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Sample records for juice sacs electronic

  1. The endolymphatic sac: a scanning and transmission electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Klaus; Bretlau, Poul

    2002-01-01

    A recent investigation has suggested that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium resorption in the kidneys, tentatively named saccin. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells are described to de...

  2. Comparative study on the quality of different citrus juice sacs%不同品种柑橘汁胞的品质比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子玉; 唐颂; 任婧楠; 台亚楠; 董曼; 潘思轶; 范刚

    2015-01-01

    汁胞是柑橘汁胞饮料中重要的组成部分,其品质决定了柑橘汁胞饮料的色泽、口感等一系列感官指标.本文以夏橙、赣南脐橙、温州蜜柑和湘西椪柑四种柑橘作为研究对象,比较了四种不同柑橘汁胞可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸、汁胞柄长度、色度等理化指标的差异,并对不同品种的柑橘汁胞进行了感官评定,综合二者进行评价.结果表明,四个不同品种柑橘汁胞中VC含量在20~45 mg/1 00mL之间,其中赣南脐橙的VC含量最高,湘西椪柑可溶性固形物含量最高;除湘西椪柑与赣南脐橙之外,四个品种两两之间色度差异较大;感官分析结果表明湘西椪柑汁胞具有最良好的感官特征.%Citrus juice sacs are important portion of the citrus juice sacs drink,its quality determines series of sensory index of the citrus juice sacs drink.Valencia Orange,Gannan navel orange,Satsuma orange and Xiangxi ponkan were selected as research materials,the physicochemical indexes of these four cultivars were determined,and sensory evaluation was also investigated.The results showed that the VC contents were 20~45mg/100mL of these citrus juice sacs,and the highest level of VC in Gannan navel orange was observed.The content of soluble solid in Xiangxi ponkan was the highest among these citrus cultivars.A great difference on the color was observed beween the two cultivars except for Xiangxi ponkan and Gannan navel orange.The sensory evaluation results showed that Xiangxi ponkan had the best sensory attribute.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the human endolymphatic sac: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F R; House, W F

    1980-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to examine and compare one normal endolymphatic sac with one endolymphatic sac from a patient with Meniere's disease. The surgical procedure for obtaining these specimens and their preparation for scanning electron microscopy are described. The luminal surface of the rugose portion of both specimens was lined with two populations of epithelial cells: one with a dome-shaped apical surface, the other with a flattened polygonal surface. The surface of dome-shaped cells in both specimens was covered with microvilli. Neither specimen had observable loss of epithelial integrity or fibrosis.

  4. Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Alessio; Federici, Claire; Close, Timothy J; De Bellis, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Roose, Mikeal L

    2011-12-01

    The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon.

  5. Low altitude energetic electron lifetimes after enhanced magnetic activity as deduced from SAC-C and DEMETER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benck

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When flux enhancements of energetic electrons are produced as a consequence of geomagnetic storm occurrence, they tend to vanish gradually when the magnetic activity calms down and the fluxes decay to quiet-time levels. We use SAC-C and DEMETER low altitude observations to estimate the energetic electron lifetimes (E=0.16–1.4 MeV, L=1.6–5, B=0.22–0.46 G and compare the decay rates to those observed at high altitude. While crossing the radiation belts at high latitude, the SAC-C and DEMETER instruments sample particles with small equatorial pitch angles (αeq<18° for L>2.5 whereas the comparison is done with other satellite data measured mainly in the equatorial plane (for αeq>75°. While in the inner belt and in the slot region no significant lifetime differences are observed from the data sets with different αeq, in the outer belt, for the least energetic electrons (<500 keV, the lifetimes are up to ~3 times larger for the electrons with the equatorial pitch-angle close to the loss cone than for those mirroring near the equator. The difference decreases with increasing energy and vanishes for energies of about 1 MeV.

  6. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).

  7. Discrimination and characterization of strawberry juice based on electronic nose and tongue: comparison of different juice processing approaches by LDA, PLSR, RF, and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Gao, Liping

    2014-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) have been used to characterize five types of strawberry juices based on processing approaches (i.e., microwave pasteurization, steam blanching, high temperature short time pasteurization, frozen-thawed, and freshly squeezed). Juice quality parameters (vitamin C, pH, total soluble solid, total acid, and sugar/acid ratio) were detected by traditional measuring methods. Multivariate statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR)) and neural networks (Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines) were employed to qualitative classification and quantitative regression. E-tongue system reached higher accuracy rates than E-nose did, and the simultaneous utilization did have an advantage in LDA classification and PLSR regression. According to cross-validation, RF has shown outstanding and indisputable performances in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. This work indicates that the simultaneous utilization of E-nose and E-tongue can discriminate processed fruit juices and predict quality parameters successfully for the beverage industry.

  8. Análisis de flujos extremos de electrones en los cinturones de radiación de Van Allen a partir de datos de SAC-D

    OpenAIRE

    Lanabere, V.; Dasso, S.

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es estudiar las alas de alta energía de la función de distribución de los promedios diarios de flujos de electrones, para diferentes canales de energía entre 0.249 – 1.192 MeV, obtenidos por el detector de partículas ICARE-NG/CARMEN-1 a bordo del satélite argentino de órbita polar SAC-D. Se utilizó la teoría de valores extremos para estimar los máximos valores esperados del flujo en el cinturón de radiación exterior a diferentes tiempos de retorno. Se enc...

  9. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  10. Fast method for in-flight estimation of total dose from protons and electrons using RADE Minstrument on JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Xiao, Hualin

    2017-04-01

    The primary concern of the ESA JUICE mission to Jupiter is the harsh particle radiation environment. Ionizing particles introduce radiation damage by total dose effects, displacement damages or single events effects. Therefore, both the total ionizing dose and the displacement damage equivalent fluence must be assessed to alert spacecraft and its payload as well as to quantify radiation levels for the entire mission lifetime. We present a concept and implementations steps for simplified method used to compute in flight a dose rate and total dose caused by protons. We also provide refinement of the method previously developed for electrons. The dose rates values are given for predefined active volumes located behind layers of materials with known thickness. Both methods are based on the electron and proton flux measurements provided by the Electron and Proton Detectors inside the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) located on-board of JUICE. The trade-off between method accuracy and programming limitations for in-flight computations are discussed. More comprehensive and precise dose rate computations based on detailed analysis of all stack detectors will be made during off-line data processing. It will utilize full spectral unfolding from all RADEM detector subsystems.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of e-juice and its soluble aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes using recombinant bioluminescent bacteria responsive to specific cellular damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Shiv; Mitchell, Robert J; Qureshi, Anjum; Niazi, Javed H

    2017-04-15

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are widely used as an alternative to traditional cigarettes but their safety is not well established. Herein, we demonstrate and validate an analytical method to discriminate the deleterious effects of e-cigarette refills (e-juice) and soluble e-juice aerosol (SEA) by employing stress-specific bioluminescent recombinant bacterial cells (RBCs) as whole-cell biosensors. These RBCs carry luxCDABE-operon tightly controlled by promoters that specifically induced to DNA damage (recA), superoxide radicals (sodA), heavy metals (copA) and membrane damage (oprF). The responses of the RBCs following exposure to various concentrations of e-juice/SEA was recorded in real-time that showed dose-dependent stress specific-responses against both the e-juice and vaporized e-juice aerosols produced by the e-cigarette. We also established that high doses of e-juice (4-folds diluted) lead to cell death by repressing the cellular machinery responsible for repairing DNA-damage, superoxide toxicity, ion homeostasis and membrane damage. SEA also caused the cellular damages but the cells showed enhanced bioluminescence expression without significant growth inhibition, indicating that the cells activated their global defense system to repair these damages. DNA fragmentation assay also revealed the disintegration of total cellular DNA at sub-toxic doses of e-juice. Despite their state of matter, the e-juice and its aerosols induce cytotoxicity and alter normal cellular functions, respectively that raises concerns on use of e-cigarettes as alternative to traditional cigarette. The ability of RBCs in detecting both harmful effects and toxicity mechanisms provided a fundamental understanding of biological response to e-juice and aerosols.

  12. Experimental hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant induced hyperactivity of the endolymphatic sac. One group of rats was immunized by a single dose whereas a second group was immunized twice. Control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline only. Serum was collected from all rats by the end of the study and harvested autoantibodies were tested by immunohistochemistry. The endolymphatic sacs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in all immunized rats. Based on detailed ultrastructural observations, the degree of reactivity seemed proportional to the number of injections and the extent of immunization. Moreover, the ribosome-rich cells seemed hyperactive with an extravagant content of intracellular components: numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes, morphological signs of extensive endo- and exocytosis, vesicles of material with a density similar to the homogeneous substance of which many were observed to fuse with primary lysozymes. Basolateral foldings were numerous and in the subepithelial capillaries formation of multiple and apposing fenestrations were observed. No endolymphatic sac stimulation was observed in the control animals. Specific ribosome-rich cell alterations identical to those present in the endolymphatic sac of Ménière's disease were observed 21 days after the first immunization. The observations suggest that either an autoantigen or a trophic factor, capable of inducing a hyperactivity of the ribosome-rich cells and an imbalance of the homogeneous substance metabolism, exists in the endolymphatic sac of the rat. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  14. Main: SAC101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAC101 SAC1 Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement o...f micron-size protein crystals Development of the synchrotron beamlines dedicated to the measurement of micr

  15. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  16. Bread-Board Testing of the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) being developed for the ESA JUICE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Hajdas, Wojtek; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Xiao, Hualin; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Marco; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Meier, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The RADEM instrument will serve as the radiation monitor for the JUICE spacecraft. It will characterize the highly dynamic radiation environment of the Jovian system by measuring the energy spectra of energetic electrons and protons up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV, respectively. It will also determine the directionality of 0.3-10 MeV electrons. Further goals include the detection of heavy ions, and the determination of the corresponding LET spectra and dose rates. Here, the tests of the Electron and Proton Telescopes, and the Directionality Detector of the RADEM Bread-Board model are described. The objective of these tests is to validate RADEM design and physical concept applied therein. The tests were performed at various irradiation facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) where energy ranges relevant for space applications can be covered (electrons: ≤100 MeV and protons: ≤230 MeV). The measured values are also compared with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo Simulation results.

  17. Use of electronic tongue and nose sensors to differentiate between juice from greening (Huanglongbing) and healthy fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...

  18. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithore, Smita; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; Irey, Mike; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-12-02

    In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2-5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%-3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1-3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30-200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30-400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30-400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  19. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raithore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL, citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL, hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL. Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical and #5 (food were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  20. Primary Teratoma of the Lesser Sac: Lesser Sac Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M. Hardesty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors predominantly involve the gonads but may rarely be found outside of the gonads, primarily in midline structures. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male with an asymptomatic 8 cm teratoma located within the lesser sac of his omentum. This is the fourth case of a teratoma located within the lesser sac of the omentum, which provides the opportunity to make some comparisons. Finally, we discuss some of the etiologic theories behind extragonadal germ cell tumors and how they relate to teratomas in the lesser sac.

  1. Aquarius/SAC-D mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Torrusio, Sandra; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in the global water cycle but it is not yet monitored from space. Conventional in situ SSS sampling is too sparse to give the global view of salinity variability that a remote sensing satellite can provide. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will make pioneering space-based measurements of global SSS with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize salinity variations (spatial and temporal), investigate the linkage between ocean circulation, the Earth's water cycle, and climate variability. It is being jointly developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina, the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The Project is currently in implementation phase with the flight Aquarius Instrument undergoing environmental testing at NASA-JPL/Caltech in California, USA and the SAC-D instruments and spacecraft development undergoing at CONAE/INVAP facilities in Argentina. Aquarius/SAC-D launch is scheduled for May 2010.

  2. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon.

  3. Differences in endolymphatic sac mitochondria-rich cells indicate specific functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Tonnaer, E.L.G.M.; Kuijpers, W.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the study was to examine the specific involvement of endolymphatic sac mitochondria-rich cells in endolymph homeostasis. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were performed on the endolymphatic sac of young adult rats, and two

  4. 电子鼻检测不同品种和加工类型的柑橘汁%Detection of different variety and processing type of Citrus juices using electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宇; 程薇; 王少华; 熊光权; 潘思轶; 徐晓云; 范刚; 马明辉; 廖李; 汪兰; 王俊; 杜欣

    2011-01-01

    为了探索一种通过气味快速区别橙汁和橘汁以及在线监测橙汁加工品质的方法,应用电子鼻对不同品种的橙汁和橘汁的香气进行区分,研究酸橙汁加工过程中各工艺操作对香气成分的影响,并对不同加工类型的酸橙汁进行区分.通过对所获得的数据进行主成分分析及偏最小二乘回归分析,结果显示,不同品种的橙汁和橘汁的香气品质存在差异,橙汁经过一系列加工工艺后香气发生了明显变化,浓缩还原汁的香气品质要逊于非浓缩橙汁(NFC橙汁),28%、38%、48%和63.5%4种不同可溶性周形物质量分数的还原汁在电子鼻传感器上的信号经拟合后有良好的线性关系,以55%还原汁为盲样,判别结果为57.95%,误差为5%.使用电子鼻可以很好的区分不同品种、不同加工类型的柑橘汁,还可以应用于橙汁加工过程中的品质控制.%In order to explore the method that fast distinguishes the aroma of orange juice and mandarin juice and monitor the quality during process, the electronic nose was applied to discriminate the overall aroma of orange juice and mandarin juice. The effect of aroma on different process during sour orange juice processing and discrimination of different processing type were also studied. The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate factor analysis (DFA). The results indicated that the aroma quality of orange juice and mandarin juice from different variety present diversity. Meanwhile, the aroma had taken place significant changes after processing. The aroma of reconstituted orange juice was weaker than NFC (not from concentrated) juice. The electronic nose sensor signal of 4 kinds of reconstituted juice with different soluble solids (28%, 38%, 48%, 63.5%) existed linear relationship. The 55% reconstituted juice was chosen as unknown sample to discriminate the concentration. The discriminate result was 57.95% with 5

  5. Room 101: The Social SAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allhouse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This column looks at the SAC at the University of Bradford (UoB, which is commonly known as Room 101. The column looks at how Room 101 has reacted to the problem of reduced usage as a result of the cancellation of foreign language courses at the UoB, social media making online communication between learners easier, and the availability of online resources which have reduced the perceived importance of SAC resources (such as books and CDs. Room 101 has adopted a materials-light, people-focussed approach which has led to increased usage. Other solutions were tried and are detailed in this instalment, with examples from the literature. Room 101’s approach has centred on facilitated social learning opportunities and a friendly, student-led atmosphere, with many students working in the Centre. This instalment is the first of three; the following instalments will look at research conducted into student and staff thoughts on the current state of SACs in UK Higher Education.

  6. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Winther, Ole; Henao, Ricardo; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    The endolymphatic sac is part of the membranous inner ear and is thought to play a role in the fluid homeostasis and immune defense of the inner ear; however, the exact function of the endolymphatic sac is not fully known. Many of the detected mRNAs in this study suggest that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Microarray technology was used to investigate the gene expression of the endolymphatic sac with the surrounding dura. Characteristic and novel endolymphatic sac genes were determined by comparing with expressions in pure dura. In all, 463 genes were identified specific for the endolymphatic sac. Functional annotation clustering revealed 29 functional clusters.

  7. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Andersen, Christian Østergaard;

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis......-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  9. Unusual encounters in a hernia sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Contents of a hernia sac are always a surprise. In most cases the contents of the sac determine the type of repair. A case of an inguinal hernia sac containing the appendix along with the dislodged end of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt tube is presented in view of its rarity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1728-1729

  10. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  11. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Lerner

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used, and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292 in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that

  12. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  13. Experimental Hyperactivity of the Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant...

  14. New Administrator of SAC, Chen Gang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 14th,SAC held a meeting presented by its middle-high officials,at which Zhang Qinrong,Member of CPC Leading Group and Director of Personnel Department,General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),announced the personnel decision made by the State Council,the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee and AQSIQ.In the decision,Chen Gang was appointed as Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC,and Ji Zhengkun was dismissed as the Member of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,Administrator of SAC and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of SAC.The meeting was presided by Ji Zhengkun.Zhi Shuping,Minister of AQSIQ and Secretary of CPC Leading Group of AQSIQ,attended the meeting and gave a speech.Ji Zhengkun and Chen Gang also delivered speeches.

  15. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the solute carrier (SLC) molecules of ion transporters in the human endolymphatic sac. STUDY DESIGN: cDNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses...... of fresh human endolymphatic sac tissue samples. METHODS: Twelve tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannoma. Microarray technology was used to investigate tissue sample expression of solute carrier family genes, using adjacent dura...... mater as control. Immunohistochemistry was used for verification of translation of selected genes, as well as localization of the specific protein within the sac. RESULTS: An extensive representation of the SLC family genes were upregulated in the human endolymphatic sac, including SLC26a4 Pendrin, SLC4...

  16. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission.

  18. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 star formation and AGN activity out to z~2, and to study the effect of star-forming galaxies and AGNs on cosmological results from ongoing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray cluster surveys. The identified clusters will be valuable for both astrophysics and cosmology. In terms of astrophysics, the redshift probed

  19. Hernia sacs: is histological examination necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar

    2013-12-01

    The hernia sac is a common surgical pathology specimen which can occasionally yield unexpected diagnoses. The College of American Pathologists recommends microscopic examination of abdominal hernias, but leaves submission of inguinal hernias for histology to the discretion of the pathologist. To validate this approach at a tertiary care centre, we retrospectively reviewed 1426 hernia sacs derived from inguinal, femoral and abdominal wall hernias. The majority of pathologies noted were known to the clinician, including herniated bowel, lipomas and omentum. A malignancy was noted in three of 800 inguinal hernias and seven of 576 abdominal wall hernias; five of these lesions were not seen on gross examination. Other interesting findings in hernia sacs included appendices, endometriosis, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, and pseudomyxoma peritoneii. All hernia sacs should be examined grossly as most pathologies are grossly visible. The decision to submit inguinal hernias for histology may be left to the discretion of the pathologist, but abdominal and femoral hernias should be submitted for histology.

  20. XPS of oxygen atoms on Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces: accurate study with SAC/SAC-CI combined with dipped adcluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    O1s core-electron binding energies (CEBE) of the atomic oxygens on different Ag surfaces were investigated by the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method combined with the dipped adcluster model, in which the electron exchange between bulk metal and adsorbate is taken into account properly. Electrophilic and nucleophilic oxygens (O(elec) and O(nuc)) that might be important for olefin epoxidation in a low-oxygen coverage condition were focused here. We consider the O1s CEBE as a key property to distinguish the surface oxygen states, and series of calculation was carried out by the Hartree-Fock, Density functional theory, and SAC/SAC-CI methods. The experimental information and our SAC/SAC-CI results indicate that O(elec) is the atomic oxygen adsorbed on the fcc site of Ag(111) and that O(nuc) is the one on the reconstructed added-row site of Ag(110) and that one- and two-electron transfers occur, respectively, to the O(elec) and O(nuc) adclusters from the silver surface.

  1. Histological and Histochemical Analyses of the Cuttlebone Sac of the Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  2. SAC Availability for the IRIS Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, P; Snoke, A

    2005-04-06

    SAC (also known as SAC2000) is a signal processing and analysis code that has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) over the past 20+ years for a variety of seismic and geophysical research projects. SAC has evolved into a general purpose interactive program designed for the study of sequential signals, especially time-series data. Emphasis has been placed on analysis tools used by research seismologists in the detailed study of seismic events. Analysis capabilities include general arithmetic operations, Fourier transforms, three spectral estimation techniques, IIR and FIR filtering, signal stacking, decimation, interpolation, correlation, and seismic phase picking. SAC also contains an extensive graphics capability. SAC is used extensively by the seismic community because: (1) it has a broad range of well-tested, efficient data analysis capabilities (examples include: data inspection, phase picking, signal correction, quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis), (2) it is easy to use and reliable, (3) it has a macro programming language that allows users to develop innovative new analysis techniques, (4) it has interfaces to the Unix operating system, Matlab (www.mathworks.com), and the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software (Wessel and Smith, 1991, 1998 and gmt.soest.hawaii.edu) that make it very flexible, allowing researchers to solve many research problems innovatively with minimal programming effort, and (5) the suite of analysis capabilities are integrated so that innovative processing schemes are easily implemented. SAC is also widely used because of its user oriented development philosophy, which has led to consistent, easy to use capabilities that are backward compatible. A sample of some of SAC's capabilities is displayed in Figure 1.

  3. Hydrocoele of a femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, D G; Chakravarty, K B

    2009-12-01

    Hydrocoele of a femoral hernia sac is an extremely rare entity. Extensive literature review and Internet searching revealed only a few authentically reported cases. It mostly occurs in females during the fourth to sixth decades of life. The most common clinical presentation is groin swelling. It is diagnosed as an irreducible or incarcerated femoral hernia or subcutaneous lipoma. In almost all of the reported cases, the diagnosis of hydrocoele of a femoral hernia sac has been made only after surgical exploration. The present case is a 40-year-old lady who presented with a painless lump in the right groin and was diagnosed as a case of hydrocoele of a femoral hernia sac only after exploration.

  4. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins.......A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...

  5. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. Transmission electron microscopy of the human endolymphatic sac, employing an oxygenated fixative. Eighteen tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during surgery for vestibular schwannoma using the translabyrinthine approach. The specimens were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in an oxygenated fluorocarbon blood substitute vehicle before preparation by routine methods for transmission electron microscopy. We focused on the epithelial cell layer, subepithelial tissue, intraluminal content, and vascular tissue in both the intra- and extraosseous part of the endolymphatic sac. We observed well-defined endolymphatic sac epithelial cell lining in all 18 specimens. In general, we found very well-preserved specimens with well-defined intracellular structures. In contrast to the results in former studies, a minimum of fixation artifacts was observed in the present study. Three different cell types were observed in the intraosseous part of the sac: mitochondria-rich cells, ribosome-rich cells, and nonclassifiable cells. A fourth cell type was found in the extraosseous part. Novel ultrastructural features of the epithelial lining and the subepithelial layer are described and discussed. The results in the present study indicate an improvement in obtaining human tissue with optimal fixation for ultrastructural analysis and provide several novel morphologic observations. The potential functions of the endolymphatic sac are discussed with reference to former studies. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. [Yolk sac tumor. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbagh, A; Bennani, S; Jouhadi, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Kahlain, A; Benjelloun, S

    2001-11-01

    Yolk sac tumor is rare in adult. We report a case in a young man aged of 23 years treated by orchiectomy, chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Diagnosis is based on pathology who shows other cellular contingents. Treatment is based on orchiectomy and chemotherapy is indicated for residula masses. The prognosis is bad because metastasis is frequent.

  7. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  8. Three National Standardization Technical Committees Authorized By SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In December, 2004, the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) has approved the establishments of three National Standardization Technical Committees. They are the National Standardization Technical Committees for Environmental Protection Products (SAC/TC275), for Safety Management of Agricultural Transgenic Biology (SAC/TC276) and for Testing of New Varieties of Plant (SAC/TC277).The National Standardization Technical Committee for Environmental Protection Products is responsible for the development and revision of national standards in the following fields:

  9. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  11. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  12. Loss of air sacs improved hominin speech abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Boer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acoustic-perceptual effects of air sacs are investigated. Using an adaptive hearing experiment, it is shown that air sacs reduce the perceptual effect of vowel-like articulations. Air sacs are a feature of the vocal tract of all great apes, except humans. Because the presence or a

  13. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  14. Auto-inflammatory challenge of the endolymphatic sac--Cochlear damage measured by distortion product oto-acoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Michael; Friis, Morten; Karlsen, Charlotte Vestrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Lund, Søren Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-five rats were challenged by an immunologic attack of the endolymphatic sac. After 6 months, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE) revealed a dysfunction of the outer hair cells and immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac. This information could contribute to the understanding of Ménière's disease. This study investigated if an autoimmune challenge of the endolymphatic sac could affect DPOAE output measurements in rats. Also, a potential autoimmune cell infiltration of the endolymphatic sac was investigated. Eighteen Lewis rats were immunized with a crude endolymphatic sac extract in complete Freund's adjuvant. Seven control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline. Cochlear damage was estimated by DPOAE dynamics 3 weeks and 6 months after the immunization. Infiltrative cells in the endolymphatic sac were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. The hearing assessment 6 months after immunization revealed a reduction of the DPOAE, on the full range of frequencies (2-63 kHz) in an average of the mean, of 2 dB ± 1.1 in the immunized group compared to the controls (p < 0.05). The same test showed a 2.5 dB decrease from 2 to 5 kHz (p < 0.01). Immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac in most of the immunized rats.

  15. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  16. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Sistema Sac Actun, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambesis, P. N.; Coke, J. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  17. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  18. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  19. Auto-inflammatory challenge of the endolymphatic sac - Cochlear damage measured by distortion product oto-acoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Friis, Morten; Karlsen, Charlotte Vestrup

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Twenty-five rats were challenged by an immunologic attack of the endolymphatic sac. After 6 months, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE) revealed a dysfunction of the outer hair cells and immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac. This information...... Lewis rats were immunized with a crude endolymphatic sac extract in complete Freund's adjuvant. Seven control animals were injected with Freund's adjuvant in saline. Cochlear damage was estimated by DPOAE dynamics 3 weeks and 6 months after the immunization. Infiltrative cells in the endolymphatic sac...... were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The hearing assessment 6 months after immunization revealed a reduction of the DPOAE, on the full range of frequencies (2-63 kHz) in an average of the mean, of 2 dB ± 1.1 in the immunized group compared to the controls (p

  20. Femoral hernia sac laparoscopy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Valderrama, Alexander; Ruiz, Dan; Malik, Manmeet; Tiszenkel, Howard

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 64-year-old female with an incarcerated right femoral hernia, associated with a small bowel obstruction that was successfully treated with an open femoral hernia repair with plug. At the same time we performed a hernia sac laparoscopy to evaluate the viability of the previously reduced small bowel. The hernioscopy was performed with a 0° 5 mm scope with reliable evaluation of the peritoneal cavity. We confirm that hernioscopy is a safe and feasible procedure and provides useful information for the appropriate management of acute incarcerated femoral/inguinal hernias.

  1. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  2. Congenital lacrimal sac fistula: intraoperative visualization by polyvinyl siloxane cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aparna; Eckstein, Lauren A; Douglas, Raymond S; Goldberg, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    We report the intraoperative use of polyvinyl siloxane impression material to demonstrate the anatomy of the lacrimal sac, canaliculi, and lacrimal duct in a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula. A 1-week-old boy was examined for tearing since birth. Examination revealed a left congenital lacrimal sac fistula. After a failed surgery to close the fistula with silicone intubation at 6 months of age, the patient underwent endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy performed at 14 months of age, aided by intraoperative injection of polyvinyl siloxane (trade name Reprosil) to mark and protect the nasolacrimal sac and facilitate endonasal visualization. A polyvinyl siloxane cast demonstrated the anatomy of the accessory canaliculus causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Postoperatively, the epiphora resolved and the fistula remained closed. The polyvinyl siloxane cast provides a 3-dimensional "ex vivo " model of the lacrimal sac, upper duct, and canalicular anatomy, and can be used in dacryocystorhinostomy surgery to identify and protect the lacrimal sac.

  3. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... 11 RNA was demonstrated in two papillomas. CONCLUSIONS: By analysing 11 epithelial lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas using PCR, DNA ISH and RNA ISH, we found HPV DNA in all investigated transitional epithelium tumours of the lacrimal sac. HPV RNA was present in two of eight epithelial lacrimal...... sac tumours positive for HPV DNA. As RNA degrades fast in paraffin-embedded tissue, only a small fraction of DNA-positive tumours can be expected to be RNA-positive. We therefore suggest that HPV infection is associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas....

  4. Advanced Stellar Compass, SAC-C, Interface Control Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio; Riis, Troels;

    Interface Control Document for the Advanced Stellar Compass for the SAC-C satellite. The SAC-C is Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite. On the SAC-C satellite there are a simplified version of the Ørsted instrumentation platform. The Advanced Stellar Compass is a improved version of the Ørsted Star...... Imager. This document descibes the interface between the Advanced Stellar Compass and OBDH, the size of the DPU and the Camera etc....

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  6. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  7. 水稻受精前后胚囊内钙调素分布的变化:免疫金电镜观察%Changes of Calmodulin Distribution in the Embryo Sac of Oryza sativa Before and After Fertilization: an Immunogold Electron Microscope Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 赵洁; 梁世平; 杨弘远

    2002-01-01

    Changes of calmodulin (CaM) distribution in the embryo sac of rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) at various stages before and after fertilization have been investigated by using immunogold electron microscopy. Before pollination, both cytoplasm and vacuoles of the egg cell, synergids and central cell were labeled by gold particles. A small amount of gold particles were localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and dictyosomes. From pollination to fertilization, CaM amount increased in these cells, especially rich in the starch of amyloplasts. Increase of gold particles in the central cell began about 2 h earlier than that in the egg cell. There was no distinct difference of CaM amount between the degenerated and the persistent synergids. It is interesting to observe an obvious change of CaM distribution form during pollination and fertilization from scattered single particles to clustered particles, and back again to single particles after the fertilization finished. CaM was also localized extracellularly in the embryo sac wall as well as in the wall and intercellular space of nucellus cells. The extracellular CaM also changes in its amount and form after pollination. These results suggest that CaM, either intra- or extra-cellular, may play important roles in fertilization and zygote formation.%用胶体金免疫电镜技术观察了水稻(Oryza sativa subsp. japonica)受精前后胚囊内钙调素的分布变化.授粉后,卵细胞、助细胞和中央细胞内的钙调素较授粉前均有所增加.中央细胞内钙调素的增加要比卵细胞中约早2 h,退化助细胞与宿存助细胞之间的钙调素含量无明显差异.授粉到受精期间,钙调素的主要分布形式由分散的单颗粒转变为聚集颗粒,受精完成后再变为分散的单颗粒形式.胚囊壁及珠心细胞的细胞壁和胞间隙中也观察到钙调素的分布和数量变化.初步讨论了胞内和胞外钙调素在水稻受精与合子形成中的作用.

  8. Electromigration effect on intermetallic growth and Young's modulus in SAC solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Luhua; Pang, John H. L.; Ren, Fei; Tu, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state intermetallic compound (IMC) growth behavior plays and important role in solder joint reliability of electronic packaging assemblies. The directional impact of electromigration (EM) on the growth of interfacial IMCs in Ni/SAC/Ni, Cu/SAC/Ni single BGA ball solder joint, and fine pitch ball-grid-array (FPBGA) at the anode and cathode sides is reported in this study. When the solder joint was subjected to a current density of 5,000 A/cm2 at 125°C or 150°C, IMC layer growth on the anode interface was faster than that on the cathode interface, and both were faster than isothermal aging due to the Joule heating effect. The EM affects the IMC growth rate, as well as the composition and mechanical properties. The Young’s modulus and hardness were measured by the nanoindentation continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) from planar IMC surfaces after EM exposure. Different values were observed at the anode and cathode. The energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) line scan analysis was conducted at the interface from the cathode to anode to study the presence of species; Ni was found in the anode IMC at SAC/Cu in the Ni/SAC/Cu joint, but not detected when the current was reverse. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurement on the Ni/SAC/Ni specimen also confirmed the polarized Ni and Cu distributions in cathode and anode IMCs, which were (Ni0.57Cu0.43)3Sn4 and (Cu0.73Ni0.27)6Sn5, respectively. Thus, the Young’s moduli of the IMC are 141 and 175 GPa, respectively.

  9. Lacrimal Sac Dacryoliths-Pathogenesis and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Özer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Main objective of the present study is to review the literature about the chemical composition and the formation of dacryoliths. Dacryoliths are calculi of the lacrimal system observed incidentally during dacryocystorhinostomy. Theories about the formation of dacryoliths mainly suppose that dacryoliths are simply a secondary phenomenon resulting from a lacrimal pathway obstruction and accumulation of debris. Inflammation caused by fungi, most commonly Candida albicans, an eyelash within the sac, or adrenalin use are also considered to be potential causes. It was also reported that the unstable concentrations of electrolytes rather than the supersaturation of some electrolytes are related to the pathogenesis of dacryoliths. Chemical analysis of the dacryoliths in studies had revealed calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and some phosphorus. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric investigations demonstrated organic proteins and, to a much lesser extent, inorganic material. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 186-9

  10. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  11. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In contr

  12. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V; Horváth, Z; Plasmeijer, R

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In contr

  13. Dilatation of the aneurysmal sac after total arch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hirotaka; Ogino, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Soichiro

    2008-02-01

    In our institution, total arch replacement for distal arch aneurysms is performed through a median sternotomy with antegrade selective cerebral perfusion. The distal anastomosis to the completely transected descending aorta is made through the aneurysmal sac. We report on three interesting cases presenting late dilatation of the aneurysmal sac due to collateral flow after total arch replacement.

  14. Abnormal Structure of Embryo Sac in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hai-bin; FENG Jiu-huan; LU Yong-gen; LIU Xiang-dong

    2006-01-01

    The structures of mature embryo sacs in 13 genetic stock lines of autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa L.), including indica,japonica and javanica, were studied by using the whole-mount stain-clearing laser scanning confocal microscopy (WCLSM).Among the 13 autotetrapioid rice, the majority of ovaries possess normal polygonum-type embryo sacs, while a few ovaries were characterized by abnormal embryo sacs. The abnormalities of embryo sacs could be classified into six categories, i. e. no female The frequency of abnormal embryo sac in japonica (26.6%) was higher than that in indica (19.34%). In addition, the major abnormalities in each autotetraploid line varied, suggesting that the abnormalities may be related to the genotypes of the varieties.

  15. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  16. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  17. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  18. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs.

  19. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in rat with a proposal for a new cell nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Klaus; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, endolymphatic sac, ultrastructure, rat, nomenclature, methods, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum......Anatomy, endolymphatic sac, ultrastructure, rat, nomenclature, methods, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum...

  20. Embryo sac haustorium in Dryas octopetala L. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Czapik

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac haustorium found in Dryas octopetala L. from the Tatra Mts is the first record of its occurrence in Rosaceae. At the eight-nucleate stage of the embryo sac, the antipodal end of the central cell began to grow into a narrow caecum filled with dense cytoplasm and elongated in the chalazal direction leaving the three antipodals in situ. The haustorium enlarged and lost its characteristic shape after the period of fertilization. Finally, the embryo sac occupied almost the whole len...

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    8217~44IAA A -’ ff3 4% At S. ~ At .~ 4 ’ 󈧦k (A444 4 qg~ 1 ~ ~ H St P /4 .4.,* 4’ SN, h$ A 4., 4,f A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN Master’s Thesis SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE 4. PERFORMING o1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...112-83 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  2. Study on the Processing Technology of Suspended Beverage of Orange Sacs%柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 谢婧; 冉旭

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜槿柑为原料,通过碱处理法去除囊衣:橘瓣在温度为80℃、质量分数为0.5%的NaOH溶液中保持5min,可制备出颗粒饱满、含汁较多的砂囊。采用正交试验设计,确定了复配悬浮剂与砂囊用量的最优组合。结果表明:琼脂添加量0.8g/kg,CMC添加量4g/kg,砂囊添加量30g/kg时,制得的柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料稳定性好、果粒悬浮均匀。通过试验得出产品的配方,所得的柑橘砂囊悬浮饮料酸甜适宜、清凉爽口,而且有咀嚼果肉的爽脆感。%Suspended beverage of orange sacs was developed using fresh citrus as the main raw material. Orange sac has the characteristics of full pellet and rich juice, through the alkali treatment removing capsule clothes, under the conditions of 0.5%NaOH 80 ℃ keeping 5 min. The production processing of suspended beverage of orange sacs was discussed in this study by the orthogonal experiment design. Results show that the optimal combination for cloudy agency and orange sac: agar 0.8 g/kg, CMC additives 4 g/kg, juice sac dosage 30 g/kg.Suspended drink has appropriate sour and sweet, cool and refreshing, and crisp feeling by chewing the pulp.

  3. NEW CONCEPT FOR DETERMINING THE ORDERS OF SAC AND PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baodian; Liu Dongsu; Ma Wenping; Wang Xinmei

    2004-01-01

    The autocorrelation of a Boolean function possesses the capability to reflect such characteristics as linear structure, Strict Avalanche Criterion(SAC) and Propagation Criterion(PC)of degree k. But it can do nothing in determining the order of SAC or PC. A calculating table for the autocorrelation is constructed in this paper so as to show what is beyond the autocorrelation and how the three cryptographic characteristics are exhibited. A deeper study on the calculating table in a similar way has helped us to develop a new concept, named as the general autocorrelation, to address efficiently the problem how to determine the orders of SAC and PC. The application on the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) shows the SAC and PC characteristics of Boolean functions of AES S-box.

  4. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  5. Documentation for delivery of Star Tracker to SAC-C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilsgaard, Søren; Thuesen, Gøsta; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C.......The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the flight hardware of the Star Tracker for the Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite SAC-C....

  6. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    OpenAIRE

    STARNBERGER, IRIS; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The divers...

  7. Efficiency of lachrymal sac drainage in newborns with dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakovich V.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of treatment of 14 newborns with unilateral dacryocystocele. Patients age was 7.2±0.5 days. In 9 newborns (64.3% dacryocystocele was complicated with lachrymal sac phlegmon; in 5 children (35.7% any complications were absent. Drainage of lachrymal sac through the lower lachrymal canaliculus, instillation of antibiotics, systemic antibiotic therapy in case of phlegmon were performed in all the children. Lachrymal sac washing was performed with a solution of the antibiotic ofloxacin till clear fluid evacuation. If necessary the drainage was repeated in 10 days. The drainage of lachrymal sac was successful in all the patients. 2-3 weeks after the drainage probing of nasolachrymal duct was perfomed in 4 children (28.6% including those 3 with lacrymal sac phlegmon. In 71.4% regression of dacryocystocele occurred itself. Any complications and side effects were not observed. Positive effect of the drainage, according to the authors, can be explained so that dilatation of lachrymal canaliculus before the procedure allows to eliminate Rosenmьller valve stenosis and evacuation of fluid, mucus and pus, being breeding ground for microorganisms from lachrymal sac, promotes inflammation subsiding. Authors also recommend to pay attention on prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele, using ultrasound investigation in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  8. von Hippel-Lindau disease: surveillance strategy for endolymphatic sac tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    : Up to 16% of patients with the hereditary von Hippel-Lindau disease develop endolymphatic sac tumors of the inner ear. Early diagnosis and treatment of endolymphatic sac tumors can prevent audiovestibular morbidity, but optimal endolymphatic sac tumor surveillance strategy has yet...... to be determined. We aimed to evaluate endolymphatic sac tumor surveillance to determine the best surveillance strategy....

  9. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mostafa Hashemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR, a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.   Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.   Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7% were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8% of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4% needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16% lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4% was posterior and 20 (80% were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The distance  from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 39.04 (±4.92 mm. The distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 45.50 (±4.47 mm. The width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44 mm and 13.16 (±5.37 mm, respectively. The distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00 mm, while the distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height was 37.20 (±5.37 mm.The height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09 mm. The distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45 mm, and the distance from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02 mm.   Conclusion:  Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to

  10. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-03-23

    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general.

  11. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  12. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...... circulation following endolymphatic sac surgery is discussed. Objectives. To visualize and study the dynamic microcirculation of the endolymphatic sac in live rats. Method. An experimental animal study using in vivo video fluorescence microscopy. Results. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular...

  13. Conformational dependence of the circular dichroism spectrum of α-hydroxyphenylacetic acid: a ChiraSac study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Tomoo; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-12-27

    The conformational dependence of the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of a chiral molecule, α-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) containing phenyl, COOH, OH and H groups around a chiral carbon atom, has been studied theoretically by using the SAC-CI (symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction) theory. The results showed that the CD spectrum of HPAA depends largely on the rotations (conformations) of the phenyl and COOH groups around the single bonds. The first band is due to the excitation of electrons belonging to the phenyl region and therefore sensitive to the phenyl rotation. The second band is due to the excitation of electrons belonging to the COOH region and therefore sensitive to the COOH rotation. From the comparison of the SAC-CI CD spectra calculated at various conformations of phenyl, COOH, and OH groups with the experimental spectrum, we could predict the stable geometry of this molecule, which agreed well with the most stable conformation deduced from the energy criterion. We also calculated the Boltzmann averaged spectrum and obtained better agreement with the experiment. Further, we performed preliminary investigations of the temperature dependence of the CD spectrum of HPAA. In general, the CD spectra of chiral molecules are very sensitive to low-energy processes like the rotations around the single bonds. Therefore, one should be able to study the natures of the weak interactions by comparing the SAC-CI spectra calculated at different geometries and conditions with the experimental spectrum using a new methodology we have termed ChiraSac.

  14. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  15. An inguinal hernia sac tumor of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Hidehiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic hernia sac tumor from biliary malignancy is extremely rare with only one such case previously reported. We herein report an additional case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a hernia sac tumor. Case presentation A 78-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguinal hernia associated with a firm tumor, 2.0 cm in diameter. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a soft tissue density mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the right inguinal canal. The patient underwent a hernia repair and the hernia sac tumor was resected. Histological examination of the tumor revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma suggesting the tumor was of pancreato-biliary origin. Further investigation using imaging studies disclosed a primary tumor in the upper bile duct. The patient died of the disease nine months after the resection. Conclusion Hernia sac tumors should be considered when an irreducible, growing mass appears within an inguinal hernia. Computed tomography may be useful for the early detection of hernia sac tumors from undiagnosed intra-abdominal malignancies.

  16. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  17. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  18. Embryo sac haustorium in Dryas octopetala L. (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Czapik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryo sac haustorium found in Dryas octopetala L. from the Tatra Mts is the first record of its occurrence in Rosaceae. At the eight-nucleate stage of the embryo sac, the antipodal end of the central cell began to grow into a narrow caecum filled with dense cytoplasm and elongated in the chalazal direction leaving the three antipodals in situ. The haustorium enlarged and lost its characteristic shape after the period of fertilization. Finally, the embryo sac occupied almost the whole length of the ovule. Situated at its chalazal end there was either dense cytoplasm with a group of endosperm nuclei or dense, grainy cytoplasm only, if fertilization had not taken place.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  20. On the implementation of SAC in target tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, Ilan; Weiss, Haim

    2017-01-01

    The existing SAC architecture requires the knowledge of a model whose output is followed by the controlled system. This control architecture is suitable for motion control applications where the required trajectory of the controller plant is known. The Simple Adaptive Control (SAC) algorithm uses the input of a trajectory generator, its state and its output to drive the tracking error to zero. However, when tracking a target, e.g. by a radar, neither the target's "input", nor its state are available. Thus the existing SAC architecture cannot be implemented per se. The paper proposes that the model to be tracked is the estimated state model generated by the target state estimator/observer.

  1. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

  2. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  3. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  4. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  5. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  6. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal sac: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lacrimal sac tumors are rare with a clinical presentation that typically includes obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system and epiphora as the most frequent symptom. Cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland and minor salivary glands; however, its occurrence in the lacrimal drainage apparatus is extremely rare. Given the rarity of ACC, definitive diagnosis is almost invariably late conferring a poor prognosis. Herein we report the case of a 41-year-old woman with primary ACC of the lacrimal sac and describe the ophthalmological examination, diagnosis, and multidisciplinary treatment of this rare type of tumor.

  7. Influence of Surface Segregation on Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Series and Pb-Containing Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozack, M. J.; Suhling, J. C.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z.; Lall, P.

    2011-10-01

    Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) series solder alloys to solid substrates is strongly influenced by surface segregation of low-level bulk impurities in the alloys. We report in situ and real-time Auger electron spectroscopy measurements of SAC alloy surface compositions as a function of temperature as the alloys are taken through the melting point. A dramatic increase in the amount of surface C (and frequently O) is observed with temperature, and in some cases the alloy surface is nearly 80 at.% C at the melting point. The C originates from low-level impurities incorporated during alloy synthesis and inhibits wetting because C acts as a blocking layer to reaction between the alloy and substrate. A similar phenomenon has been observed over a wide range of (SAC and non-SAC) alloys synthesized by a variety of techniques. That solder alloy surfaces at melting have a radically different composition from the bulk uncovers a key variable that helps to explain the wide variability in contact angles reported in previous studies of wetting and adhesion.

  8. Prediction of abortion using three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry of the gestational sac and the amniotic sac in threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Ophir, Ella; Grinin, Vitaly; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Bornstein, Jacob

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether gestational sac volume (GSV) or amniotic sac volume (ASV) and/or the difference between them can predict abortion in women with first-trimester threatened abortion. Ninety patients between 6 and 12 weeks of gestation presenting with vaginal bleeding were studied. Seventy-six delivered after 24 weeks of gestation (group A) and 14 aborted before 20 weeks of gestation (group B). All patients had a singleton viable pregnancy demonstrated by transvaginal ultrasound. Gestational sac and amniotic sac volumes were measured in all the patients using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound with Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis software, and the gestational sac volume - amniotic sac volume (GSV - ASV) was calculated. The groups did not differ in terms of age, parity, number of previous abortions, or term deliveries. The GSV (group A: mean 32.0 ± 27.7 cm(3) ; group B: 26.7 ± 29.1 cm(3) ) and the ASV (group A: 21.1 ± 25.5 cm(3) ; group B: 20.6 ± 26.0 cm(3) ) were not statistically different, while the GSV - ASV was significantly smaller in group B (aborting before week 20) (group A: 10.9 ± 10.9 cm(3) ; group B: 6.1 ± 8.6 cm(3) ; p abortion was predicted with 84% sensitivity and 43% specificity. The measurement of the GSV and the ASV are not good predictors of abortion in patients with first-trimester vaginal bleeding, whereas the use of the GSV - ASV may be helpful in predicting the outcome of pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tetrasporic Embryo-Sac Formation in Trisomic Sectors of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuffer, M G

    1964-05-15

    Nondisjunction in mitotic divisions occurs spontaneously at a low frequency in somatic and germinal tissue in maize and results in sectors of trisomic cells. When this happens with chromosome 3 and in germinal tissue the embryo sac development is changed from the normal monosporic type to a tetrasporic type which is common in some species but not in maize.

  10. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  11. Developmental aspects of the rat endolymphatic sac and functional implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.A.; Tonnaer, E.L.G.M.; Kuijpers, W.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine specific characteristics of endolymphatic sac (ES) cells of the developing rat that are considered to be involved in endolymph homeostasis. Because intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are regarded as markers of cell differentiation and basal lamina protei

  12. Inflamed appendix in a femoral hernial sac: de Garengeot's hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S S; Girn, H R S; Ainslie, W G

    2009-10-01

    Croissant de Garengeot's hernia is defined as the presence of an appendix in the femoral hernial sac. It is rare and occurs mostly in females. We report this hernia in a male patient along with the surgical management and review of literature.

  13. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  14. Chicken Juice Enhances Surface Attachment and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L.; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J.; Cross, Kathryn L.; Betts, Roy P.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain. PMID:25192991

  15. Chicken juice enhances surface attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain.

  16. Characterization of endolymphatic sac tumors and von Hippel-Lindau disease in the International Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bausch, Birke; Wellner, Ulrich; Peyre, Mathieu; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Hes, Frederik J.; Anglani, Mariagiulia; de Campos, Jose M.; Kanno, Hiroshi; Maher, Eamonn R.; Krauss, Tobias; Sanso, Gabriela; Barontini, Marta; Letizia, Claudio; Hader, Claudia; Schiavi, Francesca; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Suarez, Carlos; Offergeld, Christian; Malinoc, Angelica; Zschiedrich, Stefan; Glasker, Sven; Bobin, Serge; Sterkers, Olivier; Huy, Patrice Tran Ba; Giraud, Sophie; Links, Thera; Eng, Charis; Opocher, Giuseppe; Richard, Stephane; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.

    Background. Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are, with a prevalence of up to 16%, a component of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Data from international registries regarding heritable fraction and characteristics, germline VHL mutation frequency, and prevalence are lacking. Methods. Systematic

  17. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  18. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  19. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  20. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  1. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  2. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  3. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS.... Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  4. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of juicy sac granulation in citrus with low field nuclear magnetic resonance%基于低场核磁共振的柑橘汁胞粒化评级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 张晶; 贺妍; 卢嘉; 郭静; 戴超; 王凤忠; 范蓓

    2016-01-01

    sac granulation. The degree of juice sac granulation was classified by 9 assessors’ sensory evaluation, and validated by the Duncan test and the significance analysis of correlation with physiology indices. These physiology indices including moisture content, lignin content, vitamin C content, weight-loss ratio and respiratory strength, which were significantly correlated to the classification by sensory evaluation of 9 assessors, were analyzed by the correlation significance testing. It was found that the integral values (I21, I22andI23) of 3 peaks (T21, T22andT23) on transverse relaxation time (T2) inversion spectrum significantly reflected the juicy sac granulation and were correlated to its degree evaluated by human senses (P<0.05 orP<0.01). The reason was that the integral values (I21, I22andI23) of 3 peaks (T21, T22andT23) on transverse relaxation time (T2) represented the responses of 3 different forms of water (chemically combined water, immobile water and free water) in the Citrus fruit respectively. And by the linear fitting analysis with human’s sensory evaluation results, a mathematic model withI21andI23 as testing indices was established to judge juice sac granulation degree. In present study, 27 Citrus fruits with different juice sac granulation degrees were used to set up the equation for the prediction of Citrus’ sac granulation degree, and 8 Citrus fruits were used for the validation of the effectiveness and accuracy of the fitting equation. However, because of its unsatisfying precision, the classification of juice sac granulation was simplified into acceptable or unacceptable on juice sac granulation based on the result of score, which was calculated according to the original fitting equation and the demand of Chinese National Standard. Therefore, the modified method got a good accuracy and practical effectiveness. The paired-samplest-test analysis indicated that there was no significant deference between artificial intelligence evaluation

  6. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  7. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Ji-ying

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells

  8. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  9. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transfor-mation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium sup¬plemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcrip¬tion factor.

  10. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  11. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  12. Excited states of Ne isoelectronic ions: SAC-CI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A.K.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-02-01

    Excited states of the s, p, and d symmetries up to principal quantum number n = 4 are studied for the first eight members of Ne isoelectronic sequence (Ne to Cl{sup 7+}) by the SAC-CI (symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction) method. The valence STO basis sets of Clementi et al. and the optimized excited STO are used by the STO-6G expansion method. The calculated transition energies agree well with the experimental values wherever available. (orig.)

  13. Low-lying π∗ resonances associated with cyano groups: A CAP/SAC-CI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yuki; Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method is applied to low-lying π∗ resonance states of molecules containing one or two cyano (CN) groups. Benchmark calculations are carried out comparing the non-variational and approximate variational approach of SAC-CI and studying the selection threshold of operators. Experimental resonance positions from electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) are reproduced provided the anticipated deviations due to vibronic effects are taken into account. Moreover, the calculated positions and widths agree well with those obtained in previous electron scattering calculations for HCN, CH3CN and their isonitriles. Based on our results, we suggest a reassignment of the experimental ETS of fumaronitrile and malononitrile. Our present results demonstrate again that the CAP/SAC-CI method reliably predicts low-lying π∗ resonances, and regarding the total numbers of molecules and resonances investigated, it is fair to say that it is presently the most extensively used high-level method in the temporary anion field.

  14. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  15. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  16. From embryo sac to oil and protein bodies: embryo development in the model legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ding; Song, Youhong; Sheahan, Michael B; Garg, Manohar L; Rose, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    • The cell and developmental biology of zygotic embryogenesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula has received little attention. We studied M. truncatula embryogenesis from embryo sac until cotyledon maturation, including oil and protein body biogenesis. • We characterized embryo development using light and electron microscopy, measurement of protein and lipid fatty acid accumulation and by profiling the expression of key seed storage genes. • Embryo sac development in M. truncatula is of the Polygonum type. A distinctive multicellular hypophysis and suspensor develops before the globular stage and by the early cotyledon stage, the procambium connects the developing apical meristems. In the storage parenchyma of cotyledons, ovoid oil bodies surround protein bodies and the plasma membrane. Four major lipid fatty acids accumulate as cotyledons develop, paralleling the expression of OLEOSIN and the storage protein genes, VICILIN and LEGUMIN. • Zygotic embryogenesis in M. truncatula features the development of a distinctive multicellular hypophysis and an endopolyploid suspensor with basal transfer cell. A clear procambial connection between the apical meristems is evident and there is a characteristic arrangement of oil bodies in the cotyledons and radicle. Our data help link embryogenesis to the genetic regulation of oil and protein body biogenesis in legume seed.

  17. Allosteric Activation of the Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac1 by Anionic Phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sac family phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise an evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes in eukaryotes. Our recently determined crystal structure of the Sac phosphatase domain of yeast Sac1, the founding member of the Sac family proteins, revealed a unique conformation of the catalytic P-loop and a large positively charged groove at the catalytic site. We now report a unique mechanism for the regulation of its phosphatase activity. Sac1 is an allosteric enzyme that can be activated by its product phosphatidylinositol or anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine. The activation of Sac1 may involve conformational changes of the catalytic P-loop induced by direct binding with the regulatory anionic phospholipids in the large cationic catalytic groove. These findings highlight the fact that lipid composition of the substrate membrane plays an important role in the control of Sac1 function. PMID:22452743

  18. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  20. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  1. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  2. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  3. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: genyamasaki@gmail.com [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  4. Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B

    2010-04-01

    Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174.

  5. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  6. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  7. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  8. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  9. Glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors in yolk sac placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, J P; Baldridge, R C; Magen, A B; Andrew, C L; Koszalka, T R; Brent, R L

    1986-01-01

    The parietal yolk sac (PYS) of the rat fetus at the 14th day of gestation contains glucocorticoid as well as progesterone receptors; both are present in the trophoblast cell layer. Following heat activation the receptors are capable of binding to deoxyribonucleic acid- (DNA-)cellulose. Glucocorticoid receptors, but not progesterone receptors, are also present in the visceral yolk sac (VYS) at the 14th day of gestation. Greater amounts (some 250 femtomoles/mg cytosol protein) of a glucocorticoid receptor are present in the VYS on the 17th day of gestation. The Kd is approximately 4 X 10(-9) M; following activation it also binds to DNA-cellulose. The elution pattern of the activated VYS receptor from diethylaminoethyl-(DEAE-)Sephadex, however, is similar to that found with kidney and colon rather than that of liver (i.e., it resembles corticosteroid binder IB rather than binder II) indicating a possible role in transport. Although the receptors are separate entities, progesterone competes as effectively as corticosterone for binding to the glucocorticoid receptors in both the PYS and and VYS, thus raising the question of the possible effect of changes in progesterone concentrations on the functioning of glucocorticoids during development.

  10. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  11. [Genomic DNA extraction from hair sacs of pigs using modified phenol-chloroform method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Ying; Yu, Ying; Feng, Li-Xia; Wang, Huai-Zhong; Zhang, Qin

    2010-07-01

    In referring to various methods for genomic DNA extraction from different tissues, we modified the classical phenol-chloroform procedure and reaction system for use in genomic DNA extraction from pig hair sacs. With the modified the phenol-chloroform method we successfully obtained high quality genomic DNA from pig hair sacs. Genomic DNA can be extracted from sacs of one to six pig hairs with satisfied quantity and quality for the need of PCR-based molecular ex-periment.

  12. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C., E-mail: oikonomo@med.wayne.edu; Filios, Catherine, E-mail: cfilios@med.wayne.edu; Sbrissa, Diego, E-mail: dsbrissa@med.wayne.edu; Chen, Xuequn, E-mail: xchen@med.wayne.edu; Shisheva, Assia, E-mail: ashishev@med.wayne.edu

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  13. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  14. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  15. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  16. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  17. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  18. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  19. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  20. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  1. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.

    2016-01-01

    in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate...... the expression of histamine receptors of the human ES epithelium and sub-epithelial stroma. Following sampling of human endolymphatic sac tissue during translabyrinthine surgery, the expression of histamine receptor genes was determined by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were subsequently verified by immuno......-histochemistry. The combined results of microarrays and immuno-histochemistry showed expression of the histamine receptor HRH1 in the epithelial lining of the ES, whereas HRH3 was expressed exclusively in the sub-epithelial capillary network. Receptors HRH2 and -4 were not expressed. The present data provide the first direct...

  2. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  3. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  4. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  5. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  6. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication.

  7. Physical properties of inulin and inulin-orange juice: physical characterization and technological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Leyva-Porras, C; Martínez-Guerra, E; Pérez-García, S A; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Álvarez-Salas, C

    2014-05-25

    In this work two systems based on a carbohydrate polymer were studied: inulin as model system and inulin-orange juice as complex system. Both system were stored at different water activity conditions and subsequently characterized. Water adsorption isotherms type II were fitted by the GAB model and the water monolayer content was determined for each system. From thermal analyzes it was found that at low water activities (aw) systems were fully amorphous. As aw increased, crystallinity was developed. This behavior was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. In the inulin-orange juice system, crystallization appears at lower water activity caused by the intensification of the chemical interaction of the low molecular weight species contained in orange juice. Glass transition temperature (Tg), determined by modulated differential scanning calorimeter, decreased with aw. As water is adsorbed, the physical appearance of samples changed which could be observed by optical microscopy and effectively related with the microstructure found by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: A clinicopathological case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporidium seeberi , till recently known as a fungus, has been reclassified as a protistan parasite. It infects humans and many animal species. The authors describe a rare case of oculosporidiosis with involvement of the lacrimal sac exhibiting features of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease in a young male patient. Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed.

  9. Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac in the Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krupko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and development of the embryo sac in Trifolium alexandrinum (Palestine variety, are very similar to that in Trifolium pratense. The embryo sac of Trifolium alexandrinum is monosporal, has eight nuclei and is of the Polygonum type. The Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum can be autogamous.

  10. Innate immune defense in the inner ear - mucines are expressed by the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin N; Kirkeby, Svend; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    The human endolymphatic sac has been shown recently to have immunological capacities and has thus been proposed as the main entity protecting the inner ear from pathogen invasion, equivalent to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Although the sac expresses molecules of the innate immune sys...

  11. Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Ménière's Disease – Current Opinion and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores García, Maria de Lourdes; Llata Segura, Carolina de la; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Pane Pianese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The endolymphatic sac is thought to maintain the hydrostatic pressure and endolymph homeostasis for the inner ear, and its dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease. Throughout the years, different surgical procedures for intractable vertigo secondary to Ménière's disease have been described, and though many authors consider these procedures as effective, there are some who question its long-term efficacy and even those who think that vertigo control is achieved more due to a placebo effect than because of the procedure itself. Objective To review the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac for the treatment of Ménière's disease. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis We focus on describing the different surgical procedures performed in the endolymphatic sac, such as endolymphatic sac decompression, endolymphatic sac enhancement, endolymphatic sac shunting and endolymphatic duct blockage, their pitfalls and advantages, their results in vertigo control and the complication rates. The senior author also describes his experience after 30 years of performing endolymphatic sac surgery. Conclusions The endolymphatic sac surgery, with all its variants, is a good option for patients with incapacitating endolymphatic hydrops, providing a high percentage of vertigo control and hearing preservation. PMID:28382128

  12. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  13. Embryo sac development in some South African cultivars of Lantana camara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty embryo sacs from each of 20 different  Lantana camara L. cultivars naturalized in South Africa were examined. The normal sexual embryo sacs were monosporic 8-nucleated embryo sacs of the polygonum type and were encountered in 55% of the material examined. Several deviations from this pattern were recorded. Occasionally one of the nuclei failed to develop into a synergid, resulting in three polar nuclei. Contrary to published information, the antipodal cells did not increase in size, nor was there an increase in the number of nuclei per cell. Although the occurrence of sexuality is confirmed, no definite evidence exists for the occurrence of apomixis. The occurrence of two embryo sacs per locule might be the result of either apospory or of sexuality whereby two embryo sacs were formed from two megaspores.

  14. Gene expression demonstrates an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the innate immune system in the human endolymphatic sac. It is hypothesized that the endolymphatic sac has a significant immunological function in the human inner ear....... STUDY DESIGN: DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used for analyses of fresh human endolymphatic-sac tissue samples. METHODS: Twelve tissue samples from the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannoma. Microarray technology was used...... was obtained. Multiple key elements of both the cellular and humoral innate immune system were expressed, including Toll-like receptors 4 and 7, as well as beta-defensin and lactoferrin. CONCLUSIONS: The present data provides the first direct evidence of an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac...

  15. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  16. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  17. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener’s granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. PMID:27754826

  18. Clinical significance of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during dacryocystorhinostomy: A comprehensive review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koturović, Zoran; Knežević, Miroslav; Rašić, Dejan M

    2017-02-21

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide the information about the incidence and types of pathology of secondary acquired obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system caused by primary lacrimal sac non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. After a thorough literature search, 17 case-control studies were found and selected, data were extracted and categorized, to evaluate specific lacrimal sac pathology mimicking inflammation. A total of 3865 histopathologically examined lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens from 3662 patients, taken during dacryocystorhinostomy for clinically presumed primary chronic dacryocystitis, were analyzed. The most common reported histopathological finding was non-specific chronic inflammation with or without fibrosis (94.15% of cases). Lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 226 (5.85%) cases. Unsuspected lacrimal sac-specific pathologies were present in 55/226 (24.34%) cases. Almost 45% of primary lacrimal sac malignant neoplasms were not suspected, preoperatively and intraoperatively. Tumor-like lesions of the lacrimal sac were the most common pathology found: (1) lacrimal stones-dacryoliths, (2) pyogenic granuloma, (3) granulation tissues, (4) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and (5) lacrimal sac-specific inflammation (Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis). Neoplastic pathology was found in 55/3865 (1.42%) lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens; of those, malignant cases were 2.24 times more frequent than benign. Lymphoma was the most common preoperatively unsuspected or intraoperatively unexpected neoplastic pathology. This analysis of the relevant literature highlights the value of routine lacrimal sac biopsy during surgery for clinically presumed primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  19. The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Crannell, Carol JO; Desai, Upendra D.; Orwig, Larry E.; Kiplinger, Alan L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Machado, Marcos; Wood, Kent

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures.

  20. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-01-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  1. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  2. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  3. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  4. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  5. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... vegetable juices includes steps like extraction, clarification, and stabilization .... given by INRAB. Methods. Juice extraction: The collected cashew fruits were ...... Clarification, Preservation and Shelf Life. Evaluation of Cashew ...

  6. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  7. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J.; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the “European spider of the year 2012”, from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03±0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5–1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ0) in the range of 0.33–0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  8. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  9. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  10. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  12. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  13. Invagination of the hernial sac stump. Technique for repair of inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafik, A

    1980-09-01

    A technique for repair of indirect inguinal hernia is presented. The hernial sac stump is invaginated in an attempt to secure high ligation of the sac and obliterate any residual peritoneal diverticulum. Four hundred forty-two patients were operated on. The technique consists essentially of division of the internal spermatic fascial tube at the neck as well as embedding of the sac stump by purse-string sutures in a narrow neck of Lembert sutures in a wide neck. The defect in the fascia transversalis is closed over the stump. Three hundred eighty-one patients were followed up 2 to 15 years, with a recurrence rate of 1.6 percent. The concept that in indirect hernia the problem involves the sac rather than the defect is put forward. Recurrence results essentially from the existence of a handmade sac rather than an improperly repaired defect. The role of invagination of the sac in securing complete excision of the sac and proper closure of the defect is discussed. In initiating recurrence, the part played by the redundant peritoneum deep to the internal ring is emphasized. Changes in the dynamics of intraabdominal tension induced by stump embedding are explained.

  14. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  15. Endolymphatic sac tumor: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yan-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare neoplasm which can be encountered sporadically or in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. Here we report a sporadic case of ELST in 31-year-old man. Neither the symptoms nor a family history of VHL disease were found in the patient. CT imaging demonstrated an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the left petrous bone. MR scanning revealed a 5.2 cm × 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm mass which showed hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Histologic sections showed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. The tumor showed diffusely positive reactivity with cytokeratin (Pan, cytokeratin 19, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, EMA, vimentin, CD56, and NSE and also showed variable reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and VEGF. The Ki-67 immunostain showed a proliferation index of Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7973320646763012

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  17. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  18. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  19. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  20. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  2. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  3. Effect of oral mucosa transplantation in the treatment of severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinic effect of oral mucosa transplantation in the treatment of severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation.METHODS: Thirty-three cases(33 eyeswith globe disorders and severe contracted conjunctval sac were operated ocular prosthesis implantation firstly, and conjunctival sac plasty using oral mucosa after 6mo. RESULTS: Thirty-one cases were successful, no complications appeared. One case had primary ptosis and 1 case had recurrent conjunctival sac contracture.CONCLUSION: It is recognised that the methods of oral mucosa transplantation in severe contracted conjunctival sac after ocular prosthesis implantation are effective on those cases.

  4. SAC-OCDM/TDM system for upgrading the TDM PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Chen; Shilin Xiao; Lilin Yi; Yi Dong; Weisheng Hu

    2011-01-01

    A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SAC-OCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains, which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON, in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly. The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective. A downstream experiment is demonstrated, and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.%A spectral amplitude coded-optical code division multiplexing time division multiplexing (SACOCDM/TDM) passive optical network (PON) for upgrading the traditional TDM PON is proposed.To the best of our knowledge,our work is the first to report on the use of both spectral and orthogonal code domains,which are transparent to optical network unit (ONU) for hybrid PON,in order to upgrade TDM PON seamlessly.The fewer encoder/decoders and cheaper optical source under the conditions of high bite rate and large ONU accommodation make the system cost-effective.A downstream experiment is demonstrated,and the results demonstrate that the proposed system is feasible.The time division multiplexing (TDM) technique is used in the Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and Gigabit passive optical network (GPON),which is currently used commercially and performs optimally.Nextgeneration broadband access networks are a new topic.Therefore,whether there is a need to upgrade directly the bit rates,of EPON and GPON or to introduce new techniques in passive optical network (PON) remains to be elucidated.

  5. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu-Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

  6. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  7. Tarlov Cyst Is Correlated with a Short Broad Terminal of the Thecal Sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoran; Zheng, Xuesheng; Zhang, Nu

    2016-12-27

    Background In clinical practice, we noted that the end section of the thecal sac is apparently different in patients with Tarlov cyst compared with that of the normal population. We conducted this clinical study based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Our study included 30 patients with Tarlov cyst and 30 healthy volunteers as the control. The L4, L5 cross-section areas, the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters, and the terminal length of the thecal sac were measured from the lumbosacral spine MRI. Results The L4, L5 cross-section areas and the L4, L5 anteroposterior diameters are larger for the Tarlov cyst patients than the controls, but the terminal length of the thecal sac is shorter. Conclusion The Tarlov cyst is correlated with a short broad end of the thecal sac. Possibly, this anatomical variant is a causative factor of Tarlov cyst.

  8. Endovascular conversion with femorofemoral bypass as a treatment of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen T; Clagett, G Patrick; Arko, Frank R

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of a patient treated with a Gore Excluder endograft for AAA in November 2003 with subsequent aneurysm sac enlargement in the absence of an identified endoleak. The patient had a Type I endoleak treated with a Palmaz stent at the neck and later developed a Type II endoleak treated with translumbar coil embolization. This was successful with absence of pressure in the sac after the procedure and stable aneurysm size over the next nine months. Surveillance of the patient with both CT and ultrasound then revealed an increase in the aortic sac diameter in the absence of endoleak. A Cook Zenith converter was used to reline this PTFE endograft. Subsequently, imaging showed aneurysm sac shrinkage. This is a report of endotension with aneurysm expansion following Gore Excluder placement which was treated successfully with a dacron endograft.

  9. Coagulopathy associated with sac reperfusion for reversing paraplegia after endovascular repair of type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioupis, Christos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Clough, Rachel; Matharu, Nick; Modarai, Bijan; Carrell, Tom; Taylor, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Sac perfusion may be helpful in preventing or reversing spinal cord injury after endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms and it has been used as an adjunct to the standard physiologic measures of sustained hypertension and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Coagulopathy as a result of endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair has been reported, and very rare cases of treatment after repair of these endoleaks have been described. We report a 73-year-old man who had endovascular repair of a type II thoracoabdominal aneurysm with a branched stent graft. Sac reperfusion was initiated to manage postoperative paraplegia. The paraplegia partially resolved but severe hemorrhagic complications developed that were attributed to sac perfusion-related hyperfibrinolysis. Discontinuation of sac perfusion resolved the coagulopathy but resulted in paraplegia.

  10. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  11. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  12. Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia ("stomach ribs", which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1 Phase I-Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2 Phase II-Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac and caudal (abdominal air sac divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3 Phase III-Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4 Phase IV-Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic

  13. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  14. Discussion and improvement of the refined COSMO-SAC parameters for solubility predictions: part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillot, Baptiste; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Solubility of drugs is a key piece of information for the pharmaceutical industry. Despite its importance, particularly at the beginning of a new drug process development, this thermodynamic property of the solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) can hardly be predicted for a given molecule in a given solvent. In our recent works, some thermodynamic models (UNIFAC and its modifications, COSMO-SAC and its refinements, NRTL-SAC) were investigated and compared for solubility prediction. The main drawbacks...

  15. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits o...

  16. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  17. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  18. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  19. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  20. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  1. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G. [Yale-MED

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  3. Sac1-Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M; Burd, Christopher G

    2014-08-18

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1-Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  4. Allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal sac: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Kristina Y; Yakopson, Vladimir; Flanagan, Joseph C; Eagle, Ralph C

    2014-08-01

    BACKGROUNd: We report a case of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) involving the lacrimal sac and review the current English literature. A literature search for AFS involving the lacrimal sac revealed two reports with only one of the two cases demonstrating histological evidence of fungal elements. This is just the third such case and only the second reported case with histopathologic confirmation of fungal elements by Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stain. A PubMed database search was performed using combinations of the following key words: allergic fungal sinusitis, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, ophthalmology, epiphora, orbit. A 70-year-old white man with a history of chronic conjunctivitis and nasal polyps presenting with chronic epiphora was found to have dacryostenosis on the left side. A CT scan of the orbits revealed mucoperiosteal thickening completely obliterating the frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. A left external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) was performed and the lacrimal sac contents were studied histopathologically. Microscopic examination of the lacrimal sac contents disclosed allergic mucin with laminated aggregates of eosinophils in various stages of degeneration, Charcot-Leyden crystals and rare noninvasive fungal hyphae confirming the diagnosis of AFS. Fungal elements stained positively with Gomori methenamine silver stain. Although rarely reported, AFS can affect the lacrimal sac. AFS should be suspected in patients with a history of recurrent refractory sinusitis, recurrent dacryocystitis and nasal polyposis. Early diagnosis is important for adequate treatment and prevention of recurrence.

  5. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  6. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  7. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. The food may contain one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. Histological and ultrastructural observation of the ink sac of Octopus variabilis%长蛸墨囊的组织学及其墨腺超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 王春琳; 詹萍萍; 宋微微; 母昌考; 邵楚; 刘帅

    2011-01-01

    分析了长蛸墨囊组织学及墨腺细胞的超微结构.结果表明,墨囊由墨囊体、导管和墨腺3部分组成,墨囊壁和导管壁分为外膜、肌肉层、粘膜下层和粘膜层,墨囊壁与肝脏外膜紧密相连,墨囊导管开口于直肠末端近肛门处;墨腺集中在墨囊底部靠近肝脏的一侧,由粘膜上皮细胞向囊腔内增生形成,呈索状,腺体中部含丰富的结缔组织;墨腺细胞分为具有无分泌功能的A型细胞和有分泌功能的B型细胞,微绒毛分布于B型细胞的顶端;墨汁颗粒在墨腺细胞囊泡中形成,并以胞吐或细胞破碎的形式将墨汁颗粒排出.%Octopus variabilis has become one of the most popular seafood for its delicious taste, which has large market demand in China and is advantaged in marine products exports. However, due to the over fishing and water pollution, the natural resource of Octopus variabilis declined rapidly. For this reason,the industry of artificial culturing got rapid development. The Octopus variabilis will spurt the ink when meeting the stimulation originally. The peculiar ink defence system of Octopus variabilis is based on the activity of the highly specialized ink gland which is deputed to the continuous production of the black insoluble melanin pigment that is stored in the ink sac. This organ has been studied in other cephalopod, but the ink gland in Octopus variabilis is different from the others. Therefore, the histology of the ink sac and ultrastructural structure of the ink gland of Octopus variabilis was studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in this paper. The observed results showed that the ink sac was composed of ink sac body, pipe and ink glands. The ink sac of Octopus variabilis opened into the end of the recta near the anus by pipe. The wall of the ink sac and pipe were both composed of epicardial,muscular layer,submucosa layer and mucosa layer. And the epicardial of ink sac wall were stratified squamous

  9. A Study of Temperature, Microstructure and Hardness Properties of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC Solder Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solder alloys are one of the most crucial aspect linking the electrical components to the printed circuit board PCB substrate. Thus, producing a good solder is a must to say in electronic industries. Among major functions of solder alloys are to provide beneficial properties in melting, microstructure and mechanical strand. In this aspect, the Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC solder alloys are recommended as potential candidate to assure these benefits. In this study, the solder possesses melting temperature of, TM=227°C which is below the desired soldering temperature, TM=250°C. Besides, this SAC solder produces well-defined microstructures with Sn-matrix and eutectic phase consisting Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn displayed from SEM image, contributes in harvesting good mechanical properties. The SAC solder also provides a high hardness value with an average of 14.4Hv for Vickers hardness. All these results seem to satisfy the need of a viable solder alloy.

  10. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  11. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  12. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  13. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  14. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  15. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Surface properties of SAC and its adsorption mechanisms for phenol and nitrobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daojing; Wu, Yunsong; Feng, Li; Zhang, Liqiu

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical properties of an activated carbon produced from sewage sludge (SAC) were determined and compared with those of a market activated carbon (MAC). Phenol and nitrobenzene were selected as the target compounds and their adsorption behaviors in water and cyclohexane were studied and compared. The experimental results showed that the surface area of SAC was only 1/4 of that of the MAC. Functional groups on the SAC are all acid groups while basic groups are the dominant on the MAC. Based on the properties of the activated carbons and the adsorption behaviors of the two organic pollutants, it could be inferred preliminarily that phenol adsorption was mainly affected by surface area but nitrobenzene adsorption was affected by both surface area and surface functional groups. In water, when the initial concentration is between 0.1 and 10 mmol/L, the maximum phenol and nitrobenzene adsorption capacity of SAC is 0.48 and 1.26 mmol/g respectively, which is 1/4 and 1/3 of that of MAC. In cyclohexane, SAC's phenol adsorption capacity is higher and nitrobenzene adsorption capacity is lower than that in water; but MAC's phenol adsorption capacity does not change much and nitrobenzene adsorption capacity decreases a lot compared that in water. The results further indicate that the hydrophobicity and the polarity of the organic pollutants can greatly affect their adsorption in water. For SAC, polar interaction and hydrophobic interaction may be the main mechanisms affecting the sorption of nitrobenzene in water. For MAC, hydrophobic interaction and π-π interaction may be the main mechanisms affecting the sorption of nitrobenzene in water. For both phenol and nitrobenzene, the adsorption capacities of MAC are higher than that of SAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SAC-Ⅲ短臂离心机的研制与应用研究%Development and Application of SAC-Ⅲ Human Short-arm Centrifuge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 杨长斌; 高原; 张舒; 刘新宇; 王永春; 孙喜庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a new type of human short-arm centrifuge( SAC-Ⅲ ) and observe its application. Methods SAC-Ⅲ consisted of electric power system, operating and controlling system, audio and video monitoring system, tread wheel resistance training and work measuring system, electric brake system, short arm and supporting construction, etc. Driven by electric power, the short arm moved around the axis and artificial gravity was produced. Sixteen healthy male subjects were exposed to artificial gravity induced by SAC-Ⅲ and heart rate ( HR) , respiratory rate ( RR) were monitored with a wireless physiological signal recording device. Results As compared with those of baseline, Both HR and RR increased when subjects were exposed to 1 G, increased significantly when exposed to 2 G (P<0.05), and further increased when exposed to 3 G (P <0. 01). Conclusion The changes of HR and RR when exposed to artificial gravity shows that SAC-Ⅲhuman centrifuge combined exercise can be used for anti-G physiological training or as a promising countermeasure a-gainst the influcence of microgravity.%目的 研制一种新型短臂离心机(SAC-Ⅲ)并观察其应用效果.方法 SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机由电源、操作控制系统、声像监控系统、脚踏阻力锻炼及做功计量系统、电控静音刹车系统、工作转臂及支承结构等部件组成.通过电源系统,使工作转臂绕支撑装置作圆周运动,产生人工重力.选取16名男性志愿者,在SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机上人工重力暴露,分析在1G,2G和3G作用下心率和呼吸等生理参数的变化.结果 利用SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机,与基础值相比,心率和呼吸率1G暴露时呈增加趋势,2G暴露时显著增加(P<0.05),3G暴露时进一步增加(P<0.01).结论 在SAC-Ⅲ型短臂离心机暴露时,心率和呼吸率的变化表明其能有效模拟人工重力作用,可作为飞行人员抗荷生理训练设备或航天员对抗失重生理影响的有力措施.

  18. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  19. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  20. Electronic excitation of molecules in solution calculated using the symmetry-adapted cluster–configuration interaction method in the polarizable continuum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Ryoichi, E-mail: fukuda@ims.ac.jp; Ehara, Masahiro [Institute for Molecular Science and Research Center for Computational Science, 38 Nishigo-naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The effects from solvent environment are specific to the electronic states; therefore, a computational scheme for solvent effects consistent with the electronic states is necessary to discuss electronic excitation of molecules in solution. The PCM (polarizable continuum model) SAC (symmetry-adapted cluster) and SAC-CI (configuration interaction) methods are developed for such purposes. The PCM SAC-CI adopts the state-specific (SS) solvation scheme where solvent effects are self-consistently considered for every ground and excited states. For efficient computations of many excited states, we develop a perturbative approximation for the PCM SAC-CI method, which is called corrected linear response (cLR) scheme. Our test calculations show that the cLR PCM SAC-CI is a very good approximation of the SS PCM SAC-CI method for polar and nonpolar solvents.

  1. Sac-0601 prevents retinal vascular leakage in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Sony; Lee, Sujin; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2011-04-25

    Endothelium integrity is important for the normal functioning of vessels, the disruption of which can lead to disease. The blood-retinal barrier required for normal retinal function is compromised in diabetic retinopathy, causing retinal vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of Sac-0601[((2R,3S)-3-acetoxy-6-((3S,10R,13R,17R)-10,13-dimethyl-17-((R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl)-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yloxy)-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methyl acetate], a pseudo-sugar derivative of cholesterol, to increase survival of retinal endothelial cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of Sac-0601 to prevent retinal vascular leakages in vitro and in vivo. Sac-0601 treatment blocked VEGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and stabilized the cortical actin ring in retinal endothelial cells. It also inhibited degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein, and blocked VEGF-induced disruption of its linear pattern at the cell border. The [(14)C] sucrose permeability assay demonstrated that Sac-0601 was able to prevent VEGF-induced retinal endothelial permeability. The compound inhibited the vascular leakage in retina of mice intravitreally injected with VEGF. And it also significantly reduced the leakage in retina of diabetic retinopathy mice model. Taken together, our findings suggest the potential therapeutic usefulness of Sac-0601 for retinal vascular permeability diseases.

  2. Proximal drainage plus massage of lacrimal sac improves the symptoms of congenital dacryocystoceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of proximal drainage plus lacrimal sac massage in patients with congenital dacryocystoceles. A retrospective review of 77 patients was performed. Traditional massage was performed in the traditional treatment group (35 patients) first. Proximal lacrimal sac drainage plus massage of the lacrimal sac using a Bangerter lacrimal cannula (defined as modified massage) was performed in the modified group (42 patients). Probing was undertaken if the treatments failed in both groups. Success rates of decompression of lacrimal sac and recovery rate were observed. The χ2 test was used to compare the groups. Success rates of decompression of lacrimal sac were 100% in the modified group and 31% in the traditional group. In the modified group, 34 patients with 37 dacryocystoceles (80%) recovered with the modified treatment within 14 days. However, in the traditional group, only 11 patients with 12 dacryocystoceles (30%) had resolution after conservative treatment. The recovery rate of the modified massage in the modified group was higher than that of massage alone in the traditional group (p<0.001). As to the individuals receiving probing, 8 patients with 9 dacryocystoceles (100%) in the modified group were successful, while 18 patients with 21 dacryocystoceles (78%) in the traditional group had a satisfying effect. Proximal drainage plus massage has the advantage of high efficiency and safety for the treatment of congenital dacryocystoceles.

  3. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  4. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions.

  5. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  6. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver advice in relation to „toothkind‟ juice drinks. The Panel was requested to consider whether conclusions for the substantiation of the beneficial effect, i.e. reduction...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...

  7. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    ). In addition, we identified a number of proteins that have not been previously described in pancreatic juice (e.g., tumor rejection antigen (pg96) and azurocidin). Interestingly, a novel protein that is 85% identical to HIP/PAP was identified, which we have designated as PAP-2. The proteins identified...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  8. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  9. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  10. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  11. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  12. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  13. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research.

  14. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  15. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  16. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  17. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... and in their basement membranes suggesting, but not proving, that both types of cells have ability to synthesize laminin. Production of laminin and the presence of laminin-containing basement membrane material may be important for the biological behavior of the yolk sac tumor. This tumor will also be a useful source...

  18. An atypical case of lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Nam; Huh, Hyun-Do; Park, Jong-Moon; Seo, Seong-Wook

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. A systemically healthy 1-year-old girl came to the outpatient clinic with a complaint of tearing on the temporal side of the right lateral canthus since birth. On examination, a small orifice was found in the skin on the temporal side of the lateral canthus. There was no evidence of inflammation or swelling within the opening. Surgeons carried out an operation under general anesthesia. They passed a probe through the lacrimal orifice and advanced it toward the lacrimal sac. Next, they introduced saline to the inferior punctum and found that it drained to the lateral fistula. The lower lid stretched as the dissected fistula was pulled. After the operation, the patient was free of the symptom. This paper is to report a case of congenital lacrimal sac fistula located on the temporal side of the lateral canthus.

  19. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-09-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  20. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa; Igor dos Santos Masson; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Juliana Pelegrini Roviero; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consi...

  1. Thermomechanical fatigue damage evolution in SAC solder joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M. A.; Vellinga, W. P.; D Geers, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Thermornechanical fatigue in lab-type Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnections between two copper plates has been investigated under cyclic thermal loading within a number of temperature ranges. Fatigue mechanisms have been studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Among the various fatigue me

  2. Thermomechanical fatigue damage evolution in SAC solder joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M. A.; Vellinga, W. P.; D Geers, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Thermornechanical fatigue in lab-type Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnections between two copper plates has been investigated under cyclic thermal loading within a number of temperature ranges. Fatigue mechanisms have been studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Among the various fatigue me

  3. Effects of Technological Parameters on the Mechanical Performances of SAC-cementitious Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new type of SAC-cementitious material was manufactured by taking sulphoaluminate cement(SAC) as the basic material, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as the organic polymer and adding coupling agent(KH). Its flexural strength can reach 165 MPa, the compressive strength can be larger than 267 MPa.A set of fitable technological parameters of the material were gained through experiments. In addition, the flexural strength and toughness can be improved greatly by adding KH, whose values can be increased by 49.76% and 14.55%, respectively.

  4. Documented bites by a yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium in Italy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Papini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy reports of human envenomations by yellow sac spiders have been sporadic. Since increasing clinical information would improve understanding of the danger of yellow sac spiders to humans, we report the case of a 7-year-old child and her father bitten by a documented Cheiracanthium punctorium. They developed acute persistent pain with local skin signs and numbness, and required emergency treatment. The father recovered completely within 1 to 2 hours and the child within 3 to 4 days after treatment, probably as a result of spontaneous evolution. Clinicians should be aware of the risks and immediate management of spider bites.

  5. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients.

  6. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Punica granatum juice, a delicious multivitamin drink of great medicinal significance, is rich in different types of phytochemicals, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, sugars, fatty acids, aromatic compounds, amino acids, tocopherols, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the juice for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the AuNPs was complete in few minutes and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the fruit extract. The AuNPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Catalytic activity of the synthesized colloidal AuNPs has also been demonstrated.

  7. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  8. 鹤顶兰胚囊发育的超微结构观察%Ultrastructural Observation on Embryo Sac Development in Phaius tankervilliae (Aiton) BI.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬妹; 伍成厚; 叶秀粦; 梁承邺

    2012-01-01

    Embryo sac development in Phaius tankervilliae (Aiton) Bl. Was observed under transmission electron microscope. Three phases of functional megaspore and two phases of mature embryo sac were captured in this study. At the functional megaspore and 4-nucleate embryo sac stages, plasmodesmata were present between nucellar cells and embryo sac at the chalazal end. Plasmodesmata are cellular communicating junctions that link adjacent cells to form symplast of a plant. They provide a direct channel for material transport and signal transduction,therefore megagametogenesis is not at an absolutely insulated situation. A big vacuole was observed at the early stage of functional megaspore before it disappeared during the first mitotic division. However,many small vacuoles appeared at the interspaces of separating chromosomes. Distinct vacuoles were also observed in the synergid cells and egg cell during the early stage of mature embryo sac,but vanished when synergid cells degenerated. The change of vacuoles probably resulted from the cell physiological change. Our results may provide insights into reproductive biology of Phaius tankervilliae.%运用电子显微镜技术对鹤顶兰(Phaius tankervilliae(Aiton)BI.)胚囊发育过程中功能大孢子、二核胚囊、四核胚囊、成熟胚囊的超微结构进行观察,捕捉到了功能大孢子的三个阶段、成熟胚囊的两个阶段,进一步积累了鹤顶兰生殖生物学研究的基础资料.在功能大孢子、四核胚囊时期的合点端壁上可观察到胞间连丝,与体细胞间有物质及信息的交换,胚囊发育并非处于完全“隔离”状态.功能大孢子早期可见明显大液泡,随后进入第一次有丝分裂时大液泡消失,移向两极的染色体之间可见大量体积较小的液泡,成熟胚囊前期助细胞及卵细胞内也可见明显液泡,但当助细胞解体时,卵细胞内的大液泡也消失,液泡形态的变化可能是细胞生理状态发生改变的结果.

  9. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  10. Antibacterial and Photocatalytic Activities of ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesized Using Water Melon Juice as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, L. S. Reddy; Kumar, Danith; Kavitha, C.; Rajanaika, H.; Prasad, B. Daruka; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaraju, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) have been prepared by a simple and low temperature solution combustion method using Zinc nitrate as a precursor and solid water melon juice as a novel fuel for the first time. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO NPs have been analyzed using various analytical techniques such as Powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. ZnO NPs show good photo catalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. It also shows significant antibacterial activities against three bacterial strains.

  11. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta B.; de Aguiar, Claudio Lima; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-04-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%.

  12. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids.

  13. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. I

  14. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for

  15. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurizatio

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  17. Pancreatic Juice Culture in Acute Pancreatitis and Other Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively evaluated the results of pancreatic juice cultures of patients with acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorders. Methods Twenty patients who underwent pancreatic juice culture were studied. Nine had acute pancreatitis due to alcohol (n=5, idiopathic causes (n=2, drugs (n=1, or gallstones (n=1, and remaining 11 had other pancreatic disorders such as an intraductal papillary mucin-producing neoplasm (n=3 and main pancreatic duct dilatation with a stricture due to a tumorous lesion suspected of pancreatic cancer (n=7 or chronic pancreatitis (n=1 without symptoms. Nasopancreatic drainage tubes were placed for pancreatic duct drainage in acute pancreatitis and for pancreatic juice cytology in other disorders. Pancreatic juice was obtained through the drainage tube and cultured. Results Pancreatic juice cultures were positive in all patients with acute pancreatitis for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species, and others. Six among 11 patients (54.5% with other disorders showed positive results for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus salivarius, and others. The rate of positive pancreatic juice cultures was significantly higher in acute pancreatitis (p=0.038. Seven of the 9 patients with acute pancreatitis were classified as having severe acute pancreatitis, and all survived treatment. Conclusions Pancreatic juice culture was highly positive in acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to confirm the relationship between orally indigenous bacteria identified in the pancreatic juice and acute pancreatitis.

  18. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  19. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  1. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  2. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  3. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  4. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  5. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  6. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  7. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  9. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  12. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  13. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  14. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate

  15. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  16. National Technical Committee on Household Appliances of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 46) Upon the approval of Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Administration of China (SAC),National Technical Committee on Household Appliances of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 46) was officially established in May 2005,taking charge of the work of standardization regarding the safety,performance,installation and repair,etc.,of household and similar electrical appliances nationwide.The secretariat was established in China Household Electric Appliance Research Institute.

  17. Sac enlargement due to seroma after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with the Endologix PowerLink device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano, Giovanni; Dalainas, Ilias; Bianchi, Paolo G; Gotti, Riccardo; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2006-01-01

    A patient who had undergone endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with the Endologix PowerLink bifurcated system presented with delayed aortic aneurysm enlargement due to assumed endotension. He was treated with aortic sac evacuation and wrapping of the endograft. This is the first report of endotension and aneurysm sac enlargement after implantation of the PowerLink endograft.

  18. The actin-related protein Sac1 is required for morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Jia, Chang; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Dong, Yijie; Xu, Ning; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a common pathogenic fungus and has aroused widespread attention recently. Actin cytoskeleton, an important player in polarized growth, protein secretion and organization of cell shape, displays irreplaceable role in hyphal development and cell integrity. In this study, we demonstrated a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sac1, in C. albicans. It is a potential PIP phosphatase with Sac domain which is related to actin organization, hyphal development, biofilm formation and cell wall integrity. Deletion of SAC1 did not lead to insitiol-auxotroph phenotype in C. albicans, but this gene rescued the growth defect of S. cerevisiae sac1Δ in the insitiol-free medium. Hyphal induction further revealed the deficiency of sac1Δ/Δ in hyphal development and biofilm formation. Fluorescence observation and real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis suggested both actin and the hyphal cell wall protein Hwp1 were overexpressed and mislocated in this mutant. Furthermore, cell wall integrity (CWI) was largely affected by deletion of SAC1, due to the hypersensitivity to cell wall stress, changed content and distribution of chitin in the mutant. As a result, the virulence of sac1Δ/Δ was seriously attenuated. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Sac1, as a potential PIP phosphatase, is essential for actin organization, hyphal development, CWI and pathogenicity in C. albicans.

  19. Compiling the functional data-parallel language SaC for Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Jesshope, C.; Joslin, C.; Lankamp, M.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from compiling the high-level, functional and data-parallel programming language SaC into a novel multi-core design: Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors (SVPs). The side-effect free nature of SaC in conjunction with its data-parallel foundation make it an id

  20. Patterns of embryo-sac organization, synergid degeneration and cotyledon orientation in Linum usitatissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S D; Mao, L J

    1990-08-01

    The embryo sac of Linum usitatissimum consists, as in most angiosperms, of the egg, two synergids, central cell and antipodals. In Linum the embryo sac is strongly polarized in the longitudinal axis, but rotationally random relative to the vascular bundles of the ovule and ovary. Synergids designated right or left based on their orientation relative to the egg can be distinguished unambiguously if viewed from one pole of the embryo sac - in this case, the chalaza was used as the reference point. The synergid most likely to degenerate is the left (60%), proximal (52.3%) or septal-facing (52.7%) synergid. The volume and the surface area of the filiform apparatus of the left synergid is significantly smaller than that of the right synergid. Synergid-degeneration patterns varied between individual plants, indicating genetic control; however, the preference for the proximal and septal-facing synergid, although weak, indicates the possibility of some physiological influence. The cotyledons appear to assume bilateral symmetry with respect to the ovule only once endosperm digestion has begun. As the cotyledons grow, the embryo rotates to occupy the widest part of the embryo sac, thus imposing bilateral symmetry between the embryo and seed; prior to that time, the early and heart-shaped embryos are randomly oriented.

  1. Differential gene expression profiles in the venom gland/sac of Orancistrocerus drewseni (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Woo, Tae Ha; Kim, Chang Bae; Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Hyojoong; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2009-08-01

    To determine differential gene expression profiles in the venom gland and sac (gland/sac) of a solitary hunting wasp species, Orancistrocerus drewseni Saussure (1857), a subtractive cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 498 expressed sequence tags (EST) were clustered and assembled into 205 contigs (94 multiple sequences and 111 singletons). About 65% (134) of the contigs had matched BLASTx hits (E< or =10(-4)). Among these, 115 contigs had similarity to proteins with assigned molecular function in the Gene Ontology database, and most of them (112 contigs, 83%) were homologous to genes from Hymenoptera, particularly to Apis mellifera (98 contigs). The contigs encoding hyaluronidase and phospholipase A2, known to be main components of wasp venoms, were found in high frequencies (27 and 4%, respectively, as judged by the number of ESTs) in the gene ontology category of catalytic activity. Full-length open reading frames of hyaluronidase and phospholipase A2 were characterized and their abundance in the venom gland/sac was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Several contigs encoding enzymes, including zinc-metallopeptidases that are likely involved in the processing and activation of venomous proteins or peptides, were also identified from the library. Discovery of venom gland/sac-specific genes should promote further studies on biologically active components in the venom of O. drewseni.

  2. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  3. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    in the intraosseous part of the sac: mitochondria-rich cells, ribosome-rich cells, and nonclassifiable cells. A fourth cell type was found in the extraosseous part. Novel ultrastructural features of the epithelial lining and the subepithelial layer are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The results in the present...

  4. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  5. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  6. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Boussios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  7. Laminin from rat yolk sac tumor: isolation, partial characterization, and comparison with mouse laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, E; Krusius, T; Wewer, U

    1983-01-01

    Laminin was isolated from a rat yolk sac tumor by salt extraction, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The purified laminin gave two polypeptide chains with approximate Mr of 200,000 and 400,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino...

  8. Appendiceal pus in a hernia sac simulating strangulated femoral hernia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tien-Fa; Chou, Yenn-Hwei

    2011-03-23

    Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand's hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly encountered within the hernia sac. In very rare occasions, only appendiceal pus is found in the hernia sac. In this paper, we report the case of a 90-year-old woman with acute appendicitis and a tender mass in the right groin. Typical findings of acute appendicitis by computed tomography (CT) and incarcerated femoral hernia with groin cellulitis misled us into preoperative diagnosis of strangulated femoral hernia. Acute phlegmonous inflammation of the incarcerated femoral hernia sac containing pus only and acute suppurative appendicitis were found intraoperatively. This case presents a rare complication of acute appendicitis and the first report of CT-documented appendiceal pus-contained femoral hernia. Knowledge of this rare condition is helpful in establishing preoperative diagnosis and patient management decisions.

  9. Distribution of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Andrew; Kohl, Joshua W; Bojkovic, Jade; Benz, George W

    2010-10-01

    The infection pattern of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, was investigated using 4,722 copepods from 54 olfactory sacs. Copepod prevalence and mean intensity of infection per olfactory sac were 94.0 and 91.1%, respectively, and the most intensely infected olfactory sac and shark hosted 218 and 409 copepods, respectively. There were significant linear relationships between the number of female and total copepods per left olfactory sac and shark fork length as well as between the numbers of female, male, and total copepods per shark and mean olfactory sac width and cumulative olfactory sac width. Female copepods typically outnumbered males within olfactory sacs (mean intensity  =  65.7 and 26.3, respectively), and no statistical differences were detected between the numbers of copepods inhabiting the left and right olfactory sacs. Copepods were not evenly distributed within olfactory sacs. Typically, female copepods occupied olfactory chambers located centrally along the length of the olfactory sac, while males infected lateral olfactory chambers nearest the naris. The orientation of most copepods (84.6%) suggested positive rheotaxis relative to the path of water through the olfactory sac. Within olfactory chambers, most mature females (68.2%) infected the first third of the peripheral excurrent channel and the adjacent fringe of olfactory lamellae, while most males (91.7%) infected the olfactory lamellae, and the 4 larval females collected were attached within the lamellar field and grasped by males. Based on the observed infection patterns and the pattern of water flow throughout the olfactory sac, a hypothesis regarding the life cycle of K. elongata is advanced wherein infective copepodids are swept into the olfactory sac from the surrounding sea and initially colonize the olfactory lamellae. Copepodids feed and mature among the olfactory lamellae, and adult males search for mates and

  10. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  11. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    and pulsed electric field (PEF) juice are compared with their probability of choice for pasteurized juice and freshly produced apple juice, and consumer choices are tried explained by values and consequences generated from a MEC study. The study support, at least partly, that means-end chain structures’ have......, within the core of academic consumer research, MEC has been almost ignored. One plausible explanation for this lack of interest may be that studies linking MEC data to choice have been few. In this study, we are to investigate how values and consequences generated from a previous MEC study structure can...... be linked to likelihood of choice. Hypotheses about European consumers’ likelihood of choice for novel processed juice are stated and tested in a rating based conjoint study in Norway, Denmark, Hungary and Slovakia. In the study, consumers probability of choice for high pressure processed (HPP) juice...

  12. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  13. [Naringin reduced polymethylmethacrylate-induced osteolysis in the mouse air sacs model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Hu; Xu, Zhan-wang

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of naringin on PMMA-induced osteoclastic bone resorption using the mouse air sacs model. Total 48 female Balb/c mices with the age of 8 to 10 weeks were chosen in the study. Air were injected into the back in 32 mices and formed the air sacs, 6 d later, the skulls (originated from other 16 mices) were implanted to the air sacs. Thirty-two animals were divided into naringin treatment group (with 2 concentrations of 150 mg/kg and 30 mg/ kg) , DMSO group and PBS blank group, 8 animals in each group. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles were injected into the air sacs in naringin treatment groups and DMSO group so as to irritate inflammatory reaction. Naringin with 2 concentrations of 150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg were dissolved in DMSO of 0.2 ml, and were injected into air sacs, respectively. In PBS black group, no stimulation with PMMA particles, only injected PBS, and in DMSO group, injected DMSO without naringin. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), Ca2+ release, modified Masson stain and histological analysis were performed on the 7th day after stimulation. Compared with DMSO group, naringin treatment group's cellular infiltration decreased (P < 0.01); concentration of 150 mg/kg was better than that of concentrations of 30 mg/kg (8.90 ± 1.75 vs 15.23 ± 1.86). Naringin can decrease calcium release in the lavage of the air sacs bone resorption model, especially obvious in naringin with concentration of 150 mg/kg. Naringin can ameliorate the inflammatory reaction and the subsequent bone resorption (including bone collagen loss, TRAP positive cells amount and so on) in air sacs with bone implant and PMMA particles. Naringin with concentration of 150 mg/kg appeared to be an optimal dosage to deliver the therapeutic effects. Naringin inhibits PMMA-induced osteoclastogenesis and ameliorates the PMMA-associated inflammatory reaction and the subsequent bone resorption.

  14. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  15. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (platex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  16. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  17. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  18. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  19. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Milind N NaikInstitute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis.Results: A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60 years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13 showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15 and 40% (six of 15, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15. One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium.Conclusion: An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR.Keywords: lacrimal sac, ethmoid sinus, endoscopic, DCR

  20. Characterization of Sac10a, a hyperthermophile DNA-binding protein from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Stephen P; Kahsai, Mebrahtu A; Gupta, Ramesh; Shriver, John W

    2004-10-19

    Sac10a is a member of a group of basic DNA-binding proteins thought to be important in chromatin structure and regulation in the archaeon Sulfolobus. We describe here the isolation, gene identification, and biophysical characterization of native Sac10a. The protein exists as a 23.8 kDa homodimer at pH 7 and unfolds with a T degrees of 122 degrees C. Dissociation of the dimer into folded globular subunits is promoted by decreased pH and salt concentration. Thermal unfolding of the monomeric subunits occurred with two transitions, indicating two independent domains. The dimer demonstrated a high affinity for duplex poly(dAdT) with a K(D) of 5 x 10(-)(10) M and a site size of 17 bp (in 0.15 M KCl, pH 7), with only weak binding (K(D) > 5 x 10(-)(6) M) to poly(dA)-poly(dT), poly(dGdC), poly(dG)-poly(dC), and Escherichia coli DNA under similar conditions. Binding to poly(dAdT) resulted in distortions in the DNA duplex that were consistent with overwinding as indicated by inversion of the CD spectrum of the DNA. The monomeric subunits are predicted to adopt a winged helix DNA-binding motif which dimerizes through formation of a two-stranded coiled coil involving an extended C-terminal helix with more than four heptad repeats (about 45 A in length). This is the first example of the conserved archaeal transcription regulator domain COG3432 to be characterized. Sequences for homologous proteins containing both COG3432 and predicted coiled coil domains occur in the genomes of both crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus, Pyrobaculum, Aeropyrum) and euryarchaeota (Methanosarcina, Methanococcus, Archaeoglobus, Thermoplasma), with multiple genes in some species. Sac10a shows no sequence similarity to the other Sulfolobus chromatin proteins Sac7d, Sac8, Sso10b2, and Alba.

  1. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice. In thi...

  3. Coca-Cola's Acquisition Over Huiyuan Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's Anti-Monopoly Law,the foundation stone of the market economy,started to be implemented since August 1st 2008.After half a year of investigation,.Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice was put to a stop by Ministry of Commerce on March 18th 2009.It became the first abortive case since the implementation of the Anti-Monopoly Law and caused strong repercussions home and abroad.While the nationalists applauded for the decision,overseas media generally took a skeptical attitude,considering it as a case of trade protectionism.This phenomenon requires a rational interpretation and guidance for the domestic and international media.On the one hand,acquisition by foreign capital may bring advanced technology and management experience and promote economic development;on the other hand,it may lead to the monopoly of relevant market,hamper competition and cause some domestic brands to disappear.We should look at Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice from two aspects.

  4. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity.

  5. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  6. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is considered...

  7. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  8. Cloning and Sequencing Analysis of the Giardia Canis Gene MM/Sac-C/1%犬贾第虫MM/Sac-C/1基因的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永军; 战洪波; 王亮; 康桂英

    2016-01-01

    利用PCR技术从犬贾第虫滋养中扩增出了2004bp大小的MM/Sac-C/1基因,构建了pMD-MM/Sac-C/1克隆载体,并进行了序列测定,利用计算机对该序列进行了核苷酸同源性比较。结果表明,与Gene-Bank登陆的蓝氏贾第虫WB株AF236019序列比较,其同源性为98%,蛋白质同源性比较结果显示,与蓝氏贾第虫WB株表面抗原的同源性为90%,获得了犬贾第虫MM/Sac-C/1基因。%The PCR method was used to amplify Gene MM/Sac-C/1 in Giardia canis. The cloning vector pMD-MM/Sac-C/1 was constructed and sequenced. The homology of Gene MM/Sac-C/1 and AF236019 in GeneBank was 98%in the nucleotide,and 90%to Giardia lamblia. It was demonstrated that Gene MM/Sac-C/1 was present in Giardia canis.

  9. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p fruit juice.

  10. A single bivalent efficiently inhibits cyclin B1 degradation and polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes indicating robust SAC during female meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase until microtubule-to-kinetochore attachments are formed, thus securing correct chromosome separation and preventing aneuploidy. Whereas in mitosis even a single unattached chromosome keeps the SAC active, the high incidence of aneuploidy related to maternal meiotic errors raises a concern about the lower efficiency of SAC in oocytes. Recently it was suggested that in mouse oocytes, contrary to somatic cells, not a single chromosome but a critical mass of chromosomes triggers efficient SAC pointing to the necessity of evaluating the robustness of SAC in oocytes. Two types of errors in chromosome segregation upon meiosis I related to SAC were envisaged: (1 SAC escape, when kinetochores emit SAC-activating signal unable to stop anaphase I; and (2 SAC deceive, when kinetochores do not emit the signal. Using micromanipulations and live imaging of the first polar body extrusion, as well as the dynamics of cyclin B1 degradation, here we show that in mouse oocytes a single bivalent keeps the SAC active. This is the first direct evaluation of SAC efficiency in mouse oocytes, which provides strong evidence that the robustness of SAC in mammalian oocytes is comparable to other cell types. Our data do not contradict the hypothesis of the critical mass of chromosomes necessary for SAC activation, but suggest that the same rule may govern SAC activity also in other cell types. We postulate that the innate susceptibility of oocytes to errors in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division may not be caused by lower efficiency of SAC itself, but could be linked to high critical chromosome mass necessary to keep SAC active in oocyte of large size.

  11. Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del S; Santander-Martínez, Ingrid Renata; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ariza-Ortega, José A; Omaña-Covarrubias, Ariana; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3-5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L(-1), 255.9 mg·L(-1), 294.4 mg·L(-1), and 276.7 mg·L(-1), respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L(-1), 135.2 mg·L(-1), and 128.5 mg·L(-1), respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•.

  12. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  13. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  14. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

    2005-01-01

    NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses.No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice.A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acutehepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice.

  16. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  17. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity.

  18. Anatomy and histology of the newly discovered adipose sac structure within the labia majora: international original research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam; Krajewski, Pawel; Davis, Kern

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether there is any new anatomical structure present within the labia majora. A case serial study was executed on eleven consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Stratum-by-stratum dissections of the labia majora were performed. Twenty-two anatomic dissections of labia majora were completed. Eosin and Hematoxylin agents were used to stain newly discovered adipose sac's tissues of the labia majora and the cylinder-like structures, which cover condensed adipose tissues. The histology of these two structures was compared. All dissected labia majora demonstrated the presence of the anatomic existence of the adipose sac structure. Just under the dermis of the labia majora, the adipose sac was located, which was filled with lobules containing condensed fatty tissues in the form of cylinders. The histological investigation established that the well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissues represented the adipose sac. The absence of descriptions of the adipose sac within the labia majora in traditional anatomic and gynecologic textbooks was noted. In this study group, the newly discovered adipose sac is consistently present within the anatomical structure of the labia majora. The well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissue represents microscopic characteristic features of the adipose sac.

  19. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  20. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni Juice Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Almeida-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  2. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis.

  3. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  4. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  5. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  6. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  7. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  8. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant ...... to their biosynthesis of the basement membrane components laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen. This model system offers a simple approach to inducing rat yolk sac carcinomas for further morphological and biochemical characterization of the basement membrane....

  9. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines.

  10. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  11. Multi-level security for computer networking - SAC digital network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D. L.

    The functional features and architecture of the SACDIN (SAC digital network) are detailed. SACDIN is the new data transmission segment for directing SAC's strategic forces. The system has 135 processor nodes at 32 locations and processes, distributes and stores data of any level of security classification. The sophistication of access nodes is dependent on the location. A reference monitor mediates the multilevel security by implementation of the multi-state machine concept, i.e., the Bell-LaPadula model (1973, 1974), which concludes that a secure state can never lead to an unsecure state. The monitor is controlled by the internal access control mechanism, which resides in PROM. Details of the access process are provided, including message flow on trusted paths appropriate to the security clearance of the user.

  12. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment.

  13. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  14. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  15. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  16. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Méndez-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that

  17. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Serpetti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas.

    The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems

  18. Intercellular relations and wall structures in mature embryo sacs of four species of angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Fougére-Rifot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the maturation process of an ovule, the internal walls of the embryo sac becomes gradually thinner from the poles to the central cell. The thinning process results in an association of two plasma membranes with no polysaccharide structure betwen them. The presence of one disymmetrical ER cistern along the walls during the thinning process permits to anticipate a turn-over of carbohydrates.

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Department of Otolayngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine (Japan); Ichinose, Nobuyasu [Toshiba Nasu Operations, Tochigi (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}. Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  20. Differential gene expression profiles in the venom gland/sac of Eumenes pomiformis (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2010-06-01

    To search for novel transcripts encoding biologically active venom components, a subtractive cDNA library specific to the venom gland and sac (gland/sac) of a solitary hunting wasp species, Eumenes pomiformis Fabricius (1781), was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 541 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered and assembled into 102 contigs (31 multiple sequences and 71 singletons). In total, 37 cDNAs were found in the library via BLASTx searching and manual annotation. Eight contigs (337 ESTs) encoding short venom peptides (10 to 16 amino acids) occupied 62% of the library. The deduced amino acid sequence (78 amino acids) of a novel venom peptide transcript shared sequence similarity with trypsin inhibitors and dendrotoxin-like venom peptides known to be K(+) channel blockers, implying that this novel peptide may play a role in the paralysis of prey. In addition to phospholipase A2 and hyaluronidase, which are known to be the main components of wasp venoms, several transcripts encoding enzymes, including three metallopeptidases and a decarboxylase likely involved in the processing and activation of venomous proteins, peptides, amines, and neurotransmitters, were also isolated from the library. The presence of a transcript encoding a putative insulin/insulin-like peptide binding protein suggests that solitary hunting wasps use their venom to control their prey, leading to larval growth cessation. The abundance of these venom components in the venom gland/sac and in the alimentary canal was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Discovery of venom gland/sac-specific transcripts should promote further studies on biologically active components in the venom of solitary hunting wasps.

  1. Pericardial sac perforation: a rare complication of neonatal nasogastric tube feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Mahmoud Hanafy, Emad; Al Naqeeb, Niran [Al-Adan Hospital, Neonatal ICU, Department of Paediatrics, Hawally (Kuwait); Ashebu, Samuel D.; Bopaya Nanda, Harini [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, P.O. Box 43721, Hawally (Kuwait)

    2006-10-15

    The insertion of a nasogastric tube for feeding and gastric aspiration is a common practice in the care of newborns, especially if they are preterm and unwell. Esophageal perforation is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. Associated perforation of the pericardial sac is an unusual, severe, and previously unreported complication of nasogastric tube feeding in a neonate. We present an illustrative case. (orig.)

  2. Nickel interactions with glutathione and related enzyme in 11-day embryo and yolk sac in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, M.T.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))

    1991-12-01

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of nickel compounds has been observed in rats. Little is known about the biochemical mechanism(s) of Ni-teratogenesis. Furthermore, nickel induced a rapid, but transient rise in the serum glucose and changes in hormone balance in pregnant rats as well as metabolic changes in females. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of NiCl{sub 2} on glutathione and related enzymes in 11-day embryo and visceral yolk sac in rat.

  3. Appendiceal pus in a hernia sac simulating strangulated femoral hernia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tien-Fa; Chou,

    2011-01-01

    Tien-Fa Hsiao, Yenn-Hwei ChouDepartment of Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand’s hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly...

  4. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted of conventional and organic juices marketed in Poland, in that pure pressed juices, fermented juice and juices from concentrate, pure and combined with apple or lemon juice. The concentration of vitamin C, organic acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolic acids, flavonoids and betalains has been determined in the juices. All beetroot juices were abundant in betalains, with higher concentrations of these compounds found in pure beetroot juices when compared to juices combined with apple or lemon. Highest concentration of betanin-3-O-glucoside was found in pure conventional juice from concentrate, while highest betanidin content was found in pure organic fermented juice. Highest vitamin C contents were found in pressed organic juices combined with apple and lemon. All juices were abundant in polyphenols, mainly phenolic acids, with highest concentrations of these antioxidants found in conventional pure pressed juice. The study shows that beetroot juices, independently on the beetroot processing technology and agricultural production system, are very valuable products due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, especially betalains, in their composition. Therefore beetroot juice consumption should be promoted among consumers.

  5. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  6. Multidimensionality of chemical information in male greater sac-winged bats (Saccopteryx bilineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schneeberger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of social signals is thought to depend on the complexity of social systems, but evidence from wild animals is scarce. Here, we investigated the chemical information provided by individual male greater sac-winged bats (Saccopteryx bilineata, a small, long-lived neotropical bat species with a harem-polygynous mating system. We analysed the chemical fingerprints of wing-sac liquids that are displayed by males in front of females. Specifically, we tested if fingerprints of 45 males included information about age (adult, juvenile, year of sampling, and distance between colonies. We confirmed age-specific differences in male-specific substances, but show furthermore that chemical fingerprints correlate with year of collection and distance between colonies. Thus, the wing-sac chemistry of male S. bilineata conveys a multitude of information, which can potentially be used by conspecifics, especially by females to assess the status of potential mates. Our study provides evidence for a multidimensionality of chemical information in a free-ranging mammal with high social complexity.

  7. Clinical analysis of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation for lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yang Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect and safety of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation for lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion, in order to guide the clinical application.METHODS:Retrospective clinical study. Sixty-six patients(70 eyeswith lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion were selected as the research subjects. All patients were treated by endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation. The post-operation follow-up lasted for 3~24mo. Subjective feelings of patients were recorded through the collection of clinical data, out-patient follow-up and telephone follow-up. The operation effect and complications were observed, as well as the effect of treatment on complications. Meanwhile, the data was analyzed for evaluating the clinical efficacy of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation.RESULTS:Epiphora was disappeared or obviously improved in 68 eyes(97%, with lacrimal irrigating fluently and no obstacle. The post-operative complications included:51 eyes(73%with foreign body sensation in inner canthus, 22 eyes(31%with foreign body sensation in the nose occasionally, 4 eyes(6%with granulation tissue proliferation at the opening of common canaliculus, 16 eyes(23%with localized congestion of the bulbar conjunctiva, and 3 eyes(4%with lacrimal drainage tube out.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation can treat the lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion. This operation is characterized by high success rate, less complications, safe and efficient, and it is worth clinical promotion.

  8. Tissue growth pressure drives early blood flow in the chicken yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how molecular and physical cues orchestrate vascular morphogenesis is a challenge for developmental biology. Only little attention has been paid to the impact of mechanical stress caused by tissue growth on early blood distribution. Here we study the peripheral accumulation of blood in the chicken embryonic yolk sac, which precedes sinus vein formation. We report that blood accumulation starts before heart-induced blood circulation. We hypothesized that the driving force for the primitive blood flow is a growth-induced gradient of tissue pressure in the yolk sac mesoderm. Therefore, we studied embryos in which heart development was arrested after 2 days of incubation, and found that yolk sac growth and blood peripheral accumulation still occurred. This suggests that tissue growth is sufficient to initiate the flow and the formation of the sinus vein, whereas heart contractions are not required. We designed a simple mathematical model which makes explicit the growth-induced pressure gradient and the subsequent blood accumulation, and show that growth can indeed account for the observed blood accumulation. This study shows that tissue growth pressure can drive early blood flow, and suggests that the mechanical environment, beyond hemodynamics, can contribute to vascular morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:573-584, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Heterogeneity of vocal sac inflation patterns in Odorrana tormota plays a role in call diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Pan; Chen, Zhuqing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Feng, Albert S

    2016-03-01

    Male concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) can emit at least eight distinct call-types. However, the mechanisms by which they are produced are not fully understood. Anatomical analysis revealed that the vocal sacs of male O. tormota comprise two physically distinct compartments (pars lateralis and pars ventralis), residing on two sides of the vocal slits. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the two compartments play a role in the production of the diverse call-types. For this, audio and video recordings of male vocalizations were made, and sounds were analyzed afterwards. Results showed that the vocal sac inflation pattern was heterogeneous, and the call duration was a major factor determining the differential inflation patterns. Short call-types (duration frequency (F0) of >5000 Hz involved inflation of pars lateralis only, whereas those with an F0 of 200 ms), e.g., shallow frequency modulation calls, staccato calls, and long calls, involved inflation of both compartments of the vocal sacs. These results give support to the working hypothesis.

  10. Failure of aneurysm sac shrinkage after endovascular repair; the effect of mural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.love@royalhospitals.n-i.nhs.uk; Wray, A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Worthington, M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Ellis, P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-15

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of abdominal aortic aneurysm wall calcification on subsequent sac shrinkage after endovascular repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair. The degree of sac wall calcification on pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) examination was graded from 1 to 4 according to the degree of circumferential involvement. On follow-up CT imaging, the maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of the sac was recorded, as well as the presence or absence of endoleak. In those patients with a non-shrinking aneurysm, but no CT evidence of endoleak, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (USS) was performed. Any patient with an endoleak, however diagnosed, was excluded from the study. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient testing was applied to compare the degree of calcification and change in MTD. RESULTS: Sixty-three pre-procedural CT images were available for calcification grading. Six of this group had endoleaks resulting in 57 sets of data being available for the study. A reduction in MTD occurred in 68.25% of these patients by 1 year post-procedure. Our figures show aortic calcification is inversely associated with MTD reduction at 6 months (p=0.01), 1 year (p=0.05) and 2 years (p=0.05). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the degree of aortic wall calcification is significant in predicting MTD reduction post-endovascular repair. The possible mechanisms and implications of this are discussed.

  11. Clarification Effects of Chitosan on Apple Fruit Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-fei; LI He-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is a good flocculant. The paper deals with the clarification of apple juice by means of chitosan. The results showed that the transmittance was over 97% and soluble solid content was stable basically, under the technological condition of chitosan of 0.5 - 1.2 g L-1 , temperature of 45 - 55℃ and pH 4.5. After the orthogonal trial, the optimum technological conditions of apple juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.3 g L-1 chitosan, 45℃C and pH 4.5. The research of the apple juice clarification with chitosan made a basis of the application of chitosan and provided the theoretical basis for the clarification of apple juice with chitosan.

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  13. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  14. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of sugar. ... Key words: Ethanol, sweet sorghum, stalk juice, medium ..... production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a.

  15. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  16. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  17. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  18. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  19. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  20. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  1. The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac in the natural tetraploid of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: that has a very low rate of seed formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Algan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructural organization of cells in the mature embryo sac of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. was investigated. The mature embryo sac of this plant contains an egg cell with two synergids at the micropylar end, and a central cell with two polar nuclei. The ultrastructure of these cells agrees with what is known for most angiosperms studied with the electron microscope. The egg cell is a large and highly vacuolate cell, partially surrounded by a wall. Much of the cytoplasm is located around the nucleus at the chalazal end and there are few numbers of channel-shaped endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and numerous ribosomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Unlike the egg cell, much of the cytoplasm in synergid cells is located at micropylar part of the cell and the synergid cytoplasm contains especially, large numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, mitochondria and plastids. The central cell of T. pratense L. contains two large polar nuclei which lie close to the egg apparatus. Each polar nucleus has a single, large, dense nucleolus that contains several nucleolar vacuoles. Much of the central cell cytoplasm consisting of granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes, dictyosomes and lipid bodies are placed around polar nuclei.

  2. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  3. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  4. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  6. Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indicaljaponica Hybrids in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Zeng; Chao-Yue Hu; Yong-Gen Lu; Jin-Quan Li; Xiang-Dong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major masons for sterility in indicaljaponica hybrids In rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indicaljaponica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagamatogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucallus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  7. Prediction of pregnancy outcomes with combined ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and serum CA125 determinations in early threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y J; Chen, M; Chen, S J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the predictive value of the combination of ultrasound scanning, yolk sacs and CA125 levels for pregnancy outcomes in early threatened abortion. A total 196 pregnant women at less than 12 weeks gestation were enrolled. They were assigned into: (A) normal pregnancy (n = 61); (B) early threatened abortion but with favorable outcomes after active treatment (n = 56); (C) pregnancy with spontaneous miscarriage and threatened abortions (n = 79). The yolk sacs were examined and serum CA125 levels were measured. The visualization rate in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C. For the mean yolk sac diameter, there was a statistically significant difference between groups A and C (p 0.05). The mean serum CA125 levels were significantly different (p ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and measurement of serum CA125 levels is of great value for predicting pregnancy outcomes.

  8. An unusual mixed germ cell tumor of the testis consisting of rhabdomyosarcoma, mature teratoma and yolk sac tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Lovri(c); Dubravka Bobonj Hi(z)ak; Melita Peri(c) Balja; Tanja Leni(c)ek; Bo(z)o Kru(s)lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, We recently encountered a rare case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT) in a 32-year-old man. The tumor was composed of a combination of a yolk sac tumor, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous somatic type malignancy.

  9. GPS radio occultation with CHAMP and SAC-C: global monitoring of thermal tropopause parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the global lapse-rate tropopause (LRT pressure, temperature, potential temperature, and sharpness are discussed based on Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultations (RO from the German CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and the U.S.-Argentinian SAC-C (Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C satellite missions. Results with respect to seasonal variations are compared with operational radiosonde data and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. Results on the tropical quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO are updated from an earlier study. CHAMP RO data are available continuously since May 2001 with on average 150 high resolution temperature profiles per day. SAC-C data are available for several periods in 2001 and 2002. In this study temperature data from CHAMP for the period May 2001-December 2004 and SAC-C data from August 2001-October 2001 and March 2002-November 2002 were used, respectively. The bias between GPS RO temperature profiles and radiosonde data was found to be less than 1.5K between 300 and 10hPa with a standard deviation of 2-3K. Between 200-20hPa the bias is even less than 0.5K (2K standard deviation. The mean deviations based on 167699 comparisons between CHAMP/SAC-C and ECMWF LRT parameters are (-2.1±37.1hPa for pressure and (0.1±4.2K for temperature. Comparisons of LRT pressure and temperature between CHAMP and nearby radiosondes (13230 resulted in (5.8±19.8hPa and (-0.1±3.3K, respectively. The comparisons between CHAMP/SAC-C and ECMWF show on average the largest differences in the vicinity of the jet streams with up to 700m in LRT altitude and 3K in LRT temperature, respectively. The CHAMP mission generates the first long-term RO data set. Other satellite missions will follow (GRACE, COSMIC, MetOp, TerraSAR-X, EQUARS generating together some thousand temperature profiles daily.

  10. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  11. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  12. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  14. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value.

  16. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  17. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  18. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  19. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  20. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  1. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BOL and EOL Characterization of Azur 3G Lilt Solar Cells for ESA Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorenko Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we describe the results of electrical characterization of AZUR SPACE triple-junction solar cells at a sun light intensity of 3.7% AM0 and temperatures down to −150°C. At these conditions, which are relevant for the anticipated ESA JUICE mission, the cell efficiency reaches 33.5 % at BOL. Special attention has been paid to the establishing of an in-situ characterization procedure for defining EOL cell characteristics after electron and proton irradiation at low temperature low intensity condition. It was shown that solar cells irradiated at low temperature exhibit a strong recovery effect within short time after stopping the irradiation whereas the absolute value of the recovery depends on the irradiation fluence and particle type. Further on, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the maximum power, Pmp, is much stronger than the degradation of Isc and Voc values. Experimentally defined remaining factors for electron and proton irradiation and the quantification of the observed recovery effects allow a realistic prediction of the solar cell performance at JUICE mission conditions and are essential for the planned solar cell qualification activities.

  3. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  4. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Jazmin D; Beuchat, Larry R; Tauxe, Robert V

    2008-02-01

    Outbreaks of illness associated with consumption of fruit juice have been a growing public health problem since the early 1990s. In response to epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks in which juice was implicated, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented process control measures to regulate the production of fruit juice. The final juice regulation, which became effective in 2002, 2003, and 2004, depending on the size of the business, requires that juice operations comply with a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) receives reports of food-associated outbreaks of illness. We reviewed fruit juice-associated outbreaks of illness reported to the CDC's Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System. From 1995 through 2005, 21 juice-associated outbreaks were reported to CDC; 10 implicated apple juice or cider, 8 were linked to orange juice, and 3 involved other types of fruit juice. These outbreaks caused 1,366 illnesses, with a median of 21 cases per outbreak (range, 2 to 398 cases). Among the 13 outbreaks of known etiology, 5 were caused by Salmonella, 5 by Escherichia coli O157:H7, 2 by Cryptosporidium, and one by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O111 and Cryptosporidium. Fewer juice-associated outbreaks have been reported since the juice HACCP regulation was implemented. Some juice operations that are exempt from processing requirements or do not comply with the regulation continue to be implicated in outbreaks of illness.

  5. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  6. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  7. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-15

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(•)) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.

  8. SacLab: A toolbox for saccade analysis to increase usability of eye tracking systems in clinical ophthalmology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercenelli, Laura; Tiberi, Guido; Corazza, Ivan; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Marcelli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice. SacLab consists of four processing modules that enable the user to easily create visual stimuli tests (Test Designer), record saccadic eye movements (Data Recorder), analyze the recorded data to automatically extract saccadic parameters of clinical interest (Data Analyzer) and provide an aggregate analysis from multiple eye movements recordings (Saccade Analyzer), without requiring any programming effort by the user. A demo application of SacLab to carry out eye tracking tests for the analysis of horizontal saccades was reported. We tested the usability of SacLab toolbox with three ophthalmologists who had no programming experience; the ophthalmologists were briefly trained in the use of SacLab GUIs and were asked to perform the demo application. The toolbox gained an enthusiastic feedback from all the clinicians in terms of intuitiveness, ease of use and flexibility. Test creation and data processing were accomplished in 52±21s and 46±19s, respectively, using the SacLab GUIs. SacLab may represent a useful tool to ease the application of the ViewPoint EyeTracker system in clinical routine in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing; Ding, Chan

    2015-12-09

    It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl reservoirs and sensitive

  10. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  11. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  12. Use of inverted intestinal sacs to assess the effect of gastrointestinal insult on carcinogen absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, I D; Cosier, R S; Pinnock, M H; Williams, D C

    1981-01-01

    Rats were subjected to various forms of treatment in the manner likely to induce gastrointestinal insult. These and control animals were sacrificed and, using inverted sacs, the rate of absorption of either dimethylnitrosamine and benzo(a)pyrene determined. The gastrointestinal injury resulting from the differing treatments did not significantly affect the absorption of benzo(a)pyrene, whereas that of dimethylnitrosamine was significantly increased after each incubation time, most notably by alcohol pretreatment. The results demonstrate that intestinal damage increases the absorption of some carcinogens.

  13. [The problems of yolk sac tumor morphogenesis in a light of the tumor stem cell theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karseladze, A I

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of possible morphogenesis of the different structures in human yolk sac tumor has been considered. The author has supposed that features of blood vessel microarchitecture formation and perpetual differentiation of tumor cells or theirs functional modification play a crucial role in the morphogenesis of YST. The immunohistochemical investigation of some stem cells markers has showed the necessity of accounting of their distribution pattern in various cellular structures for the differential diagnosis of morphogenetical steps of YST. The growth of tumor cells differentiation rate correlates with increasing of stem cells markers expression as well c-kit > OCT4 > CD30 > PLAP.

  14. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  15. De Garengeot's hernia: a case of acute appendicitis in a femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrıkulu, Ceren Sen; Tanrıkulu, Yusuf; Akkapulu, Nezih

    2013-07-01

    The presence of an appendix vermiformis in a femoral hernia sac is called De Garengeot's hernia. It is a very rare clinical condition and requires emergency surgery. However, preoperative diagnosis of De Garengeot's hernia is difficult. Herein, we report a 58-year-old female who presented with sudden-onset painful swelling in the right groin region. Diagnosis was established based on computed tomography findings, and appendectomy with mesh-free hernia repair was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed gangrenous appendicitis.

  16. Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale

    2004-06-01

    Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice.

  17. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Naderi, Gholamali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Nayeri, Hashem

    2011-07-01

    We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. 5 μl of lime juice didn't change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  18. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pjuice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  19. [RP-HPLC fingerprint evaluating different ginger juice as processing material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao; Gao, Hui-Min

    2008-05-01

    To establish a method for comparing the differences between fresh and dried ginger juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprint method was performed on an Alltech C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with mobile phase in gradient elution composed of A-acetonitrie and B-water at a flow rate: 0.8 mL x min(-1). The detecting wavelength was 280 nm, and the column temperature 25 degrees C. There was no significant difference among the same breed ginger juice of different batches. But there was significant difference between crushed ginger juice and the boiled juice. Trytophan, 6-gingerol were common constituents of the three kinds of ginger juice, the fresh ginger and the dry ginger. Besides, 6-shogaol emerged in the boiled juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprints spectrum can be used to distinguish different ginger juices. And the crushed juice of fresh ginger have the same chemical consititents with the fresh ginger.

  20. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  1. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  2. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn′t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  3. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  4. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  5. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  6. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions.

  7. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Juice. 51.1177 Section 51.1177... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1177 U.S. Grade A Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade A Juice...

  9. Distribution of sac pressure in an experimental aneurysm model after endovascular repair: the effect of endoleak types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, Eleftherios S; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Pacanowski, John P; Cassada, David C; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2003-06-01

    To study in an experimental aneurysm model the differential distribution of strain/pressure (S/P) on the aneurysm wall before and after endograft exclusion and in the presence of individual type I and type II endoleaks. Two tapered elliptical Gore-Tex patches were sutured to an anterior and posterior longitudinal arteriotomy of an 8-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, thus creating a fusiform aneurysm. Two S/P transducers were placed at the proximal sac adjacent to the proximal neck, 2 at the site of the widest sac diameter, and 2 at the sac adjacent to the distal neck. The aneurysm, which was connected to a pulsatile pump system, was excluded using a 10-mm endograft. Type I and type II endoleaks were created and tested individually. S/P measurements were obtained at systemic systolic pressures (BP) of 80, 110, and 150 mmHg. Thrombosis of the sac contents was induced by injection of thrombin and calcium in the sac. Angiography was used to verify presence or absence of flow in the sac. Aneurysm exclusion resulted in significant S/P reductions at all 3 BP levels versus prior to exclusion (p0.05 for all 3 BP levels). In the presence of a proximal type I endoleak, S/P distribution was not uniform, and S/P at the proximal neck was close to S/P prior to exclusion (p>0.05 no graft versus type I endoleak for all 3 BP levels). This was also true in the presence of thrombus. With a type II endoleak, S/P was more evenly distributed and was not significantly elevated compared to the pressure without an endoleak (p>0.05, graft versus type II endoleak for all 3 BP levels). Thrombus had no effect on intrasac S/P with a type II endoleak. Intrasac S/P was significantly higher in the presence of a type I endoleak compared to a type II endoleak when BP=150 mmHg (p=0.008). Endovascular exclusion of an aneurysm results in uniform S/P reduction in the aneurysm sac. Type I endoleak, but not type II endoleak, results in significantly higher S/P in an area of the sac adjacent to the proximal neck

  10. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  11. Mth10b, a unique member of the Sac10b family, does not bind nucleic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The Sac10b protein family is regarded as a group of nucleic acid-binding proteins that are highly conserved and widely distributed within archaea. All reported members of this family are basic proteins that exist as homodimers in solution and bind to DNA and/or RNA without apparent sequence specificity in vitro. Here, we reported a unique member of the family, Mth10b from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ΔH, whose amino acid sequence shares high homology with other Sac10b family proteins. However, unlike those proteins, Mth10b is an acidic protein; its potential isoelectric point is only 4.56, which is inconsistent with the characteristics of a nucleic acid-binding protein. In this study, Mth10b was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a three-column chromatography purification procedure. Biochemical characterization indicated that Mth10b should be similar to typical Sac10b family proteins with respect to its secondary and tertiary structure and in its preferred oligomeric forms. However, an electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA showed that neither DNA nor RNA bound to Mth10b in vitro, indicating that either Mth10b likely has a physiological function that is distinct from those of other Sac10b family members or nucleic acid-binding ability may not be a fundamental factor to the actual function of the Sac10b family.

  12. Interplay between SOX7 and RUNX1 regulates hemogenic endothelial fate in the yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Andrew J; Costa, Guilherme; Largeot, Anne; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z H; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT) is a dynamic process involving the shutting down of endothelial gene expression and switching on of hematopoietic gene transcription. Although the factors regulating EHT in hemogenic endothelium (HE) of the dorsal aorta have been relatively well studied, the molecular regulation of yolk sac HE remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SOX7 inhibits the expression of RUNX1 target genes in HE, while having no effect on RUNX1 expression itself. We establish that SOX7 directly interacts with RUNX1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Through this interaction we demonstrate that SOX7 hinders RUNX1 DNA binding as well as the interaction between RUNX1 and its co-factor CBFβ. Finally, we show by single-cell expression profiling and immunofluorescence that SOX7 is broadly expressed across the RUNX1(+) yolk sac HE population compared with SOX17. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time how direct protein-protein interactions between endothelial and hematopoietic transcription factors regulate contrasting transcriptional programs during HE differentiation and EHT. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas.

  14. Radiographic anatomy of the distal dural SAC; A myelographic investigation of dimensions and termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.L.; Olsen, K.O. (Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    A radio-anatomical study was performed of the distal dural sac (DS) in 121 patients subjected to myelography. In 83.4% the termination of the DS was located from the upper half of the S1-segment to the lower half of the S2-segment. In the remaining patients the dural terminations were more distally located. The average location of the DS-termination was higher than that found in a previous anatomic study. The inference is that in patients with low-back pain and sciatica, the DS tends to terminate at a higher spinal level than in a non-selected anatomic material. The caudal reduction in sagittal diameter of the DS was less than that of the frontal diameter of the sac. The linear diminution in cross-sectional area of the DS from the level of L3 towards the lumbosacral junction was not correlated with the degree of caudal extension of the DS into the sacrum. Thus the length of the DS and its transverse diameters are independent of each other. These results supported the view that the location of the termination of the DS (and hence that of the spinal cord) is not related to stenosis of the central spinal canal. (orig.).

  15. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ziaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand’s hernia. Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  16. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giuliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  17. Smc1β is required for activation of SAC during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Cui, Zhaokang; Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Xiong, Bo

    2017-03-19

    Smc1β is a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit that is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination. Previous studies have shown that Smc1β-deficient mice in both sexes are sterile. Ablation of Smc1β during male meiosis leads to the blockage of spermatogenesis in pachytene stage, and ablation of Smc1β during female meiosis generates a highly error-prone oocyte although it could develop to metaphase II stage. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how Smc1β maintains the correct meiotic progression in mouse oocytes have not been clearly defined. Here, we find that GFP-fused Smc1β is expressed and localized to the chromosomes from GV to MII stages during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Knockdown of Smc1β by microinjection of gene-specific morpholino causes the impaired spindle apparatus and chromosome alignment which are highly correlated with the defective kinetochore-microtubule attachments, consequently resulting in a prominently higher incidence of aneuploid eggs. In addition, the premature extrusion of polar bodies and escape of metaphase I arrest induced by low dose of nocodazole treatment in Smc1β-depleted oocytes indicates that Smc1β is essential for activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity. Collectively, we identify a novel function of Smc1β as a SAC participant beyond its role in chromosome cohesion during mouse oocyte meiosis.

  18. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  19. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  20. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of § 102.5...

  1. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently omitted from Tables I and II. The corrections... of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.go v or http://www.ams.usda...

  2. 77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The proposal includes changes to the grade standards for grapefruit juice to remove the parameters for maximum ``free and suspended pulp'' to account...

  3. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices ha

  4. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.

  5. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  6. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  7. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  8. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  9. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  10. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  11. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  12. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN-γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections. PMID:28812026

  13. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices

  14. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  15. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  16. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mian-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P P P P Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  18. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  19. The production of guava juice fortified with dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Chanthachum

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of guava juice fortified with soluble dietary fiber as pectin extracted from guava cake (peel, pulp, seeds was conducted. The waste guava cake from juice processing plant was used for pectin extraction using sodium hexametaphosphate method followed by pectin precipitation using acidified ethanol method. A yield of 30.50±0.34% crude pectin was achieved. Crude pectin also contained 4.71±0.18% moisture, 0.34±0.21% protein, 0.68±0.00% ash, 20.70±0.16 g (%dwb soluble dietary fibers. pH of crude pectin was 3.06±0.02. The L* a*and b* values were 81.17±0.21, 4.76±0.04 and 15.43±0.07, respectively. Water holding capacity and bulk density were 0.90±0.01 g.water/g.solid and 0.96±0.05 g/ml, respectively. This study found that the optimum conditions for guava juice extraction using pectinase at 45oC were 0.10 % v/v pectinase concentration and 21 2 h incubation time. Under these optimum conditions, production of guava juice with different ratios of total soluble solids (oBrix to acid as citric acid content (% including, 24.0, 28.0, 32.0, 35.0 and 40.0 oBrix-acid ratio, and product sensory evaluation were also conducted. By the consideration from the greatest perceived scores of all sensory evaluation attributes including color, turbidity, odor, flavor and overall acceptability, the oBrix-acid ratio of 40.0 was selected for guava juice processing. The clarified guava juice was then fortified with pectin powder extracted from previous experiments using various pectin concentrations: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% (w/w. It was found that the perceived scores of the overall acceptability attribute decreased (p<0.05 with increasing of pectin concentration. The greatest perceived score of the mouthfeel attribute was observed from the use of 0.25% pectin. Therefore, the optimum concentration of 0.25% soluble dietary fiber as pectin for guava juice fortification is selected for further guava juice processing.

  20. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  1. Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, Giuseppe; Caristi, Corrado; Gargiulli, Claudia; Bellocco, Ersilia; Toscano, Giovanni; Leuzzi, Ugo

    2006-05-31

    A comprehensive profile of flavonoids in bergamot juice was obtained by a single DAD-ESI-LC-MS-MS course. Eight flavonoids were found for the first time, five of these are C-glucosides (lucenin-2, stellarin-2, isovitexin, scoparin, and orientin 4'-methyl ether), and three are O-glycosides (rhoifolin 4'-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside-4'-O-glucoside, and chrysoeriol 7-O-neohesperidoside). A method is proposed to differentiate chrysoeriol and diosmetin derivatives, which are often indistinguishable by LC-MS-MS. In-depth knowledge of the flavonoid content is the starting point for bergamot juice exploitation in food industry applications.

  2. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  3. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties.

  4. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  5. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-04-18

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day.

  6. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  7. Impact of cold plasma on Citrobacter freundii in apple juice: inactivation kinetics and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowsky, Björn; Fröhling, Antje; Gottschalk, Nathalie; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-03-17

    Various studies have shown that cold plasma is capable of inactivating microorganisms located on a variety of food surfaces, food packaging materials and process equipment under atmospheric pressure conditions; however, less attention has been paid to the impact of cold plasma on microorganisms in liquid foodstuffs. The present study investigates cold plasma's ability to inactivate Citrobacter freundii in apple juice. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and temperature measurements were performed to characterise the plasma source. The plasma-related impact on microbial loads was evaluated by traditional plate count methods, while morphological changes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiological property changes were obtained through flow cytometric measurements (membrane integrity, esterase activity and membrane potential). In addition, mathematical modelling was performed in order to achieve a reliable prediction of microbial inactivation and to establish the basis for possible industrial implementation. C. freundii loads in apple juice were reduced by about 5 log cycles after a plasma exposure of 480s using argon and 0.1% oxygen plus a subsequent storage time of 24h. The results indicate that a direct contact between bacterial cells and plasma is not necessary for achieving successful inactivation. The plasma-generated compounds in the liquid, such as H2O2 and most likely hydroperoxy radicals, are particularly responsible for microbial inactivation.

  8. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile.

  9. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-06-03

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion.

  10. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  11. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  12. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  13. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%.

  14. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of... the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the... Villanueva, Program Manager, New Shipper Review: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's...

  15. Relación entre atención selectiva y movimientos oculares sacádicos

    OpenAIRE

    Arguello-Vargas, Diana Karina

    2015-01-01

    La atención selectiva y los movimientos oculares sacádicos son fundamentales para el desarrollo del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y para el rendimiento académico. Por esta razón, la presente investigación tiene por objetivo estudiar la relación entre atención selectiva y movimientos oculares sacádicos y proponer un programa de intervención, en una muestra de sesenta y tres niñas escolarizadas de cuarto y quinto de primaria, pertenecientes a un colegio privado de la ciudad de Bucaramanga y ...

  16. Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K A; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Cindrova-Davies, T

    2013-11-01

    Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal-fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function.

  17. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Zarrabi; Ved Desai; Brandom Yim; Gabig, Theodore G.

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac an...

  18. Complete chorioamniotic separation and persistence of a yolk sac associated with triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Onur; Erol, Melek; Karaca, Mehmet

    2013-10-01

    Contexte : La triploïdie est une pathologie grandement mortelle; ainsi, il est très rare d’en constater la présence dans le cadre d’une naissance vivante. Elle peut en venir à constituer un risque médical considérable pour la femme enceinte. Cas : Une femme multigravide de 32 ans a sollicité nos services pour l’obtention de soins prénataux. L’examen échographique mené à 14+3 semaines de gestation a révélé la présence d’un fœtus viable qui présentaient une biométrie fœtale appropriée, tout en indiquant également des signes de séparation chorioamniotique (CAS) et la persistance du sac vitellin. Deux semaines plus tard, la tenue d’un deuxième examen échographique a révélé la présence d’un large placenta multikystique et d’un retard de croissance fœtal symétrique précoce, en plus d’indiquer la persistance de la CAS et du sac vitellin, ce qui nous a menés à soupçonner la présence d’une aneuploïdie fœtale. L’amniocentèse a indiqué la présence d’un caryotype fœtal 69,XXX. L’histologie du tissu placentaire a indiqué qu’il s’agissait d’une môle hydatiforme partielle. Conclusion : La persistance de la séparation chorioamniotique et du sac vitellin aux débuts du deuxième trimestre ne peut être considérée comme étant une constatation rassurante. Dans de tels cas, la tenue d’un caryotypage fœtal devrait être envisagée, particulièrement lorsque la présence d’une autre anomalie est constatée.

  19. The natural process of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and effect of lacrimal sac massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karti, Omer; Karahan, Eyyup; Acan, Durgul; Kusbeci, Tuncay

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in infants treated with conservative management within the first year of age. Other purpose of the study is to emphasize the relationship between spontaneous resolution time and effective lacrimal sac massage. Thirty-one infants were diagnosed to have CNLDO by an ophthalmologist prior to 3 months of age. In this study, 36 eyes of 31 patients were included with CNLDO. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (28 eyes of 24 patients) was consisted of the patients who were applied effective lacrimal sac massage regularly during the follow-up period, and patients whose parents did not apply a regular lacrimal passage regularly were accepted as group 2 (8 eyes of 7 patients). Thirty-three eyes of 31 patients (18 rights and 15 left) successfully resolved with only conservative management (91.6 %). In these thirty-three eyes, one eye (3 %) resolved between 0 and 3 months, fourteen eyes (42.5 %) resolved between 4 and 6 months, eleven eyes (33.3 %) resolved between 7 and 9 months, and seven eyes (21.2 %) resolved between 10 and 12 months. CNLDO was resolved in 27 (96.2 %) of 28 eyes in group 1, and in group 2, six eyes (77.7 %) had resolvement. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The mean age of resolution was 6.8 ± 1.88 months in group 1, 10.3 ± 1.5 months in group 2 (p < 0.001). In light of our study, we believe that conservative management of CNLDO is highly successful. Our study provided a possible objective explanation for the efficacy of lacrimal sac massage. Emphasizing the importance of the massage to parents and describing in detail can reduce the risk of unnecessary surgical interventions.

  20. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

  1. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Widianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and FS902 cultivars, were achieved by OUT7903, OUT7913, OUT7903, and OUT7027 yeast strains, respectively. However, the best specific CO2 evolution rate of the yeast strain during fermentation of the juices was achieved by OUT7027 yeast strains. The highest ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and sugar conversion efficiency (SCE were obtained by strain OUT7921 when it was employed to ferment sweet-stem sorghum juice of FS902 cultivar. It was also observed that the juice extracted from sweet-stalk sorghum of FS902 cultivar is the most suitable medium for all yeast strains to achieve their best fermentation abilities. Thus, it is likely that the growth and ethanol production ability of a yeast strain in sweet-stalk sorghum juice depend on the physiological responses of the yeasts to nutrientcomposition of the sorghum juice and the sorghum cultivar from which the juice was extracted.Key words : Sweet-stalk sorghum juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast

  2. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  3. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  5. Cranberry Juice and Combinations of Its Organic Acids Are Effective against Experimental Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Heidi D; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren B; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P juice. Commercially available cranberry juice cocktail also significantly reduced (P juice (P juice, were tested in combination and individually. The four organic acids also decreased bacterial levels in the bladder when administered together (P juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E. coli colonization of the bladder in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection and that the organic acids are active agents.

  6. Leguminose green juice as an efficient nutrient for l(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.

  7. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  9. Improvement of Organoleptic Properties of Red Grapefruit Juice (Citrus Paradise Processed By Non-Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating and ultrasound on quality parameters of red grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi. The juice was processed by ohmic heating (120 V, 70 and 80 °C, 30 and 180 s and ultrasound (amplitude of 40 and 50 µm, and 2 and 10 minutes. The treatments did not significantly affect the cloud value, pH, non-enzymatic browning and colorimetric parameters. The taste was the determining parameter in the choice of juice by consumers. Juices processed with ohmic heating showed sensory characteristics more like the natural juice. The best juice was obtenied by processing with OH at 70 °C for 30 s. According to the present study it could be suggested that red grapefruit juice processed by ohmic heating could improve sensory characteristics without changes in quality parameter.

  10. Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to anthocyanins.

  11. Microbial inactivation and physicochemical properties of ultrasound processed pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Çiğdem Uysal; Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Özcan, Gülçin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound treatment at various amplitudes (50, 75, and 100%) and times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min) on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2366 levels and physicochemical characteristics (monomeric anthocyanins, color values, total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids) were determined in pomegranate juice. More than a 5-log inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 and a 1.36-log inactivation of S. cerevisiae ATCC 2366 were achieved after 30 min of ultrasound treatment at 100% amplitude. The log-linear and Weibull models were successfully used to estimate the microbial inactivation as a function of ultrasound treatment time (R(2) > 0.97). No significant changes were observed in total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids of the treated juice (P > 0.05). The ultrasound treatment for up to 30 min resulted in more than 92 and 89% anthocyanin retention at 75 and 100% amplitude, respectively. The redness (a*) of the juice did not change significantly after the ultrasound treatment at amplitudes of 75 and 100% for up to 24 and 12 min, respectively. No significant changes in L* and b* values were observed after ultrasound treatment at all amplitudes and after up to 30 min of treatment for 50 and 75% amplitudes. Small differences in juice color were noted based on total color difference scores.

  12. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  13. Research of intensive ways of diffusion juice production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying of preparation methods influence for beet shavings and waters to the extraction process with application of different reagents (aluminum sulfate, bentonite and gypsum to produce the electrochemically activated solutions on quality indicators of sugar beet produced juice.

  14. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  15. Separation of monoglycosides from fruit juice by diafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    The process of separating sugars from anthocyanins in black currant juice has been investigated. Diafiltration on a laboratory scale flat sheet module (Labstk M20, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark) loaded with an ultrafiltration membrane (ETNA01-PP, MWCO = 1,000 Da, Alfa Laval Nakskov A/S, Denmark...

  16. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  17. Purification of Flavonoids from Black Currant Juice by Nanodiafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Norddahl, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    from the flavonoids in order to facilitate better analysis.         In the current study, the major solutes in black currant juice are fructose (32 ± 3 g/l), glucose (22 ± 3 g/l), sucrose (1.6 ± 0.2 g/l) and organic acids (28.9 ± 0.1 g/l). The flavonoids in black currant juice are mainly (97......%) comprised by the glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin [2]. The content of these flavonoids in black currant juice is measured to (1.5 ± 0.1 g/l). The separation process consists of nanodiafiltration on flat sheet membranes with a nominal molecular weight cut off of 1,000 Da. The separation...... process was monitored by comparing concentrations of the four flavonoids and the sugars and acids in permeate and retentate. The flavonoids in the juice have a molecular weight between 449 and 611 Da and should be able to pass the pores of the membrane. However this study shows that the flavonoids...

  18. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 1:1000 Adrenaline solution, +/- hyaluronidase. This survey aimed to ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in operating ... selection of the referral facilities, stage two was sampling of ... 33. 100.0. Jungle Juice and its uses ... was no difference in the distribution of knowledge levels between ...

  19. A magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst for fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-12-15

    The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...