followed by the resin storage room. The breakdown of the filamentous fungi showed Cladosporium: 14.9%; Penicillium: 10.6%; Acremonium: 8.5%; Trichoderma: 8.5%; Arthrinium: 6.4%; and Aureobasidium: 6.4%. The fungal count of raw material (MPN/100g) was zero for the base resin, 0.36 for the master batch and 4.3 for the liner material, respectively. Those fungal counts seemed to be very low and it was concluded that the hygienic conditions of the plastic cap production line were very good.

  20. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Nurmala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%. Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to identify the formulation of business strategy alternative, and to identify the recommendation of functional strategy for CV Jaya Sampurna. Research used descriptive method; and the type of research used was case study. Data were gathered from questionnaires and interview to three member of managers: Director, Operational Manager, and Finance Manager. Data wereanalyzed by using EFE, IFE, SWOT, IE, Grand Strategy Matrix and QSPM. The result of this research implies that the alternative strategy based on QSPM’s result was market penetration

  1. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  2. Determination of metals in soft drinks packed in different materials by ETAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A; Brum, Daniel M; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2015-10-15

    The present work proposes a method for the direct determination of Al, Cu, Cr, Fe and Ni in Brazilian carbonated soft drinks by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Samples of different flavors packed in containers made of different materials (polyterephthalate ethylene and glass bottles, and aluminum and steel cans) were analyzed. The method was optimized by building up pyrolysis and atomization curves in sample medium and by evaluating the calibration approach. Under optimized conditions, recoveries in the range of 92-104% were obtained in the evaluation of method accuracy. The limits of quantification for Al, Cu, Cr, Fe and Ni were 2.3, 0.93, 0.17, 0.90 and 1.2 μg L(-1), respectively. Also, the impact of the material used in the packaging and flavor on the concentrations of each metal in the samples was evaluated. It was proved that neither flavor nor packaging material affected the concentrations of Al and Fe in the samples. On the other hand, the packaging material influenced the concentration of Cu, Cr and Ni, and only the flavor affected the concentration of Cu in the samples. These conclusions were based on the data obtained from the application of a two-way ANOVA evaluation at 95% confidence level.

  3. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes.

  4. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-15

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  5. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  6. Overweight in Brazilian industry workers: Prevalence and association with demographic and socioeconomic factors and soft drink intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Magno da Silveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of overweight in industry workers and its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors and soft drink intake (including type. Methods: This is a nationwide cross-sectional cohort survey of "Lifestyle and leisure habits of industry workers" conducted between 2006 and 2008 in 24 Brazilian federate units. The participants answered a previously tested questionnaire and self-reported their weight and height. Statistical analyses consisted of crude and adjusted Poisson regression. Results: Males and females had overweight prevalences of 45.7% (95%CI=45.1; 46.2 and 28.1% (95%CI=27.4; 28.9 respectively. Older and married individuals and those working in medium-sized and large factories were more likely to be overweight. Males with higher education levels and gross family incomes were also more likely to be overweight, but not females. Finally, men (PR=1.24; 95%CI=1.13; 1.36 and women (PR=1.40; 95%CI=1.22; 1.61 who consumed diet/light soft drinks were also more likely to be overweight than those who did not consume soft drinks. Conclusion: More than one-third of the workers were overweight according to their self-reported weight and height, and the prevalence of overweight was higher in males. Demographic and socioeconomic variables and diet/light soft drink intake were associated with overweight. These data may be helpful for the development of actions that reduce the risk of overweight in this population.

  7. Exposure to Food Advertising On Television: Associations With Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Harris, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food adve...

  8. Soft drink intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Aditya; Kwok, Chun Shing; Mamas, Mamas A

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of sugar- or artificially sweetened beverages is independently associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether soft drink consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Medline and EMBASE were searched in November 2015 for studies which considered soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverage [SSB] and artificially sweetened beverage [ASB]) intake and risk of metabolic syndrome. Pooled risk ratios for adverse outcomes were calculated using inverse variance with a random effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. A total of 12 studies (eight cross-sectional, four prospective cohort studies) with 56 244 participants (age range 6-98 years) were included in the review. Our pooled analysis found that soft drink intake is associated with metabolic syndrome. This relationship is shown in cross-sectional studies of SSB consumption (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.91) and both cross-sectional and prospective studies of ASB consumption (RR 2.45; 95% CI 1.15-5.14; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.44, respectively). However, pooled results of prospective cohort studies of SSB consumption found no association between intake and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Sugar-sweetened beverage and ASB intake are both associated with metabolic syndrome. This association may be driven by the fact that soft drink intake serves as a surrogate for an unhealthy lifestyle, or an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exposure to Food Advertising On Television: Associations With Children's Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Andreyeva; Inas Rashad Kelly; Harris, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food adve...

  10. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  11. Testing for heterogeneous business practices across firms in developing countries: The case of the Brazilian soft drink industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural model of the Brazilian carbonated soft drink industry to test the claim that the observed low prices of low-end entrants owe to marginal cost advantages over the large, established brands, allegedly stemming chiefly from tax evasion. Such entrants, numbering in the hundreds, are typically small-scale operations, with limited geographic reach and no advertising. In addition to the low-cost hypothesis, advocated by the incumbent duopolists, the model allows for...

  12. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/−2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Methods Using 2007–2008 Centers for Disease Control's Natio...

  13. Life cycle assessment of packaging systems for beer and soft drinks. Energy and transport scenarios. Technical report 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frees, N.; Pedersen Weidema, B.

    1998-06-01

    This report is part of a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparing the potential environmental impacts associated with different existing or alternative packaging systems for beer and carbonated soft drinks that are filled and sold in Denmark. The study compares refillable and disposable glass and PET bottles and steel and aluminium cans and is an update of a previous study carried out in 1992-1996. This report is the technical report on energy and transport scenarios. (au)

  14. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

    2014-01-01

    The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related life...

  15. Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2008-02-13

    Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector.

  16. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/-2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Using 2007-2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non-continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI. Data were analysed in 2011. After excluding the clinically underweight and morbidly obese, consumption incidence of fast food, soft drinks or candy was not positively correlated with measures of BMI. This was true for sweet snacks (r = 0.005, p = soft drinks and candy and BMI was negative. This result suggests that a strategy that focuses solely on these problem foods may be ineffective in reducing weight. Reducing the total calories of food eaten at home and the frequency of snacking may be more successful dieting advice for the majority of individuals.

  17. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. Results: As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: Pdifferential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with alterations in hypothalamic leptin signalling. PMID:28092346

  18. Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1 litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124 g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals.

  19. Consumption of Carbonated Soft Drinks Among Young Adolescents Aged 12 to 15 Years in 53 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Liu, Yunxia; Zhao, Min; Ma, Chuanwei; Liang, Yajun; Xi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    To compare consumption of carbonated soft drinks among young adolescents in 53 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used 2009 to 2013 Global School-based Student Health Survey data to assess 137 449 young adolescents aged 12 to 15 years with available data (via a standardized questionnaire) on frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption. Overall, young adolescents reported having consumed carbonated soft drinks 1.39 times per day (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26, 1.51), and 54.3% of adolescents reported consuming a carbonated soft drink at least once per day. Frequency (times per day) varied greatly across countries, ranging from 0.52 (95% CI = 0.43, 0.60) in Kiribati to 2.39 (95% CI = 2.25, 2.53) in Suriname. Our data confirm that consumption of carbonated soft drinks is frequent among young adolescents in LMICs. Our findings highlight the need for interventions in these countries to reduce adolescents' carbonated soft drink consumption.

  20. Analysis of sugars and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Saudi Arabia with a brief review on their dental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ali Mohamed; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Almutari, Dhafi A; Jafar, Mohammed A; Boreak, Nezar

    2016-12-01

    To determine the amount of sugar and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. This was further compared with their labeled values in order to inform the regulations. The effects of these drinks on teeth is reviewed. Ten brands of popular soft drinks including 6 regular carbonated drinks and 4 energy drinks were obtained from the local markets. Their pH was determined using a pH meter. The amount of total sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (using Dionex ICS 5000 ion chromatography) at the Saudi Food and Drug Authority. Descriptive statistics was done to obtain the mean and standard deviation. Intergroup comparison was performed using independent t-test, and the labeled and estimated values within the group were compared with paired t-test. The labeled and estimated sugar in energy drinks (14.3 ± 0.48 and 15.6 ± 2.3, respectively) were higher than the carbonated drinks (11.2 ± 0.46 and 12.8 ± 0.99), which was statistically significant. In addition, there was a significant difference in the concentration of glucose in energy drinks (5.7 ± 1.7) compared to carbonated drinks (4.1 ± 1.4). The pH of these drinks ranged from 2.4 to 3.2. The differences between the estimated and labeled sugar in carbonated drinks showed statistical significance. Mild variation was observed in total sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose levels among different bottles of the same brand of these drinks. The low pH and high sugar content in these drinks are detrimental to dental health. Comparison of the estimated sugar with their labeled values showed variation in most of the brands. Preventive strategies should be implemented to reduce the health risks posed by these soft drinks.

  1. Development of Compound Drink with Flammulina velutipes and Apple Juice%金针菇苹果复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继松; 胡亚平; 王克勤; 吴莎莎

    2014-01-01

    The Flammulina velutipes and the apple were taken as the materials to study the enzymolysis technology of Flammulina velutipes, the material formula of compound drink, and the optimal stabilizer combination and its adding amount. The results showed that the optimal processing parameters for enzymolysis of Flammulina velutipes were as follows:the adding amount of cellulose was 0.45%;the enzymolysis time was 2 h;the pH value of the system was 5.0. The optimal formula for compound drink with Flammulina velutipes and apple was 15%Flammulina velutipes juice, 20%apple juice, 0.05%citric acid and 8%sugar. The optimal stabilizer combination was 0.10%xanthan+0.10%CMC-Na. The compound drink with Flammulina velutipes and apple, which prepared with the optimal conditions, is fresh and sweet, and each indicator met the requirements of GB2759-81, GB2760-86 and national food sanitation standard.%以金针菇和苹果为原料,对金针菇酶解工艺、复合饮料的原料配方以及最适稳定剂组合及用量等进行了研究。结果表明:金针菇酶解的最佳工艺参数是纤维素酶添加量0.45%,酶解时间2 h,体系pH值5.0,酶解温度50℃;金针菇苹果复合饮料的最佳配方是15%的金针菇汁、20%的苹果汁、0.05%的柠檬酸和8%的白砂糖;复合稳定剂最佳组合是0.10%黄原胶+0.10%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)。由最优条件制备的金针菇苹果复合饮料清甜适口,且各项指标均符合GB2759-81、GB2760-86及国家食品卫生标准。

  2. Is consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy associated with birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundt, Jacob H; Eide, Geir Egil; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Markestad, Trond

    2016-12-07

    In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW  4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.

  3. 香芋发酵饮料的工艺研究%Study on the Process of Fermented Taro Juice Drinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志英

    2011-01-01

    The process of a Lactobacillus-fermented taro juice drink was investigated including taro color protection, inactivate enzymes, dextrinization, saccharification. The test result showed that, the best process was using 0.1% citric acid solutions to protect the color, boiling for 5 min to prevent browning by inactivating the enzymes, dextrinization for 60 min, saccharification by 50 U enzyme per gram of taro for 4 hours at pH 4.5, and fermentation of the mixture of 8% cane sugar and 12% taro juice at 42 ℃ for 6 hours.%通过对乳酸菌发酵香芋浆工艺的初步研究,探讨了香芋的护色,香芋浆的糊化、糖化、发酵等工艺过程.实验结果表明,去皮香芋用0.1%柠檬酸溶液护色效果明显;用沸水热烫5 min即可有效钝化酶,防止褐变;糊化时间为60min,还原糖含量有明显增加;香芋浆最佳糖化工艺条件:糖化时间4h、糖化酶用量为1g香芋/50U酶,糖化pH值为4.5;发酵最佳条件为发酵温度42℃、发酵时间6h、蔗糖量8%、香芋浆12%,发酵出香芋味浓厚的香芋浆乳酸发酵饮料.

  4. Research of Blended Fermented Greengage and Tomato Juice Drink%梅茄汁乳酸菌饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震雷; 余芳; 徐永才

    2013-01-01

    以青梅、番茄为原料,添加有益健康的菊粉,进行复合乳酸菌发酵,采用4因素3水平正交试验,并通过综合平衡法修正,确定试验最佳工艺为:青梅汁和番茄汁配比2.5∶1,果汁总含量40%,菊粉5%,蔗糖7%,CMC-Na 0.1%,乳酸菌接种量5%,保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶植物性乳杆菌=1∶1∶3,45℃发酵6h,4℃冷藏20h.产品呈明黄,色彩鲜艳,口感酸甜爽口,无明显分层沉淀,具有青梅及发酵制品特有的香味.%With greengage and tomato as the main raw materials, a new drink was prepared by adding healthful inulin and then fermentation with compound lactic acid bacteria. The best formula is determined by orthogonal experiment of 4 factor 3 level, and integrated balance method. The optimum process conditions were: the ratio of greengage juice to tomato juice 2.5:1,40% juice, 5% inulin, 7% sugar, 0.1% CMC-Na, 5% citric acid bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus(Lb)-Streptococcus thermophilus(St)-Lactobacillus plantarum(Lp) ratio 1:1:3, fermentation temperature 45 ℃, fermentation time 6 h, refrigerated storage temperature and time of 4 ℃ and 20 h. The color of the product was bright yellow and clear with sweet and sour and refreshing taste. It had no obvious hierarchical precipitation but had distinctive flavor of greengage and fermentation products.

  5. 微波消解-等离子体发射光谱法测定果汁及其饮料中的钾和磷%Determination of potassium and phosphate in fruit juice and fruit juice drinks by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽萍

    2011-01-01

    采用微波消解——等离子体发射光谱法测定果汁及其饮料中的钾和磷,两种元素标准曲线线性关系良好,相关系数均在0.999以上,加标回收率在96%-108%之间,RSD值均低于5%。该方法适用于果汁及其饮料中钾和磷的测定。%Potassium and phosphate are simultaneously determined in fruit juice and fruit juice drinks by Microwave Digestion Method and ICP-OES. Standard curve linear relationship of two elements was very good. Correlation coefficients were above 0.999,and the recovery rate was from 96% to 108%. RSD values were less than 5% ,So the method is suitable to determine potassium and phosphorus in fruit juices and fruit juice drinks.

  6. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Britt W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years. Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28. The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69% than soft drink (33% (p Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.

  7. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

    2014-09-14

    The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, Psoft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association.

  8. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods......: Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4-18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day's intake and typical intake over the last week...

  9. Comparing the erosive effect of Iranian soft drinks with standard samples; A Calcium ion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahinejad Ghajari M.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Extensive and continuous consumption of acidic drinks is the main cause of enamel erosion in human teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the erosive potential of two Iranian drinks with those of two imported ones. Materials and Methods: Two Iranian drinks (Cola Zamzam and Orange Zamzam and two imported ones (Pepsi and Miranda were studied in this experimental invitro study. 120 intact premolar teeth, extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C. Each group was exposed to one of the drinks for exposure times of: A: 15 minutes, B: 45 minutes and C: 12 hours. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (each containing 10 teeth, which were exposed to 20 ml of one of the 4 drinks. The exposed surface was the same in all samples (a 5 mm in diameter semi circular window. The amount of Ca++ ion (mg/ml added to each drink at the end of exposure time was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: 2 way ANOVA showed that the drinks were significantly different with regard to released Calcium ion. Time had significant effect on erosive potential. The two mentioned factors had significant interaction (P<0.001. The most erosive effect was seen in 12 hours in all of the drinks. The erosive effect of Orange Zamzam in 15 minutes and Pepsi in 45 minutes and 12 hours was significantly more than other groups (P<0.001. Conclusions: Pepsi had the most long term erosive effect among the four drinks, and Cola Zamzam had the least erosive potential.

  10. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  11. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bürge Aşçı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0, flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min, and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer. Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS- 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2>0.9962, accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%, precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%, limits of detection (LODs, and limits of quantification (LOQs parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  12. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  13. Use of Vis/NIRS for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks based on chemometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    Three different chemometric methods were performed for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Four varieties of colas were prepared and 180 samples (45 samples for each variety) were selected for the calibration set, while 60 samples (15 samples for each variety) for the validation set. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay, standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation were applied for the pre-processing of spectral data. The first eleven principal components (PCs) extracted by partial least squares (PLS) analysis were employed as the inputs of BP neural network (BPNN) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model. Then the BPNN model with the optimal structural parameters and LS-SVM model with radial basis function (RBF) kernel were applied to build the regression model with a comparison of PLS regression. The correlation coefficient (r), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for prediction were 0.971, 1.259 and -0.335 for PLS, 0.986, 0.763, and -0.042 for BPNN, while 0.978, 0.995 and -0.227 for LS-SVM, respectively. All the three methods supplied a high and satisfying precision. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods could be utilized as a high precision way for the determination of sugar content of cola soft drinks.

  14. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  15. Application of Potassium Cinnamon in the Soft Drinks%肉桂酸钾在软饮料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春发; 徐峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    在分析软饮料中使用防腐剂存在问题的基础上,从广谱性和安全实用性2方面介绍了肉桂酸钾的性能特点,阐述了肉桂酸钾在软饮料中的防腐机理,并对肉桂酸钾应用于软饮料防腐剂的研究方向进行了展望。%Based on analyzing the existing problems of preservatives in the soft drinks, the performance characteristics of potassium cinnamate were introduced from the aspects of wide-adaptability and safety applicability. The anticorrosion mechanism of potassium cinnamate in soft drinks was described. Then, the research direction of potassium cinnamate aplied in soft drinks was prospected.

  16. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (Psoft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, Psoft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt.

  17. A reagent-free SIA module for monitoring of sugar, color and dissolved CO2 content in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerasong, S; Chan-Eam, S; Sereenonchai, K; Amornthammarong, N; Ratanawimarnwong, N; Nacapricha, D

    2010-05-23

    This work presents a new sequential injection analysis (SIA) method and a module for simultaneous and real-time monitoring of three key parameters for the beverage industry, i.e., the sugar content (measured in Brix), color and dissolved CO(2). Detection of the light reflection at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) of sucrose and water was utilized for sucrose content measurement. A near infrared LED (890+/-40 nm) was chosen as the light source to ensure that all the ingredients and dyes in soft drinks will not interfere by contributing light absorption. A linear calibration was obtained for sucrose over a wide concentration range (3.1-46.5 Brix). The same module can be used to monitor the color of the soft drink as well as the dissolved CO(2) during production. For measuring the color, the sample is segmented between air plugs to avoid dispersion. An RGB-LED was chosen as the light source in order to make this module applicable to a wide range of colored samples. The module also has a section where dissolved CO(2) is measured via vaporization of the gas from the liquid phase. Dissolved CO(2), in a flowing acceptor stream of water resulting in the change of the acceptor conductivity, is detected using an in-house capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The module includes a vaporization unit that is also used to degas the carbonated drink, prior the measurements of sucrose and color within the same system. The method requires no chemicals and is therefore completely friendly to the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  19. Astronaut Anthony W. England with soft drink in middeck area near galley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Anthony W. England, mission specialist, drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Coke while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw. Just below him, food containers on a tray are attached to the middeck lockers.

  20. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... to decrease. Litter size reduction in offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams further increased body weight and adiposity, and up-regulated genes involved in hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation and VLDL transport compared with all other groups. Litter size reduction did not have any impact on body...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....

  1. Re-examination of Advertising Effectiveness in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adefulu Adesoga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamined the effectiveness of Advertising in Selected Soft Drink Companies in Lagos, Nigeria. The study linked with past researches through its extensive conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature review. The methodology adopted was survey research design. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on samples from the selected Companies. The weighted means and percentage values of the respondents were used in the analysis and decision making. The findings showed the need for a better understanding of organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive achievement of advertising goals because of its impacts on customers’ awareness and product adoption.. The study concluded that advertising is a potent and veritable tool for achieving marketing goals. The study recommended that firms should identify the best advertising program to achieve its advertising goals. By implication, marketing decision maker should incorporate advertising expenditures in the marketing budget in appreciation of its role.

  2. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, J M; Maersk, M; Belza, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) are associated with the development of metabolic disorders. Fructose is a major component of SSSDs and is demonstrated to induce uric acid (UA) production and stimulate fat accumulation independent of excess caloric intake. UA induce...... insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, suggesting that UA may have a causal role in the development of metabolic complications. The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term effects of consuming SSSDs on circulating levels of UA in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS...... milk, diet cola and water. Thus, a high daily intake of SSSDs in overweight and obese subjects without overt diabetes may increase the risk of developing metabolic complications through the elevation of UA. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00777647.European Journal of Clinical...

  3. Electromembrane extraction of diamine plastic restricted substances in soft drinks followed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guo, Lin; Wang, Yu; Huang, Fengying; Shi, Jing; Gao, Ge; Wang, Xiaoxin; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui

    2017-04-15

    Ethane-1,2-diamine (EA) and hexane-1,6-diamine (HA) are two important plastic restricted substances commonly existing in food contact materials. A capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) method has been developed for direct determination of above analytes, and the detection sensitivity has been significantly improved based on electromembrane extraction (EME). Under the optimum conditions, EA and HA could be well separated from their aliphatic diamine homologs as well as the common inorganic cations within 25min. The limits of detection could reach sub-ng/mL level, and good linearity (r>0.998) between peak area and analyte concentration could be obtained at three orders of magnitude. This EME/CE-C(4)D method provided a novel application for determining these plastic restricted substances in different bottled soft drinks, providing an alternative for the sensitive analyses of diamine substances.

  4. Determination of total carbon dioxide in beer and soft drinks by gas diffusion and flow injection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, Esbjörn; Karlberg, Bo

    1995-01-01

    A gas diffusion FIA method for determination of total CO2 in beer and in soft drinks is described. The composition of the acceptor stream for diffused carbon dioxide is critical. Bromocresol purple has been selecled among a large number of tested pH indicators and if the detection is made at a wavelength of 430 nm, stable baseline conditions and positive deflections of the resulting FIA peaks are obtained. The selected indicator is combined with a linear pH buffer. A simple and practical graphical method for determining a suitable starting pH of the acceptor stream, as well as the expected dynamic range and the linearity of the calibration graph, is presented. PMID:18925022

  5. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Michiel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101 were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition or with millilitre information (control condition. Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25, nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15. Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling.

  6. View the label before you view the movie: A field experiment into the impact of Portion size and Guideline Daily Amounts labelling on soft drinks in cinemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Large soft drink sizes increase consumption, and thereby contribute to obesity. Portion size labelling may help consumers to select more appropriate food portions. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of portion size and caloric Guidelines for Daily Amounts (GDA) labelling on consumers' portion size choices and consumption of regular soft drinks. Methods A field experiment that took place on two subsequent evenings in a Dutch cinema. Participants (n = 101) were asked to select one of five different portion sizes of a soft drink. Consumers were provided with either portion size and caloric GDA labelling (experimental condition) or with millilitre information (control condition). Results Labelling neither stimulated participants to choose small portion sizes (OR = .75, p = .61, CI: .25 - 2.25), nor did labelling dissuade participants to choose large portion sizes (OR = .51, p = .36, CI: .12 - 2.15). Conclusions Portion size and caloric GDA labelling were found to have no effect on soft drink intake. Further research among a larger group of participants combined with pricing strategies is required. The results of this study are relevant for the current public health debate on food labelling. PMID:21645373

  7. 中国软饮料行业战略群组分析%Analysis of strategic groups of China's soft drinks industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庆立军

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the status quo of China' s soft drinks industry, this paper selects resources, scope and f'mancial indicators as strategic variables, divides the soft drinks industry into five strategic groups. Then each group is analyzed from the perspective of development situation so that the competitive landscape of the soft drinks industry can be concluded. Finally this paper makes some comments and suggestions to the development of the soft drink companies.%本文在对我国软饮料行业现状分析的基础上选取资源、范围和财务指标作为战略变量,通过聚类分析在软饮料行业划分出5个战略群组,并根据企业发展情况对每个群组进行分析,深刻剖析软饮料行业的竞争格局,最后对软饮料企业的发展提出一些可供借鉴的意见和建议。

  8. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 11 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks. The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, paraoxon-methyl, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) when spiked at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate). Samples were filtered (if particulate matter was present), degassed (if carbonated), and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitation was performed with matrix-matched external standard calibration solutions. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.0750 to 10.0 microg/L. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficient of determination (r2) values greater than or equal to 0.9900 with the exception of 2 values that were 0.9285 and 0.8514. Fortification spikes at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate) over the course of 2 days (n=8 each day) for 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=48): 94.4 (15.2) for alachlor, 98.2 (13.5) for atrazine, 83.1 (41.6) for butachlor, 89.6 (24.5) for isoproturon, 87.9 (24.4) for malaoxon, 96.1 (9.26) for monocrotophos, 101 (25.7) for paraoxon-methyl, 86.6 (20.4) for phorate, 101 (16.5) for phorate sulfone, 93.6 (25.5) for phorate sulfoxide, and 98.2 (6.02) for 2,4-D.

  9. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Rosendal, A; Nielsen, M O; Raun, K

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Diabetes Foundation, there is an urgent need to investigate the impact of maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy to understand the background for the accelerating incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we specifically concentrated on the role of overfeeding during different developmental periods. Sprague-Dawley rats were offered chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (chow plus chocolate and soft drink) during gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were randomly cross-fostered within each dietary group into small and normal litter sizes until weaning, giving four dietary groups. At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid oxidation, VLDL transport and insulin receptor were down-regulated, whereas FGF21 expression was up-regulated. Independent of postnatal litter size, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams aged 21 days had still increased hepatic TG and up-regulated FGF21 expression, while plasma insulin started to decrease. Litter size reduction in offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams further increased body weight and adiposity, and up-regulated genes involved in hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation and VLDL transport compared with all other groups. Litter size reduction did not have any impact on body weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence from observational studies and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid

    2008-12-01

    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSD) are a special target of many obesity-prevention strategies, yet critical reviews tend to be more cautious regarding the aetiological role of SSD in promoting excess body weight. Since ongoing evaluation of this issue is important, the present systematic review re-examined the evidence from epidemiological studies and interventions, up to July 2008. Database searches of Medline, Cochrane reviews, Google scholar and a hand search of cross-references identified forty-four original studies (twenty-three cross-sectional, seventeen prospective and four intervention) in adults and children, as well as six reviews. These were critically examined for methodology, results and interpretation. Approximately half the cross-sectional and prospective studies found a statistically significant association between SSD consumption and BMI, weight, adiposity or weight gain in at least one subgroup. The totality of evidence is dominated by American studies where SSD consumption tends to be higher and formulations different. Most studies suggest that the effect of SSD is small except in susceptible individuals or at high levels of intake. Methodological weaknesses mean that many studies cannot detect whether soft drinks or other aspects of diet and lifestyle have contributed to excess body weight. Progress in reaching a definitive conclusion on the role of SSD in obesity is hampered by the paucity of good-quality interventions which reliably monitor diet and lifestyle and adequately report effect sizes. Of the three long-term (>6 months) interventions, one reported a decrease in obesity prevalence but no change in mean BMI and two found a significant impact only among children already overweight at baseline. Of the six reviews, two concluded that the evidence was strong, one that an association was probable, while three described it as inconclusive, equivocal or near zero. Reasons for some discrepancies are presented.

  11. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Moretto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from

  13. Yes, the government should tax soft drinks: findings from a citizens' jury in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-02-27

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public's viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens' Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens' Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of obesity.

  14. Yes, The Government Should Tax Soft Drinks: Findings from a Citizens’ Jury in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Nicole; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer; Byrnes, Joshua; Hills, Andrew P.; Gordon, Louisa; Turkstra, Erika; Scuffham, Paul; Comans, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Taxation has been suggested as a possible preventive strategy to address the serious public health concern of childhood obesity. Understanding the public’s viewpoint on the potential role of taxation is vital to inform policy decisions if they are to be acceptable to the wider community. A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative method for engaging the public in decision making and can assist in setting policy agendas. A Citizens’ Jury was conducted in Brisbane, Australia in May 2013 to answer the question: Is taxation on food and drinks an acceptable strategy to the public in order to reduce rates of childhood obesity? Citizens were randomly selected from the electoral roll and invited to participate. Thirteen members were purposively sampled from those expressing interest to broadly reflect the diversity of the Australian public. Over two days, participants were presented with evidence on the topic by experts, were able to question witnesses and deliberate on the evidence. The jurors unanimously supported taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks but generally did not support taxation on processed meats, snack foods and foods eaten/ purchased outside the home. They also supported taxation on snack foods on the condition that traffic light labelling was also introduced. Though they were not specifically asked to deliberate strategies outside of taxation, the jurors strongly recommended more nutritional information on all food packaging using the traffic light and teaspoon labelling systems for sugar, salt and fat content. The Citizens’ Jury suggests that the general public may support taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks to reduce rates of obesity in children. Regulatory reforms of taxation on sugar-sweetened drinks and improved labelling of nutritional information on product packaging were strongly supported by all members of the jury. These reforms should be considered by governments to prevent childhood obesity and the future burden on society from the consequences of

  15. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  16. Soft drinks: fruit juice and tea drinks are well worth attention%饮料:果汁、茶饮料值得关注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 国内饮料市场以碳酸饮料、瓶装水(包括矿泉水、纯净水、蒸馏水等)、果汁饮料和包装茶饮料四大类产品为主,占据了近80%的市场份额.从市场的增长情况看,果汁和包装茶两种饮料市场空间更大,发展势头非常迅猛.

  17. Consumo de bebidas e refrigerantes por adolescentes de uma escola pública Consumo de bebidas y refrescos en adolescentes de una escuela pública Beverage and soft drink consumption by adolescents from a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Chermont P. Estima

    2011-03-01

    escuela (22,1%. El principal factor señalado para el consumo de refrescos fue el sabor (75,4%. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de bebidas con azúcar, especialmente los refrescos, fue frecuente entre adolescentes. Esas bebidas son disponibles y consumidas tanto en casa como en la escuela y son consideradas sabrosas. Los programas de educación nutricional deben pensar en cómo priorizar el consumo de otras bebidas, además de controlar la comercialización de esos productos en las escuelas, con el objetivo de estimular el consumo de bebidas más sanas para esa franja de edad.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of beverage and soft drinks by adolescents of a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 71 adolescents (aged between 14 to 17 years old from both genders, attending a technical school in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, answered the following questions: the kind of beverage taken during meals, the places where soft drinks were consumed and the main reason related to this intake. RESULTS: The most frequent consumed beverage was the industrialized fruit juice (38.1%, followed by regular soft drinks (28.6% and natural fruit juices (22.2%. The main place where soft drinks were consumed was home (38.2%, followed by school (22.1%. The main reason associated with soft drink intake was the flavor (75.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet beverage intake was frequent among adolescents, specially soft drinks. These beverages are available and consumed at home and at school, and they were considered tasteful. Nutritional education programs should discuss how to prioritize the intake of other beverages and how to control the sale of these products at schools, aiming to stimulate the intake of more healthy beverages by adolescents.

  18. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...

  19. Monitoring the benzene contents in soft drinks using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a survey of the situation on the belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Christof; Detavernier, Christ'l; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F; Vermeylen, Rudi; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2008-06-25

    Whenever benzoic acid is combined with ascorbic acid in acidic beverages such as soft drinks, benzene can be formed. To determine the current situation on the Belgian market, a headspace gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed, which needs little to no sample preparation. This method was then used to analyze 134 soft drinks sampled on the Belgian market by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. Thirty-three percent of the samples contained no detectable benzene, whereas the majority of the samples (47%) contained trace amounts below the limit of quantification of the method (0.3 microg L (-1)). Ten samples were above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 microg L (-1), and one sample had a concentration of 10.98 microg L (-1), thereby exceeding the action limit for benzene in soft drinks of 10 microg L (-1) discussed at the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health of the European Commission. Statistical analyses revealed that besides benzoic acid, ascorbic acid, and acidity regulators, the packing may also play an important role in benzene formation.

  20. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  1. Determination of pH, buffering capacity, total carbohydrates and sucrose in sugar-free and light processed fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dal Molin Netto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth erosion is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissues caused by acids and/or chelation without bacterial involvement.Many studies showed that there is an increase of tooth erosion in population and that it is related to the consumption of soft drinks,including processed fruit juices. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity (BC, total carbohydrates and sucrose in 15 sugar-free and light processed fruit juices.Material and methods: The pH was determined with a Mettler Toledo 320 pH meter.The BC was determined by titration, adding 0.1 N NaOH in 10 mL of each drink until reaching a pH level of 7.0. The total carbohydrates were determined using the phenol sulfuric method, while the sucrose was determined through the incubation of each sample with the invertase enzyme.Results: The average value of pH was 2.61 (±0.29.The processed fruit juices analyzed needed, in average, 6.2 mL (±1.9 of NaOH in order to increase the pH to 7.0. The total carbohydrates showed to be according to the values presented in the labels.The sucrose content verified in each drink was very low and varied from 0.60 to 0.93 g / 200 mL.Conclusion: This study showed that the 15 drinks analyzed had low pH and erosive potential, once most juices presented high BC.The sucrose presented in each drink was very low, suggesting that they are not cariogenic. Nevertheless, further studies that demonstrate the action of these juices in the dental surface are required.

  2. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  3. Bisphenol A contamination in soft drinks as a risk for children's health in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Di Francesco, Fabio; Montuori, Paolo; Amodio Cocchieri, Renata; Cirillo, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) was determined in sugary carbonated, non-carbonated and milk-based beverages, through HLPC-fluorescence detection and confirmed by LC-MS/MS, in a selection of brands that are mostly consumed by Italian children. The daily intake was determined through the WHO budget method (BM). BPA was found at detectable levels in 57% of carbonated beverages, in 50% of non-carbonated and in 100% of milk-based beverages. The median concentrations were 1.24 µg l(-1) (range = drink consumption in children ranged from 0.008 to 1.765 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The median exposure values for the 'best' and 'worst' cases were 0.16% and 0.47% respectively of the EFSA t-TDI for BPA (4 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), and 10.59% and 35.30% of the t-TDI when the maximum levels were considered.

  4. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984, 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001 and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter. Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors.

  6. Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L. For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L or in combination (1 mmol/L with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative.

  7. Supplementation of soft drinks with metallic ions reduces dissolution of bovine enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREIRA, Heloisa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva; LEITE, Aline de Lima; ITALIANI, Flávia de Moraes; KATO, Melissa Thiemi; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of metallic ions to carbonated drinks on their erosive potential. Material and Methods Powdered enamel was added to carbonated beverages (Coca-ColaTM or Sprite ZeroTM and shaken for 30 s. The samples were then immediately centrifuged and the supernatant removed. This procedure was repeated 5 times with the beverages containing Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ or Zn2+ (1.25-60 mmol/L). For Coca-ColaTM, the concentration of each ion that exhibited the highest protection was also evaluated in combination with Fe2+. The phosphate or calcium released were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results For Coca-ColaTM, the best protective effect was observed for Zn2+ alone (10 mmol/L) or in combination (1 mmol/L) with other ions (12% and 27%, respectively, when compared with the control). Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the best protective effect was observed for Cu2+ at 15 and 30 mmol/L, which decreased the dissolution by 22-23%. Zn2+ at 2.5 mmol/L also reduced the dissolution of powdered enamel by 8%. Conclusions The results suggest that the combination of metallic ions can be an alternative to reduce the erosive potential of Coca-ColaTM. Regarding Sprite ZeroTM, the addition of Cu2+ seems to be the best alternative. PMID:24037077

  8. [Development of ICP-OES, ICP-MS and GF-AAS Methods for Simultaneous Quantification of Lead, Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Soft Drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yohei; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tomoko; Teshima, Reiko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed methods to quantify lead, total arsenic and cadmium contained in various kinds of soft drinks, and we evaluated their performance. The samples were digested by common methods to prepare solutions for measurement by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). After digestion, internal standard was added to the digestion solutions for measurements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. For measurement by GF-AAS, additional purification of the digestion solution was conducted by back-extraction of the three metals into nitric acid solution after extraction into an organic solvent with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Performance of the developed methods were evaluated for eight kinds of soft drinks.

  9. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  10. Synergic effects of sugar and caffeine on insulin-mediated metabolomic alterations after an acute consumption of soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; Mateos, Rosa María; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso María; González-Cortés, José Joaquín; Corrales-Cuevas, Manuel; Rojas-Cots, Juan Alberto; Segundo, Carmen; Schwarz, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    High sugar consumption elicits numerous deleterious effects on health by inducing insulin resistance, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity or type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is also growing evidence that caffeine may play an important role in the regulation of insulin release and the appearance of related metabolic impairments. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the impact of acute sugar and caffeine intake on the metabolic health status by using a metabolomic multi-platform based on the combination of flow injection mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. To this end, we performed a randomized, crossover and double-blind intervention study with different soft drinks from the same brand. Numerous metabolomic changes were detected in serum samples over time after the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy-related metabolites, amino acids and lipids, thus demonstrating the intense effects provoked by acute sugar consumption on the organism during 3 h of follow-up. However, the most significant findings were observed after the co-ingestion of caffeine, which could be indicative of a synergic effect of this psychostimulant on insulin-mediated perturbations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The constitution of China's Soft Drink Association%中国饮料工业协会章程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ (1999年12月15日第二届会员代表大会通过) 第一章总则 第一条本协会名称为"中国饮料工业协会",英文名称"China Soft Drinks Industry Associati on",简称,CSDIA. 第二条本协会的性质是由全国饮料行业的各种所有制企业和相关企业、事业单位自愿共同组成的全国行业性社会团体,是会员单位共同利益的代表,本协会为非营利性社会组织. 第三条本协会的宗旨是为饮料行业服务,促进中国饮料工业的发展 .本协会的任务是发挥政府与行业之间的桥梁和纽带作用,协助政府搞好行业管理,维护企业的合法权益.本协会在全部工作和活动中严格遵守国家宪法、法律、法规和国家政策,遵守社会道德风尚.

  12. Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Zhou, Li-Xin; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2014-06-13

    A novel, simple and sensitive method based on the use of magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (M-dSPE) procedure combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine seven synthetic pigments (tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wines and soft drinks. An amino-functionalized low degrees of cross-linking magnetic polymer (NH2-LDC-MP) was synthesized via suspension polymerization, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NH2-LDC-MP was used as the M-dSPE sorbent to remove the matrix from the solution, and the main factors affecting the extraction were investigated in detail. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of NH2-LDC-MP with recoveries between 84.0 and 116.2%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were between 1.51 and 5.0μg/L in wines and soft drinks. The developed M-dSPE UFLC-MS/MS method had been successfully applied to the real wines and soft drinks for food-safety risk monitoring in Zhejiang Province, China. The results showed that sunset yellow was in three out of thirty soft drink samples (2.95-42.6μg/L), and erythrosine in one out of fifteen dry red wine samples (3.22μg/L), respectively. It was confirmed that the NH2-LDC-MP was a kind of highly effective M-dSPE materials for the pigments analyses.

  13. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  14. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Torbjørn Høstmark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD, we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  15. The oslo health study: a dietary index estimating frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  16. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  17. Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin in cola-flavoured soft drinks to improve the assessment of their dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; D'Aloise, Antonio; Magrì, Antonio L; Leclercq, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Quantitation of tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin was carried out in 70 samples of cola-flavoured soft drinks purchased in eight European countries with the purpose of assessing the variability in the levels of these substances. Results indicated a limited variability in the content of the three substances: the ratio between the 90th and the 10th percentile concentration amounted to 21, 6 and 13 for tr-cinnamaldehyde, safrole and myristicin, respectively. The uncertainty in the assessment of dietary exposure to these substances due to the variability of their level in cola-flavoured drinks was low. Based on these analytical data and on refined food consumption data, estimates of exposure to safrole associated to cola drink consumption, along with Margin of Exposure (MOE) values, were obtained. For high consumers of cola-flavoured soft drinks in certain age groups, within some European countries, MOE values lower than 10,000 resulted, MOE values of 10,000 or higher having been stated by the EFSA as a quantitative criterion to identify low concern from a public health point of view and low priority for risk management actions. The lowest MOE values, from 1900 to 3000, were observed for children and teen agers in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

  18. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  19. Estabilidade sensorial de suco de maracujá pronto para beber acondicionado em latas de aço Sensorial stability of ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in tinplate cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Segantini Saron

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a preservação das características sensoriais e físico-químicas de suco de maracujá pronto para beber acondicionado em latas de três peças em folha-de-flandres eletrossoldadas, com diferentes condições de envernizamento interno do corpo e costura lateral, através de teste de estocagem. O suco de maracujá foi acondicionado em latas com camada nominal interna de 2,0 g de Sn.m-2, com três sistemas de revestimento orgânico interno e condicionado a 25 e 35 °C durante 360 dias. Ocorreu um acentuado decréscimo do conteúdo de ácido ascórbico até os 180 dias, mantendo-se estável até 360 dias em todas as condições estudadas. A avaliação de cor demonstrou o escurecimento do suco até os 120 dias e posteriormente sua descoloração, entre os 300 e 360 dias, nas duas temperaturas estudadas. A avaliação sensorial durante a estocagem demonstrou desempenho similar para todas as latas, sendo inferior apenas para a lata Pó a 35 °C. As principais alterações verificadas no produto ao longo da estocagem foram associadas às alterações intrínsecas à bebida e não à interação suco/embalagem. O estudo permitiu concluir que os três sistemas de envernizamento das latas estudadas podem ser utilizados no acondicionamento de suco de maracujá pronto para beber para uma vida-de-prateleira mínima de 12 meses.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the preservation of the sensorial and physicochemical characteristics of ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in three-piece welded tinplate cans with different internal coatings of the body and side strips, based on a storage test. The product evaluated was ready-to-drink passion fruit juice packaged in cans with an internal layer of 2.0 g.m-2 of tin, with three inner organic coating systems, stored at 25 and 35 °C for 360 days. A sharp decrease in ascorbic acid content was recorded up to day 180, after which it remained constant until the end of

  20. Determination of gardenia yellow colorants in soft drink, pastry, instant noodles with ultrasound-assisted extraction by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-E; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Ling, Yun; Li, Hong-Na; Li, Shao-Hui; Jiang, Shou-Jun; Ren, Zhi-Qin; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Feng

    2016-05-13

    A novel, rapid and simple analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of crocin, crocetin and geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The solid samples were relatively homogenized into powders and fragments. The gardenia yellow colorants were successively extracted with methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The analytes were quantitatively measured in the extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.995) of crocin, crocetin and geniposide were obtained within their linear ranges respectively (50-1000ng/mL, 50-1000ng/mL, 15-240ng/mL) by external standard method. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02μg/g for crocin, 0.01μg/g for crocetin and 0.002μg/g for geniposide. And the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the ranges of 0.05-0.45μg/g for crocin, and in the ranges of 0.042-0.32μg/g for crocetin, and in the ranges of 0.02-0.15μg/g for geniposide in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles samples. The average recoveries of crocin, crocetin and geniposide ranged from 81.3% to 117.6% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodles. The intra- and inter-day precisions were respectively in the range of 1.3-4.8% and 1.7-11.8% in soft drink, pastry and instant noodle. The developed methods were successfully validated and applied to the soft drink, pastry, and instant noodles collected from the located market in Beijing from China. Crocin, crocetin and geniposide were detected in the collected samples. The average concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 4.20mg/g for crocin, and from 0.62 to 3.11mg/g for crocetin, and from 0.18 to 0.79mg/g for gardenia in various food samples. The method can provide evidences for government to determine gardenia yellow pigments and geniposide in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Sadat Sajadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro.Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak, and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P≤ 0.552. The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P≤ 0.035; but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P≤ 0.999.Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  2. Effects of two soft drinks on shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of orthodontic metal brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza; Sajadi, Sepideh

    2014-07-01

    Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro. Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak), and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P≤ 0.552). The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P≤ 0.035); but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P≤ 0.999). Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  3. Sugary, Caffeinated Drinks Could Cost You Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 percent more sugar-sweetened, caffeinated beverages like soda and energy drinks than those who slept seven ... no link between the amount of sleep and consumption of juice, tea or diet drinks. It was ...

  4. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  5. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity. Objective: We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft...... drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures. Design: A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity- Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist...

  6. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    physiochemical characterization (pH, soluble solids, acidity, total sugar, and vitamin C, microbiological analysis and sensory evaluation (color, taste, overall acceptability and purchase intent. All samples showed good acceptability and no difference among the averages of the evaluated attributes. In the purchase intent, the most accepted formulation was ACC 20 (20% clarified cashew apple juice and 80% coconut water. The vitamin C incorporation in the beverage through the addition of the clarified cashew apple juice was more evident up to formulation ACC 20. The results indicated that the formulation ACC 20 was more viable for elaboration of the mixed drink. All formulations presented satisfactory microbiological standard.

  7. 自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料及果汁中的钠含量%Determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and juice drinks by automatic standard addition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言郡; 吴伟都; 朱慧; 李卫群; 张宗祥; 王雅琼; 汪涓涓; 徐玲玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and fruit juice by automatic standard addition method.MethodsThe sodium content in whole milk powder, skim milk powder, whey powder concentrated, infant formula and all kinds of fruit juices and milk drinks sold in markets were determined by automatic standard addition method. The effects of the extraction methods of sodium ion and the titrant concentration on the detection results were investigated, and then the results were compared with the results of flame atomic emission spectrometry method.Results The automatic standard addition method which was used to detect the sodium content in milk powder, whey powder concentration, fruit juices and milk drinks had good repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5%. There was no significant difference between automatic standard addition method and flame atomic emission spectrometry method, and the RSDs were less than 5%.Conclusion Automatic standard addition method has good repeatability and high accuracy, which can be used for determination of sodium in food and beverage.%目的:建立自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料和果汁中钠含量的方法。方法采用自动标准加入法对全脂奶粉、脱脂奶粉、浓缩乳清粉、婴幼儿配方奶粉以及市场上各类果汁饮料及乳饮料进行钠含量的测定,研究样品中钠离子的提取方式和滴定剂浓度对检测结果的影响,并将测定结果与火焰原子发射光谱法进行对比。结果自动标准加入法用于乳粉、浓缩乳清粉、果汁饮料及乳饮料中钠含量的测定结果重复性好,相对标准偏差均小于5%;而且与火焰原子发射光谱法的测定结果之间无显著性差异,两者之间的相对偏差小于5%。结论自动标准加入法重复性好、准确度高,可用于食品与饮料中钠含量的检测。

  8. 自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料及果汁中的钠含量%Determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and juice drinks by automatic standard addition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言郡; 吴伟都; 朱慧; 李卫群; 张宗祥; 王雅琼; 汪涓涓; 徐玲玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and fruit juice by automatic standard addition method. Methods The sodium content in whole milk powder, skim milk powder, whey powder concentrated, infant formula and all kinds of fruit juices and milk drinks sold in markets were determined by automatic standard addition method. The effects of the extraction methods of sodium ion and the titrant concentration on the detection results were investigated, and then the results were compared with the results of flame atomic emission spectrometry method. Results The automatic standard addition method which was used to detect the sodium content in milk powder, whey powder concentration, fruit juices and milk drinks had good repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5%. There was no significant difference between automatic standard addition method and flame atomic emission spectrometry method, and the RSDs were less than 5%. Conclusion Automatic standard addition method has good repeatability and high accuracy, which can be used for determination of sodium in food and beverage.%目的:建立自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料和果汁中钠含量的方法。方法采用自动标准加入法对全脂奶粉、脱脂奶粉、浓缩乳清粉、婴幼儿配方奶粉以及市场上各类果汁饮料及乳饮料进行钠含量的测定,研究样品中钠离子的提取方式和滴定剂浓度对检测结果的影响,并将测定结果与火焰原子发射光谱法进行对比。结果自动标准加入法用于乳粉、浓缩乳清粉、果汁饮料及乳饮料中钠含量的测定结果重复性好,相对标准偏差均小于5%;而且与火焰原子发射光谱法的测定结果之间无显著性差异,两者之间的相对偏差小于5%。结论自动标准加入法重复性好、准确度高,可用于食品与饮料中钠含量的检测。

  9. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  10. Determination of cadmium and lead at sub-ppt level in soft drinks: An efficient combination between dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlate, Jaime S; Soares, Bruno M; Seeger, Tassia S; Vecchia, Paula Dalla; Mello, Paola A; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A

    2017-04-15

    A DLLME method for extraction and preconcentration of Cd and Pb from soft drinks and further determination by GF AAS was developed. Important parameters of DLLME such as the type and volume of dispersive and extraction solvents, concentration of DDTC (complexing agent) and pH were evaluated. Better results were obtained using 500μL of acetone for Cd and 700μL of acetonitrile for Pb as dispersive solvents, 60μL of CCl4 as extraction solvent for both analytes and 500μL of 1.5% DDTC solution. Accuracy was evaluated by recovery assays and ranged from 91 to 113% for Cd and from 95 to 108% for Pb, with RSD below 10 and 7%, respectively. The LODs were 0.006 and 0.072ngL(-1) for Cd and Pb, respectively. The optimized method was applied for the determination of Cd and Pb in soft drinks with different brands and flavours.

  11. Magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters from soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Jiao, Caina; Yang, Xiumin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2017-02-13

    A new kind of magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon was prepared by the one-step carbonization of a hybrid precursor (glucose, melamine, and iron chloride) in a N2 atmosphere with a eutectic salt (KCl/ZnCl2 ) as the porogen. The obtained magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon showed excellent characteristics, such as strong magnetic response, high surface area, large pore volume, and abundant π-electron system, which endow it with a great potential as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. To evaluate its adsorption performance, the magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon was used for the extraction of three phthalate esters from soft drink samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method showed a good linearity (1.0-120.0 ng/mL), low limit of detection (0.1-0.3 ng/mL, S/N = 3), and good recoveries (83.2-119.0%) in soft drink samples. The results indicated that the magnetic N-doped mesoporous carbon has an excellent adsorption capacity for phthalate esters and the present method is simple, accurate, and highly efficient for the extraction and determination of phthalate esters in complex matrix samples.

  12. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  13. Rapid determination of five food additives in soft drinks by high pressure liquid chromatography%高压液相色谱法快速测定饮料中的五种食品添加剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰; 郭志谋; 章飞芳; 梁鑫淼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a high pressure liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of 3 sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, aspartame) and 2 preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid) in soft drinks. Methods The samples were diluted with initial mobile phase and filtrated for liq-uid chromatographic analysis. The separation was performed on a polar-modified XAqua C18 column with 50 mmol/L pH 4.5 KH2PO4 and acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient mode. The flow rate was set at 2 mL/min and column temperature was 40℃. The separation could be achieved within 6 min. And one sample could be analyzed within 10 min with the addition of 4 min equilibration time. Results Under the optimized chroma-tographic conditions, a good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5~50 mg/L for the 5 food additives, with correlation coefficients (r2) all above 0.9999. For samples (carbonated and fruit juice beverage matrix) spiked with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the 5 food additives, the recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) were96.48%~105.64% and 0.21%~5.39%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method calculated by signal to noise ratio (S/N) = 3:1 was 0.02~0.08 mg/L. Conclusion The developed analysis method was rapid and accurate, and could be used for the simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in soft drinks.%  目的建立一种高压液相色谱方法同时检测饮料制品中3种甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿斯巴甜)和2种防腐剂(苯甲酸、山梨酸)。方法样品采用起始流动相稀释后直接过膜分析,色谱分离在极性修饰 XAqua C18色谱柱上进行,流动相采用50 mmol/L pH 4.5 KH2PO4和乙腈,梯度模式洗脱,流速2 mL/min,柱温40℃,6 min 内即可完成一次分离分析,加上4 min 梯度平衡时间,10 min 内即可完成平衡及分离。结果5种食品添加剂在0.5~50 mg/L 内线性关系良好,相关系数 r2均大于0.9999。

  14. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in commercial soft drinks using reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Fatma; Güzel, Remziye; Dinç, Erdal

    2017-04-01

    A new reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid (AA) and caffeine (CAF) in 11 different commercial drinks consisting of one energy drink and 10 ice tea drinks. Separation of the analyzed AA and CAF with an internal standard, caffeic acid, was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm i.d.), using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2M H3PO4 (11:89, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and an injection volume of 1.0 μL. Calibration graphs for AA and CAF were computed from the peak area ratio of AA/internal standard and CAF/internal standard detected at 244.0 nm and 273.6 nm, respectively. The developed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method was validated by analyzing standard addition samples. The proposed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method gave us successful results for the quantitative analysis of commercial drinks containing AA and CAF substances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and caffeine in commercial soft drinks using reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid (AA and caffeine (CAF in 11 different commercial drinks consisting of one energy drink and 10 ice tea drinks. Separation of the analyzed AA and CAF with an internal standard, caffeic acid, was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm i.d., using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2M H3PO4 (11:89, v/v with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and an injection volume of 1.0 μL. Calibration graphs for AA and CAF were computed from the peak area ratio of AA/internal standard and CAF/internal standard detected at 244.0 nm and 273.6 nm, respectively. The developed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method was validated by analyzing standard addition samples. The proposed reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography method gave us successful results for the quantitative analysis of commercial drinks containing AA and CAF substances.

  16. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives), phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids), flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside), and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2). Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces. PMID:27747228

  17. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  18. Alcohol Fermentation from Sugarcane Juice with Fruit Wine Yeast%果酒酵母对甘蔗汁的酒精发酵作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赶林; 林波; 孙健; 李杨瑞

    2011-01-01

    A semi-product of sugarcane shrub, an alcoholic drink, was brewed from sugarcane juice by submerged fermentation using fruit wine yeast at room temperature. The characteristic parameter variations of sugarcane juice in the process of alcohol fermentation were investigated to determine the action mechanism of fruit wine yeast. The results showed that the alcohol fermentation cycle of sugarcane juice with 0. 15 to 0.30 g/L fruit wine yeast ranged from 14 to 20 days, the alcohol content was 4.5% , the acidity ranged from 1.8% to 2.4% , and the total sugar content decreased to 0.1%. The fermented juice was delightful, clearer and bright with yellowish-brown color. It exhibited full-bodied vinosity and soft taste. The present study has provided a reference for producing fruit drinks and vinegar drinks by the submerged fermentation of sugarcane juice.%以新鲜甘蔗压榨汁为原料,常温下用果酒酵母液态深层发酵酿制甘蔗果酒中间制品,探讨甘蔗汁酒精发酵过程中反应特性参数的变化。结果显示,使用0.15—0.30g/h的果酒酵母作用甘蔗汁,发酵周期为14~20d,发酵汁乙醇体积分数为4.5%,酸度为1.8%-2.4%,总糖为0.1%,发酵汁呈棕黄色,澄清透亮,酒香浓郁,味道柔和。

  19. Detection of caffeine in tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink by direct analysis in real time (DART) source coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.

  20. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in soft drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were pre-concentrated by stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermally desorbed (SBSE-TD) before analysis by GC-MS. Several parameters affecting the derivatisation step and both SBSE extraction and thermal desorption were carefully optimised. When the analyses of BHA and TBHQ in their acetylated, silylated and underivatised forms were compared, the best results were obtained when the in-situ derivatisation procedure with acetic anhydride was employed. Quantification was carried out using carvacrol as the internal standard, providing quantification limits of between 0.11 and 0.15 ng ml(-1), depending on the compound. Recovery assays for samples spiked at two concentration levels, 1 and 5 ng ml(-1), provided recoveries in the 81-117% range. The proposed method was applied in the analysis canned soft drinks and the analytes were found in five of the 10 samples analysed.

  1. Migration measurement and modelling from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) into soft drinks and fruit juices in comparison with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2008-08-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are widely used for beverages. Knowledge about the migration of organic compounds from the PET bottle wall into contact media is of interest especially when post-consumer recyclates are introduced into new PET bottles. Using migration theory, the migration of a compound can be calculated if the concentration in the bottle wall is known. On the other hand, for any given specific migration limit or maximum target concentration for organic chemical compounds in the bottled foodstuffs, the maximum allowable concentrations in the polymer CP,0 can be calculated. Since a food simulant cannot exactly simulate the real migration into the foodstuff or beverages, a worse-case simulation behaviour is the intention. However, if the migration calculation should not be too overestimative, the polymer-specific kinetic parameter for migration modelling, the so-called AP value, should be established appropriately. One objective of the study was the kinetic determination of the specific migration behaviour of low molecular weight compounds such as solvents with relatively high diffusion rates and, therefore, with high migration potential from the PET bottle wall into food simulants in comparison with real beverages. For this purpose, model contaminants were introduced into the bottle wall during pre-form production. The volatile compounds toluene and chlorobenzene were established at concentrations from about 20-30 mg kg(-1) to 300-350 mg kg(-1). Phenyl cyclohexane was present at concentrations of 35, 262 and 782 mg kg(-1), respectively. The low volatile compounds benzophenone and methyl stearate have bottle wall concentrations of about 100 mg kg(-1) in the low spiking level up to about 1000 mg kg(-1) in the highly spiked test bottle. From these experimental data, the polymer specific parameters (AP values) from mathematical migration modelling were derived. The experimental determined diffusing coefficients were determined, calculated and compared with literature data and an AP' value of 1.0 was derived thereof for non-swelling food simulants like 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol or iso-octane. For more swelling condition, e.g. 95% ethanol as food simulant, an AP' value of 3.1 seems to be suitable for migration calculation. In relation to PET recycling safety aspects, maximum concentrations in the bottle wall were established for migrants/contaminants with different molecular weights, which correspond with a migration limit of 10 microg kg(-1). From the experimental data obtained using food simulants and in comparison with beverages, the most appropriate food simulant for PET packed foods with a sufficient but not too overestimative worse-case character was found to be 50% ethanol. In addition, it can be shown that mass transport from PET is generally controlled by the very low diffusion in the polymer and, as a consequence, partitioning coefficients (KP/F values) of migrants between the polymer material and the foodstuff do not influence the migration levels significantly. An important consequence is that migration levels from PET food-contact materials are largely independent from the nature of the packed food, which on the other hand simplifies exposure estimations from PET.

  2. Fast and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas, mate, instant coffee, soft drink and energetic drink by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, M A; Manchón, N; D'Arrigo, M; Guillamón, E; Villares, A; García-Lafuente, A; Ramos, A; Martínez, J A

    2011-01-31

    A fast HPLC method with diode-array absorbance detector and fluorescence detector for the analysis of 19 phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols and caffeine in different types of samples was developed. Using a C(18) reverse-phase fused-core column separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 5 min with an overall sample-to-sample time of 10 min. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent reproducibility, resolution, selectivity and peak symmetry. Limits of detection for all analyzed compounds ranged from 0.5 to 211 μg L(-1), while limits of quantitation ranged between 1.5 and 704 μg L(-1). The developed method was used for the determination of analytes present in different samples, including teas (black, white, green), mate, coffee, cola soft drink and an energetic drink. Concentration of the analyzed compounds occurring in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 314 mg L(-1). Caffeine was the analyte found in higher concentrations in all samples. Phytochemical profiles of the samples were consistent with those reported in the literature.

  3. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents Citotoxicidade e mutagenicidade de refrigerantes sabor cola e uva, em células de medula óssea de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.Devido ao grande consumo de refrigerantes no Brasil e no mundo nos últimos anos, e tendo em vista que alguns dos componentes presentes na composição destes possuem potenciais danosos para os organismos, em especial o humano, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial citotóxico e mutagênico de uma marca de refrigerante sabor Cola e uma de sabor Uva. Foram utilizadas como sistema-teste as células de medula óssea de ratos Wistar, tratados via gavagem com dose única do refrigerante sabor Cola ou Uva e, em seguida, fornecidos ad libitum (no lugar da água, por 24 horas. Foi feito um controle negativo, administrando água, em dose única, e um controle positivo administrando ciclofosfamida, via intraperitoneal. A análise estatística mostrou que os refrigerantes sabor Cola e Uva não foram citotóxicos. Entretanto, o refrigerante sabor Cola foi mutagênico neste

  4. Discrimination of Basic Taste Solutions and Soft Drinks on Electrical and Optical Response Patterns of Artificial Lipid Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Keiichi; Misawa, Kenji; Arisawa, Junji

    In this paper, electrical and optical characteristics of artificial lipid membrane for basic taste solutions and tea drinks were examined. The possibility of taste sensing on the electrical and optical response patterns of a single membrane was also discussed. As a result, in case of sour and sweet solutions with different concentration, the patterns of taste response were similar in shape. In case of the tea drinks on some commercial goods, the different shapes among the sample solutions were obtained. Furthermore, the strength of sour taste was reflected in the electrical axis of response pattern and the strength of sweet taste was reflected in the optical axis of response pattern. Therefore, it was found that the possibility of taste sensing using electrical and optical response patterns was obtained from a single membrane.

  5. The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Ružica; Kaličanin, Biljana; Krstić, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the effects of consuming sour-tasting food and refreshing drinks on the bone tissue of teeth among teenagers. The cumulative effect of a year-long exposure of teeth to the erosive effects of a model system of acidic media (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, apple vinegar, lemonade, the soft drink Sprite, mineral water) was studied. The effects were registered based on the amount of released biometal ions, of zinc and copper, and toxic lead, during a period of 24 hr at room temperature, using the potentiometric stripping analysis. In the given time span, amounts ranging from 75 to 750 ppm of zinc, from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of copper, and up to 1.5 ppm of lead were released from the dental matrix, while the release of cadmium was below the level of detection. The changes to the mineral structure of the bone tissue were monitored by the Fourier's transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy technique. These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 μm.

  6. Trace analysis of Ponceau 4R in soft drinks using differential pulse stripping voltammetry at SWCNTs composite electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifei; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Xuemin; Xu, Jingkun; Wen, Yangping

    2015-08-01

    Ponceau 4R, an edible synthetic colorant used in drinks, syrups, and sweets, has been successfully detected using differential pulse voltammetry at a single-walled carbon nanotubes-modified composite electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and two derivatives thereof. The electrochemical parameters of three Ponceau 4R sensors, such as pH value, pre-concentration time, and scan rate, have been optimized, and their electrochemical performances have been compared. A poly(acrylate-modified 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)-single-walled carbon nanotubes-poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified electrode showed the best electrocatalytic activity, with the highest response current, lowest detection limit (1.8 nm), widest linear range (0.0055-110.6 μm), and best sensing stability. Additionally, the modified electrode has also been successfully employed for real sample analysis with soft drinks. Satisfactory results were obtained, demonstrating this to be an easy and effective approach for trace analysis of Ponceau 4R in food samples.

  7. The erosive potential of soft drinks on enamel surface substrate: an in vitro scanning electron microscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Kitchens, Michael

    2007-11-01

    Using scanning electron and light microscopy, this study qualitatively evaluated the erosive potential of carbonated cola beverages as well as sports and high-energy drinks on enamel surface substrate. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, and tap water (control). Extracted human permanent molars free of hypocalcification and/or caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and sectioned longitudinally from the buccal to the lingual surface. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin, leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. Following finishing and polishing of all surfaces, one side was covered with red nail varnish while the remaining side was exposed to individual beverage immersion for 14 days, 24 hours per day, at 37 degrees C. The specimens were evaluated for enamel surface changes using scanning electron and light microscopy. Enamel specimens exhibited visual surface changes following immersion in the test beverages with Red Bull and Gatorade revealing the most striking surface morphological changes. Specimens subjected to Coca Cola Classic and Diet Coke immersion also displayed irregular post-treatment surface morphology. As verified by microscopic evaluation, all test beverages displayed enamel dissolution in the following order: Red Bull>Gatorade>Coca-Cola Classic>Diet Coke.

  8. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  9. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  10. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  11. Kids' Sugary Drink Habits Start Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruit juices and nectars with added sugars); sports drinks; energy drinks; sweetened coffee and tea; horchata and sugar cane ... diets high in phosphorous may have long-term effects on bone health," Sandon added. The calories from sugary drinks are "empty," and won't keep you feeling ...

  12. The effects of two soft drinks on bond strength, bracket microleakage, and adhesive remnant on intact and sealed enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Vicente, Ascensión; Ortiz, Antonio J; Bravo, Luis A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón on bond strength, adhesive remnant, and microleakage beneath brackets. One hundred and twenty upper central incisor brackets were bonded to bovine incisors and divided into three groups: (1) Control, (2) Coca-Cola, and (3) Schweppes Limón. The teeth were submerged in the drinks three times a day for 15 minutes over a 15 day period. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured with a universal testing machine, and adhesive remnant evaluated using image analysis equipment. Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces was determined using methylene blue. One hundred and eight teeth were used for scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of the drinks on intact and sealed enamel. SBS and adhesive remnant data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P 0.05). Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive interface for groups 2 and 3 was significantly greater than for group 1 (P Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón did not affect the SBS of brackets or the adhesive remnant.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Six Benzodiazepines in Spiked Soft Drinks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultra Violet Detection (HPLC-UV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Karimi, Mohammad; Nateghi, Alireza; Daraei, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultra violet detection for simultaneous analysis of six benzodiazepines (BZDs) (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clonazepam, midazolam , flurazpam, and lorazepam) has been developed for forensic screening of adulterated non-alcoholic drinks. Samples were analyzed after a simple procedure for preparation using pH adjustment and filtering. Isocratic elution on a C18 column (250mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) in the temperature 45ºC with a mobile phase consisting of 15mM phosphate buffer: methanol (50:50 v/v) at a flow rate 1.4 mL/min has been done. The column eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 245 nm. This allowed a rapid detection and identification as well as quantization of the eluting peaks. Calibration curves for all drugs in the range of 0.5- 10 µg/ mL that all the linear regression and has more than 0.996. Recovery rates for the BZDs were in the range 93.7- 108.7%. The limits of detection were calculated between 0.01- 0.02 µg/ mL. Also, the limits of quantification were 0.03- 0.05 µg/mL. Within-day and between -day coefficient of variation for all BZDs at all concentrations in the range of 0.45 - 7.69 % was calculated. The procedure can provide a simple, sensitive and fast method for the screening of six BZDs in adulterated soft drinks in forensic analysis. PMID:27642316

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Six Benzodiazepines in Spiked Soft Drinks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultra Violet Detection (HPLC-UV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Karimi, Mohammad; Nateghi, Alireza; Daraei, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultra violet detection for simultaneous analysis of six benzodiazepines (BZDs) (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, clonazepam, midazolam , flurazpam, and lorazepam) has been developed for forensic screening of adulterated non-alcoholic drinks. Samples were analyzed after a simple procedure for preparation using pH adjustment and filtering. Isocratic elution on a C18 column (250mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) in the temperature 45ºC with a mobile phase consisting of 15mM phosphate buffer: methanol (50:50 v/v) at a flow rate 1.4 mL/min has been done. The column eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 245 nm. This allowed a rapid detection and identification as well as quantization of the eluting peaks. Calibration curves for all drugs in the range of 0.5- 10 µg/ mL that all the linear regression and has more than 0.996. Recovery rates for the BZDs were in the range 93.7- 108.7%. The limits of detection were calculated between 0.01- 0.02 µg/ mL. Also, the limits of quantification were 0.03- 0.05 µg/mL. Within-day and between -day coefficient of variation for all BZDs at all concentrations in the range of 0.45 - 7.69 % was calculated. The procedure can provide a simple, sensitive and fast method for the screening of six BZDs in adulterated soft drinks in forensic analysis.

  15. Effects of Sweet Soft Drinking on Representation of Money and Awareness of Money Donation in University Students%喝含糖饮料对金钱表征和金钱捐献意向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶维东; 严燕静

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨喝含糖饮料后是否影响大学生金钱表征和金钱捐献意向.方法:170名大学生,随机分成三组,喝雪碧组、喝纯净水组和什么都不喝组.在抄写完一段文字后,填写自编问卷一和PANAS量表.结果:(1)饮用含糖饮料后并非显著性地影响到对金钱表征;(2)喝含糖饮料在一定程度上能够增加金钱捐献意向,但喝雪碧组、喝纯净水组和什么都不喝组,三组被试金钱捐献意向未达显著性差异水平;(3)喝雪碧组、喝纯净水组和什么都不喝组三组被试在积极情绪和消极情绪维度上均未达到显著性水平.结论:喝含糖饮料并未显著地影响其金钱表征或促进其金钱捐献意向.%Objective: To investigate whether the kind of sott drinking can influence the awareness of money donation in the co11ege students when they drink sweet soft drinking, pure water or nothing. Method: A total of 170 college students were randomly divided into three groups: Sprite drinking group, pure water group drink and nothing to drink group. After drinking, they copy a paragraph of text,then they fill two a questionnaire and the scale of PANAS. Results: (1)Participants who drink sweet Sprite donated more money than participants who drink pure water or drink nothing, but the difference among three group didn't reach significant level; (2) There are't any differences in representation of money among three groups of participants 0) There are't any significant differences in the factor of positive emotions and negative emotions among three groups of participants. Conclusion: Sweet soft Drinking didn't influence the representation of money and the awareness of money donation.

  16. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  17. 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon) causing an off-flavor: elucidation of its formation pathways during storage of citrus soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, T; Gutsche, B; Hartl, M; Hübscher, R; Schreier, P; Schwab, W

    1999-08-01

    Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GCO) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) revealed 3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) to be responsible for the "burnt" and "spicy" off-flavor observed in citrus soft drinks during storage. Among the ingredients of citrus soft drinks, ethanol and ascorbic acid were identified as the essential precursors of sotolon. Two formation pathways were postulated by studies using (2)H (D)- and (13)C-labeled ethanol and ascorbic acid; i.e., sotolon is formed from two molecules of ethanol and carbons 2 and 3 of ascorbic acid (pathway 1), or it is generated from one molecule of ethanol and carbons 3-6 of ascorbic acid (pathway 2).

  18. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cakes, cookies, candy, and other desserts juices, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks that ... of added sugars for Americans are sugar-sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks grain- ...

  19. Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Nemati, Mahboob; Ansarin, Masood; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie

    2015-01-01

    Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are widely used for food preservation. These preservatives are generally recognised as safe. The aim of this study was to determine the level of benzoic and sorbic acid in food samples that are usually consumed in Iran. Therefore, 54 samples, including 15 soft drinks, 15 ultra-high-temperature milk, 15 ketchup sauces and 9 bread samples, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Benzoic acid was detected in 50 (92.5%) of the samples ranging from 3.5 to 1520 µg mL⁻¹, while sorbic acid was detected in 29 (50.3%) samples in a range of 0.8 and 2305 µg mL⁻¹. Limits of detection and limits of quantification for benzoate were found to be 0.1 and 0.5 µg mL⁻¹, respectively, and for sorbate 0.08 and 0.3 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The results showed that benzoic acid and sorbic acid widely occur in food products in Iran.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  1. 绿茶饮料中茶多糖的构成%The components of tea polysaccarides in soft green tea drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠幼英

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccarides in the soft green tea drink was analyzed by HPLC.The results showed that content of tea polysaccarides was about 3.5% in the total solids.Six kinds of saccarides,i.e.rhamnose,xylose,arabinose,mannose,glucose and galactose were detected.The amounts of arabinose and galactose took up over 80% of the polysaccarides.%用高压液相色谱法(HPLC)测定绿茶饮料中茶叶游离多糖和复合多糖的构成和含量。结果显示,茶多糖总量约为绿茶饮料固形物的3.5%,游离多糖和复合多糖分别为1.9%和1.6%;其中包含了6种糖类:鼠李糖、木糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖和甘露糖;而半乳糖和阿拉伯糖在游离多糖和复合多糖中均占80%以上。

  2. Study of fermentation soft-drink with amino acids enhancement%氨基酸增强型发酵饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志旭; 刘东波; 陈芳

    2012-01-01

    The study used selected compound microorganisms to ferment the mixture of rice and hydrolyzate of Silk-worm chrysalis. By single-factor experiment and multi-factor orthogoal test.it showed that adding 20% rice-weight Silkworm chrysalis with 20% degree of hydrolysis at 12 hours of fermentation, the ammoniacal nitrogen content improved 11 times in the final product, the nutrient value of Silk-worm chrysalis and the characteristic flavor were retained effectively. A new fermentation soft-drink with amino acids enhancement is made.%利用优选的复合菌群对米饭和蚕蛹水解液的混合物进行发酵试验,通过单因素试验和正交试验发现,在米饭发酵12 h时添加水解度为20%,添加量为饭重20%的蚕蛹水解液进行混合发酵,最终发酵产品的氨基氮含量可提高11倍,且有效地保留蚕蛹水解液的营养成分,具有发酵饮料的独特风味,可得到一种新型的氨基酸增强型发酵饮料.

  3. Determination Of Caustic Drain Out Period Of Glass Bottle Washerand Impact Of Total And Effective Caustic Strengths For Glass Bottle Washing In Soft Drink Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.MJ. Harshani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important processes in soft drink production is bottle washing high quality of the product depends on that. A main objective of the present study is to determine the impact of total caustic and effective caustic strength on the washing performance of glass bottles. Total and effective caustic strength in samples were measured based on titration results. Four parameters were considered on the washing performance of glass bottles such as Microbiological Tests APC and Yeast amp Molds Methylene blue test Phenolphthalein test and Physical inspection. Ten samples were tested for every test per each time and three times were considered for a day and conduct for 43 days within two caustic drains out periods. Negative correlations in between total effective caustic strengths with time Days indicate from 29 days onward in tanks. There is a Positive correlation P 0.05 in between Carbonates gml and time Days onward. Positive correlations P 0.05 indicate from 35 days onward for the number of algae present bottles number of dirty bottles and APC too. Twenty nine days from the initial charge of caustic soda can be taken as the most suitable day for the caustic discharge. Under the practical scenario mean differences of total and effective caustic strengths are negligible compared to the standard value and not significantly difference P 0.05.

  4. Avaliação do desenpenho logístico da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes Evaluation of the logistic performance of Brazil's soft drink supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vieira Conceição

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho logístico de quatro elos da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes (fornecedores de embalagem para refrigerantes, indústria de refrigerantes, atacado e supermercado, adotando como metodologia o survey eletrônico. As repostas foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, além de uma análise descritiva dos dados e da realização dos testes de hipótese. As empresas avaliaram o desempenho logístico da cadeia, por meio de indicadores da logística interna e externa, e identificaram a percentagem de uso desses indicadores. A taxa média de respostas foi de 40%. A pesquisa mostrou que os elos da cadeia de refrigerantes utilizam mais os indicadores de desempenho, que avaliam a logística interna, do que os que avaliam a logística externa.An evaluation was made of the logistics performance of four links in Brazil's soft drink supply chain (soft drink packaging suppliers, soft drink industry, wholesalers and supermarkets, based on an electronic survey of 54 companies, from which a 40% response rate was obtained. The answers were analyzed based on the supply chain management theory, using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and a descriptive analysis of the data. The surveyed companies evaluated the logistic performance of the chain based on indicators selected from a literature review, and identified the percentage of use of these indicators. It was found that the links in the soft drink chain preferentially use internal logistics performance indicators more than external logistics indicators.

  5. 优化教学内容 培养高素质的软饮料人才%Developing Qualified Soft-Drink Talent by Optimizing the Teaching Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘华

    2000-01-01

    This article diseussed how to reform the soft-drink course by optimizing the teach-ing materials, improving the teaching methods and renewing the teaching condition for therequirement of qualified technicians.%从优化教学内容,改进教学方法,更新教学手段等方面探讨了改革软饮料课程的措施,以适应高素质人才的需求。

  6. The Oslo Health Study: a Dietary Index estimating high intake of soft drinks and low intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with components of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2010-12-01

    A previous finding that soft drink intake is associated with increased serum triglycerides and decreased high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), raises the question of whether other aspects of an unhealthy diet might be associated with MetS. Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Of the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, there were 13 170 respondents (5997 men and 7173 women) with data on MetS factors (except fasting glucose) and on the components used to determine the Dietary Index score (calculated as the intake estimate of soft drinks divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables). MetSRisk was calculated as the sum of arbitrarily weighted factors positively associated with MetS divided by HDL cholesterol. Using regression analyses, the association of the Dietary Index with MetSRisk, with the number of MetS requirements present, and with the complete MetS was studied. In young, middle-aged, and senior men and women, there was, in general, a positive association (p soft drinks and a low intake of fruit and vegetables was positively and independently associated with aspects of MetS.

  7. Production of concentrated “Ya Pak King” drink by vacuum microwave drying

    OpenAIRE

    Wanprakeaw, P.; Kankrengwong, J.; Jirasant, S.; Suntornsuk, W.

    2005-01-01

    Ya Pak King juice is currently popular among Thai consumers. However, some people do not like to drink it because of its pungent smell and flavor. The objectives of this investigation were to improve consumer perception of ready-to-drink Ya Pak King juice and to produce the concentrated drink by vacuum microwave drying. The herbal juice from Ya Pak King was prepared and formulated with lemon juice and honey by the Mixture Design. The drink flavor and taste were then modified by the addition o...

  8. Formation Mechanism and Control of Soft Deposit in Drinking Water Distribution System%给水管壁松散沉积物的形成机制与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲玲; 张永吉; 叶河秀; 王媛

    2012-01-01

    给水管网水质安全一直是研究者关注的热点问题,给水管网水质除了受管壁生物膜和腐蚀物的影响外,生物膜和腐蚀物与水接触处还存在着一层松散结构——管壁松散沉积物.管壁松散沉积物中含有大量的颗粒物、有机物和微生物,由于与管壁结合比较松散,因此比生物膜和腐蚀物更容易从管壁上脱落下来,对水质的影响更大.介绍了松散沉积物的形成规律及组成变化,分析了管壁松散沉积物对水质的影响及其控制方法,并提出了关于管壁松散沉积物今后的研究方向.目前国内外对管壁松散沉积物的研究还不系统,随着对给水管网水质问题认识的提高,在我国开展控制给水管壁松散沉积物的研究是必要的.%The safety of water quality in drinking water distribution system is a hot issue concerned by many researchers. The water quality in drinking water distribution system is not only influenced by biofilm and corrosive substances accumulated on pipe wall, but also a soft deposit between the two media and water. The soft deposit is composed of lots of particles, organic matters and microorganisms, and the loose structure makes it easily detached from the pipe wall to contaminate water quality. The formation pathways and composition of soft deposit were introduced, the influence of it on water quality and its control method were analyzed, and the future research field was put forward. Nowadays, the research on soft deposit on drinking water pipe wall is still not systematic at home and abroad. With improvement in understanding of water quality problem in drinking water distribution system, it is necessary to carry out research on soft deposit on drinking water pipe wall in China.

  9. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  10. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIROLO, Rodrigo; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; CORRER, Gisele Maria; GONZAGA, Carla Castiglia; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max) and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO) before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD) at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E) and lightness (∆L) variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001). All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L). The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively). Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching. PMID:25075672

  11. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PIROLO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E and lightness (∆L variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001. All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L. The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively. Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching.

  12. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSDadditives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  13. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths to replace fluids and electrolytes sipping ... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths to replace fluids and electrolytes. Children ...

  14. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  15. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

    2005-01-01

    NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses.No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice.A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acutehepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice.

  16. Soft drink intake at age six and nine and the association with BMI three and seven years later - A follow-up study based on the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida

    -days pre-printed food record. Analyses were conducted using the mixed model approach for repeated measurements and were adjusted for gender, puberty, parental BMI, municipality, school, baseline BMI, SES and physical activity. Results: 154 children, 68 boys and 86 girls were included in the analyses...... age 6 to 9 associated with BMI at age 13 (b:-0.6; p= 0.46). Conclusion: In young children aged 6 years the intake of soft drinks did not seem to be associated with BMI at age 13. Neither was the change in intake or intake at age 9.1.Conflicts of interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest...

  17. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  18. Preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice on neuronal damage induced by focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Satake, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Junichiro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia, Noni, Rubiaceae) has various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities, which may help the inhibition of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined the effect of the fruit juice of M. citrifolia (Noni juice) on the brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 l/4 kg of fruit; 100% Okinawa Noni juice (ONJ). Male ddY mice were supplied with 3% or 10% juice in the drinking water for 7 d, and compared to the control group. On the 7th day, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Interestingly, the intake of juice reduced the infarct volume as analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on the 3rd day of MCAO when compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the neurological deficit scores (NDS) were decreased after the reperfusion in the juice-supplied mice. On the other hand, the intake of juice did not affect the expression levels of antioxidant such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The present study suggests that Noni juice may have a preventive effect against cerebral ischemic stress, while further studies are needed to explain the detailed mechanism.

  19. Bebidas embotelladas como fuentes adicionales de exposición a flúor Bottled drinks as additional source of fluoride exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar y notificar la concentración de fluoruro en bebidas embotelladas que se consumen en la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., México y su implicación como factor de riesgo a fluorosis dental. Material y métodos. Se estudió el contenido de algunos productos de las dos compañías refresqueras más importantes de México y de otras dos locales. Las muestras se recolectaron de 10 lotes diferentes en el caso de los refrescos y de cinco lotes en el de los jugos, con tres muestras por lote, durante tres meses. La determinación de concentración de fluoruro se realizó mediante el método del electrodo de ión selectivo. Resultados. La concentración de flúor de muestras de diferentes plantas de compañías nacionales presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre grupos (pObjective. To evaluate and to report the concentration of fluoride in soft drinks and juices consumed in San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., Mexico, and its implications as a risk factor for developing dental fluorosis. Material and methods. The contents of some products from 2 main national companies and 2 other local companies were studied. The samples were collected from 10 different batches in the case of the soft drinks, and from 5 batches in the case of the juices, with 3 samples per batch, during 3 months. The ión selective electrode method was used to determine the concentration of fluoride. Results. Soft drinks from 2 main national companies showed high fluoride concentrations that were statistically significant between groups (p< 0.05. Fluoride levels of products from local and national companies also showed differences that were statistically significant between groups (p< 0.05. All natural juices tested showed high fluoride concentrations. Conclusions. Most soft drinks and juices consumed in SLP had high fluoride levels above Mexican regulations (0.7 ppm and could be a substantial risk factor for developing dental fluorosis.

  20. DETERMINATION OF URANIUM IN SOFT DRINK BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY%电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定饮料中的铀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦丽; 周谙非; 陈光

    2009-01-01

    The method for determination of uranium in soft drinking by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. Sample preparation for different soft drink was investigated and precision and recovery results were evaluated. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.67%-8.21% (n =6), the spiked recovery were 96.0%-109.0% and the detection limit was 0.010μg ·l~(-1). The method was accurate and reliable.%建立了电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定饮料中的铀.对不同基质的饮料进行了前处理方法的摸索,从精密度和回收率考察了方法的准确性,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.67%-8.21%(n=6),加标回收率为96.0%-109.0%,方法检出限为0.010μg·l~(-1),方法准确可靠.

  1. 论差异化战略在我国软饮料市场的应用%The Application of Differentiation Strategy in China ’s Soft Drink Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍

    2013-01-01

    我国软饮料业不断发展壮大,日益呈现出产品品类繁多、同质化严重、消费需求多元、消费结构不平衡等一系列特点,若想在激烈的市场竞争中脱颖而出,软饮料企业应该考虑从产品、市场、促销以及品牌形象这几个主要方面着手实施差异化营销战略;同时,在实施差异化战略的时候还必须紧密结合消费者需求、企业自身资源、相应的成本和风险等一系列因素进行系统化考虑。%In our country ,soft drink industry continues to grow stronger and increasingly presents a series of characteristic such as various product category ,serious homogenization ,consumer demand di-versity and consumption structure unbalance .In the fierce competition ,soft drink enterprise should im-plement differentiation marketing strategy in aspects of product ,market ,promotion and brand image . At the same time ,the enterprise should systematically consider things such as consumer demand ,the resources of the enterprise itself ow n ,the corresponding costs and risks .

  2. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  3. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  4. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  5. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  6. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  7. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  8. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  9. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  10. Supplementation with orange and blackcurrant juice, but not vitamin E, improves inflammatory markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming Steen; Morrow, Jason D

    2009-01-01

    -inflammatory properties. We performed a randomised 2 x 2 factorial, crossover trial to determine the effect of orange and blackcurrant juice (500 ml/d) and vitamin E (15 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol/d) supplementation on markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in forty-eight patients with peripheral arterial...... disease. Patients were randomly allocated to two dietary supplements from the four possible combinations of juice and vitamin E: juice+vitamin E; juice+placebo; reference beverage (sugar drink)+vitamin E; and reference beverage+placebo. The supplementations were given for 28 d, separated by a 4-week wash......-out period. Analysis of main effects showed that juice decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) by 11% and fibrinogen by 3% while the reference drink increased CRP by 13% and fibrinogen by 2% (P...

  11. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  12. Experimental Study on T2DM Patients by Combining Sports Intervention with Drinking Balsam Pear Juice%联合运动干预结合饮用苦瓜汁对 T2DM患者的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭光泽; 付爱丽; 吴剑明

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the intervention effect on DM patients by combining drinking balsam pear juice with walking at medium speed,the paper selects 60 DM patients who were clinically diagnosed with only T2DM and who fit for the intensity of the experiment as its research object and randomly divides them into experiment group and control group.Under the condition of little absorption of high fat,high cholesterol food and hypoglycemic, lipid -lowering drugs,the combination of sports intervention with drinking balsam pear juice can help normalize or reach a normal level of (P <0.01)glucose metabolism indexes like FPG,GSP and GHB and lipid metabolism indexes like TG,CHOL,HDL,LDL and UA.So the combination can be popularized and applied as an effective way to cure T2DMpatients.%探讨饮用苦瓜果汁结合中速步行对 DM患者的干预效果,选取临床诊断为2型且无其他器质性疾病,适合本实验运动强度的 DM患者60名为研究对象,随机分成实验组和对照组,在不过多食用高脂、高胆固醇类食物且不服用任何降糖、降脂药物的情况下,通过饮用苦瓜果汁和联合运动干预实验,结果表明饮用苦瓜果汁结合联合运动干预可使 DM患者的 FPG、GSP、GHB 等糖代谢及 TG、CHOL、HDL、LDL、UA 等脂质代谢指标显著改善至正常或接近正常水平(P <0.01)。可作为2型 DM患者治疗的有效手段进行推广使用。

  13. Determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Qu, Fei; Song, Cuihua; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui

    2014-10-01

    A novel hyphenated method based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to precolumn derivatization has been established for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Different parameters that influence microextraction and derivatization have been optimized. The quantitative linear range of analytes is 5.0-400.0 ng/L, and the correlation coefficients are more than 0.9998. Limits of detection for soft drinks and dairy products have been obtained in the range of 0.5-1.2 ng/kg and 0.01-0.04 μg/kg, respectively. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision for retention time and peak area are in the range of 0.47-2.31 and 2.76-8.79%, respectively. Accuracy is satisfactory in the range of 81.5-118.7%. Relative standard deviations of repeatability are in the range of 0.35-1.43 and 2.36-4.75% for retention time and peak area, respectively. Enrichment factors for bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol are 170.5, 240.3, and 283.2, respectively. The results of recovery and matrix effect are in the range of 82.7-114.9 and 92.0-109.0%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of bisphenol A, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol in soft drinks and dairy products with much higher sensitivity than many other methods.

  14. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of the Enamel Surface Hardness Reduction in Primary and Permanent Teeth Caused by Two Most Common Acidic Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozari A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by chemical processes not involving bacteria. Dental erosion has been found to be a common cause of tooth wear. Clinically apparent erosion has been found to be related to dietary factors such as the acid content of the beverages.Purpose: Evaluation of enamel erosion in the primary and permanent teeth as the result of two most common acidic drinks produced in Iranian factories, Mirinda and Pepsi.Materials and Method: The outermost surfaces of 20 primary and 20 permanent teeth were polished flat by using the finest grade sandpaper and water in order to facilitate the proper measurement. The specimens were then prepared by cutting 3-4 mm of the buccal surface of teeth by diamond burs. The specimens were then rinsed with distilled water and stored in 100˚10 humidity before testing. The surface micro-hardness of each specimen was measured by micro vickers Hardness tester before, after 5 minutes, and 10 minutes exposure to fresh solution of each drink (10 teeth per test group. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for the estatistical analysis.Results: The results showed that both drinks, Mirinda and Pepsi, produced significant surface hardness loss at 5 and 10 minutes of exposure time ( p =0.05. The amount of erosive effect was changed as the exposure time increased (change from 5 to 10 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the amounts of surface hardness loss in the primary and permanent enamel ( p >0.05. Conclusion: Both drinks may have almost similar but significant erosive effect on the primary and permanent enamel surfaces. Although there wasn’t any difference between erosive effect of the two beverages, this effect was increased with increase in time. The primary teeth enamel was not found to be more susceptibe to acidic beverage-induced erosion than the permanent teeth.

  16. Soft calender; Soft calender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This facility is a soft nip calender with both hot roll and soft roll. Since a multi-zone controlled shim CD roll is used as the soft roll, profile control of a caliper is possible only by deflection control of the roll without any peripheral facility. Main specifications: (1) Kinds of paper: newspaper paper, medium-quality paper, (2) Designed processing speed: 1,100m/min, (3) Paper width: 8,300mm. Features: (1) Possible of keeping paper strength by soft nip, (2) Soft paper surface, high smoothness and excellent gloss by using the hot roll, (3) Uniform ink absorbing by a constant paper bulk density, (4) Large mass even in kinds of paper including much DIP by possible low-linear pressure operation. (translated by NEDO)

  17. 北五味子果汁饮料工艺及配方优化%Optimized Technology and Formula of Schisandra chingensis Juice Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德斌; 郝春喜; 姜宏瑾; 雷明明

    2012-01-01

      Use Schisandra chingensis fruit as raw material ,study on technology and formula of Schisandra chingensis beverage ,Could be better to keep beverages original color and odor ,extended shelf life .Use orthogonal test optimization of the best formula of Schisandra chingensis beverage ,schisandra extract juice 12% ,sugar degree 7% ,glucose syrup 5% ,all acid content 0 .31% ,drinks sweet and sour ,coordi-nation soft .%  研究了以北五味子为原料制备五味子饮料的工艺及配方,采用正交试验优选出五味子饮料的最佳配方:五味子浸提汁12%,总糖7%,果葡糖浆5%,总酸0.31%,饮料酸甜可口,协调柔和

  18. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  19. Production of concentrated “Ya Pak King” drink by vacuum microwave drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanprakeaw, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya Pak King juice is currently popular among Thai consumers. However, some people do not like to drink it because of its pungent smell and flavor. The objectives of this investigation were to improve consumer perception of ready-to-drink Ya Pak King juice and to produce the concentrated drink by vacuum microwave drying. The herbal juice from Ya Pak King was prepared and formulated with lemon juice and honey by the Mixture Design. The drink flavor and taste were then modified by the addition of sugar and citric acid and the drink was, finally, concentrated by a vacuum microwave oven. The results showed that the ratio of the herbal juice: honey: lemon juice at 30:55:15 gave the highest acceptance score from panelists. In addition, the drink modified to achieve 20 0Brix total soluble solid and 0.45% acidity was the most acceptable. After testing the Ya Pak King beverage diluted from the concentrated drink and the drink before concentration, no significant difference in characteristics of the two products was found.

  20. Research on Processing Technology of Mixed Fruit-vegetable Juice Lactobacillus Drink of Longan%龙眼混合果蔬汁乳酸菌饮料的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安书; 田春美; 刘炜

    2012-01-01

    The development of production technology of lactic acid bacteria beverage mixed with Longyan from Fuling District,Chongqing and other fruits and vegetables juiceswas studied.Methods: activation and domestication were conducted using the juices of longyan,carrot and tomato with high quality as raw material,using Bulgarian subsp of Delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus as inoculation strains.The optimum formulation for the intermediate seed expanding liquid,fermentation and fermentation beverage taste stability was determined via four factors and three levels orthogonal experiment.Results : Bulgarian subsp of delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus with 1∶ 1 ratio were used as inoculation strains.The best formula of seeds expanding fluid was as follows: the ratio of lonyan to carrot to tomato juice was 3∶ 6∶ 1,3% glucose,4% skim milk,2% inoculum.Fermentation liquid formula was as follow: ratio of longyan to carrot to tomato juice was 3.5∶ 5∶ 1.5.Fermentation was carried out at 37 ℃ for 24 h and inoculum volume was 4%.The optimum formula of fermented beverage of fermented liquor was as follows: 6% of sugar,0.04% of citric acid,0.1% of CMC-Na and 0.01% yellow former glue.%研究了重庆市涪陵区所产龙眼混合果蔬汁乳酸菌发酵饮料的工艺条件,以优质龙眼、胡萝卜、番茄汁为原料,用德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种和嗜热链球菌为菌种,进行菌种活化和驯化。确定了菌种、中间种子扩大液、发酵液及发酵饮料口感稳定性的工艺配方。结果显示,用德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种和嗜热链球菌按1∶1比例作为菌种;种子扩大液的最佳配方为龙眼、胡萝卜、番茄混合汁配比3∶6∶1,3%葡萄糖,4%脱脂乳,2%接种量;发酵液配方:龙眼、胡萝卜、番茄混合汁配比3.5∶5∶1.5,发酵温度37℃,发酵时间24 h,接种量4%;发酵饮料调配配方:发酵原液中添加蔗糖6%,柠檬酸0.04%,CMC-Na 0.1%,黄原胶0.01%。

  1. Detection of target staphylococcal enterotoxin B antigen in orange juice and popular carbonated beverages using antibody-dependent antigen-capture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principato, MaryAnn; Njoroge, Joyce M; Perlloni, Andrei; O' Donnell, Michael; Boyle, Thomas; Jones, Robert L

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need for qualitative and quantitative methodologies that provide the rapid and accurate detection of food contaminants in complex food matrices. However, the sensitivity of the assay can be affected when antigen-capture is applied to certain foods or beverages that are extremely acidic. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of orange juice and popular carbonated soft drink upon the fidelity of antibody-based antigen-capture assays and to develop simple approaches that could rescue assay performance without the introduction of additional or extensive extraction procedures. We examined the effects of orange juice and a variety of popular carbonated soft drink beverages upon a quantitative Interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay system and a lateral flow device (LFD) adapted for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in foods. Alterations in the performance and sensitivity of the assay were directly attributable to the food matrix, and alterations in pH were especially critical. The results demonstrate that approaches such as an alteration of pH and the use of milk as a blocking agent, either singly or in combination, will partially rescue ELISA performance. The same approaches permit lateral flow to efficiently detect antigen. Practical Application: The authors present ways to rescue an ELISA assay compromised by acidity in beverages and show that either the alteration of pH, or the use of milk as a blocking agent are not always capable of restoring the assay to its intended efficiency. However, the same methods, when employed with lateral flow technology, are rapid and extremely successful.

  2. Regular consumption of fresh orange juice increases human skin carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenti, Roberto; Perrone, Anna; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status in the body. This study aimed to determine whether regular consumption of orange juice could increase dermal carotenoids. Two types of orange juice, obtained from regularly (CI) and partially (PRD) irrigated trees, were tested to reveal any possible association between juice and dermal carotenoids. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total carotenoids were quantified in the juice; skin carotenoid score (SCS) was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoid content was 7.3% higher in PRD than in CI juice, inducing no difference in SCS. In a first trial with daily juice intakes for 25 days, SCS increased linearly (10%) in the individual with higher initial SCS, and exponentially (15%) in the individual with lower initial SCS. In a second trial, SCS showed a 6.5% increase after 18 days of drinking juice every other day, but returned to initial values three days after last intake. Skin carotenoids can be increased by regular consumption of fresh orange juice, while their persistence may depend on the accumulation level, environmental conditions or living habits.

  3. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Some Commercial Fruit Juices: Electrochemical and Spectrophotometrical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Magdalena Pisoschi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the total antioxidant capacity of some commercial fruit juices (namely citrus, spectrophotometrically and by the biamperometric method, using the redox couple DPPH· (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine. Trolox® was chosen as a standard antioxidant. In the case of the spectrophometric method, the absorbance decrease of the DPPH· solution was followed. For the biamperometric method, the influence of some parameters like the potential diference, ΔE, DPPH· concentration, and Trolox® concentration was investigated. The calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 5 and 30 µM, (y = 0.059 x + 0.0564, where y represents the value of current intensity, expressed as μA and x the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as μM; r2 = 0.9944. The R.S.D. value for the biamperometric method was 1.29% (n = 10, c = 15 μM Trolox®. In the case of the spectrophotometric method, the calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 0.01 and 0.125 mM (y = -9.5789 x+1.4533, where y represents the value of absorbance and x, the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as mM; r2 = 0.9963. The R.S.D. value for the spectrophotometric method was 2.05%. Both methods were applied to total antioxidant activity determination in real samples (natural juices and soft drinks and the results were in good agreement.

  4. Determination of the sugar content in fruit flavoured drinks by HPLC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ten common fruit flavored drinks were randomly selected and ... Fruit flavoured drinks classified as soft drinks form part of a modern diet in many ... Fehling's and Barfoed's tests were conducted to determine the presence of the ...

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of the Enamel Surface Hardness Reduction in Primary and Permanent Teeth Caused by Two Most Common Acidic Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by chemical processes not involving bacteria. Dental erosion has been found to be a common cause of tooth wear. Clinically apparent erosion has been found to be related to dietary factors such as the acid content of the beverages.Purpose: Evaluation of enamel erosion in the primary and permanent teeth as the result of two most common acidic drinks produced in Iranian factories, Mirinda and Pepsi.Materials and Meth...

  6. Energy drinks : what's the evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Visram, S.; Hashem, K.

    2016-01-01

    The UK, in common with many other countries, has seen a rapid rise in the per capita consumption of energy drinks in the last few years. Energy drinks (soft drinks containing more than 150mg of caffeine per litre) are made up of water, caffeine, sugars and a range of additives and flavourings. Sales of energy drinks in the UK increased by 155% between 2006 and 2014, from 235 to 600 million litres, an average per capita consumption of 9.4 litres in 2014. While the market for soda is declining,...

  7. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... clear rules against drinking, as well as improve communication between children and parents about alcohol. The Role ...

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27. ...

  10. Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.

  11. 雪梨汁饮料工艺的研究%Technology of Sydney Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思宁

    2012-01-01

    本文以浓缩雪梨汁为原料,通过正交试验设计澄清梨汁饮料,确定梨汁饮料的合理配方.结果表明,浓缩汁含量5%、白砂糖6%、柠檬酸0.18%、香精添加量0.06%,以适量果胶和CMC-Na为复合稳定剂时,可以制成风味、色泽良好的梨汁饮料.%In this paper, concentrated Sydney juice as raw material, by orthogonal experimental to design clarified pear juice drinks, a reasonable formula of pear juice drink was determined. The results showed that the juice content of 5%, 6% sugar, 0.18%citric acid, 0.06% flavor, a modest pectin and CMC-Na as a composite stabilizer, the flavor, color and good pear juice drinks could be made.

  12. [Drink consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the general population in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan A; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Popkin, Barry M; Willett, Walter C

    2008-01-01

    The Expert Committee in charge of developing the Beverage Consumption Recommendations for the Mexican Population was convened by the Ministry of Health with the aim of drafting evidence-based guidelines for consumers, health professionals, and government officials. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes have dramatically increased in Mexico; beverages contribute a fifth of all calories consumed by Mexicans. Extensive research has documented that caloric beverages increase the risk of obesity. Taking into consideration multiple factors, including health benefits, risks, and nutritional implications associated with beverage consumption, as well as consumption patterns in Mexico, the committee classified beverages in six categories. Classifications were made based on caloric content, nutritional value, and health risks associated with the consumption of each type of beverage. Ranges included healthier (level 1) to least healthy (level 6) options as follows: Level 1: water; Level 2: skim or low fat (1%) milk and sugar free soy beverages; Level 3: coffee and tea without sugar; Level 4: non-caloric beverages with artificial sweeteners; Level 5: beverages with high caloric content and limited health benefits (fruit juices, whole milk, and fruit smoothies with sugar or honey; alcoholic and sports drinks), and Level 6: beverages high in sugar and with low nutritional value (soft drinks and other beverages with significant amounts of added sugar like juices, flavored waters, coffee and tea). The committee recommends the consumption of water as a first choice, followed by no or low-calorie drinks, and skim milk. These beverages should be favored over beverages with high caloric value or sweetened beverages, including those containing artificial sweeteners. Portion size recommendations are included for each beverage category together with healthy consumption patterns for men and women.

  13. The First Drinking Simulator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostafa Moazzami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current Thermal cycling units fail to simulate the drinking behaviors, and oral balancing temperature. They cannot also simulate other oral conditions such as drink coloring, and chemicals like tea, coffee, carbonated and noncarbonated, citrus juices as well as alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks and also saliva and milk itself. The main objective of this study is to introduce the designing and manufacturing the first Drinking Simulator Unit (DSU that reproduces the thermal, color and chemicalcycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions uniquely. Methods: The invented system generally has two parts: the hardware and the software parts. The hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic parts. The software part is responsible for controlling the heating and cooling systems, electric valves, the pumps, and automatic filling systems of tanks as well as the sensors of the machine. Results: DSU is the first unit can reproduce the thermal, color and chemical cycling as well as the drinking behavior and oral temperature in lab conditions. Different kinds of colored and acidic drinks and also other chemical materials such as bleaching substances as well as detergents and antiseptics used for dentistry, industrial and medical purposes can be tested by DSU. DSU has also to be considered as an appliance performing in-vitro researches on dental structures. Conclusion: The invented system can greatly improve and validate the results of such researches.  

  14. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  15. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  16. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  17. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids.

  18. Air Flotation/Hydrolysis Acidification/Biological Contact Oxidation/BAF Process for Soft Drink-processing Wastewater Treatment%气浮/水解酸化/接触氧化/BAF工艺处理饮料生产废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘登; 王娟; 周俊强; 贾莹莹

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater from a soft drink-processing enterprise was characterized with high concentration of SS and good biodegradability. Air flotation/hydrolysis acidification/biological contact oxidation/biological aerated filter process was used to treat the wastewater. High treatment efficiency was a-chieved, and the effluent quality met the first level A criteria specified in the Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant ( GB 18918 - 2002 ) .%某饮料生产企业废水具有悬浮物含量较高、可生化性较好的特点,采用气浮/水解酸化/生物接触氧化/曝气生物滤池多级工艺处理,取得了较好的处理效果,出水水质达到了《城镇污水处理厂污染物排放标准》(GB 18918-2002)的一级A标准.

  19. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  20. The influence of calcium and magnesium in drinking water and diet on cardiovascular risk factors in individuals living in hard and soft water areas with differences in cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbrand, Christina; Agréus, Lars; Lenner, Ragnhild Arvidsson; Nyberg, Per; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2003-06-18

    The role of water hardness as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease has been widely investigated and evaluated as regards regional differences in cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to evaluate the relation between calcium and magnesium in drinking water and diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in individuals living in hard and soft water areas with considerable differences in cardiovascular mortality. A random sample of 207 individuals living in two municipalities characterised by differences in cardiovascular mortality and water hardness was invited for an examination including a questionnaire about health, social and living conditions and diet. Intake of magnesium and calcium was calculated from the diet questionnaire with special consideration to the use of local water. Household water samples were delivered by each individual and were analysed for magnesium and calcium. In the total sample, there were positive correlations between the calcium content in household water and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and negative correlations with s-cholesterol and s-LDL-cholesterol. No correlation was seen with magnesium content in household water to any of the risk factors. Calcium content in diet showed no correlation to cardiovascular risk factors. Magnesium in diet was positively correlated to diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In regression analyses controlled for age and sex 18.5% of the variation in SBP was explained by the variation in BMI, HbA1c and calcium content in water. Some 27.9% of the variation in s-cholesterol could be explained by the variation in s-triglycerides (TG), and calcium content in water. This study of individuals living in soft and hard water areas showed significant correlations between the content of calcium in water and major cardiovascular risk factors. This was not found for magnesium in water or calcium or magnesium in diet. Regression analyses indicated that calcium content in water could be a factor in the

  1. Effect of Sugar-sweetened Soft Drinks on Young Gout Patients%含糖软饮料在年轻发病痛风患者中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 苏悦; 毛翠秀; 李明珍; 孙丽荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨35岁及以下发病的原发性痛风患者临床特征,尤其是含糖软饮料摄入对其的影响,以利于更好地对年轻发病痛风患者进行干预。方法选取2004年4月—2015年4月天津医科大学代谢病医院糖尿病痛风科门诊符合纳入与排除标准的原发性痛风患者442例为研究对象。根据有无习惯性含糖软饮料摄入史将患者分为无习惯性含糖软饮料摄入史组(A 组,343例)和有习惯性含糖软饮料摄入史组(B 组,99例)。收集患者的一般资料、生化资料〔包括血尿酸( SUA)、尿素氮( BUN)、肌酐( Cr)、三酰甘油( TG)、总胆固醇( TC)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、空腹血糖(FPG)〕及合并症(包括非酒精性脂肪肝、高血压、肾结石、糖尿病、心血管疾病)情况。结果 B 组患者年龄小于 A 组,体质指数(BMI)、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)高于 A组,病程短于 A 组(P 0.05)。两组患者高血压、肾结石、心血管疾病发生率比较,差异无统计学意义( P >0.05);B 组患者非酒精性脂肪肝、糖尿病发生率高于 A 组( P 0. 05). The two groups were not significantly different in the incidence rates of hypertension,cardiovascular disease and kidney stone(P > 0. 05);group B was higher than group A in the incidence rates of non - alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Gout patients are often complicated with metabolic syndrome,and patients with history of habitual soft drink intake are younger and have shorter disease length,higher hypertension and higher incidence rates of non - alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes,thus the intervention on sugar - sweetened soft drink intake can not be ignored.

  2. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise ... Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you ...

  4. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  5. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at young people has been quite ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A Time To Act A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  8. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harmful and Underage College Drinking Drinking affects college students, their families, and college communities at large. Researchers estimate that ... heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year. How ...

  9. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  10. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machine to determine quality change of tomato juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Yi-bin YING

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was investigated to study the quality change of tomato juice during the storage. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first measurement was taken when the tomato juice was fresh and had not undergone any changes, and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine a potential capability of separating juice before and after the storage. The soluble solid content (SSC) and pH of the juice samples were determined. The results show that changes in certain compounds between tomato juice before and after the storage period were obvious. An excellent precision was achieved by LS-SVM model compared with discriminant partial least-squares (DPLS), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) models, with 100% of a total accuracy. It can be found that N1R spectroscopy coupled with LS-SVM, DPLS, SIMCA, and DA can be used to control the quality change of tomato juice during the storage.

  11. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  12. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  13. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  14. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  15. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  16. Patterns of drinking and eating across the European Union: implications for hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2015-09-01

    Appropriate hydration is essential for health and well-being. In Europe, water consumption patterns vary despite the unlimited availability of this resource. Water constitutes the largest proportion of total fluid intake in most countries. According to the 2008 European Food Safety Authority's Concise Food Consumption Database, tap water consumption was highest in the northern European countries and in Austria. While Germany had a particularly low intake of tap water, it led in consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, soft drinks, and especially bottled water. European nutrition surveys generally report an average fluid intake within the recommended range of 1500-2000 mL/day, with higher intake levels corresponding with increasing frequency of intake. However, some population groups consume less than others, e.g., the elderly who are at higher risk for dehydration due to age-related increased urinary fluid losses. In turn, physical activity is associated with higher beverage consumption as is adherence to a health-conscious diet. While water constitutes the most commonly consumed beverage throughout Europe, drinking patterns and quantities vary and are influenced by a variety of factors, including age, gender, diet, and physical activity level.

  17. Consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Receveur, Olivier; Cargo, Margaret; Daniel, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the consumption patterns of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community and examines its associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and BMI. A two-stage cross-sectional design was used. In Stage 1 (n 42), 24 h recalls enabled the identification of sweetened products. In Stage 2 (n 192), an FFQ was administered to measure the daily consumption of these products and to collect sociodemographic and behavioural data. Sweetened products were defined as processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed products for which total sugar content exceeded 20% of total energy. Three Catholic Middle Eastern churches located in Montreal, Canada. Normoglycaemic men and women (18-60 years old). Twenty-six sweetened products represented an average consumption of 75·4 g total sugars/d or 15·1% of daily energy intake (n 190, 56% women). Soft drinks, juices, sweetened coffee, chocolate, cookies, cakes and muffins were the main sources of consumption and mostly consumed between meals. Age (exp (β) = 0·99; P recommendation for free sugars. Being physically active and spending less time using a computer may favour a reduced consumption of sweetened products. Very active individuals may, however, overconsume such products.

  18. Soft Drinks, Mind Reading, and Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kyle T.

    2009-01-01

    Proof is a central component of mathematicians' work, used for verification, explanation, discovery, and communication. Unfortunately, high school students' experiences with proof are often limited to verifying mathematical statements or relationships that are already known to be true. As a result, students often fail to grasp the true nature of…

  19. Soft drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marzani, Simone [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS URA 2306,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-29

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called “soft drop declustering”, which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z{sub cut} and an angular exponent β — with the β=0 limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the β dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The β=0 limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only “Sudakov safe” but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

  20. Determination of vanillin and ethyl vanillin in soft drink by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定软饮料中香兰素和乙基香兰素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖珊珊; 孙兴权; 李一尘; 王璇; 王昕璐; 赵红玲; 刘慧颖; 曹际娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a method for determination of vanillin and ethyl vanillin in soft drink by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods Vanillin and ethyl vanillin in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and 0.1%formic acid solution, and were cleaned up by salting out effect. After concentrated, the extraction was redissolved and determined by HPLC at 308 nm. The external standard method was used for quantitative analysis. Results The method showed a good linear over the range of 0.5~50.0g/mL for vanillin and ethyl vanillin with correlation coefficients above 0.9999. The average recoveries were 98.4%and 100.4%, 96.7%and 100.2%, 97.8% and 100.3% at the spiked level of 5, 30, and 63 mg/kg, with relative standard deviation between 3.53%~4.70%. The limit of detection was 0.5 mg/kg. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid, economical and practical, and the result is accurate and reliable, which is suitable for batch sample determination.%目的:建立软饮料中香兰素和乙基香兰素的高效液相色谱法检测方法。方法样品中的香兰素和乙基香兰素在酸性条件下经乙腈提取,利用盐析作用分层净化,提取液浓缩复溶解后,供液相色谱检测。检测波长308 nm,外标法定量。结果香兰素和乙基香兰素在0.5~50.0g/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.9999。添加水平为5、30、63 mg/kg时,香兰素和乙基香兰素的平均回收率分别为98.4%和100.4%,96.7%和100.2%,97.8%和100.3%,相对标准偏差在3.53%~4.70%,检出限均为0.5 mg/kg。结论方法操作简便、快速,经济实用,适用性强,结果准确可靠,可用于样品批量快速检测。

  1. Flavor characterization of sugar-added pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices treated with ultra-high pressure and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Wongfhun, Pronprapa; Gordon, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The flavor characteristics of pennywort juices with added sugar treated by ultra-high pressure, pasteurization, and sterilization were investigated using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons comprised the major class of volatile components present and the juices had a characteristic aroma due to the presence of volatiles including beta-caryophyllene and humulene and alpha-copaene. In comparison with heated juices, HPP-treated samples could retain more volatile compounds such as linalool and geraniol similar to those present in fresh juice, whereas some volatiles such as alpha-terpinene and ketone class were apparently formed by thermal treatment. All processing operations produced juice that was not significantly different in the concentration of total volatiles. Practical Application: Pennywort juice is considered a nutraceutical drink for health benefits. Therefore, to preserve all aroma and active components in this juice, a nonthermal process such as ultra-high pressure should be a more appropriate technique for retention of its nutritive values than pasteurization and sterilization.

  2. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them. Nighttime restrictions on young drivers and strict license suspension policies, interventions focused ...

  3. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption. Results: The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6 had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6. Conclusions: Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.

  4. The Impact of Knowledge, Attitude, and Peer Influence on Adolescent Energy Drink Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Alyson C.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are labeled as sensitive to caffeine, though despite this predisposition, consumption is high among this population. Energy drinks are a current trend in soft-drink-like beverages and are marketed to 11-35 year olds. However, unlike soft drinks, energy drinks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and therefore do not have to limit their caffeine content. This cross-sectional, correlational study sought to identify the role that knowledge, attitudes, and peers pla...

  5. The Impact of Knowledge, Attitude, and Peer Influence on Adolescent Energy Drink Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Alyson C.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are labeled as sensitive to caffeine, though despite this predisposition, consumption is high among this population. Energy drinks are a current trend in soft-drink-like beverages and are marketed to 11-35 year olds. However, unlike soft drinks, energy drinks are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and therefore do not have to limit their caffeine content. This cross-sectional, correlational study sought to identify the role that knowledge, attitudes, and peers pla...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking. When someone drinks too much and gets alcohol poisoning, it affects the body's involuntary reflexes — including breathing and the ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Alcohol Coping ... College Prom Pressure Abusive Relationships Dealing With Addiction I Think I May Have ...

  7. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends Less interest in activities and/or appearance Alcohol on a young person's breath Slurred speech Coordination problems Memory and/or concentration problems The Role Parents Play Parents can help their children avoid alcohol problems by: Discussing the dangers of drinking Drinking ...

  8. 2004 American Drink Status Report%2004年美国饮料形势报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐峰

    2005-01-01

    According to the statistics of Information Resources Inc. and AC Nielsen, the soft drink still enjoyed the biggest share in American beverage market in the summer of 2004. From the beginning of 2003, all beverage producers had put through perhaps the most difficult period of time. Soft drink producers had to work hard to maintain achievements while coping with staff trimmer,reorganization, the disturbance of beverage vending machines on campus, and the public welfare activities against fatness. Although the sales volume of conventional coke brands tended to decline, the increase of flavored drinks and diet drinks made the business improved for many soft drink producers.

  9. 雪梨柠檬汁的研制%Preparation on pear lemon complex juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧荣; 植中强; 陆思敏

    2012-01-01

    选用雪梨、柠檬为原料研制雪梨柠檬复合饮料,将雪梨、柠檬分别榨汁,按一定的比例混合。雪梨柠檬汁的优化配方为:柠檬汁4%,雪梨汁20%,添加蜂蜜10%,复合稳定剂为0.1%CMC—Na+O.1%黄原胶。经调配、均质、灭菌等工艺制成色泽鲜艳、营养丰富、酸甜适口、老少皆宜的复合饮料。%Selection of pear and lemon as raw materials to prepare compound fruit drink. Respectively squeeze pear and lemon juice, then press the certain proportion mix. Pear lemon juice optimization formula is lemon juice 4%, pear juice 20%, honey 10%, composite stabilizers for 0.1% CMC-Na+0.1% xanthan gum. After deployment, homogeneous, sterilization and other processes into the brightly-colored,nutrient-rich, sweet and sour drink compound all ages.

  10. Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Diane L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long distance running causes acute muscle damage resulting in inflammation and decreased force production. Endurance athletes use NSAIDs during competition to prevent or reduce pain, which carries the risk of adverse effects. Tart cherries, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may have a protective effect to reduce muscle damage and pain during strenuous exercise. This study aimed to assess the effects of tart cherry juice as compared to a placebo cherry drink on pain among runners in a long distance relay race. Methods The design was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Fifty-four healthy runners (36 male, 18 female; 35.8 ± 9.6 yrs ran an average of 26.3 ± 2.5 km over a 24 hour period. Participants ingested 355 mL bottles of tart cherry juice or placebo cherry drink twice daily for 7 days prior to the event and on the day of the race. Participants assessed level of pain on a standard 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS at baseline, before the race, and after the race. Results While both groups reported increased pain after the race, the cherry juice group reported a significantly smaller increase in pain (12 ± 18 mm compared to the placebo group (37 ± 20 mm (p Conclusions Ingesting tart cherry juice for 7 days prior to and during a strenuous running event can minimize post-run muscle pain.

  11. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  12. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  13. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  14. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  15. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  16. Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.

  17. Adhesion of Asaia bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Kregiel, Dorota; Czyzowska, Agata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.

  18. Soft Drop

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic r...

  19. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  20. Fatores associados ao consumo regular de refrigerante não dietético em adultos de Pelotas, RS Factores asociados al consumo regular de gaseosa no dietética en adultos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Factors associated with regular non-diet soft drink intake among adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton José Rombaldi

    2011-04-01

    general desde el del año pasado, cuantas veces tu tomaste gaseosa no dietética?". Las respuestas categorizadas fueron dicotomizadas para fines de análisis. Fue considerado consumo regular de refrigerante no dietético la frecuencia de cinco o más veces por semana. La asociación con variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, conductuales y nutricionales fue analizada por la prueba de chi-cuadrado para heterogeneid