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Sample records for juice natural hygroscopic

  1. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammar Achraf

    Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of natural pomegranate juice (POMj) rich in ... POMj rich in polyphe- nols seems to have a power anti-inflammatory effect and to be an effective treatment for patients who ... cellular transcription factors such as the nuclear factor NF-kB. (NF-kB), tumor ...

  2. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  3. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-01-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices

  4. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice

    1999-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ( 60 Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice; Radiacao gama na conservacao do suco natural de laranja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mail: aalcarde@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ({sup 60} Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  6. NMR detected metabolites in complex natural fluids. Quinic acid in apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailiesei Gabriela Liliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different types of 1D and 2D NMR experiments were used to completely characterize quinic acid and demonstrate its presence in complex mixtures. The identification of quinic acid in apple juice was done without any separation step. The NMR experiments presented in this study can be used to analyze other metabolites in different complex natural fluids, of vegetal or biological origin.

  7. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  8. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  9. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60 0 C for 20 minutes; heat at 80 0 C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60 0 ); radiation plus heat 80 0 C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5±3 0 C) up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  10. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  11. Screening of Natural Antimicrobials for Inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 in a Solidified Apple Juice Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Naturally occurring antimicrobials such as plant extracts and essential oils have been used in the food industry for years. Due to increased consumer demand for minimally processed juices there has been increased interest in the use of novel antimicrobial compounds isolated from natur...

  12. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  13. Low hygroscopicity of ambient fresh carbonaceous aerosols from pyrotechnics smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Christian M.; Gomez, Samantha L.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Aiken, Allison C.

    2018-04-01

    Pyrotechnics (fireworks) displays are common for many cultures worldwide, with Independence Day celebrations occurring annually on July 4th as the most notable in the U.S. Given an episodic nature, fireworks aerosol properties are poorly characterized. Here we report observations of optical properties of fresh smoke emissions from Independence Day fireworks smoke sampled at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico U.S.A. on 4-5 July 2016. Aerosol optical properties were measured with a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, Inc., Model 870 nm) at low RH laboratory testing with ground-level sparklers showed that pyrotechnics smoke can generate a strong hygroscopic response, however. As confirmed with chemical analysis, the chemistry of the fireworks was key to defining the hygroscopic response. Sparkler smoke was dominated by salt species such as hygroscopic potassium chloride while it lacked the black powder explosives in aerial fireworks that contribute organic and elemental carbon to its non-hygroscopic smoke.

  14. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  15. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  16. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  17. Hygroscopic Metamorphic 4D Pleats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu

    There have been significant interests in morphing 2D sheets into 3D structures via programmed out-of-plane distortion, including bending, tilting, rotating, and folding as seen in recent origami and kirigami strategies. Hydrogel is one of the unique soft materials that can swell and shrink, thereby enabling real-time 4D motions in response to external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, and moisture. To achieve reliable folding behaviors, it often requires a large amount of water molecules or ions diffusing in and out of the hydrogel sheet, thus the entire sheet is immersed in an aqueous solution. Here, we demonstrate the design and folding of hierarchical pleats patterned from a combination of hydrophobic and hygroscopic materials, allowing us to spatially and locally control the water condensation induced by environmental humidity. In turn, we show out-of-plane deformation of the 2D sheets only in the patterned hygroscopic regions, much like the folding behaviors of many plants. By designing the dimension, geometry, and density of hygroscopic microstructures (as pixels) in the hydrophobic materials, we can display the enhanced water condensation together with the spatial guidance of obtained droplets as unified water-harvesting systems. When the water droplets become large enough, they roll off from the hierarchical sheet along the inclined plane that is programmed by the hygroscopic motion of hydrogel, and eventually wrapped by the folded sheet to keep them from evaporation. We acknowledge support from NSF/EFRI-ODISSEI, EFRI 13-31583.

  18. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Naga, M.N.Z.I.

    2009-01-01

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  19. The hygroscopicity of indoor aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.

    1993-07-01

    A system to study the hygroscopic growth of particle was developed by combining a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) with a wetted wall reactor. This system is capable of mimicking the conditions in human respiratory tract, and measuring the particle size change due to the hygroscopic growth. The performance of the system was tested with three kinds of particles of known composition, NaCl, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and (NH 4 )HS0 4 particles. The hygroscopicity of a variety of common indoor aerosol particles was studied including combustion aerosols (cigarette smoking, cooking, incenses and candles) and consumer spray products such as glass cleaner, general purpose cleaner, hair spray, furniture polish spray, disinfectant, and insect killer. Experiments indicate that most of the indoor aerosols show some hygroscopic growth and only a few materials do not. The magnitude of hygroscopic growth ranges from 20% to 300% depending on the particle size and fraction of water soluble components

  20. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  1. Hygroscopic behavior of water-soluble matter in marine aerosols over the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Fu, Pingqing; Jing, Bo; Peng, Chao; Boreddy, S K R; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lianfang; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Ge, Maofa

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated hygroscopic properties of water-soluble matter (WSM) in marine aerosols over the East China Sea, which were collected during a Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) sharing cruise in 2014. Hygroscopic growth factors (g) of WSM were measured by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) with an initial dry particle mobility diameter of 100nm. The observed g at 90% relative humidity (RH), g(90%) WSM , defined as the ratio of the particle diameter at 90% RH to that at RHsea water was likely due to the transport of anthropogenic aerosols, chemical aging of dust particles, the contribution of biomass burning products, and the aerosol hygroscopic growth inhibition of organics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  4. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Antov Mirjana G.; Klašnja Mile T.; Šćiban Marina B.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH ...

  5. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara.

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60 0 C/20 min and 80 0 C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 3 0 C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Hygroscopic properties of potassium-halide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giamarelou, M; Smith, M.; Papapanagiotou, E.; Martin, S. T.; Biskos, G.

    2018-01-01

    The hygroscopic properties of KBr, KCl, and KI nanoparticles having diameters from 8 to 60 nm were measured using a tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. In all cases, the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values increased with decreasing particle diameter. The associated growth

  7. Hygroscopic behavior of paper and books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derluyn, H.; Janssen, H.; Diepens, J.F.L.; Derome, D.; Carmeliet, J.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents experimental analysis and numerical modeling of hygroscopic moisture buffering by paper and books. First, a literature review of moisture transport properties of paper is presented. Experimental work on two paper types includes SEM analysis of the paper structure, determination

  8. Pectin methyl esterase and natural microflora of fresh mixed orange and carrot juice treated with pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, D; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martínez, A; Rodrigo, M

    2003-12-01

    The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) on pectin methyl esterase (PME), molds and yeast, and total flora in fresh (nonpasteurized) mixed orange and carrot juice were studied. The PEF effect was more extensive when juices with high levels of initial PME activity were subjected to treatment and when PEF treatment (at 25 kV/cm for 340 micros) was combined with a moderate temperature (63 degrees C), with the maximum level of PME inactivation being 81.4%. These conditions produced 3.7 decimal reductions in molds and yeast and 2.4 decimal reductions in total flora. Experimental inactivation data for PME, molds and yeast, and total flora were fitted to Bigelow, Hülsheger, and Weibull inactivation models by nonlinear regression. The best fit (lowest mean square error) was obtained with the Weibull model.

  9. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  10. Hygroscopicity of mineral dust particles: Roles of chemical mixing state and hygroscopic conversion timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Moore, M. J.; Petters, M. D.; Laskin, A.; Roberts, G. C.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2009-05-01

    Our laboratory investigations of mineral dust particle hygroscopicity are motivated by field observations of the atmospheric processing of dust. During ACE-Asia we observed sulphate and nitrate to be strongly segregated from each other in individual aged Asian dust particles. CCN activation curves of pure calcium minerals as proxies for fresh (calcium carbonate) and aged (calcium sulphate, nitrate, chloride) dust indicate that this mixing state would cause a large fraction of aged dust particles to remain poor warm cloud nucleation potential, contrary to previous assumptions. The enrichment of oxalic acid in calcium-rich dust particles could have similar effects due to the formation of insoluble calcium oxalate. Soluble calcium nitrate and chloride reaction products are hygroscopic and will transform mineral dust into excellent CCN. Generating insoluble mineral particles wet by atomization produced particles with much higher hygroscopicity then when resuspended dry. The atomized particles are likely composed of dissolved residuals and do not properly reflect the chemistry of dry mineral powders. Aerosol flow tube experiments were employed to study the conversion of calcium carbonate into calcium nitrate via heterogeneous reaction with nitric acid, with simultaneous measurements of the reacted particles' chemistry and hygroscopicity. The timescale for this hygroscopic conversion was found to occur on the order of a few hours under tropospheric conditions. This implies that the conversion of non-hygroscopic calcite- containing dust into hygroscopic particles will be controlled by the availability of nitric acid, and not by the atmospheric residence time. Results from recent investigations of the effect of secondary coatings on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles will also be presented. The cloud formation potential of aged dust particles depends on both the quantity and form of the secondary species that have reacted or mixed with the dust. These results

  11. Hygroscopic behaviour of paper and books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derluyn, Hannelore; Janssen, Hans; Diepens, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This study presents experimental analysis and numerical modeling of hygroscopic moisture buffering by paper and books. First, a literature review of moisture transport properties of paper is presented. Experimental work on two paper types includes SEM analysis of the paper structure, determination...... and not on the relative humidity. Books consist of several paper sheets with air layers between the sheets. To take the air layers into account, a parallel transport model is proposed to determine the effective moisture transport properties of books taking into account the air layers. The dynamic hygroscopic behavior...... of small book samples was measured. It is shown that, although the water vapor permeability of different paper types can be quite different, the effusivity of a book highly depends on the presence of the air layers and can therefore remain comparable for different paper types....

  12. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  13. Study of the effect of Titanium dioxide nano particle size on efficiency of the dye-sensitized Solar cell using natural Pomegranate juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using natural Pomegranate juice as dye-sensitizeris fabricated and characterized. DSSCS consist of a working electrode, a redox electrolyte containing iodide and tri-iodide ions and a counter electrode. A nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor with a wide band-gap coated with a monolayer dye-sensitizer is used as working electrode. The effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle size on efficiency of the DSSC based Pomegranate juice as a sensitizer is studied. For monolayer structure, we used two sizes of TiO2 nanoparticle (25 nm and 100 nm and a mixture of these two sizes. The highest efficiency of 0.61% was obtained with mixture of 25 and 100 nm TiO2 nano-particles in working electrode. For double-layer structure, we used 100 and 400 nm size TiO2 particles as light-scattering. The best efficiency was obtained using 400 nm TiO2 as light-scattering particles.

  14. Synergic effect of gamma radiation with thermal treatment for conserving natural apple juice from Gala variety; Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama com tratamento termico na conservacao de suco natural de maca da variedade Gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, L.; Domarco, R.E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Walder, J.M.M.; Matraia, C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This paper aims at the feasibility of a new method for conserving natural apple juice using no chemicals. The apple juice was extract from Gala apple variety and was bottled in sterile 100 ml amber vials. The samples were treated by: heat at 60{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; heat at 80{sup 0} C for 20 minutes; radiation; radiation plus heat (60{sup 0}); radiation plus heat 80{sup 0} C. The radiation doses were 0,2,4 and 6 kGy at the dose rate of 1.6 kGy/h. The juice quality control was carried out by chemical analysis (total soluble solids, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid) following the AOAC methodology. The samples were stored under refrigeration conditions 5{+-}3{sup 0} C up to 180 days. It was observed an alteration of the total soluble solids and the pH during the storage period for all treatments. The pH was also affected by the combined treatments (radiation plus heat). The acidity was affected by the interaction of storage period and heat temperature. The ascorbic acid was affected by the synergic effect of heat and radiation and by the interaction radiation and storage period. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs.

  15. Simultaneous determination of several phytohormones in natural coconut juice by hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunli; Hu, Bin

    2009-11-06

    A simple, selective, sensitive and inexpensive method of hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of four acidic phytohormones (salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), (+/-) abscisic acid (ABA) and (+/-) jasmonic acid (JA)) in natural coconut juice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of liquid phase microextraction (LPME) as a sample pretreatment technique for the simultaneous analysis of several phytohormones. Using phenetole to fill the pores of hollow fiber as the organic phase, 0.1molL(-1) NaOH solution in the lumen of hollow fiber as the acceptor phase and 1molL(-1) HCl as the donor phase, a simultaneous preconcentration of four target phytohormones was realized. The acceptor phase was finally withdrawn into the microsyringe and directly injected into HPLC for the separation and quantification of the target phytohormones. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of four phytohormones by HF-LLLME were optimized with orthogonal design experiment, and the data was analyzed by Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for SA, IAA, ABA and JA were 243, 215, 52 and 48, with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 4.6, 1.3, 0.9ngmL(-1) and 8.8 microg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=7) were 7.9, 4.9, 6.8% at 50ngmL(-1) level for SA, IAA, ABA and 8.4% at 500 microg mL(-1) for JA, respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of the method, the developed method was applied for the simultaneous analysis of several phytohormones in five natural coconut juice samples, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 88.3-119.1%.

  16. Dehydrated Basella alba Fruit Juice as a Novel Natural Colorant: Pigment Stability, In Vivo Food Safety Evaluation and Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.

  17. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  18. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  19. Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Wex, Heike; Nekat, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of water extracts (WE) and HULIS extracted from particulate matter (PM) collected at a polluted urban site (Copenhagen, Denmark), a rural site (Melpitz, Germany) and the remote site Storm Peak Laboratory (Colorado, USA) were investigated. Measurements of inorganic ions......, elemental carbon, organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) within the PM confirmed that the sources of aerosol particles most likely differed for the three samples. The hygroscopic properties of the filtered WE were characterized by hygroscopicity parameters for subsaturated conditions (k...

  20. Photochemical aging of secondary organic aerosols: effects on hygroscopic growth and CCN activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, A.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tillmann, R.; Schlosser, E.; Mildenberger, K.; Clauss, T.; Henning, S.; Kiselev, A.; Stratmann, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant emitted volatile organic carbons (VOCs) are a major precursor of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols. The precursors are oxidized via ozonolysis, photooxidation, or by NO3 and form aerosol particles. Due to further oxidation of the organic matter the composition of the SOA may age with time. This will also change the hygroscopic growth (HG) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of the particles. In this study we generated and aged SOA in the SAPHIR chamber at the Research Centre Juelich under near atmospheric conditions: natural sunlight, low precursor and O3 concentrations, and long reaction times. As precursor we used a mixture of 5 monoterpenes (MT) or 5 MT with 2 sesquiterpenes which had been identified as major constituents of plant emissions in previous experiments. Concentrations ranged between 4 and 100 ppb MT and the total reaction time was 36h. HG was measured at RH=10-97% by a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Analyser (HTDMA, FZ Juelich) and at RH=97-99% by the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile, IfT Leipzig). The agreement between HTDMA and LACIS-mobile data was generally good. CCN properties were measured with a continuous flow CCN Counter from DMT. SOA particles generated on a sunny day were more hygroscopic and had a lower activation diameter (Dcrit) than SOA formed under cloudy conditions. With aging it became more hygroscopic and Dcrit decreased. Sunlight enhanced this effect. But the change in HG and Dcrit due to aging was less than the difference between SOA generated under different conditions (i.e. sunny or cloudy). We did not observe a dependence of the HG on the precursor concentration.

  1. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage and increase platelets blood levels in active healthy Tunisian aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Achraf

    2018-03-01

    Paired simple t-test showed a significant difference between PLA and POMj supplementation effects on systolic blood pressure (SAP, creatinine (CRE, hematological and muscle damage parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP (p < 0.01 with lower values using POMj. Similarly, a significant differences were shown for platelets PLT (p < 0.01 with higher values using POMj supplementation. POMj rich in polyphenols seems to have a power anti-inflammatory effect and to be an effective treatment for patients who suffer from the thrombocyto-penia disease. Therefore, aged populations are advised to add natural POMj to their daily nutrition behavior.

  3. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  4. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  5. Microbes at Surface-Air Interfaces: The Metabolic Harnessing of Relative Humidity, Surface Hygroscopicity, and Oligotrophy for Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wendy; Kroukamp, Otini; Korber, Darren R.; McKelvie, Jennifer; Wolfaardt, Gideon M.

    2016-01-01

    The human environment is predominantly not aqueous, and microbes are ubiquitous at the surface-air interfaces with which we interact. Yet microbial studies at surface-air interfaces are largely survival-oriented, whilst microbial metabolism has overwhelmingly been investigated from the perspective of liquid saturation. This study explored microbial survival and metabolism under desiccation, particularly the influence of relative humidity (RH), surface hygroscopicity, and nutrient availability on the interchange between these two phenomena. The combination of a hygroscopic matrix (i.e., clay or 4,000 MW polyethylene glycol) and high RH resulted in persistent measurable microbial metabolism during desiccation. In contrast, no microbial metabolism was detected at (a) hygroscopic interfaces at low RH, and (b) less hygroscopic interfaces (i.e., sand and plastic/glass) at high or low RH. Cell survival was conversely inhibited at high RH and promoted at low RH, irrespective of surface hygroscopicity. Based on this demonstration of metabolic persistence and survival inhibition at high RH, it was proposed that biofilm metabolic rates might inversely influence whole-biofilm resilience, with ‘resilience’ defined in this study as a biofilm’s capacity to recover from desiccation. The concept of whole-biofilm resilience being promoted by oligotrophy was supported in desiccation-tolerant Arthrobacter spp. biofilms, but not in desiccation-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The ability of microbes to interact with surfaces to harness water vapor during desiccation was demonstrated, and potentially to harness oligotrophy (the most ubiquitous natural condition facing microbes) for adaptation to desiccation. PMID:27746774

  6. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Mikkilä, Jyri; Németh, Zoltán; Kulmala, Markku; Salma, Imre

    2018-04-01

    Hygroscopic and volatile properties of atmospheric aerosol particles with dry diameters of (20), 50, 75, 110 and 145 nm were determined in situ by using a volatility-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA) system with a relative humidity of 90 % and denuding temperature of 270 °C in central Budapest during 2 months in winter 2014-2015. The probability density function of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) showed a distinct bimodal distribution. One of the modes was characterised by an overall mean HGF of approximately 1.07 (this corresponds to a hygroscopicity parameter κ of 0.033) independently of the particle size and was assigned to nearly hydrophobic (NH) particles. Its mean particle number fraction was large, and it decreased monotonically from 69 to 41 % with particle diameter. The other mode showed a mean HGF increasing slightly from 1.31 to 1.38 (κ values from 0.186 to 0.196) with particle diameter, and it was attributed to less hygroscopic (LH) particles. The mode with more hygroscopic particles was not identified. The probability density function of the volatility GF (VGF) also exhibited a distinct bimodal distribution with an overall mean VGF of approximately 0.96 independently of the particle size, and with another mean VGF increasing from 0.49 to 0.55 with particle diameter. The two modes were associated with less volatile (LV) and volatile (V) particles. The mean particle number fraction for the LV mode decreased from 34 to 21 % with particle diameter. The bimodal distributions indicated that the urban atmospheric aerosol contained an external mixture of particles with a diverse chemical composition. Particles corresponding to the NH and LV modes were assigned mainly to freshly emitted combustion particles, more specifically to vehicle emissions consisting of large mass fractions of soot likely coated with or containing some water-insoluble organic compounds such as non-hygroscopic hydrocarbon-like organics. The hygroscopic

  7. Wintertime hygroscopicity and volatility of ambient urban aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enroth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic and volatile properties of atmospheric aerosol particles with dry diameters of (20, 50, 75, 110 and 145 nm were determined in situ by using a volatility–hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VH-TDMA system with a relative humidity of 90 % and denuding temperature of 270 °C in central Budapest during 2 months in winter 2014–2015. The probability density function of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF showed a distinct bimodal distribution. One of the modes was characterised by an overall mean HGF of approximately 1.07 (this corresponds to a hygroscopicity parameter κ of 0.033 independently of the particle size and was assigned to nearly hydrophobic (NH particles. Its mean particle number fraction was large, and it decreased monotonically from 69 to 41 % with particle diameter. The other mode showed a mean HGF increasing slightly from 1.31 to 1.38 (κ values from 0.186 to 0.196 with particle diameter, and it was attributed to less hygroscopic (LH particles. The mode with more hygroscopic particles was not identified. The probability density function of the volatility GF (VGF also exhibited a distinct bimodal distribution with an overall mean VGF of approximately 0.96 independently of the particle size, and with another mean VGF increasing from 0.49 to 0.55 with particle diameter. The two modes were associated with less volatile (LV and volatile (V particles. The mean particle number fraction for the LV mode decreased from 34 to 21 % with particle diameter. The bimodal distributions indicated that the urban atmospheric aerosol contained an external mixture of particles with a diverse chemical composition. Particles corresponding to the NH and LV modes were assigned mainly to freshly emitted combustion particles, more specifically to vehicle emissions consisting of large mass fractions of soot likely coated with or containing some water-insoluble organic compounds such as non-hygroscopic

  8. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  10. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  11. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260 Section 884.4260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... conical and expansible material made from the root of a seaweed (Laminaria digitata or Laminaria japonica...

  12. Physicochemical evaluation and hygroscopic behavior of powdered guava obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Alencar Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types of juice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g-1; 8.43 to 93.00 ºBrix and 2.77-3.79 mg 100 g-1. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting the experimental data to the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin. The Henderson model presented the best fit to the atomised guava powder for all temperatures tested, presenting an error ranging from 09.93 to 12.09% and a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9900 to 0.9934.

  13. How important is organic aerosol hygroscopicity to aerosol indirect forcing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohong; Wang Jian

    2010-01-01

    Organics are among the most abundant aerosol components in the atmosphere. However, there are still large uncertainties with emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (precursor gases of secondary organic aerosol, SOA), formation of SOA, and chemical and physical properties (e.g., hygroscopicity) of POA and SOA. All these may have significant impacts on aerosol direct and indirect forcing estimated from global models. In this study a modal aerosol module (MAM) in the NCAR community atmospheric model (CAM) is used to examine sensitivities of aerosol indirect forcing to hygroscopicity (represented by a single parameter 'κ' ) of POA and SOA. Our model simulation indicates that in the present-day (PD) condition changing the 'κ' value of POA from 0 to 0.1 increases the number concentration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation S = 0.1% by 40-80% over the POA source regions, while changing the 'κ' value of SOA by ± 50% (from 0.14 to 0.07 and 0.21) changes the CCN concentration within 40%. There are disproportionally larger changes in CCN concentration in the pre-industrial (PI) condition. Due to the stronger impact of organics hygroscopicity on CCN and cloud droplet number concentration at PI condition, global annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) between PD and PI conditions reduces with the increase of the hygroscopicity of organics. Global annual mean AIF varies by 0.4 W m -2 in the sensitivity runs with the control run of - 1.3 W m -2 , highlighting the need for improved understanding of organics hygroscopicity and its representation in global models.

  14. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  15. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  16. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    OpenAIRE

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  17. Biomass-burning impact on CCN number, hygroscopicity and cloud formation during summertime in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bougiatioti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity and hygroscopic properties of particles influenced by biomass burning in the eastern Mediterranean and their impacts on cloud droplet formation. Air masses sampled were subject to a range of atmospheric processing (several hours up to 3 days. Values of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, were derived from CCN measurements and a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM was also used to determine the chemical composition and mass concentration of non-refractory components of the submicron aerosol fraction. During fire events, the increased organic content (and lower inorganic fraction of the aerosol decreases the values of κ, for all particle sizes. Particle sizes smaller than 80 nm exhibited considerable chemical dispersion (where hygroscopicity varied up to 100 % for particles of same size; larger particles, however, exhibited considerably less dispersion owing to the effects of condensational growth and cloud processing. ACSM measurements indicate that the bulk composition reflects the hygroscopicity and chemical nature of the largest particles (having a diameter of  ∼  100 nm at dry conditions sampled. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the organic ACSM spectra, CCN concentrations follow a similar trend as the biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA component, with the former being enhanced between 65 and 150 % (for supersaturations ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 % with the arrival of the smoke plumes. Using multilinear regression of the PMF factors (BBOA, OOA-BB and OOA and the observed hygroscopicity parameter, the inferred hygroscopicity of the oxygenated organic aerosol components is determined. We find that the transformation of freshly emitted biomass burning (BBOA to more oxidized organic aerosol (OOA-BB can result in a 2-fold increase of the inferred organic

  18. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Vacuum FTIR study on the hygroscopicity of magnesium acetate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Cai, Chen; He, Xiang; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are two important properties, which determine the composition, concentration, size, phase state of SOA and thus chemical and optical properties for SOA. In this work, magnesium acetate (Mg(Ac)2) aerosol was used as a simple SOA model in order to reveal relationship between hygroscopicity and volatility. A novel approach was set up based on a combination of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a home-made relative humidity (RH) controlling system. The striking advantage of this approach was that the RH and the compositions of aerosols could be obtained from a same IR spectrum, which guaranteed the synchronism between RH and spectral features on a sub-second scale. At the constant RH of 90% and 80% for 3000 s, the water content within Mg(Ac)2 aerosol particles decreased about 19.0% and 9.4% while there were 13.4% and 6.0% of acetate loss. This was attributed to a cooperation between volatile of acetic acid and Mg2 + hydrolysis in Mg(Ac)2 aerosols, which greatly suppressed the hygroscopicity of Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. When the RH changed with pulsed mode between 70% and 90%, hygroscopicity relaxation was observed for Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Diffuse coefficient of water in the relaxation process was estimated to be 5 × 10- 12 m2·s- 1 for the Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Combining the IR spectra analysis, the decrease in the diffuse coefficient of water was due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide accompanying acetic acid evaporation in the aerosols.

  20. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  1. The Hygroscopicity Parameter of Marine Organics in Sea Spray Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on climate are poorly understood, specifically with respect to their influence on cloud properties. Since oceans cover >70% of Earth's surface, sea spray aerosols (SSA), which act efficiently as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may have important implications on Earth's radiation budget. Surface active organic species readily accumulate in the sea surface microlayer (SML), located at the ocean-atmosphere interface, and transfer onto nascent SSA. While it is understood that SSA are commonly enriched with organics, the resulting effect of the organic content on CCN activation remains unresolved. The hygroscopicity parameter, kappa (k), allows for the cloud nucleating properties of individual components to be predicted in particles of mixed composition; however, most studies typically infer k from ambient measurements without assessing the contribution of the individual components to the overall k. In this study, a method for quantifying the cloud nucleating properties of the organic species in surface seawater using k-Kohler theory is proposed. Ambient SML and bulk water samples will be collected and atomized to generate particles such that the overall k can be inferred from CCN measurements. The inorganic and organic components will be quantified, and the organic component will be separated so that the hygroscopicity of only the organic constituents can be determined. By comparing the inferred k values for the samples before and after removal of the inorganic component, the hygroscopicity of the organic constituents alone can be calculated, providing insight on the effect of organic species on CCN activation in SSA.

  2. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Duplissy, J; Prevot, A S H; Barmpadimos, I; Jimenez, J L; Gysel, M; Worsnop, D R; Aiken, A C; Tritscher, T; Canagaratna, M R; Collins, D R; Alfarra, M R; Metzger, A; Tomlinson, J; DeCarlo, P F; Weingartner, E; Baltensperger, U

    2011-01-01

    A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f(44)). m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO(2)(+) for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfrau-joch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation b...

  3. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  4. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, N O Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  5. The Influence of Aerosol Hygroscopicity on Precipitation Intensity During a Mesoscale Convective Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stacey; Steiner, Allison L.

    2018-01-01

    We examine how aerosol composition affects precipitation intensity using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (version 3.6). By changing the prescribed default hygroscopicity values to updated values from laboratory studies, we test model assumptions about individual component hygroscopicity values of ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, and organic species. We compare a baseline simulation (BASE, using default hygroscopicity values) with four sensitivity simulations (SULF, increasing the sulfate hygroscopicity; ORG, decreasing organic hygroscopicity; SWITCH, using a concentration-dependent hygroscopicity value for ammonium; and ALL, including all three changes) to understand the role of aerosol composition on precipitation during a mesoscale convective system (MCS). Overall, the hygroscopicity changes influence the spatial patterns of precipitation and the intensity. Focusing on the maximum precipitation in the model domain downwind of an urban area, we find that changing the individual component hygroscopicities leads to bulk hygroscopicity changes, especially in the ORG simulation. Reducing bulk hygroscopicity (e.g., ORG simulation) initially causes fewer activated drops, weakened updrafts in the midtroposphere, and increased precipitation from larger hydrometeors. Increasing bulk hygroscopicity (e.g., SULF simulation) simulates more numerous and smaller cloud drops and increases precipitation. In the ALL simulation, a stronger cold pool and downdrafts lead to precipitation suppression later in the MCS evolution. In this downwind region, the combined changes in hygroscopicity (ALL) reduces the overprediction of intense events (>70 mm d-1) and better captures the range of moderate intensity (30-60 mm d-1) events. The results of this single MCS analysis suggest that aerosol composition can play an important role in simulating high-intensity precipitation events.

  6. Hygroscopic Properties and Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles at the High Alpine Site Jungfraujoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarter, E.; Gysel, M.; Sjoegren, S.; Baltesperger, U.; Alfarra, R.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.

    2004-03-01

    The hygroscopic properties of aerosols play a significant role in atmospheric phenomena such as acid deposition, visibility degradation and climate change. Due to the hygroscopic growth of the particles, water is often the dominant component of the ambient aerosol at high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The ability to absorb water depends on the particle chemical composition, dry size, and shape. The aim of this study is to link the chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol to its hygroscopic properties. (author)

  7. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  8. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  9. Theoretical analysis of moisture transport in wood as an open porous hygroscopic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaz; Svensson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Moisture transport in an open porous hygroscopic material such as wood is a complex system of coupled processes. For seasoned wood in natural climate three fully coupled processes active in the moisture transport are readily identified: (1) diffusion of vapor in pores; (2) phase change from one...... state to another, also called moisture sorption; and (3) diffusion of bound water in wood tissue (in the cell wall). A mathematical model for predicting moisture transport in wood for a given condition must at least consider the dominating active processes simultaneously to be considered accurate...... of the three processes on the outcome of the coupled model. Least significant is the bound water diffusion. Based on the results from the sensitivity analyses, a simplified model for moisture transport in wood is proposed....

  10. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to describe the relationship between particle dry diameter and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity using a single hygroscopicity parameter κ. Values of the hygroscopicity parameter are between 0.5 and 1.4 for highly-CCN-active salts such as sodium chloride, between 0.01 and 0.5 for slightly to very hygroscopic organic species, and 0 for nonhygroscopic components. Observations indicate that atmospheric particulate matter is typically characterized by 0.1<κ<0.9. If compositional data are available and if the hygroscopicity parameter of each component is known, a multicomponent hygroscopicity parameter can be computed by weighting component hygroscopicity parameters by their volume fractions in the mixture. In the absence of information on chemical composition, experimental data for complex, multicomponent particles can be fitted to obtain the hygroscopicity parameter. The hygroscopicity parameter can thus also be used to conveniently model the CCN activity of atmospheric particles, including those containing insoluble components. We confirm the applicability of the hygroscopicity parameter and its mixing rule by applying it to published hygroscopic diameter growth factor and CCN-activation data for single- and multi-component particles containing varying amounts of inorganic, organic and surface active compounds. We suggest that κ may be fit to CCN data assuming σs/a=0.072 J m−2 and present a table of κ derived for this value and T=298.15 K. The predicted hygroscopicities for mixtures that contain the surfactant fulvic acid agree within uncertainties with the measured values. It thus appears that this approach is adequate for predicting CCN activity of mixed particles containing surface active materials, but the generality of this assumption requires further verification.

  11. Hygroscopicity and composition of Alaskan Arctic CCN during April 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Moore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN sampled in the Alaskan Arctic during the 2008 Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC project, a component of the POLARCAT and International Polar Year (IPY initiatives. Four distinct air mass types were sampled including a cleaner Arctic background and a relatively pristine sea ice boundary layer as well as biomass burning and anthropogenic pollution plumes. Despite differences in chemical composition, inferred aerosol hygroscopicities were fairly invariant and ranged from κ = 0.1–0.3 over the atmospherically-relevant range of water vapor supersaturations studied. Organic aerosols sampled were found to be well-oxygenated, consistent with long-range transport and aerosol aging processes. However, inferred hygroscopicities are less than would be predicted based on previous parameterizations of biogenic oxygenated organic aerosol, suggesting an upper limit on organic aerosol hygroscopicity above which κ is less sensitive to the O:C ratio. Most Arctic aerosols act as CCN above 0.1 % supersaturation, although the data suggest the presence of an externally-mixed, non-CCN-active mode comprising approximately 0–20% of the aerosol number. CCN closure was assessed using measured size distributions, bulk chemical composition, and assumed aerosol mixing states; CCN predictions tended toward overprediction, with the best agreement (±0–20 % obtained by assuming the aerosol to be externally-mixed with soluble organics. Closure also varied with CCN concentration, and the best agreement was found for CCN concentrations above 100 cm−3 with a 1.5- to 3-fold overprediction at lower concentrations.

  12. Hygroscopic properties of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong; Liu, Chang

    2013-04-01

    Oxalic acid and oxalates represent an important fraction of atmospheric organic aerosols, however, little knowledge about the hygroscopic behavior of these particles is known. In this study, the hygroscopic behavior of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates (H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4) were studied by Raman spectrometry and vapor sorption analyzer. Under ambient relative humidity (RH) of 10-90%, oxalic acid and these oxalates hardly deliquesce and exhibit low hygroscopicity, however, transformation between anhydrous and hydrated particles was observed during the humidifying and dehumidifying processes. During the water adsorption process, conversion of anhydrous H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4 to their hydrated particles (i.e., H2C2O4·2H2O, (NH4)2C2O4·H2O, CaC2O4·H2O, and FeC2O4·2H2O) occurred at about 20% RH, 55% RH, 10% RH, and 75% RH, respectively. Uptake of water on hydrated Ca-oxalate and Fe-oxalate particles can be described by a multilayer adsorption isotherm. During the dehumidifying process, dehydration of H2C2O4·2H2O and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O occurred at 5% RH while CaC2O4·H2O and FeC2O4·2H2O did not undergo dehydration. These results implied that hydrated particles represent the most stable state of oxalic acid and oxalates in the atmosphere. In addition, the assignments of Raman shift bands in the range of 1610-1650 cm-1 were discussed according to the hygroscopic behavior measurement results.

  13. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  14. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.; Wong, Y.; Thu, K.; Oh, S. J.; Kum Ja, M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Raisul, I.; Chua, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy

  15. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan; Petters, Markus D.; O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.

  16. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis) in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Ballal, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ), Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl), Group B (MCJ), Group C (Aloe vera), Group D (Propolis) and Group E (Saline). These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5), coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis).

  17. Secondary organic aerosols. Chemical aging, hygroscopicity, and cloud droplet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Angela

    2011-07-06

    Atmospheric aerosols have an important impact on the radiation balance, and thus, on the climate of the Earth. Aerosol particles scatter and absorb incoming solar and terrestrial radiation. Apart from this direct effect, aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby greatly influencing the microphysics of clouds. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are an important fraction of the total aerosol mass. In many environments these organic compounds are mainly products of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In this study the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of biogenic SOA were investigated which was formed by the oxidation of VOC with O{sub 3} and photochemically formed OH radicals under low NO{sub x} conditions. For this purpose, a complex mixture of VOC emitted by boreal tree species as gas-phase precursors was used in the Juelich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In long-term studies in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR {alpha}-pinene or a defined mixture of {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, limonene, ocimene, {delta}-3-carene served as precursors. Initial precursor concentrations between 40 and 1000 ppbC were investigated. The observed SOA particles were slightly hygroscopic with an average hygroscopicity parameter {kappa}(CCN) = 0.10 {+-} 0.02 and {kappa}(90%RH) = 0.05 {+-} 0.01. Closure between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation data could be achieved allowing either surface tension reduction, limited solubility, or non-ideality of the solution in the droplet. The SOA solutions in equilibrium with RH <95% are possible highly non-ideal. Therefore the organic-water interaction were investigated by applying the UNIFAC model. Calculations for surrogate compounds exhibited the same strong concentration (i.e. RH) dependence of {kappa} at sub-saturation. The growth curves could be fitted and CCN activation predicted by assuming a binary mixture of water and one hypothetical organic compound. The occurrence of

  18. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  19. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  20. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  1. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK; Agata SIŁAKIEWICZ; Ewelina HALLMANN; Dominika ŚREDNICKA-TOBER; Ewa REMBIAŁKOWSKA

    2016-01-01

    Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted ...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF SLOVENIAN APPLE JUICE WITH RESPECT TO ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak Bat, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    Determination of food authenticity is an important issue in quality control and food safety. Recent studies predict a growing demand for natural and more authentic food and beverage products. The quality and authenticity of apple juice is also of a great economic importance since the popularity and demand for apple juice consumption has increased. The growth of the market for organically produced apples and apple juice is due to the increasing demand for healthy food requirements, protection ...

  3. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass...

  4. Numerical study on hygroscopic material drying in packed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stakić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses numerical simulation for the case of convective drying of hygroscopic material in a packed bed, analyzing agreement between the simulated and the corresponding experimental results. In the simulation model of unsteady simultaneous one-dimensional heat and mass transfer between gas phase and dried material, it is assumed that the gas-solid interface is at thermodynamic equilibrium, while the drying rate of the specific product is calculated by applying the concept of a "drying coefficient". Model validation was done on the basis of the experimental data obtained with potato cubes. The obtained drying kinetics, both experimental and numerical, show that higher gas (drying agent velocities (flow-rates, as well as lower equivalent grain diameters, induce faster drying. This effect is more pronounced for deeper beds, because of the larger amount of wet material to be dried using the same drying agent capacity.

  5. Anisotropically functionalized carbon nanotube array based hygroscopic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Ge, Liehui; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Hart, Amelia H C; Yang, Hyunseung; Sridhar, Srividya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2014-07-09

    Creating ordered microstructures with hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that enable the collection and storage of small water droplets from the atmosphere, mimicking structures that exist in insects, such as the Stenocara beetle, which live in environments with limited amounts of water. Inspired by this approach, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube forests (NTFs) are asymmetrically end-functionalized to create hygroscopic scaffolds for water harvesting and storage from atmospheric air. One side of the NTF is made hydrophilic, which captures water from the atmosphere, and the other side is made superhydrophobic, which prevents water from escaping and the forest from collapsing. To understand how water penetrates into the NTF, the fundamentals of water/NTF surface interaction are discussed.

  6. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  7. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  8. Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from measurements of hygroscopic growth of submicrometer aerosol with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA during four campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The campaigns took place during the years 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005, each lasting approximately one month. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF, i.e. the relative change in particle diameter from dry diameter, D0, to diameter measured at higher relative humidity, RH are presented for three distinct air mass types, namely for: 1 free tropospheric winter conditions, 2 planetary boundary layer influenced air masses (during a summer period and 3 Saharan dust events (SDE. The GF values at 85% RH (D0=100 nm were 1.40±0.11 and 1.29±0.08 for the first two situations while for SDE a bimodal GF distribution was often found. No phase changes were observed when the RH was varied between 10–90%, and the continuous water uptake could be well described with a single-parameter empirical model. The frequency distributions of the average hygroscopic growth factors and the width of the retrieved growth factor distributions (indicating whether the aerosol is internally or externally mixed are presented, which can be used for modeling purposes.

    Measurements of size resolved chemical composition were performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer in parallel to the GF measurements. This made it possible to estimate the apparent ensemble mean GF of the organics (GForg using inverse ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson modeling. GForg was found to be ~1.20 at aw=0.85, which is at the upper end of previous laboratory and field data though still in agreement with the highly aged and oxidized nature of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  9. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  10. Hygroscopic properties of different aerosol types over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maßling

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles were studied in the marine tropospheric boundary layer over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during two consecutive field studies: the Aerosols99 cruise (Atlantic Ocean from 15 January to 20 February 1999, and the INDOEX cruise (Indian Ocean Experiment from 23 February to 30 March 1999. The hygroscopic properties were compared to optical and chemical properties, such as absorption, chemical inorganic composition, and mass concentration of organic and elemental carbon, to identify the influence of these parameters on hygroscopicity. During the two field studies, four types of aerosol-sampling instruments were used on board the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown: Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA, seven-stage cascade impactor, two-stage cascade impactor, and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP. The HTDMA was used to determine the hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles at initial dry sizes (Dp of 50, 150, and 250 nm and at relative humidities (RH of 30, 55, 75, and 90%. Simultaneously, a seven-stage cascade impactor of which 3 stages were in the sub-mm size range was used to determine the molar composition of the major inorganic ions such as ammonium and sulfate ions. A two-stage cascade impactor (1 in the sub-mm size range, 1 in the sup-mm size range was used to determine the mass concentration of organic and elemental carbon. The PSAP was used (at a wavelength of 565 nm to measure the light absorption coefficient of the aerosol. During the two field studies, air masses of several different origins passed the ship's cruise path. The occurrence of different air masses was classified into special time periods signifying the origin of the observed aerosol. All time periods showed a group of particles with high hygroscopic growth. The measured average hygroscopic growth factors defined by the ratio of dry and wet

  11. Field measurements of hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of nucleation mode particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Väkevä

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (UF-TDMA has been used in several field campaigns over the last few years. The investigations were focused on the origin and properties of nucleation event aerosols, which are observed frequently in various environments. This paper gives a summary of the results of 10 nm and 20 nm particle hygroscopic properties from different measurement sites: an urban site, an urban background site and a forest site in Finland and a coastal site in western Ireland. The data can be classified in four hygroscopic growth classes: hydrofobic, less-hygroscopic, more-hygroscopic and sea-salt. Similar classification has been earlier presented for Aitken and accumulation mode particles. In urban air, the summertime 10 nm particles showed varying less-hygroscopic growth behaviour, while winter time 10 nm and 20 nm particles were externally mixed with two different hygroscopic growth modes. The forest measurements revealed diurnal behaviour of hygroscopic growth, with high growth factors at day time and lower during night. The urban background particles had growth behaviour similar to the urban and forest measurement sites depending on the origin of the observed particles. The coastal measurements were strongly affected by air mass history. Both 10 nm and 20 nm particles were hygroscopic in marine background air. The 10 nm particles produced during clean nucleation burst periods were hydrofobic. Diurnal variation and higher growth factors of 10 nm particles were observed in air affected by other source regions. External mixing was occasionally observed at all the sites, but incidents with more than two growth modes were extremely rare.

  12. Hygroscopic Behavior of Multicomponent Aerosols Involving NaCl and Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2016-02-25

    Atmospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds. The hygroscopicity of mixed particles is closely related to their chemical composition and interactions between components, which is still poorly understood. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of submicron particles composed of NaCl and dicarboxylic acids including oxalic acid (OA), malonic acid (MA), and succinic acid (SA) with various mass ratios are investigated with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system. Both the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method and extended aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) are applied to predict the water uptake behaviors of sodium chloride/dicarboxylic acid mixtures. For NaCl/OA mixed particles, the measured growth factors were significantly lower than predictions from the model methods, indicating a change in particle composition caused by chloride depletion. The hygroscopic growth of NaCl/MA particles was well described by E-AIM, and that of NaCl/SA particles was dependent upon mixing ratio. Compared with model predictions, it was determined that water uptake of the NaCl/OA mixture could be enhanced and could be closer to the predictions by addition of levoglucosan or malonic acid, which retained water even at low relative humidity (RH), leading to inhibition of HCl evaporation during dehydration. These results demonstrate that the coexisting hygroscopic species have a strong influence on the phase state of particles, thus affecting chemical interactions between inorganic and organic compounds as well as the overall hygroscopicity of mixed particles.

  13. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  14. Hygroscopic trend of lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Conegero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangaba is a widely-consumed fruit in the Northeast of Brazil, which is usually exploited through extractivism. This fruit is rich in various nutrients, especially in vitamin C, with pleasant taste and aroma. The lyophilization process transforms these fruits into amorphous powders, which must be analyzed regarding their properties and hygroscopic trend. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the physico-chemical properties of adsorption isotherms of the lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder, with addition of maltodextrin (DE 20. The pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and water activity were analyzed. Regarding the isotherms, the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Oswin, and Henderson were used at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. The obtained powder presented pH of 3.14, titratable acidity of 1.95 mg of citric acid 100g-1 of powder, soluble solid contents of 99 ºBrix, ascorbic acid content of 55.97 mg 100g-1 and water activity of 0.16. Henderson was the mathematical model that best fitted the data of the adsorption isotherms at the four evaluated temperatures, with average errors ranging from 5.76 to 9.70% and R2 from 0.9974 to 0.9995.

  15. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  16. Hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles and its relation to nucleation scavenging in clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsson, B.

    1997-11-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are important in several aspects. Some major aerosol constituents that are deposited in ecosystems are acidic or fertilizers and some minor or trace constituents are toxic. Aerosol particles are also involved in the earth`s radiation balance, both directly by scattering the sunlight and indirectly by influencing the clouds. All these effects are influenced by the interaction between the aerosol particles and water vapour. A tandem differential mobility analyser (TDMA) has been designed to measure hygroscopic growth, i.e. the particle diameter change due to uptake of water at well defined relative humidities below 100%. Tests of the instrument performance have been made using aerosol particles of pure inorganic salts. Three field experiments have been performed as parts of large fog and cloud experiments. Bimodal hygroscopic growth spectra were found: less-hygroscopic particles containing a few percent and more-hygroscopic particles around 50% by volume of hygroscopically active material. In general the fraction of less-hygroscopic particles decreases with particle size and it is larger in polluted continental aerosols than in remote background aerosols. This external mixing cannot be fully understood using present views on the formation of aerosols. Evidence or the importance of the external mixing on the cloud nucleating properties of the particles are found in comparisons between hygroscopic growth spectra for the total aerosol, the interstitial aerosol in clouds, and cloud drop residuals. Cloud condensation nuclei spectra, calculated using aerosol particle size distributions and hygroscopic growth spectra, in combination with information on the major inorganic ions are presented. These CCN spectra reveal for instance that the influence of less-hygroscopic particles on the cloud droplets increases with increasing peak supersaturation. The fraction of the particles that were scavenged to cloud drops, as a function of particle

  17. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 μm in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles cloud formation and potential

  18. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  20. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  1. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  2. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  3. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  4. Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, F J; Jorge-Vidal, V; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2012-06-01

    We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice (n = 11) or plain tomato juice (n = 7). Each serving of enriched juice provided 250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both juices provided natural antioxidant compounds such as phenolics (181 mg) and lycopene (26.5 mg). Intervention with the enriched juice had no effect on the lipid profile, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) remained unchanged. The serum antioxidant status improved following juice intake, as revealed by an increase in total antioxidant capacity and a slight decrease in lipid peroxidation. The serum levels of homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk factor, decreased following n-3 PUFA-enriched juice consumption. A decrease in vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels was also noted after intake of either plain or enriched tomato juice, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels only decreased following intake of the enriched juice. Overall, stronger positive amelioration of CVD risk factors was observed following the intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice than after plain tomato juice consumption, which suggested a possible synergistic action between n-3 PUFAs and tomato antioxidants.

  5. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  6. Influence of acidification, pasteurization, centrifugation and storage time and temperature on watermelon juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-12-01

    Watermelon juice has gained increasing popularity among consumers as a rich natural source of functional compounds such as lycopene and citrulline. However, the final quality of the juice depends significantly on its acidification, pasteurization, centrifugation and storage time and temperature. In this study, these characteristics were assessed in watermelon juice pasteurized at 87.7 °C for 20 s and stored for up to 30 days at 4 or 8 °C. The acidifier citric acid provided an adequate sensory quality, similar to natural watermelon juice. Centrifugation and pasteurization significantly reduced the red color, bioactive compounds (lycopene, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols) and sensory quality of the juice, particularly when the storage time was extended and a temperature of 8 °C was used (P ≤ 0.05). All treated juices were microbiologically safe for up to 30 days when stored at 4 or 8 °C. In terms of sensory acceptability, only non-centrifuged juices stored for up to 20 days at 4 °C remained above the commercial limit. The present results suggest that using a non-centrifugation process and a storage temperature of 4 °C yields a watermelon juice that better retains its sensory and functional qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  8. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  9. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  11. The Impact of Aerosol Particle Mixing State on the Hygroscopicity of Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Steven R; Collins, Douglas B; Lee, Christopher; Morris, Holly S; Novak, Gordon A; Prather, Kimberly A; Quinn, Patricia K; Sultana, Camille M; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2015-06-24

    Aerosol particles influence global climate by determining cloud droplet number concentrations, brightness, and lifetime. Primary aerosol particles, such as those produced from breaking waves in the ocean, display large particle-particle variability in chemical composition, morphology, and physical phase state, all of which affect the ability of individual particles to accommodate water and grow into cloud droplets. Despite such diversity in molecular composition, there is a paucity of methods available to assess how particle-particle variability in chemistry translates to corresponding differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. Here, an approach has been developed that allows for characterization of the distribution of aerosol hygroscopicity within a chemically complex population of atmospheric particles. This methodology, when applied to the interpretation of nascent sea spray aerosol, provides a quantitative framework for connecting results obtained using molecular mimics generated in the laboratory with chemically complex ambient aerosol. We show that nascent sea spray aerosol, generated in situ in the Atlantic Ocean, displays a broad distribution of particle hygroscopicities, indicative of a correspondingly broad distribution of particle chemical compositions. Molecular mimics of sea spray aerosol organic material were used in the laboratory to assess the volume fractions and molecular functionality required to suppress sea spray aerosol hygroscopicity to the extent indicated by field observations. We show that proper accounting for the distribution and diversity in particle hygroscopicity and composition are important to the assessment of particle impacts on clouds and global climate.

  12. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  13. Determination of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peel, seed and juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tadi Beni

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: The results of study indicated that pomegranate juice showed the lowest antioxidant activity and phenolic content in comparison to peel and seed. High antioxidant activity of pomegranate can introduce them as natural food preservatives.

  14. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paired simple t-test showed a significant difference between PLA and POMj supplementation effects on systolic blood pressure (SAP), creatinine (CRE), hematological and muscle damage parameters and Creactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.01) with lower values using POMj. Similarly, a significant differences were shown for ...

  15. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammar Achraf

    Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. ... Alexandria Journal of Medicine 54 (2018) 45–48 ..... Brocklehurst's textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology. 7th ... Adv Biomed Res. ... Ann N Y Acad Sci.

  16. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  17. submitter Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Yli-Juuti, T; Lawler, M; Keskinen, H; Tröstl, J; Schobesberger, S; Duplissy, J; Amorim, A; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P; Petäjä, T; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Tomé, A; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Ehrhart, S; Ye, P; Kirkby, J; Curtius, J; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Lehtinen, K E J; Smith, J N; Riipinen, I; Virtanen, A

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study, we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) at subsaturated conditions (ca. 90 % relative humidity at 293 K) to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7) campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was meas...

  18. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  19. Rapid Measurements of Aerosol Size Distribution and Hygroscopic Growth via Image Processing with a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pinterich, T.; Spielman, S. R.; Hering, S. V.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    used to measure aerosol hygroscopic growth. Such a system reduced the time of measuring the hygroscopic properties of submicron aerosols (six sizes) to less than three minutes in total, with an error within 1%. Pinterich et al. (2017) Aerosol Sci. Technol. accepted Spielman et al. (2017) Aerosol Sci. Technol. accepted Wang et al. (2016) Nature 539:416-419

  20. The effect of airborne hygroscopic matter on aerosol behavior in severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth of hygroscopic particles due to steam condensation has been studied. Sophisticated and simplified models for particle growth have been compared to see what sort of approximations can be used in the safety analyses of severe LWR accidents. A model suitable for evaluating condensational growth in containment conditions has been developed and incorporated in the NAUA containment aerosol program. The hygroscopic growth has been studied experimentally and the results of the NAUA-HYGROS computer program developed here have been compared with the experimental results. For heat and mass transport the classical Mason equation compared well with the more accurate solutions at the expected thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment atmosphere. For applications with short residence times at high humidities, where the Mason equation is not strictly valid, a more accurate solution for mass and heat transfer to the particle has been developed. A conservative model for the dissolution of multicomponent particles at high relative humidities has been developed and included in the NAUA-HYGROS code. The development of NAUA-HYGROS was closely related to the LACE experiments, where the behavior of hygroscopic CsOH and non-hygroscopic MnO aerosols in a 852 m 3 containment vessel was studied. The code results agreed well with the measured values. The comparison of the results from the Modular Accident Analyses Program (MAAP) with the LACE experimental results showed the invalidity of the simple model used. An experimental set-up for measuring the behavior of hygroscopic particles in a flow type reaction chamber was developed and constructed. The time development of initially dry CsOH and NaOH particles was measured at different relative humidities. The most critical parameters affecting the particle size were found to be the relative humidity and the residence time in the chamber before sampling. Theoretical calculations with the NAUA-HYGROS code showed that during travel

  1. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  2. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  3. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  4. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  5. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  6. Vacuum FTIR Observation on the Dynamic Hygroscopicity of Aerosols under Pulsed Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chun-Bo; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Chen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2015-08-04

    A novel approach based on a combination of a pulse RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) was utilized to investigate dynamic hygroscopicity of two atmospheric aerosols: ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). In this approach, rapid-scan infrared spectra of water vapor and aerosols were obtained to determine relative humidity (RH) in sample cell and hygroscopic property of aerosols with a subsecond time resolution. Heterogeneous nucleation rates of (NH4)2SO4 were, for the first time, measured under low RH conditions (nucleation kinetics of liquid aerosols.

  7. Hygroscopics and yield characteristics of cocoon in races of Bombyx mori L.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio José Porto; José Eduardo de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Cocoons, cocoon shells and chrysalis of four races of Bombyx mori L., two from China (C202 and C212) and two from Japan (B104 and M11-2), were analyzed in function of determinant factors as weight (dry mater and moisture) and by hygroscopic capacity after cooking. It was used a complete randomized design, with four treatments and ten replications. Although the cocoon shell has a higher hygroscopic capacity, the percentage of water in the chrysalis is the main factor to determine the weight of...

  8. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  9. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  10. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  11. Effect of chemical mixing state on the hygroscopicity and cloud nucleation properties of calcium mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles can alter cloud properties and thus climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN that form cloud droplets. The CCN activation properties of various calcium mineral dust particles were studied experimentally to investigate the consequences of field observations showing the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride between individual aged Asian dust particles, and the enrichment of oxalic acid in Asian dust. Each mineral's observed apparent hygroscopicity was primarily controlled by its solubility, which determines the degree to which the mineral's intrinsic hygroscopicity can be expressed. The significant increase in hygroscopicity caused by mixing soluble hygroscopic material with insoluble mineral particles is also presented. Insoluble minerals including calcium carbonate, representing fresh unprocessed dust, and calcium sulphate, representing atmospherically processed dust, had similarly small apparent hygroscopicities. Their activation is accurately described by a deliquescence limit following the Kelvin effect and corresponded to an apparent single-hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of ~0.001. Soluble calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, representing atmospherically processed mineral dust particles, were much more hygroscopic, activating similar to ammonium sulphate with κ~0.5. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (κ=0.05 was significantly less CCN-active than oxalic acid (κ=0.3, but not as inactive as its low solubility would predict. These results indicate that the common assumption that all mineral dust particles become more hygroscopic and CCN-active after atmospheric processing should be revisited. Calcium sulphate and calcium oxalate are two realistic proxies for aged mineral dust that remain non-hygroscopic. The dust's apparent hygroscopicity will be controlled by its chemical mixing state, which is determined by its mineralogy and the chemical reaction pathways it experiences

  12. Titanium di-oxide films using a less hygroscopic colloidal precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandana,, E-mail: vandana1@nplindia.org; Batra, Neha; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Pooja; Singh, P.K., E-mail: pksingh@nplindia.org

    2014-04-01

    We report the study of titanium dioxide films (TiO{sub 2}) using titanium di-isopropoxyl di-2ethyl hexanoate Ti(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 2} (C{sub 7}H{sub 15}COO){sub 2} colloidal precursor. This compound is less hygroscopic in nature and easy to use with processes like spin or dip coating. Thin films of TiO{sub 2} are made on silicon substrates and their structural and optical properties are studied. The effect of Ti content in the precursor, sintering temperature and its duration on film thickness and refractive index are investigated. Refractive index shows an increasing trend with the rise in the sintering temperature but remains unchanged with the time. The film thickness decreases with both sintering temperature and time and increases with Ti content in the precursor. Reflectivity measurements show marked reduction in the reflection losses compared to bare silicon surface wherein the film thickness is altered by spin speed. XRD results show anatase phase in the samples sintered at lower temperature (<680 °C), however, a mix of anatase, brookite and rutile phases is seen above this temperature. In the samples sintered above 1100 °C, rutile phase is dominant. These results are supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy reveals larger grain size at higher sintering temperature. The titanium dioxide films of desirable thickness and refractive index could be used as an antireflection coating on solar cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films are made using titanium di-isopropoxyl di-2ethyl hexanoate precursor. • Effect of Ti content in the precursor, sintering temperature and time is studied. • Refractive index (μ) increases with sintering temperature but is independent of time. • Films of desired thickness and μ could be used as an antireflection coating. • XRD results show that rutile phase dominates in samples sintered above 1100 °C.

  13. Permeable and Hygroscopic Building Envelopes: Hygrothermal Simulations of “Det Naturlige Hus”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastien, Diane; Winther-Gaasvig, Martin

    2017-01-01

    materials such as clay plasters can significantly reduce indoor humidity fluctuations, which yields many other indirect health benefits. However, with many countries that commonly use vapour retarders, there is lack of knowledge and general design guidelines on how to design safe permeable and hygroscopic...

  14. Hygroscopicity and ammonia volatilization losses from nitrogen sources in coated urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic fertilizers tend to absorb moisture from the air and may have undesirable characteristics such as moistness, clumping and lower fluidity, hampering the application. The increasing use of urea is due to its numerous advantages, although this nitrogen (N source is highly susceptible to volatilization losses, particularly when applied to the soil surface of management systems with conservation of crop residues. The volatilization losses can be minimized by slow or controlled-release fertilizers, with controlled water solubility of the urea-coating materials; and by stabilized fertilizers, which prolong the period during which N remains in the amide or ammonia forms by urease inhibitors. This study evaluated the hygroscopicity of and ammonia volatilization from urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate or with sulfur. The hygroscopicity of the sources was evaluated over time after exposure to five levels of relative humidity (RH and volatilization evaluated after application to the soil surface covered with sugarcane trash. Ammonium nitrate has a low potential for volatilization losses, but is highly hygroscopic. Although coating with boric acid and copper sulfate or elemental sulfur reduced the critical humidity level of urea, the delay in the volatilization process is a potential positive factor.

  15. Hygroscopic Swelling Determination of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Films by Polarized Light Microscopy Digital Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shikha; Diaz, Jairo A; Ghanbari, Siavash; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-08

    The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) of self-organized and shear-oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was determined by capturing hygroscopic strains produced as result of isothermal water vapor intake in equilibrium. Contrast enhanced microscopy digital image correlation enabled the characterization of dimensional changes induced by the hygroscopic swelling of the films. The distinct microstructure and birefringence of CNC films served in exploring the in-plane hygroscopic swelling at relative humidity values ranging from 0% to 97%. Water vapor intake in CNC films was measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) at constant temperature. The obtained experimental moisture sorption and kinetic profiles were analyzed by fitting with Guggenheim, Anderson, and deBoer (GAB) and Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) models, respectively. Self-organized CNC films showed isotropic swelling, CHS ∼0.040 %strain/%C. By contrast, shear-oriented CNC films exhibited an anisotropic swelling, resulting in CHS ∼0.02 and ∼0.30 %strain/%C, parallel and perpendicular to CNC alignment, respectively. Finite element analysis (FEA) further predicted moisture diffusion as the predominant mechanism for swelling of CNC films.

  16. Effect of Chitosan on some Microbial and chemical quality of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jeiranikhameneh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles towards orange juice trade is its limited shelf-life. Microbial spoilage is among the reasons for declining the quality of orange juice during storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chitosan as a natural preservative to increase the shelf-life of orange juice. For this, different concentrations of chitosan including 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 g/L were used. During the storage periodmicrobial (total bacterial count and chemical(Brix and pH characteristics were assessed.Resultsshowed that higher concentrations of chitosan significantly (p

  17. Review on hygroscopic aging of cellulose fibres and their biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang h

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents critical literature on effects of humidity and temperature on the properties of natural fibres and its composites. The drawback of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of natural fibre and its composites is evaluated...

  18. Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle diameter growth was measured when taken from a dehydrated to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30-350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed similar hygroscopic growth and the average diameter growth at RH=90% for 110/100 nm particles was 1.68 in the 1 MW boiler, and 1.52 in the 1.5 MW boiler. These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule and a chemical composition of only potassium salts, taken from an Ion Chromatography analysis of filter sample (KCl, K 2 SO 4 , and K 2 CO 3 ). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative humidity. When diluting with hot particle-free air, the fractal-like structures remained intact until humidified in the HTDMA. A method is presented to by which to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated combustion aerosol and correct the measured mobility diameter hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume growth. The fractal dimension was estimated to be ∼2.5

  19. Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Bioenergy Technology

    2005-02-01

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle diameter growth was measured when taken from a dehydrated to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30-350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed similar hygroscopic growth and the average diameter growth at RH=90% for 110/100 nm particles was 1.68 in the 1 MW boiler, and 1.52 in the 1.5 MW boiler. These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule and a chemical composition of only potassium salts, taken from an Ion Chromatography analysis of filter sample (KCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative humidity. When diluting with hot particle-free air, the fractal-like structures remained intact until humidified in the HTDMA. A method is presented to by which to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated combustion aerosol and correct the measured mobility diameter hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume growth. The fractal dimension was estimated to be {approx}2.5.

  20. Changes of fatty acid aerosol hygroscopicity induced by ozonolysis under humid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vesna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids are important constituents of the organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols originating from biogenic or combustion sources. Oxidative processing of these may change their interaction with water and thus affect their effect on climate. The ozonolysis of oleic and arachidonic acid aerosol particles was studied under humid conditions in a flow reactor at ozone exposures close to atmospheric levels, at concentrations between 0.5 and 2 ppm. While oleic acid is a widely used proxy for such studies, arachidonic acid represents polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may decompose into hygroscopic products. The hygroscopic (diameter growth factor at 93% relative humidity (RH of the oxidized arachidonic particles increased up to 1.09 with increasing RH during the ozonolysis. In contrast, the growth factor of oleic acid was very low (1.03 at 93% RH and was almost invariant to the ozonolysis conditions, so that oleic acid is not a good model to observe oxidation induced changes of hygroscopicity under atmospheric conditions. We show for arachidonic acid particles that the hygroscopic changes induced by humidity during ozonolysis are accompanied by about a doubling of the ratio of carboxylic acid protons to aliphatic protons. We suggest that, under humid conditions, the reaction of water with the Criegee intermediates might open a pathway for the formation of smaller acids that lead to more significant changes in hygroscopicity. Thus the effect of water to provide a competing pathway during ozonolysis observed in this study should be motivation to include water, which is ubiquitously present in and around atmospheric particles, in future studies related to aerosol particle aging.

  1. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K 2 , has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor

  2. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  3. Determination of volatile, phenolic, organic acid and sugar components in a Turkish cv. Dortyol (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2011-08-15

    Orange flavour is the results of a natural combination of volatile compounds in a well-balanced system including sugars, acids and phenolic compounds. This paper reports the results of the first determination of aroma, organic acids, sugars, and phenolic components in Dortyol yerli orange juices. A total of 58 volatile components, including esters (nine), terpenes (19), terpenols (13), aldehydes (two), ketones (three), alcohols (four) and acids (eight) were identified and quantified in Dortyol yerli orange juice by GC-FID and GC-MS. Organic acids, sugars and phenolic compositions were also determined by HPLC methods. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and sucrose, respectively. With regard to phenolics, 14 compounds were identified and quantified in the orange juice. Terpenes and terpenols were found as the main types of volatile components in Dortyol yerli orange juice. In terms of aroma contribution to orange juice, 12 compounds were prominent based on the odour activity values (OAVs). The highest OAV values were recorded for ethyl butanoate, nootkatone, linalool and DL-limonene. When we compare the obtained results of cv. Dortyol orange juice with the other orange juice varieties, the composition of Dortyol orange juice was similar to Valencia and Navel orange juices. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J; Graves, Martin J; Edwards, Andrea D; Joubert, Ilse; Set, Pat AK; Lomas, David J

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T 1 (243 ms) and shortest T 2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T 1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T 1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging

  5. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  6. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  7. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  8. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  9. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  10. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  11. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  12. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  13. Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study, we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA at subsaturated conditions (ca. 90 % relative humidity at 293 K to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7 campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid–dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid–organics derived from α-pinene oxidation. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles. No clear effect of the sulfuric acid concentration on the hygroscopicity of 10 nm particles produced from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine was observed, whereas the hygroscopicity of 15 nm particles sharply decreased with decreasing sulfuric acid concentrations. In particular, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 5.1 × 106 molecules cm−3 in the gas phase, and the dimethylamine mixing ratio was 11.8 ppt, the measured κ of 15 nm particles was 0.31 ± 0.01: close to the value reported for dimethylaminium sulfate (DMAS (κDMAS ∼ 0.28. Furthermore, the difference in κ between sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid–imethylamine experiments increased with increasing particle

  14. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an

  15. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Â. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-01-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  16. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  17. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol: Part 1 – Evidence from measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA studied in previous laboratory experiments generally showed only slight hygroscopic growth, but a much better activity as a CCN (Cloud Condensation Nucleus than indicated by the hygroscopic growth. This discrepancy was examined at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, using a portable generator that produced SOA particles from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, and adding butanol or butanol and water vapor during some of the experiments. The light scattering signal of dry SOA-particles was measured by the LACIS optical particle spectrometer and was used to derive a refractive index for SOA of 1.45. LACIS also measured the hygroscopic growth of SOA particles up to 99.6% relative humidity (RH, and a CCN counter was used to measure the particle activation. SOA-particles were CCN active with critical diameters of e.g. 100 nm and 55 nm at super-saturations of 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively. But only slight hygroscopic growth with hygroscopic growth factors ≤1.05 was observed at RH<98% RH. At RH>98%, the hygroscopic growth increased stronger than would be expected if a constant hygroscopicity parameter for the particle/droplet solution was assumed. An increase of the hygroscopicity parameter by a factor of 4–6 was observed in the RH-range from below 90% to 99.6%, and this increase continued for increasingly diluted particle solutions for activating particles. This explains an observation already made in the past: that the relation between critical super-saturation and dry diameter for activation is steeper than what would be expected for a constant value of the hygroscopicity. Combining measurements of hygroscopic growth and activation, it was found that the surface tension that has to be assumed to interpret the measurements consistently is greater than 55 mN/m, possibly close to that of pure water, depending on the different SOA-types produced, and therefore only in part accounts for the discrepancy

  19. 13-month climatology of the aerosol hygroscopicity at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kammermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was operated at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch in order to characterize the hygroscopic diameter growth factors of the free tropospheric Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol. More than ~5000 h of valid data were collected for the dry diameters D0 = 35, 50, 75, 110, 165, and 265 nm during the 13-month measurement period from 1 May 2008 through 31 May 2009. No distinct seasonal variability of the hygroscopic properties was observed. Annual mean hygroscopic diameter growth factors (D/D0 at 90% relative humidity were found to be 1.34, 1.43, and 1.46 for D0 = 50, 110, and 265 nm, respectively. This size dependence can largely be attributed to the Kelvin effect because corresponding values of the hygroscopicity parameter κ are nearly independent of size. The mean hygroscopicity of the Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch was found to be κ≈0.24 with little variability throughout the year.

    The impact of Saharan dust events, a frequent phenomenon at the Jungfraujoch, on aerosol hygroscopicity was shown to be negligible for D0<265 nm. Thermally driven injections of planetary boundary layer (PBL air, particularly observed in the early afternoon of summer days with convective anticyclonic weather conditions, lead to a decrease of aerosol hygroscopicity. However, the effect of PBL influence is not seen in the annual mean hygroscopicity data because the effect is small and those conditions (weather class, season and time of day with PBL influence are relatively rare.

    Aerosol hygroscopicity was found to be virtually independent of synoptic wind direction during advective weather situations, i.e. when horizontal motion of the atmosphere dominates over thermally driven convection. This indicates that the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosol observed at the

  20. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  1. Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

  2. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  3. Ambient black carbon particle hygroscopic properties controlled by mixing state and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The wet removal of black carbon aerosol (BC in the atmosphere is a crucial factor in determining its atmospheric lifetime and thereby the vertical and horizontal distributions, dispersion on local and regional scales, and the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The in-cloud scavenging and wet deposition rate of freshly emitted hydrophobic BC will be increased on acquisition of more-hydrophilic components by coagulation or coating processes. The lifetime of BC is still subject to considerable uncertainty for most of the model inputs, which is largely due to the insufficient constraints on the BC hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion process from observational field data. This study was conducted at a site along UK North Norfolk coastline, where the BC particles were transported from different regions within Western Europe. A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA was coupled with a single particle soot photometer (SP2 to measure the hygroscopic properties of BC particles and associated mixing state in real time. In addition, a Soot Particle AMS (SP-AMS measured the chemical compositions of additional material associated with BC particles. The ensemble of BC particles persistently contained a less-hygroscopic mode at a growth factor (gf of around 1.05 at 90% RH (dry diameter 163 nm. Importantly, a more-hygroscopic mode of BC particles was observed throughout the experiment, the gf of these BC particles extended up to ~1.4–1.6 with the minimum between this and the less hygroscopic mode at a gf ~1.25, or equivalent effective hygroscopicity parameter κ ~0.1. The gf of BC particles (gfBC was highly influenced by the composition of associated soluble material: increases of gfBC were associated with secondary inorganic components, and these increases were more pronounced when ammonium nitrate was in the BC particles; however the presence of secondary organic matter suppressed

  4. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  5. A Methodology for Evaluating the Hygroscopic Behavior of Wood in Adaptive Building Skins using Motion Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dabaa, Rana; Abdelmohsen, Sherif

    2018-05-01

    The challenge in designing kinetic architecture lies in the lack of applying computational design and human computer interaction to successfully design intelligent and interactive interfaces. The use of ‘programmable materials’ as specifically fabricated composite materials that afford motion upon stimulation is promising for low-cost low-tech systems for kinetic facades in buildings. Despite efforts to develop working prototypes, there has been no clear methodological framework for understanding and controlling the behavior of programmable materials or for using them for such purposes. This paper introduces a methodology for evaluating the motion acquired from programmed material – resulting from the hygroscopic behavior of wood – through ‘motion grammar’. Motion grammar typically allows for the explanation of desired motion control in a computationally tractable method. The paper analyzed and evaluated motion parameters related to the hygroscopic properties and behavior of wood, and introduce a framework for tracking and controlling wood as a programmable material for kinetic architecture.

  6. Hygroscopics and yield characteristics of cocoon in races of Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Porto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoons, cocoon shells and chrysalis of four races of Bombyx mori L., two from China (C202 and C212 and two from Japan (B104 and M11-2, were analyzed in function of determinant factors as weight (dry mater and moisture and by hygroscopic capacity after cooking. It was used a complete randomized design, with four treatments and ten replications. Although the cocoon shell has a higher hygroscopic capacity, the percentage of water in the chrysalis is the main factor to determine the weight of cocoon. The percentage of water in the cocoon and its components are inversely related to the absorption after cooking. Of all races evaluated, the chinese ones had lower percentage of water in the cocoon and higher cocoon shell weight than the japanese races.

  7. Stability of unpasteurized and refrigerated orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of orange juice obtained from a small extractor and stored in a polyethylene bottle was assessed under isothermal and non-isothermal storage conditions at 4, 8 and 12ºC for 72 hours. pH, titratable acidity and Brix did not alter significantly during the 72 hours storage. Microbiological analysis showed high initial count for moulds and yeasts that increased in the juice stored for 72h under the non-isothermal conditions with temperature abuse (12��C/4h. Date of the sensory evaluation showed a small reduction in product acceptance in this condition. The juice, in the recommended validity period (48h, presented losses of less than 20% of the initial ascorbic acid content regardless of the treatment. However, after this time, the degradation became accentuated reaching, at 72h storage, retentions of 72 to 85%.Desenvolvimento microbiano, ação enzimática e reações químicas influenciam a qualidade de suco de laranja natural não-pasteurizado, podendo comprometer características sensoriais e provocar perdas nutricionais. A estabilidade do suco, obtido em extrator de pequeno porte e acondicionado em embalagem de polietileno, foi avaliada em condições isotérmicas e não-isotérmicas de armazenamento em temperaturas entre 4 e 12ºC por 72h. Valores de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do armazenamento em todas as condições. Resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram alta contagem inicial de bolores e leveduras, que aumentaram no suco armazenado por 72h na condição não isotérmica onde houve abuso de temperatura (12ºC por 4h. Os testes sensoriais mostraram uma pequena redução na aceitação do produto nessa mesma condição. Constatou-se que o suco, no período preconizado como prazo de validade (48h, apresentou perdas inferiores a 20% do teor inicial de ácido ascórbico, independentemente do tratamento. A partir deste momento, a degradação se

  8. Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles emitted during wintertime biomass burning episodes in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Nenes, Athanasios; Florou, Kalliopi; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-04-01

    This study explores the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activity of atmospheric particles during intense biomass burning periods in an urban environment. During a one-month campaign in the center of Athens, Greece, a CCN counter coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a high resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS) were used to measure the size-resolved CCN activity and composition of the atmospheric aerosols. During the day, the organic fraction of the particles was more than 50%, reaching almost 80% at night, when the fireplaces were used. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis revealed 4 factors with biomass burning being the dominant source after 18:00 until the early morning. The CCN-based overall hygroscopicity parameter κ ranged from 0.15 to 0.25. During the night, when the biomass burning organic aerosol (bbOA) dominated, the hygroscopicity parameter for the mixed organic/inorganic particles was on average 0.16. The hygroscopicity of the biomass-burning organic particles was 0.09, while the corresponding average value for all organic particulate matter during the campaign was 0.12.

  9. Hygroscopic analysis of individual Beijing haze aerosol particles by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhangpeng; Ji, Yuan; Pi, Yiqun; Yang, Kaixiang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yinqi; Zhai, Yadi; Yan, Zhengguang; Han, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Investigating the hygroscopic behavior of haze aerosol particles is essential for understanding their physicochemical properties and their impacts on regional weather and visibility. An environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a home-made transmission-scattering electron imaging setup and an energy dispersive spectrometer was used for in-situ observations of pure water-soluble (WS) salts and Beijing haze particles. This imaging setup showed obvious advantages for improving the resolution and acquiring internal information of mixed particles in hydrated environments. We measured the deliquescence relative humidity of pure NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4 by deliquescence-crystallization processes with an accuracy of up to 0.3% RH. The mixed haze particles showed hygroscopic activation like water uptake and morphological changes when they included WS components such as nitrates, sulfates, halides, ammoniums, and alkali metal salts. In addition, the hygroscopic behavior provides complementary information for analyzing possible phases in mixed haze particles.

  10. The Influence of Aerosol Hygroscopicity on Retrieving the Aerosol Extincting Coefficient from MPL Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhao, C.

    2016-12-01

    Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements have been widely used to profile the ambient aerosol extincting coefficient(). Lidar Ratio (LR) ,which highly depends on the particle number size distribution (PNSD) and aerosol hygroscopicity, is the most important factor to retrieve the profile. A constant AOD constrained LR is usually used in current algorithms, which would lead to large bias when the relative humidity (RH) in the mixed layer is high. In this research, the influences of PNSD, aerosol hygroscopicity and RH profiles on the vertical variation of LR were investigated based on the datasets from field measurements in the North China Plain (NCP). Results show that LR can have an enhancement factor of more than 120% when the RH reaches to 92%. A new algorithm of retrieving the profile is proposed based on the variation of LR due to aerosol hygroscopicity. The magnitude and vertical structures of retrieved using this method can be significantly different to that of the fiexed LR method. The relative difference can reach up to 40% when the RH in the mixed layer is higher than 90% . Sensitivity studies show that RH profile and PNSD affect most on the retrieved by fiexed LR method. In view of this, a scheme of LR enhancement factor by RH is proposed in the NCP. The relative differnce of the calculated between using this scheme and the new algorithm with the variable LR can be less than 10%.

  11. Effect of green juice and their bioactive compounds on genotoxicity induced by alkylating agents in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Gabriela Elibio; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Borges, Gabriela Daminelli; Teixeira, Karina Oliveira; Jesus, Maiellen Martins; Daumann, Francine; Ramlov, Fernanda; Carvalho, Tiago; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Rohr, Paula; Moraes De Andrade, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Kale juice (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) is a reliable source of dietary carotenoids and typically contains the highest concentrations of lutein (LT) and beta-carotene (BC) among green leafy vegetables. As a result of their antioxidant properties, dietary carotenoids are postulated to decrease the risk of disease occurrence, particularly certain cancers. The present study aimed to (1) examine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity of natural and commercially available juices derived from Brassica oleracea and (2) assess influence of LT or BC against DNA damage induced by alkylating agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MS) or cyclophosphamide (CP) in vivo in mice. Male Swiss mice were divided into groups of 6 animals, which were treated with water, natural, or commercial Brassica oleraceae juices (kale), LT, BC, MMS, or CP. After treatment, DNA damage was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay. Results demonstrated that none of the Brassica oleraceae juices or carotenoids produced genotoxic effects. In all examined cell types, kale juices or carotenoids inhibited DNA damage induced by MMS or CP administered either pre- or posttreatment by 50 and 20%, respectively. Under our experimental conditions, kale leaf juices alone exerted no marked genotoxic or clastogenic effects. However, a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by MMS or CP was noted. This effect was most pronounced in groups that received juices, rather than carotenoids, suggesting that the synergy among constituents present in the food matrix may be more beneficial than the action of single compounds. Data suggest that the antigenotoxic properties of kale juices may be of therapeutic importance.

  12. Aerosol Hygroscopicity Distribution and Mixing State Determined by Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Rose, D.; Cheng, Y.; Gunthe, S. S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents, firstly the concept of hygroscopicity distribution and its application in the analysis of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurement data. The cumulative particle hygroscopicity distribution function N(κ) is defined as the number concentration of particles with a hygroscopicity parameter, κ, smaller than a certain value of κ. Since the measured CCN (at supersaturation S) can be considered as those particles with κ larger than a certain value, the CCN efficiency spectra (activation curve) can be easily converted to N(κ) distributions. Unlike studies calculating only one hygroscopicity parameter from a CCN activation curve, the concept of N(κ) shows the usefulness of all points on the activation curve. Modeling studies of three assumed N(κ) distributions are used to illustrate the new concept N(κ) and how it is related to the size-resolved CCN measurements. Secondly, we discuss the aerosol mixing state information that can be obtained from the shape of N(κ). A case study is performed based on the CCN measurements during the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign. In the campaign-averaged N(κ) distribution, most particles (>80%) lie in a mode with a geometric mean κ around 0.2-0.4, and an increasing trend in the mean κ is found as particle size increases. There seems to be another less hygroscopic mode but the κ resolution (depending on the size resolution) in the campaign is not high enough to interpret it. It is also clear that N(κ) is not a monodisperse distribution (implying an internal mixture of the aerosols). The dispersion parameter σg,κ, which is the geometric standard deviation of N(κ), can be used as an indicator for the aerosol mixing state. The indicator σg,κ shows good agreement with the soot mixing state measured by a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) during the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign. The concept of N(κ) can be widely used to study aerosol mixing states, especially in the lab experiment where a

  13. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. [Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  16. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  17. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  18. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  19. Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic near-coastal sub-micrometre aerosol particle features in summer were characterised based on measured data on aerosol hygroscopicity, size distributions, volatility and chemical ion and organic carbon mass concentrations. Hysplit model was used to calculate the history of the air masses to predict the particle origin. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were utilised. The hygroscopic properties of particles mostly resembled those of marine aerosols. The measurements took place at 130 km from the Southern Ocean, which was the most significant factor affecting the particle properties. This is explained by the lack of additional sources on the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean was thus a likely source of the particles and nucleating and condensing vapours. The particles were very hygroscopic (HGF 1.75 at 90 nm and very volatile. Most of the sub-100 nm particle volume volatilised below 100 °C. Based on chemical data, particle hygroscopic and volatile properties were explained by a large fraction of non-neutralised sulphuric acid together with organic material. The hygroscopic growth factors assessed from chemical data were similar to measured. Hygroscopicity was higher in dry continental air masses compared with the moist marine air masses. This was explained by the aging of the marine organic species and lower methanesulphonic acid volume fraction together with the changes in the inorganic aerosol chemistry as the aerosol had travelled long time over the continental Antarctica. Special focus was directed in detailed examination of the observed new particle formation events. Indications of the preference of negative over positive ions in nucleation could be detected. However, in a detailed case study, the neutral particles dominated the particle formation process. Freshly nucleated particles had the smallest hygroscopic growth factors, which increased subsequent to particle aging.

  20. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Metwally, Dina M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-05-22

    Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  1. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated

  2. EXTRACCIÓN Y SECADO DE FLOCULANTES NATURALES USADOS EN LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE JUGOS DE CAÑA EXTRAÇÁO E SECAGEM DE NATURAL USADO FLOCULANTES DE CLARIFICAÇÁO DO SUCOS DE CANA EXTRACTION AND DRYING OF NATURAL FLOCCULANTS USED IN CANE JUICE CLARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ortiz G

    2011-12-01

    ólidos solúveis com 93,6%, seguido pela balsa com 90,4% e guácimo com 89,7%, comparado a 100% da amostra de controlo. Os três floculantes modificados são compostas principalmente de carboidratos (frutóse, glicose e maltose, saponinas e fenóis, e ferro, cálcio e fosfato. Ao comparar os teores de calcio e fosfato foi encontrado que valores mais altos correspondem aos tratamentos modificados bardana e balsa, esses valores influenciaram a sua melhor performance no processo de clarificaçáo do suco de cana.The clarification of cane juice is made by the addition of vegetable mucilage. The objective was to evaluate the clarification of three natural flocculants (balso, cadillo and guásimo in cane juice. The physicochemical properties and insoluble solids retention were characterized versus a synthetic flocculant. Was used a statistical model for randomized block and control sample was the Profloc 985. Mucilage was obtained by pulping the highest quality distilled water, dried at 38°C for 11 hours and reduced to a particle size of 212µm. The ideal clarification was at a concentration 0,03% w/v. The cadillo was dry flocculant showed greater efficiency in the precipitation of soluble solids to 93,6%, followed by the balso with a 90,4% and 89,7% guácimo, compared to 100% of the control sample. The three modified flocculants are composed mainly of carbohydrates (fructose, glucose and maltose, saponins and phenols, and iron, calcium and phosphate. By comparing the contents of calcium and phosphates was found that higher values correspond to the treatments modified cadillo and balso, these values influenced their best performance in the process of clarification of sugar cane juice.

  3. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  4. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  5. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  7. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  8. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  10. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to which...

  12. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  13. Mass extinction efficiency and extinction hygroscopicity of ambient PM2.5 in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Ma, Xin; He, Yujie; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yungang; Sheng, Li; Hu, Jiangkai; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-07-01

    The ambient PM 2.5 pollution problem in China has drawn substantial international attentions. The mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and hygroscopicity factor (f(RH)) of PM 2.5 can be readily applied to study the impacts on atmospheric visibility and climate. The few previous investigations in China only reported results from pilot studies and are lack of spatial representativeness. In this study, hourly average ambient PM 2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, and atmospheric visibility data from China national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks were retrieved and analyzed. It includes 24 major Chinese cities from nine city-clusters with the period of October 2013 to September 2014. Annual average extinction coefficient in urban China was 759.3±258.3Mm -1 , mainly caused by dry PM 2.5 (305.8.2±131.0Mm -1 ) and its hygroscopicity (414.6±188.1Mm -1 ). High extinction coefficient values were resulted from both high ambient PM 2.5 concentration (68.5±21.7µg/m 3 ) and high relative humidity (69.7±8.6%). The PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency varied from 2.87 to 6.64m 2 /g with an average of 4.40±0.84m 2 /g. The average extinction hygroscopic factor f(RH=80%) was 2.63±0.45. The levels of PM 2.5 mass extinction efficiency and hygroscopic factor in China were in comparable range with those found in developed countries in spite of the significant diversities among all 24 cities. Our findings help to establish quantitative relationship between ambient extinction coefficient (visual range) and PM 2.5 & relative humidity. It will reduce the uncertainty of extinction coefficient estimation of ambient PM 2.5 in urban China which is essential for the research of haze pollution and climate radiative forcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the boreal forest: diurnal variation, solubility and the influence of sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles present in a boreal forest was measured at a relative humidity of 88%. Simultaneously the gas phase concentration of sulfuric acid, a very hygroscopic compound, was monitored. The focus was mainly on days with new particle formation by nucleation. The measured hygroscopic growth factors (GF correlated positively with the gaseous phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The smaller the particles, the stronger the correlation, with r=0.20 for 50 nm and r=0.50 for 10 nm particles. The increase in GF due to condensing sulfuric acid is expected to be larger for particles with initially smaller masses. During new particle formation, the changes in solubility of the new particles were calculated during their growth to Aitken mode sizes. As the modal diameter increased, the solubility of the particles decreased. This indicated that the initial particle growth was due to more hygroscopic compounds, whereas the later growth during the evening and night was mainly caused by less hygroscopic or even hydrophobic compounds. For all the measured sizes, a diurnal variation in GF was observed both during days with and without particle formation. The GF was lowest at around midnight, with a mean value of 1.12–1.24 depending on particle size and if new particle formation occurred during the day, and increased to 1.25–1.34 around noon. This can be tentatively explained by day- and nighttime gas-phase chemistry; different vapors will be present depending on the time of day, and through condensation these compounds will alter the hygroscopic properties of the particles in different ways.

  15. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  16. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  17. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  18. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food. The lemon oil and lemon essence (derived from lemons) content may be adjusted in accordance with... juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration...

  19. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  20. A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-05

    A capacitive electrocardiography (cECG) technique using a non-invasive ECG measuring technology that does not require direct contact between the sensor and the skin has attracted much interest. The system encounters several challenges when the sensor electrode and subject's skin are weakly coupled. Because there is no direct physical contact between the subject and any grounding point, there is no discharge path for the built-up electrostatic charge. Subsequently, the electrostatic charge build-up can temporarily contaminate the ECG signal from being clearly visible; a stabilization period (3-15 min) is required for the measurement of a clean, stable ECG signal at low humidity levels (below 55% relative humidity). Therefore, to obtain a clear ECG signal without noise and to reduce the ECG signal stabilization time to within 2 min in a dry ambient environment, we have developed a fabric electrode with embedded polymer (FEEP). The designed hygroscopic FEEP has an embedded superabsorbent polymer layer. The principle of FEEP as a conductive electrode is to provide humidity to the capacitive coupling to ensure strong coupling and to allow for the measurement of a stable, clear biomedical signal. The evaluation results show that hygroscopic FEEP is capable of rapidly measuring high-accuracy ECG signals with a higher SNR ratio.

  1. Molecular Diversity of Sea Spray Aerosol Particles: Impact of Ocean Biology on Particle Composition and Hygroscopicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Laskina, Olga; Trueblood, Jonathan; Estillore, Armando D.; Morris, Holly S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Sultana, Camile M.; Lee, Christopher; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Dowling, Jackie; Qin, Zhen; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Stone, Elizabeth; Prather, Kimberly; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate depends on the size and chemical composition of individual particles that make-up the total SSA ensemble. While the organic fraction of SSA has been characterized from a bulk perspective, there remains a lack of understanding as to the composition of individual particles within the SSA ensemble. To better understand the molecular components within SSA particles and how SSA composition changes with ocean biology, simultaneous measurements of seawater and SSA were made during a month-long mesocosm experiment performed in an ocean-atmosphere facility. Herein, we deconvolute the composition of freshly emitted SSA devoid of anthropogenic and terrestrial influences by characterizing classes of organic compounds as well as specific molecules within individual SSA particles. Analysis of SSA particles show that the diversity of molecules within the organic fraction varies between two size fractions (submicron and supermicron) with contributions from fatty acids, monosaccharides, polysaccharides and siliceous material. Significant changes in the distribution of these compounds within individual particles are observed to coincide with the rise and fall of phytoplankton and bacterial populations within the seawater. Furthermore, water uptake is impacted as shown by hygroscopicity measurements of model systems composed of representative organic compounds. Thus, the how changes in the hygroscopic growth of SSA evolves with composition can be elucidated. Overall, this study provides an important connection between biological processes that control the composition of seawater and changes in single particle composition which will enhances our ability to predict the impact of SSA on climate.

  2. Short communication: Predicting cation exchange capacity from hygroscopic moisture in agricultural soils of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torrent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC depends on the extent and negative charge density of surfaces of soil mineral and organic components. Soil water sorption also depends on the extent of such surfaces, giving thus way to significant relationships between CEC and hygroscopic moisture (HM in many soils. In this work, we explored whether CEC could be accurately predicted from HM in agricultural soils of Mediterranean and humid temperate areas in Western Europe. For this purpose, we examined 243 soils across a wide variation range of their intrinsic properties. Soil CEC was determined using 1 M ammonium acetate at pH 7 and HM at an equilibrium air relative humidity (RH of 43% (HM43. Most of the variation of soil CEC was explained by HM43 through a linear function (CEC = 1.4 + 0.78HM43; R2 = 0.962; standard deviation = 2.30 cmolc/kg. Coefficients of the regression equation were similar for subgroups of soils differing in moisture regime, clay mineralogy, carbonate content and organic carbon content. Therefore, soil hygroscopic moisture measurements at a fixed RH level provided a simple, robust, inexpensive method for predicting soil CEC.

  3. Predicting cation exchange capacity from hygroscopic moisture in agricultural soils of Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, J.; Campillo, M.C. del; Barrón, V.

    2015-07-01

    Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) depends on the extent and negative charge density of surfaces of soil mineral and organic components. Soil water sorption also depends on the extent of such surfaces, giving thus way to significant relationships between CEC and hygroscopic moisture (HM) in many soils. In this work, we explored whether CEC could be accurately predicted from HM in agricultural soils of Mediterranean and humid temperate areas in Western Europe. For this purpose, we examined 243 soils across a wide variation range of their intrinsic properties. Soil CEC was determined using 1 M ammonium acetate at pH 7 and HM at an equilibrium air relative humidity (RH) of 43% (HM43). Most of the variation of soil CEC was explained by HM43 through a linear function (CEC = 1.4 + 0.78HM43; R2 = 0.962; standard deviation = 2.30 cmolc/kg). Coefficients of the regression equation were similar for subgroups of soils differing in moisture regime, clay mineralogy, carbonate content and organic carbon content. Therefore, soil hygroscopic moisture measurements at a fixed RH level provided a simple, robust, inexpensive method for predicting soil CEC. (Author)

  4. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  6. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  7. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    and in naturally occurring sugars, and potential sensory acceptance can be obtained using grape juice concentrate in the osmotic dehydration process, followed by air- drying process.

  8. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  9. Microbiological nutritional and sensorial changes in fresh carrot juice preserved by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A. I.; Abd-El-kalek, H.; Abd-El-kader, R. M.; Youssef, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Fresh carroll juice have perishable nature and very limited shelf-life, and may poses a microbiological hazard. Gamma irradiation (1.5, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy ) as non-thermal proceeding was performed to improve microbial quality, ensure safety and extending the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice. Although irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy had no significant effect on total carotenoids, physicochemical and sensory properties of the juice, it significantly reduced ascorbic acid content and was not enough for reducing microbial content to great extend and for eliminating enterococcus fecal it.However, there was no significant difference in total carotene content between all irradiated samples and non-irradiated control. It was found that immediately after irradiation the sensory scores of irradiated (1.5 and 3.0 kGy) and non-irradiation samples were not significantly different. Irradiation dose of 4.0 kGy significantly reduced the nutrition content and the sensory quality attributes of the juice. Thus, irradiation dose of 3.0 kGy can be successfully used to improve the microbial quality and extend the refrigerated shelf-life of fresh carrot juice, where it extended the shelf-life to 8 days against only 2 day for non-irradiated control. (Author)

  10. Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha P; Alacid, Fernando; Carrasco, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-08-07

    l-Citrulline is an excellent candidate to reduce muscle soreness, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. This study investigated the potential of watermelon juice as a functional drink for athletes. An in vitro study of intestinal absorption of l-citrulline in Caco-2 cells was performed using unpasteurized (NW), pasteurized (80 °C for 40 s) watermelon juice (PW) and, as control, a standard of l-citrulline. l-citrulline bioavailability was greater when it was contained in a matrix of watermelon and when no heat treatment was applied. In the in vivo experiment (maximum effort test in a cycloergometer), seven athletes were supplied with 500 mL of natural watermelon juice (1.17 g of l-citrulline), enriched watermelon juice (4.83 g of l-citrulline plus 1.17 g from watermelon), and placebo. Both watermelon juices helped to reduce the recovery heart rate and muscle soreness after 24 h.

  11. Study of the microencapsulation of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib Taxi, C M A; de Menezes, H C; Santos, A B; Grosso, C R F

    2003-01-01

    The camu-camu, like many other Amazonian fruits, shows an excellent potential for use due to its high vitamin C content, and the use of these natural resources could result in greater development of the Amazonian region. Few studies have been conducted with this fruit, and such studies are necessary in order to develop the required technology to allow for its utilization, thus avoiding or at least decreasing wastage of such a rich raw material. The principle objective of this study was to develop a process for the microencapsulation of camu-camu juice, optimizing the operational conditions. The processing conditions consisted of blanching at a temperature of 95 +/- 2 degrees C for 2 min, followed by cooling in an ice bath and juice extraction using a brush type depulper. The juice was dried with gum arabic or malt dextrin in a mini-spray dryer using an air entry temperature of between 100-160 degrees C and wall material concentration varying between 5-35%, in accordance with a factorial experimental design. Both the air entry temperature and the amount of wall material, plus the interaction between the two, gave significant positive effects at the level of 5% probability on the yield of juice powder. The optimum conditions for juice yield and vitamin C retention were established as 15% wall material and an air entry temperature of 150 degrees C.

  12. Comparative behaviour of yeast strains for ethanolic fermentation of culled apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, D R; Garg, S K; Johri, B N

    1998-07-01

    The culled apple juice contained (% w/v): nitrogen, 0.036; total sugars, 11.6 and was of pH 3.9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3284, Pichia kluyeri and Candida krusei produced more ethanol from culled apple juice at its optimum initial pH 4.5, whereas S. cerevisiae NCIM 3316 did so at pH 5.0. An increase in sugar concentration of apple juice from natural 11.6% to 20% exhibited enhanced ethanol production and improved fermentation efficiency of both the S. cerevisiae strains, whereas P. kluyveri and C. krusei produced high ethanol at 11.6% and 16.0% sugar levels, respectively. Urea was stimulatory for ethanol production as well as fermentation efficiency of the yeast strains under study.

  13. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriano H; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C; de Macedo, André C; Santana, Maria Helena A; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2013-12-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.

  14. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano H. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer.

  15. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  16. Sensitivity of depositions to the size and hygroscopicity of Cs-bearing aerosols released by the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, Mizuo [Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan); RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Adachi, Kouji; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi T.; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito [Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We recently revealed that the micro-physical properties of aerosols carrying the radioactive Cs released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) at an early stage (March 14-15, 2011) of the accident could be very different from what we assumed previously: super-micron and non-hygroscopic at the early stage, whereas sub-micron and hygroscopic afterwards (at least later than March 20-22). In the study, two sensitivity simulations with the two different aerosol micro-physical properties were conducted using a regional scale meteorology- chemical transport model (NHM-Chem). The impact of the difference was quite significant. 17% (10-3%) of the radioactive Cs fell onto the ground by dry (wet) deposition processes, and the rest was deposited into the ocean or was transported out of the model domain, which is central and northern part of the main land of Japan under the assumption that Cs-bearing aerosols are non-hygroscopic and super-micron. On the other hand, 5.7% (11.3%) fell onto the ground by dry (wet) deposition, for the cases under the assumption that the Cs-bearing aerosols are hygroscopic and sub-micron. For the accurate simulation of the deposition of radionuclides, knowledge of the aerosol micro-physical properties is essential as well as the accuracy of the simulated wind fields and precipitation patterns. (authors)

  17. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P.; Monson, P.R.; Novick, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K 2 was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K 2 was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Hygroscopic growth and critical supersaturations for mixed aerosol particles of inorganic and organic compounds of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Svenningsson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols contains a multitude of compounds and usually only a small fraction can be identified and quantified. However, a limited number of representative organic compounds can be used to describe the water-soluble organic fraction. In this work, initiated within the EU 5FP project SMOCC, four mixtures containing various amounts of inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride and three model organic compounds (levoglucosan, succinic acid and fulvic acid were studied. The interaction between water vapor and aerosol particles was studied at different relative humidities: at subsaturation using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA and at supersaturation using a cloud condensation nuclei spectrometer (CCN spectrometer. Surface tensions as a function of carbon concentrations were measured using a bubble tensiometer. Parameterizations of water activity as a function of molality, based on hygroscopic growth, are given for the pure organic compounds and for the mixtures, indicating van't Hoff factors around 1 for the organics. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule was tested on the hygroscopic growth of the mixtures and it was found to adequately explain the hygroscopic growth for 3 out of 4 mixtures, when the limited solubility of succinic acid is taken into account. One mixture containing sodium chloride was studied and showed a pronounced deviation from the ZSR mixing rule. Critical supersaturations calculated using the parameterizations of water activity and the measured surface tensions were compared with those determined experimentally.

  19. Development of a thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Oosterhaven, R.; Ouden, C. den

    1979-01-01

    A thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials has been studied as a component of a solar space heating system. The aim of this project is to decrease the storage volume in comparison with a rock-bed storage system by increasing the stored energy density.

  20. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  1. Effect of Morphology and Composition on the Hygroscopicity of Soot Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L.; Slowik, J.; Davidovits, P.; Jayne, J.; Kolb, C.; Worsnop, D.; Rudich, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Freshly generated soot aerosols are initially hydrophobic and unlikely to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). However, during combustion many low vapor pressure gas products are formed that may then condense on existing soot aerosols. Additionally, soot particles may acquire coatings as they age, such as acids, salts, and oxygenated organics. An understanding of this aging process and its effect on soot hygroscopicity is necessary to address the potential of soot to act as a CCN. The transformation of soot from hydrophobic to hydrophilic is the focus of this work. An aim here is to determine the minimum coating required for hygroscopic growth. Soot particles produced by combustion of mixtures of fuel and air are size selected by a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and entrained in a laminar flow passing through a flow tube. The size selected soot particles are mixed with a controlled amount of the gas phase precursors to produce the coatings to be studied. Initial studies are focused on coatings of H2SO4, NH4NO3, and selected organics. The number of particles per unit volume of air is counted by a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and the particles are isokinetically sampled into an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Two distinct types of soot aerosols have been observed depending on the type of fuel and air mixture. With soot produced by the combustion of propane and air, the AMS shows a polydisperse particle size distribution with aerodynamic diameters ranging from 100 nm to 400 nm. The aerodynamic diameter is linearly related to the DMA-determined mobility diameter with the product density x shape factor = 1.2. The organic molecules in this soot are mostly PAH compounds. However, when kerosene is added to the propane flame, the soot particle morphology and composition is strikingly altered. While the DMA shows an essentially unchanged mobility diameter distribution, in the range 100 nm to 400, aerodynamic particle diameter is constant at about 100 nm

  2. Particle hygroscopicity and its link to chemical composition in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China, during summertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distribution, particle hygroscopic properties, and size-resolved chemical composition were made during the summer of 2014 in Beijing, China. During the measurement period, the mean hygroscopicity parameters (κs of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 nm particles were respectively 0.16  ±  0.07, 0.19  ±  0.06, 0.22  ±  0.06, 0.26  ±  0.07, and 0.28  ±  0.10, showing an increasing trend with increasing particle size. Such size dependency of particle hygroscopicity was similar to that of the inorganic mass fraction in PM1. The hydrophilic mode (hygroscopic growth factor, HGF  >  1.2 was more prominent in growth factor probability density distributions and its dominance of hydrophilic mode became more pronounced with increasing particle size. When PM2.5 mass concentration was greater than 50 μg m−3, the fractions of the hydrophilic mode for 150, 250, and 350 nm particles increased towards 1 as PM2.5 mass concentration increased. This indicates that aged particles dominated during severe pollution periods in the atmosphere of Beijing. Particle hygroscopic growth can be well predicted using high-time-resolution size-resolved chemical composition derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements using the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. The organic hygroscopicity parameter (κorg showed a positive correlation with the oxygen to carbon ratio. During the new particle formation event associated with strongly active photochemistry, the hygroscopic growth factor or κ of newly formed particles is greater than for particles with the same sizes not during new particle formation (NPF periods. A quick transformation from external mixture to internal mixture for pre-existing particles (for example, 250 nm particles was observed. Such transformations may modify the state of the mixture of pre-existing particles and thus modify properties such

  3. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption. Results: The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6 had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6. Conclusions: Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.

  4. Discontinuities in hygroscopic growth below and above water saturation for laboratory surrogates of oligomers in organic atmospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hodas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuities in apparent hygroscopicity below and above water saturation have been observed for organic and mixed organic–inorganic aerosol particles in both laboratory studies and in the ambient atmosphere. However, uncertainty remains regarding the factors that contribute to observations of low hygroscopic growth below water saturation but enhanced cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity for a given aerosol population. Utilizing laboratory surrogates for oligomers in atmospheric aerosols, we explore the extent to which such discontinuities are influenced by organic component molecular mass and viscosity, non-ideal thermodynamic interactions between aerosol components, and the combination of these factors. Measurements of hygroscopic growth under subsaturated conditions and the CCN activity of aerosols comprised of polyethylene glycol (PEG with average molecular masses ranging from 200 to 10 000 g mol−1 and mixtures of PEG with ammonium sulfate (AS were conducted. Experimental results are compared to calculations of hygroscopic growth at thermodynamic equilibrium conducted with the Aerosol Inorganic Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC model, and the potential influence of kinetic limitations on observed water uptake was further explored through estimations of water diffusivity in the PEG oligomers. Particle-phase behavior, including the prevalence of liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS, was also modeled with AIOMFAC. Under subsaturated relative humidity (RH conditions, we observed little variability in hygroscopic growth across PEG systems with different molecular masses; however, an increase in CCN activity with increasing PEG molecular mass was observed. This effect is most pronounced for PEG–AS mixtures, and, in fact, an enhancement in CCN activity was observed for the PEG10000–AS mixture as compared to pure AS, as evidenced by a 15 % reduction in critical activation diameter at a

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  6. Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids; it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols.

  7. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  8. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  9. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at 35% relative humidity ( and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to 10% at 95% in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation, and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%. These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50% due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The

  10. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution......Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid....... A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low...

  11. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey aimed to evaluate knowledge and safe usage of jungle juice on patients in ... patterns and safety measures employed during use of jungle juice among ... Regarding the specific antidote for severe local anesthetic toxicity and its ...

  12. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  13. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  14. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight into winter haze formation mechanisms based on aerosol hygroscopicity and effective density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xingnan; Ma, Zhen; Tao, Ye; Wang, Ruyu; Zhang, Ci; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-01

    We characterize a representative particulate matter (PM) episode that occurred in Shanghai during winter 2014. Particle size distribution, hygroscopicity, effective density, and single particle mass spectrometry were determined online, along with offline analysis of water-soluble inorganic ions. The mass ratio of SNA / PM1. 0 (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) fluctuated slightly around 0.28, suggesting that both secondary inorganic compounds and carbonaceous aerosols contributed substantially to the haze formation, regardless of pollution level. Nitrate was the most abundant ionic species during hazy periods, indicating that NOx contributed more to haze formation in Shanghai than did SO2. During the representative PM episode, the calculated PM was always consistent with the measured PM1. 0, indicating that the enhanced pollution level was attributable to the elevated number of larger particles. The number fraction of the near-hydrophobic group increased as the PM episode developed, indicating the accumulation of local emissions. Three banana-shaped particle evolutions were consistent with the rapid increase of PM1. 0 mass loading, indicating that the rapid size growth by the condensation of condensable materials was responsible for the severe haze formation. Both hygroscopicity and effective density of the particles increased considerably with growing particle size during the banana-shaped evolutions, indicating that the secondary transformation of NOx and SO2 was one of the most important contributors to the particle growth. Our results suggest that the accumulation of gas-phase and particulate pollutants under stagnant meteorological conditions and subsequent rapid particle growth by secondary processes were primarily responsible for the haze pollution in Shanghai during wintertime.

  16. Gradient of structural traits drives hygroscopic movements of scarious bracts surrounding Helichrysum bracteatum capitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Wykret, Dorota; Rypien, Aleksandra; Dulski, Mateusz; Grelowski, Michal; Wrzalik, Roman; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The capitulum of Helichrysum bracteatum is surrounded by scarious involucral bracts that perform hygroscopic movements leading to bract bending toward or away from the capitulum, depending on cell wall water status. The present investigation aimed at explaining the mechanism of these movements. Surface strain and bract shape changes accompanying the movements were quantified using the replica method. Dissection experiments were used to assess the contribution of different tissues in bract deformation. Cell wall structure and composition were examined with the aid of light and electron microscopy as well as confocal Raman spectroscopy. At the bract hinge (organ actuator) longitudinal strains at opposite surfaces differ profoundly. This results in changes of hinge curvature that drive passive displacement of distal bract portions. The distal portions in turn undergo nearly uniform strain on both surfaces and also minute shape changes. The hinge is built of sclerenchyma-like abaxial tissue, parenchyma and adaxial epidermis with thickened outer walls. Cell wall composition is rather uniform but tissue fraction occupied by cell walls, cell wall thickness, compactness and cellulose microfibril orientation change gradually from abaxial to adaxial hinge surface. Dissection experiments show that the presence of part of the hinge tissues is enough for movements. Differential strain at the hinge is due to adaxial-abaxial gradient in structural traits of hinge tissues and cell walls. Thus, the bract hinge of H. bracteatum is a structure comprising gradually changing tissues, from highly resisting to highly active, rather than a bi-layered structure with distinct active and resistance parts, often ascribed for hygroscopically moving organs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wonaschütz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs: between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm−3, which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM increased with plume age: from −3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  18. Shrinkage stress compensation in composite-restored teeth: relaxation or hygroscopic expansion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, Laurel A; Blen, Bernard J; Benson, Jarred H; Hatch, Robert H; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2013-05-01

    Polymerization of composite restorations causes shrinkage, which deforms and thus stresses restored teeth. This shrinkage deformation, however, has been shown to decrease over time. The objective was to investigate whether this reduction was caused by hygroscopic expansion or stress relaxation of the composite/tooth complex. Extracted molars were mounted in rigid stainless steel rings with four spherical reference areas. Twelve molars were prepared with large mesioocclusodistal slots, etched, bonded, and restored with a composite material (Filtek Supreme, 3M ESPE) in two horizontal layers. Ten intact molars were the controls. The teeth were stored either in deionized water or silicone oil. They were scanned after preparation (baseline), restoration (0-week), and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks storage. Scanned tooth surfaces were aligned with the baseline using the unchanged reference areas. Cuspal flexure was calculated from lingual and buccal surface deformation. To verify that the restorations had remained bonded, dye penetration at the interfaces was assessed using basic fuchsin dye. Statistical assessment was done by ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test (p=0.05). Substantial cuspal contraction was found for restored teeth after the composite was cured (13-14 μm cuspal flexure). After 4 weeks cuspal contraction decreased significantly for restored teeth stored in water (7.3 ± 3.2) but not for those stored in silicone oil (11.4 ± 5.0). Dye penetration of the occlusal interface was minimal in both groups (106 ± 87 and 21 ± 28 μm in water and silicone oil, respectively). The results suggest that hygroscopic expansion was the main mechanism for shrinkage stress compensation. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  20. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  1. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  2. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  4. Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roller Sibel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of food poisoning associated with drinking un-pasteurised apple juice contaminated with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 are a cause of serious illness and occasionally death. Whilst a well-established heat process (pasteurisation will readily eliminate the pathogen, some consumers are demanding more fresh-like foods that have not been subjected to processing methods that are perceived as severe and may lead to loss of flavour and vitamins. Therefore, alternative methods are being investigated to replace pasteurisation and improve the safety of minimally-processed juices. The addition of natural antimicrobial substances such as the phenolic substances carvacrol and p-cymene (derived from the essential oils of herbs and spices provides a potential new route to assure safety and extend the shelf-life of raw fruit juices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of very low concentrations (0.25–1.25 mM of carvacrol and p-cymene both individually and in combination as a novel means of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in un-pasteurised apple juice. Results When inoculated at a level of 4 log CFU/ml into un-pasteurised apple juice (pH 3.20 ± 0.06, Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived for up to 3 and 19 days at 25° and 4°C, respectively. Treatment of the juice with 1.25 mM carvacrol or p-cymene reduced the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 to undetectable levels within 1–2 days at both storage temperatures. The effective concentrations of carvacrol could be reduced even further by combining it at 0.5 mM with cymene at 0.25 mM. The phenolic compounds were biocidal against both spoilage yeasts and E. coli O157:H7 thereby increasing the shelf-life and improving the safety of un-pasteurised apple juice, particularly when stored at chill temperatures. Conclusion The results showed that the natural antimicrobial compounds carvacrol and p-cymene could potentially be used to extend the shelf life and improve

  5. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    Proteomic technologies provide an excellent means for analysis of body fluids for cataloging protein constituents and identifying biomarkers for early detection of cancers. The biomarkers currently available for pancreatic cancer, such as CA19-9, lack adequate sensitivity and specificity...... contributing to late diagnosis of this deadly disease. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive characterization of the "pancreatic juice proteome" in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic juice was first fractionated by 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequently analyzed by liquid...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  6. A comparative study of the antacid effect of raw spinach juice and spinach extract in an artificial stomach model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana Sanjeev; Shinde, Priyanka Mangesh

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundSpinacia oleracea known as spinach is a green-leafy vegetable consumed by people across the globe. It is reported to possess potent medicinal properties by virtue of its numerous antioxidant phytoconstituents, together termed as the natural antioxidant mixture (NAO). The present study compares the antacid effect of raw spinach juice with an antioxidant-rich methanolic extract of spinach (NAOE) in an artificial stomach model. MethodsThe pH of NAOE at various concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) and its neutralizing effect on artificial gastric acid was determined and compared with that of raw spinach juice, water, the active control sodium bicarbonate (SB) and a marketed antacid preparation ENO. A modified model of Vatier's artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization of artificial gastric acid for the test compounds. The neutralizing capacity of test compounds was determined in vitro using the classical titration method of Fordtran. Results NAOE (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL), spinach juice, SB and ENO showed significantly better acid-neutralizing effect, consistent duration of neutralization and higher antacid capacity when compared with water. Highest antacid activity was demonstrated by ENO and SB followed by spinach juice and NAOE200. Spinach juice exhibited an effect comparable to NAOE (200 mg/mL). ConclusionsThus, it may be concluded that spinach displays significant antacid activity be it in the raw juice form or as an extract in methanol.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-01-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D 10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D 10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-07-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  9. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  10. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  11. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded SOA particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Duplissy, J.; Gysel, M.; Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Alfarra, M. R.; Fletcher, C.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Jonsson, Ã. M.; Hallquist, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2008-05-01

    The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3). The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility - hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer). VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF) factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75%) and above (RH 85%) the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH4)2SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an increasing volume fraction of SOA. To our knowledge this is the first time that SOA derived

  12. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  13. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  14. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  15. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  16. Multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (Green Blood: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Padalia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheatgrass is the young grass of the common wheat plant Triticum aestivum Linn., family Poeaceae (Graminae. It is commonly known as the "green blood" due to its high chlorophyll content which accounts for 70% of its chemical constituents. It contains a plethora of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and vital enzymes like superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. The vitamin content makes it an important adjuvant in anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic treatment, while the enzymes play a pivotal role in the anticancer approach of this herbal drug. A notable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its bioflavonoid content which are the naturally occurring antioxidants and ac-count for many of its clinical utilities such as management of inflammatory bowel disease and as a general detoxi-fier. However, the most remarkable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its high chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll bears structural similarity to hemoglobin and has been found to regenerate or act as a substitute of hemoglobin in hemoglobin deficiency conditions. This might be the reason behind the utility of wheatgrass in clinical conditions like thalassemia and hemolytic anemia. The present article focuses onto the various studies emphasizing the multi-tude potentials of wheatgrass.

  17. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  18. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yu; Cheng Wei; Wang Shaohua; Xiong Guangquan; Liao Li; Chen Xueling; Fan Gang; Pan Siyi

    2010-01-01

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  19. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  20. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the finished food. The grapefruit pulp, grapefruit oil, and grapefuit essence (components derived... paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Grapefruit juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat... sirup, dextrose, glucose sirup, and fructose. Sweeteners defined in part 168 of this chapter shall be as...

  1. Experimental Characterization and Hygroscopicity Determination of Secondary Aerosol from D5 Cyclic Siloxane Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanier, C. O.; Janechek, N. J.; Bryngelson, N.; Marek, R. F.; Lersch, T.; Bunker, K.; Casuccio, G.; Brune, W. H.; Hornbuckle, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes are anthropogenic chemicals present in personal care products such as antiperspirants and lotions. These are volatile chemicals that are readily released into the atmosphere by product use. Due to their emission and relatively slow kinetics of their major transformation pathway, reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), these compounds are present in high concentrations in indoor environments and widespread in outdoor environments. Cyclic siloxane reaction with OH can lead to secondary organic aerosols, and due to the widespread prevalence of the parent compounds, may be an important source of ambient aerosols. Atmospheric aerosols have important influences to the climate by affecting the radiative balance and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which influence clouds. While the parent compounds have been well-studied, the oxidation products have received much less attention, with almost no ambient measurements or experimental physical property data. We report physical properties of aerosols generated by reacting the cyclic siloxane D5 with OH using a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) photochemical chamber. The particles were characterized by SMPS, imaging and elemental analysis using both Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy systems (TEM-EDS and STEM-EDS), volatility measurements using Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (V-TDMA), and hygroscopicity measurements to determine CCN potential using a Droplet Measurement Technologies Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (DMT-CCN). Aerosol yield sensitivity to D5 and OH concentrations, residence time, and seed aerosols were analyzed. TEM-EDS and STEM-EDS analysis show spherical particle morphology with elemental composition consistent with aerosols derived from cyclic siloxane sources. Measured aerosol yields were 20-50% with typical aerosol concentrations 300,000 particles cm-3, up to

  2. Hygroscopic growth of water soluble organic carbon isolated from atmospheric aerosol collected at US national parks and Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathan F.; Collins, Don R.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Kumar, Naresh; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.

    2017-02-01

    Due to the atmospheric abundance and chemical complexity of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), its contribution to the hydration behavior of atmospheric aerosol is both significant and difficult to assess. For the present study, the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of isolated atmospheric WSOC particulate matter was measured without the compounding effects of common, soluble inorganic aerosol constituents. WSOC was extracted with high purity water from daily high-volume PM2.5 filter samples and separated from water soluble inorganic constituents using solid-phase extraction. The WSOC filter extracts were concentrated and combined to provide sufficient mass for continuous generation of the WSOC-only aerosol over the combined measurement time of the tandem differential mobility analyzer and coupled scanning mobility particle sizer-CCN counter used for the analysis. Aerosol samples were taken at Great Smoky Mountains National Park during the summer of 2006 and fall-winter of 2007-2008; Mount Rainier National Park during the summer of 2009; Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, during the summer of 2010; and Acadia National Park during the summer of 2011. Across all sampling locations and seasons, the hygroscopic growth of WSOC samples at 90 % RH, expressed in terms of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. Comparisons between the hygroscopicity of WSOC and that of samples containing all soluble materials extracted from the filters implied a significant modification of the hydration behavior of inorganic components, including decreased hysteresis separating efflorescence and deliquescence and enhanced water uptake between 30 and 70 % RH.

  3. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  4. Hygroscopicity of internally mixed particles composed of (NH4)2SO4 and citric acid under pulsed RH change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Min; Wu, Feng-Min; Jing, Bo; Wang, Na; Xu, Lin-Lin; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied a pulsed RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) to investigate hygroscopicity of internally mixed (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (AS)/citric acid (CA) particles. The water content and efflorescence ratio of AS in the particles and ambient relative humidity (RH) as a function of time were obtained with a subsecond time resolution. The hygroscopic behavior of AS aerosols in two different RH control processes (equilibrium and RH pulsed processes) showed that AS droplets crystallize with RH ranging from 42% to 26.5%. It was found that the half-life time ratio between the water content in the CA particles and the gas phase under RH pulsed change was greater than one under low RH conditions (humidity (ERH) of the mixed particles with AS/CA by molar ratio 3:1 was found between 22.7% and 5.9%, which was much lower than AS particles. No efflorescence process was observed for the 1:1 mixed particles, indicating that CA greatly suppressed nucleation of AS. Our results have shown that the PRHCS-RSVFTIR is effective to simulate hygroscopicity and water transport of aerosols under fast variations in RH in atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  6. Immunomagnetic separation combined with polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouli Wang

    Full Text Available A combination of immunomagnetic separation (IMS and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (A. acidoterrestris in apple juice. The optimum technological parameters of the IMS system were investigated. The results indicated that the immunocapture reactions could be finished in 60 min and the quantity of IMPs used for IMS was 2.5 mg/mL. Then the combined IMS-PCR procedure was assessed by detecting A. acidoterrestris in apple juice samples. The agarose gel electrophoresis results of 20 different strains showed that the IMS-PCR procedure presented high specificity to the A. acidoterrestris. The sensitivity of the IMS-PCR was 2×10(1 CFU/mL and the total detection time was 3 to 4 h. Of the 78 naturally contaminated apple juice samples examined, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of IMS-PCR compared with the standardized pour plate method were 90.9%, 97.0% and 96.2%, respectively. The results exhibited that the developed IMS-PCR method will be a valuable tool for detecting A. acidoterrestris and improving food quality in juice samples.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF HEALTH EFFECT OF FRUIT JUICE FROM LINGONBERRY (VACCINIUM VITIS - IDEA VIA PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poli Radusheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidants reduce cell damaging effects of free radicals, they also are used as medications to treat various forms of brain injury. Forest fruits as a lingonberry contain a lot of flavonoids and antioxidant supplements which contribute to the protection of different types of cancers and cardiovascular health problems. Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the relations between natural fluorescence in juice from lingonberry and its total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity in view of the usefulness of these compounds for human health and hygiene of food. Materials and Methods: For this reason, the juices from lingonberry from the region of Velingrad еnriched with lactulose will be investigated by using optical methods (colour measuring, fluorescence spectroscopy, rheological properties and sensor analysis. It may be an alternative method for quantifying the phenols and vitamins in juice from wild berries. Results: The dependences between chemical parameters, colour characteristics and the ratio between the intensity of emission and the intensity of excitation for exciting wavelength 275 nm have been found. The dependence between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content also exists. Excitation in the UV region is suitable for distinguishing the phenolic content and antioxidant compounds. The most suitable wavelengths found to be 265 nm and 275 nm. Lingonberry juices with lactulose exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour and Ostwald-de-Waele model are applied to calculate its rheological properties. Conclusions: The natural fluorescence of the lingonberry juices was correlated with their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and lightness. From fluorescence spectra three groups of fluorescence components are determined – phenolic acids, tannins and flavonoids. The obtained results and discussion presented here give the direction for further studies and additional test for validation of the correlation

  8. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  9. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  10. Cloud condensation nuclei activity and hygroscopicity of fresh and aged cooking organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Tasoglou, Antonios; Liangou, Aikaterini; Cain, Kerrigan P.; Jahn, Leif; Gu, Peishi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-03-01

    Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is potentially a significant fraction of organic particulate matter in urban areas. COA chemical aging experiments, using aerosol produced by grilling hamburgers, took place in a smog chamber in the presence of UV light or excess ozone. The water solubility distributions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and corresponding hygroscopicity of fresh and aged COA were measured. The average mobility equivalent activation diameter of the fresh particles at 0.4% supersaturation ranged from 87 to 126 nm and decreased for aged particles, ranging from 65 to 88 nm. Most of the fresh COA had water solubility less than 0.1 g L-1, even though the corresponding particles were quite CCN active. After aging, the COA fraction with water solubility greater than 0.1 g L-1 increased more than 2 times. Using the extended Köhler theory for multiple partially soluble components in order to predict the measured activation diameters, the COA solubility distribution alone could not explain the CCN activity. Surface tensions less than 30 dyn cm-1 were required to explain the measured activation diameters. In addition, COA particles appear to not be spherical, which can introduce uncertainties into the corresponding calculations.

  11. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  12. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  13. Statistical analysis and parameterization of the hygroscopic growth of the sub-micrometer urban background aerosol in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhijun; Ma, Nan; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    The take-up of water of aerosol particles plays an important role in heavy haze formation over North China Plain, since it is related with particle mass concentration, visibility degradation, and particle chemistry. In the present study, we investigated the size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles (smaller than 350 nm) on a basis of 9-month Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measurement in the urban background atmosphere of Beijing. The mean hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values derived from averaging over the entire sampling period for particles of 50 nm, 75 nm, 100 nm, 150 nm, 250 nm, and 350 nm in diameters were 0.14 ± 0.07, 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.09, and 0.23 ± 0.12, respectively, indicating the dominance of organics in the sub-micrometer urban aerosols. In the spring, summer, and autumn, the number fraction of hydrophilic particles increased with increasing particle size, resulting in an increasing trend of overall particle hygroscopicity with enhanced particle size. Differently, the overall mean κ values peaked in the range of 75-150 nm and decreased for particles larger than 150 nm in diameter during wintertime. Such size-dependency of κ in winter was related to the strong primary particle emissions from coal combustion during domestic heating period. The number fraction of hydrophobic particles such as freshly emitted soot decreased with increasing PM2.5 mass concentration, indicating aged and internal mixed particles were dominant in the severe particulate matter pollution. Parameterization schemes of the HGF as a function of relative humidity (RH) and particle size between 50 and 350 nm were determined for different seasons and pollution levels. The HGFs calculated from the parameterizations agree well with the measured HGFs at 20-90% RH. The parameterizations can be applied to determine the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles at ambient conditions for the area

  14. Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric aerosol particles over the Eastern Mediterranean: implications for regional direct radiative forcing under clean and polluted conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stock

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the effect of direct radiative forcing of aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean troposphere as a function of air mass composition, particle size distribution and hygroscopicity, and relative humidity (RH. During intensive field measurements on the island of Crete, Greece, the hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles were determined using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA and a Hygroscopicity Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (H-DMA-APS. Similar to former studies, the H-TDMA identified three hygroscopic sub-fractions of particles in the sub-μm range: a more hygroscopic group, a less hygroscopic group and a nearly hydrophobic particle group. The average hygroscopic particle growth factors at 90 % RH were a significant function of particle mobility diameter (Dp: 1.42 (± 0.05 at 30 nm compared to 1.63 (± 0.07 at 250 nm. The H-DMA-APS identified up to three hygroscopic sub-fractions at mobility diameters of 1.0 and 1.2 μm. The data recorded between 12 August and 20 October 2005 were classified into four distinct synoptic-scale air mass types distinguishing between different regions of origin (western Mediterranean vs. the Aegean Sea as well as the degree of continental pollution (marine vs. continentally influenced. The hygroscopic properties of particles with diameter Dp≥150 nm showed the most pronounced dependency on air mass origin, with growth factors in marine air masses exceeding those in continentally influenced air masses. Particle size distributions and hygroscopic growth factors were used to calculate aerosol light scattering coefficients at ambient RH using a Mie model. A main result was the pronounced enhancement of particle scattering over the eastern Mediterranean due to hygroscopic growth, both in the marine and continentally influenced air masses. When RH reached its summer daytime values around 70

  15. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    more interesting possibilities, was obtained by interfacing the clock to a Macintosh 8100/80 microcomputer via Vernier Corporation serial box interface hardware and software (see ref 2). This affordable (100-$250 per computer) interfacing package is being used in our first-year chemistry laboratories. The interfacing setup permitted data to be acquired at the much more meaningful rate of up to 50 points per second. It also permitted us to observe voltage variations with time while the strips in orange juice were hooked up to the clock. When data are taken 50 times per second rather than once every hour, the data take on new meaning. Figure 4 shows that there is a substantial drop in voltage each time the clock ticks. Figure 4.The observed voltage drop in the circuit corresponds to the ticking of the clock. The drop is due to the internal resistance of the orange juice solution. Video of orange juice clock connected to chart recorder demostrating voltage drop in the circuit as clock ticks. Video was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This observation can be explained and can be predicted as part of a student activity, if we understand the nature of an open vs. a short circuit. A battery can, in concept, perform between two extreme points: an open circuit, in which the voltage (V) is at a maximum but there is no current (I), and a short circuit, in which the current is at a maximum but there is no voltage. A battery is best used at an intermediate point where the power, I xV, is a maximum. In summary (eqs 5-7): (5) Open Circuit: V = maximum and I = 0 (6) Short Circuit: I = maximum and V = 0 (7) Battery Use: I x V = power = maximum A 1.5-V battery has an open circuit potential of 1.5 volts. When the battery is working, however, the real voltage will be less than 1.5 V. This is due to the internal resistance of the battery. So the real voltage of the battery (Vreal) equals the open circuit voltage (Vopen) minus the voltage drop

  16. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  17. Effect of irradiation and blanching on the quality of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, D.H.; Ham, S.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, B.K.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    The research was investigated to determine the effect of irradiation or blanching either alone or in combination on the shelf-life of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storages. The juices was made from fresh or blanced Spuriopinella bracycarpar and gamma irradiated at the doses (0.5 kGy to 5 kGy). Microbial growth, color change, vitamin C, and sensory evaluation were evaluated during storage at 4 and 25℃. Blanched juices had little effect on the inhibition of microbial growth compared to that of fresh juices. However, significant reduction of microbial counts was observed in the 0.5 kGy irradiation of both juices and inhibition efficiency was greatly increased when irradiated juices was stored at 4℃ rather than at room temperature. Fresh juices without irradiation were little different from the irradiated fresh juices until 20d storage on color change because the juices was rapidly browned immediately after getting the juices from extractor, but blanched juices showed more bright and clear color than that of fresh juices. However, irradiated blanched juices showed greatly reduced the L, a, and b value compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices during storage. The loss of vitamin C from non-irradiated fresh juices was increased during storage and the irradiated fresh juices had little effect on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated fresh juices. However, blanched juices showed less reduction of vitamin C than fresh juices and the irradiated blanched juices had little difference on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices, and both treatment showed less vitamin C loss at 4℃ storage. Fresh juces showed more strong grass flavor and biterness than blanched juices and irradiated fresh juices showed little difference on brightness, grass flavor, bitterness, freshness and acceptability, but irradiated blanched juices had better sensory evaluation on grass flavor, bitterness, freshness, and acceptability than non

  18. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  19. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Annisya Pramesti; Tadeus Arufan Jasrin; Opik Taofik Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This stu...

  20. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  1. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  2. Spray-drying of passion fruit juice using lactose-maltodextrin blends as the support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Cabrera Miguel Angel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 ºC, and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa. The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (pO objectivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da efectividade das misturas en diferentes níveis de lactose-maltodextrina (8:5, 10:5, 12:5 % w/v durante a pulverização do sumo de maracujá. A secagem foi feita em um atomizador de laboratório de pulverização (modelo Pulvis GB 22 com 2 entradas de temperatura de ar (180 e 190 ºC, e 2 compressores de pressão de ar (0.10 e 0.20 MPa. O índice da mistura, higroscopicidade e retenção de vitamina C foram avaliados no pó obtido. As curvas de superfície de resposta (p<0.05 mostram que os valores mais baixos do índice da mistura e higroscopicidade foram alcançados no intervalo de temperatura de 188-190 ºC e com uma concentração de 12:5 % w/v de lactosemaltodextrina; o melhor nível de retenção de vitamina C ocorreu a 180 ºC e 0.2 MPa.

  3. Acute ingestion of beetroot juice increases exhaled nitric oxide in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet L Kroll

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50 has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50.We therefore examined the influence of a beetroot juice supplement on FENO50 in healthy males and females (n = 38 during periods of rest and in normoxic conditions. FENO50, heart rate, blood pressure, and state affect were measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 90 minutes following ingestion of 70ml beetroot juice (6.5 mmol nitrate. Identical procedures were followed with ingestion of 70ml of water on a control day.After beetroot consumption, average values of the natural log of FENO50 (lnFENO50 increased by 21.3% (Cohen's d = 1.54, p < .001 45 minutes after consumption and by 20.3% (Cohen's d = 1.45, p < .001 90 min after consumption. On the other hand, only very small increases in FENO50 were observed after consumption of the control liquid (less than 1% increase. A small subset (n = 4 of participants completed an extended protocol lasting over 3 hours, where elevated levels of FENO50 persisted. No significant changes in cardiovascular measures were observed with this small single dose of beetroot juice.As NO serves a key role in innate immunity, future research is needed to explore the potential clinical utility of beetroot and dietary nitrate to elevate FENO50 and prevent respiratory infection.

  4. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  5. Combined data mining/NIR spectroscopy for purity assessment of lime juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the data mining study on the NIR spectrum of lime juice samples to determine their purity (natural or synthetic). NIR spectra for 72 pure and synthetic lime juice samples were recorded in reflectance mode. Sample outliers were removed using PCA analysis. Different data mining techniques for feature selection (Genetic Algorithm (GA)) and classification (including the radial basis function (RBF) network, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) tree) were employed. Based on the results, SVM proved to be the most accurate classifier as it achieved the highest accuracy (97%) using the raw spectrum information. The classifier accuracy dropped to 93% when selected feature vector by GA search method was applied as classifier input. It can be concluded that some relevant features which produce good performance with the SVM classifier are removed by feature selection. Also, reduced spectra using PCA do not show acceptable performance (total accuracy of 66% by RBFNN), which indicates that dimensional reduction methods such as PCA do not always lead to more accurate results. These findings demonstrate the potential of data mining combination with near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring lime juice quality in terms of natural or synthetic nature.

  6. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  7. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  8. STUDY ON THE ACCEPTABILITY OF YOGHURT WITH CARROT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana LEAHU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the results of a study regarding the evaluation of the sensory characteristics and consumers’ acceptance of unsweetened yoghurt with carrot juice. The yoghurts were obtained considering three carrot juice levels (10%, 20% and 30%, respectively and two starter cultures. Carrot yoghurt was prepared in the laboratory by adding carrot juice to milk and inoculated with a 3% yoghurt culture. The effects of the carrot juice on the sensory quality and consumers’ aceptance of the yoghurt samples were determined. The data obtained on various parameters were statistically analyzed.

  9. Enhanced bioavailability of lycopene when consumed as cis-isomers from tangerine compared to red tomato juice, a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Ralston, Robin A; Riedl, Ken M; Haufe, Thomas C; Schweiggert, Ralf M; King, Samantha A; Timmers, Cynthia D; Francis, David M; Lesinski, Gregory B; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Tangerine tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are rich in tetra-cis-lycopene resulting from natural variation in carotenoid isomerase. Our objective was to compare the bioavailability of lycopene from tangerine to red tomato juice, and elucidate physical deposition forms of these isomers in tomatoes by light and electron microscopy. Following a randomized cross-over design, subjects (n = 11, 6 M/5 F) consumed two meals delivering 10 mg lycopene from tangerine (94% cis) or red tomato juice (10% cis). Blood was sampled over 12 h and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions of plasma were isolated and analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Lycopene was crystalline in red tomato chromoplasts and globular in tangerine tomatoes. With tangerine tomato juice we observed a marked 8.5-fold increase in lycopene bioavailability compared to red tomato juice (p rich foods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Forestieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 % of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs. One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 % values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 % measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 % values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 % depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 % values (relative to pure sea salt is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM comprising the SSA. The GF(85 % values

  11. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (pcomposition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from

  12. CE-UV for the characterization of passion fruit juices provenance by amino acids profile with the aid of chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Heloisa Moretti; Cieslarova, Zuzana; Simionato, Ana Valéria Colnaghi

    2016-07-01

    A separation method was developed in order to quantify free amino acids in passion fruit juices using CE-UV. A selective derivatization reaction with FMOC followed by MEKC analysis was chosen due to the highly interconnected mobilities of the analytes, enabling the separation of 22 amino acids by lipophilicity differences, as will be further discussed. To achieve such results, the method was optimized concerning BGE composition (concentrations, pH, and addition of organic modifier) and running conditions (temperature and applied voltage). The optimized running conditions were: a BGE composed by 60 mmol/L borate buffer at pH 10.1, 30 mmol/L SDS and 5 % methanol; running for 40 min at 23°C and 25 kV. The method was validated and applied on eight brands plus one fresh natural juice, detecting 12 amino acids. Quantification of six analytes combined with principal component analysis was capable to characterize different types of juices and showed potential to detect adulteration on industrial juices. Glutamic acid was found to be the most concentrated amino acid in all juices, exceeding 1 g/L in all samples and was also crucial for the correct classification of a natural juice, which presented a concentration of 22 g/L. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (Green Blood: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Raheja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheatgrass is the young grass of the common wheat plant Triticum aestivum Linn., family Poeaceae (Graminae. It is commonly known as the “green blood” due to its high chlorophyll content which accounts for 70% of its chemical constituents. It contains a plethora of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and vital enzymes like superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. The vitamin content makes it an important adjuvant in anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic treatment, while the enzymes play a pivotal role in the anticancer approach of this herbal drug. A notable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its bioflavonoid content which are the naturally occurring antioxidants and account for many of its clinical utilities such as management of inflammatory bowel disease and as a general detoxifier. However, the most remarkable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its high chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll bears structural similarity to hemoglobin and has been found to regenerate or act as a substitute of hemoglobin in hemoglobin deficiency conditions. This might be the reason behind the utility of wheatgrass in clinical conditions like thalassemia and hemolytic anemia. The present article focuses onto the various studies emphasizing the multitude potentials of wheatgrass.

  15. Measuring and modeling the hygroscopic growth of two humic substances in mixed aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Zamora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA / inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the water activity range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on chemical composition data for different

  16. A study on effects of size and structure on hygroscopicity of nanoparticles using a tandem differential mobility analyzer and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kihong, E-mail: kpark@gist.ac.kr; Kim, Jae-Seok [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Research Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnology, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Miller, Arthur L. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Spokane Research Lab (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) technique is used to determine size-effect of nanoparticles (NaCl, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, KCl, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}) on their hygroscopic properties (deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and hygroscopic growth factor (GF)). The HTDMA system uses a combination of two nano DMAs and two regular DMAs to measure particle size change in a wide dynamic particle size range. Particles are subsequently analyzed with a transmission electron microscopy to investigate the potential effect of particle structure or morphology on the hygroscopic properties. We found that structural properties of NaCl and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles also play an important role in determination of the DRH and GF and are more pronounced at smaller diameters. Data show that the DRH of NaCl nanoparticles increased from {approx}75% up to {approx}83% RH at 8 nm and that their GF decreased with decreasing size. The extent to which the GF of NaCl nanoparticles decreased with decreasing size was greater than theoretically predicted with the Kelvin correction. The GF of furnace-generated NaCl nanoparticles that have pores and aggregate shape was found to be smaller than that of atomizer-generated particles that are close to perfectly cubic. For the case of atomizer-generated (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} nanoparticles, we observed no significant size-effect on their DRH, and the measured GF agreed well with predicted values using the Kelvin correction. For furnace-generated (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} nanoparticles, a gradual growth at moderate RH without noticeable deliquescence behavior occurred. Their TEM images showed that contrary to atomizer-generated (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} nanoparticles the furnace-generated (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} nanoparticles are not perfectly spherical and are often aggregates having pores and holes, which may favor holding residual water even in the dried condition. For

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romika Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.

  18. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  19. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago.

  20. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  1. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development. Key words: Pomegranate juice, SDS-PAGE, fatty acid, vitamin.

  2. Vitamin C stability in pineapple, guava and baobab juices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    associated with many health benefits such as promoting health cell ... such as juices are processed to ensure availability even when they are not in ... as fruit juices to extend the shelf life. The use of .... results show that vitamin C was highly retained in freezing .... College of Agriculture for providing funding for the work.

  3. Antifungal effects of sisal leaf juice on Lasiodiplodia theobromae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the nine varieties, the inhibition effects of hybrid 76416 and Agave americana were the best with absolute inhibition of all the leaf juice treatments against the mycelial growth, followed by Agave Amaniensis, Agave virdis, Agave angustifolia and Hybrid 11648. The inhibitory effect of some fresh juices would be cut ...

  4. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  5. Quality of physalis (Physalis pubescenss L.) juice packaged in glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of our study was to prepare a new processed pasteurized Physalis juice and to study the effects of storage and packaging on its nutritional properties. The pulp was yellowish or orange with a yield of 64%. The fresh juice had a light sweet and acidic taste (pH 3.5). The titratable acidity was 1.43%, polyphenols ...

  6. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  7. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  8. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  9. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  10. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  11. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  12. [Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation.

  13. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  14. Hygroscopic influence on the semisolid-to-liquid transition of secondary organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2015-05-14

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the rebound of particles composed of isoprene, α-pinene, and toluene secondary organic materials (SOMs) was studied. A three-arm impaction apparatus was used to study rebound from 5 to 95% RH at 298 K. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable but known viscosities showed that the transition from rebounding to adhering particles occurred for a change in viscosity from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The experimentally determined rebound fractions of the studied SOMs were compared with results from a model of the rebound processes of hard particles, taking into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. For low RH values, the hard-particle model explained the diameter-dependent rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. For elevated RH, however, the experimental observations deviated from the model predictions. On the basis of the calibration experiments using sucrose particles as well as a comparison between the observations and the predictions of the hard-particle model, the interpretation is made that a semisolid-to-liquid transition occurred at elevated RH. Material softening, increased adhesion, or a combination of the two implied the action of additional modes of energy relaxation that were not included in the hard-particle model. The RH threshold for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition was 40% RH for isoprene SOM, 70% for toluene SOM, and 70% for α-pinene SOM. A correlation between the rebound fraction and the hygroscopic growth factor G was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume was a dominant governing factor of the semisolid-to-liquid transition for the studied classes of SOM. Simple heuristic rules based on G of 1.15 for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition could be used for prognostication of the SOM phase in modeling applications at 298 K. With respect to atmospheric processes, the

  15. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles.

    The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/−13% to +8/−6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements.

    It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 °C. For the

  16. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  17. The influence of solder mask and hygroscopic flux residues on water layer formation on PCBA surface and corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    was described in terms of their varying hygroscopicity defined by chemical structure and test temperature. The climatic testing of two acids was performed under relative humidity (RH) conditions varying from 30% to ~99% at 25˚C and 40˚C using gravimetric water vapour sorption/desorption and electrochemical...... impedance methods. The corrosivity of WOAs was evaluated via leakage current measurements using surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb patterns. The corrosion studies were correlated with the hygroscopicity studies. The results show that the water layer formation depends on the PCBA surface topography...

  18. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  20. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  1. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  2. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  3. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  4. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  5. 6'7'-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79

  6. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  7. Local indigenous fruit-derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2018-03-01

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as sources of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for media such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity β, acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess the highest buffering capacity in both ranges. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed T. indica contained a high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ), while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g -1 ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ). 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66%) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817%) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66%). The shelf-life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits up to a week, in accordance with safety regulations. This investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  9. Does a kampo medicine containing schisandra fruit affect pharmacokinetics of nifedipine like grapefruit juice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime

    2006-10-01

    Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.

  10. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisya Pramesti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This study was a pure experimental in-vitro using Friedman and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests for statistical analysis. The population of this study was anterior teeth. The samples were maxillary central incisors. The sampling technique using sample size determination based on the testing formulas of the difference of two average data pairs resulted in 11 specimens. The result of the research showed that all coffee-stained teeth sample had an increasing enamel colour index. The samples were then applied with strawberry juice resulted in a significant average difference colour index value indicated by p<0.001. The conclusion of this research indicated that there was an effect of strawberry juice on the coffee-stained teeth re-whitening process.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  12. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  13. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  14. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  15. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  16. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  17. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  18. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  20. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  1. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  2. The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-12-01

    Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

  3. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (pnitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  4. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Landers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001. While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  5. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J.-D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia (61° N, 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical compositions of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38 % of particulate matter (PM) in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water-soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8 % of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34 % in the accumulation mode vs. ~ 47 % in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5-99.4 % RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same relative humidity (RH), starting at ~ 70 %, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35 % RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50 % RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15 % RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5-99.4 % RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv,ws value related to the water-soluble (ws

  6. Toward Quantifying the Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Individual Submicron Atmospheric Aerosol Particles with STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey Piens, D.; Kelly, S. T.; OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Petters, M. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols influences their optical and cloud-nucleation properties, and therefore affects climate. Although changes in particle size as a function of relative humidity have often been used to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles, it has been noted that calculations of hygroscopicity based on size contain error due to particle porosity, non-ideal volume additivity and changes in surface tension. We will present a method to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles based on changes in mass, rather than size, as a function of relative humidity. This method results from a novel experimental approach combining scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near-edge x-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) on the same individual particles. First, using STXM/NEXAFS, our methods are applied to aerosol particles of known composition ‒ for instance ammonium sulfate, sodium bromide and levoglucosan ‒ and validated by theory. Then, using STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX, these methods are extended to mixed atmospheric aerosol particles collected in the field at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility at the Southern Great Planes sampling site in Oklahoma, USA. We have observed and quantified a range of hygroscopic behaviors which are correlated to the composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles. These methods will have implications for parameterizing aerosol mixing state and cloud-nucleation activity in atmospheric models.

  7. Estimation of kinetic parameters of anthocyanins and color degradation in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    Color degradation in cranberry juice during storage is the most common consumer complaint. To enhance nutritional quality, juice is typically fortified with vitamin C. This study determined effect of gallic acid, a natural antioxidant, for the preservation of anthocyanins (ACYs) and color, and estimated kinetics of ACYs and color degradation. Juice, fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and 0-320mg/100mL gallic acid, was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. Total monomeric anthocyanins and red color intensity were evaluated spectrophotometrically and data were used to determine degradation rate constants (k values) and order of reaction (n) of ACYs and color. Due to high correlation, k and n could not be estimated simultaneously. To overcome this difficulty, both n and k were held at different constant values in separate analyses to allow accurate estimation of each. Parameters n and k were modeled empirically as functions of vitamin C, and of vitamin C and gallic acid, respectively. Reaction order n ranged from 1.2 to 4.4, and decreased with increasing vitamin C concentration. The final model offers an effective tool that could be used for predicting ACYs and color retention in cranberry juice during storage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  9. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  10. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  11. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  12. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  13. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  14. comparative in vitro antioxidant properties of water juice from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUICE FROM SELECTED AFRICAN FRUITS CONSUMED IN ... from African star apple (Chrysophyllumafricanum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were significantly (p<0.05) higher .... the formula as given by Chinaka and colleagues, and.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Juice Beverages Available in Dar es

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBZERO/BETAONE/VDOWN

    against 15 commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Reference ... contaminants. MATERIALS AND METHODS .... to both raw materials and ready-to-use juices. [27]. ... in place the Hazard Analysis Critical Control.

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  17. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  18. Development and Analysis of Quality Parameters of an Innovative Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARCAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the functional products represent a sustainable trend in food industry due to the beneficial effects that they have on the human body as well as due to the increased interest of people for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to develop and optimize a pumpkin and apple functional juice, respectively to accomplish the quality control in terms of its physicochemical and sensorial properties. The highest levels of vitamin C occurred in pumpkin and implicitly in the juice obtained in the 1:1 ratio, which also presented the highest antioxidant activity. The nitrates content was at very low level in all the analysed sample, with values between 24.7-41.2 mg/kg for apple and pumpkin, respectively between 28.41-30.94 mg/kg for juices. Also, the consumers were impressed by sensorial and nutritional properties of the new product, positively appreciating both variants of juice.

  19. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  20. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  1. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer – Part 1: Hygroscopic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made during May–September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US under fair-weather, afternoon conditions with well-defined planetary boundary layer structure. Optical extinction at 532 nm was directly measured at relative humidities (RHs of  ∼  15,  ∼  70, and  ∼  90 % and compared with extinction calculated from measurements of aerosol composition and size distribution using the κ-Köhler approximation for hygroscopic growth. The calculated enhancement in hydrated aerosol extinction with relative humidity, f(RH, calculated by this method agreed well with the observed f(RH at  ∼  90 % RH. The dominance of organic aerosol, which comprised 65 ± 10 % of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter  <  1 µm in the planetary boundary layer, resulted in relatively low f(RH values of 1.43 ± 0.67 at 70 % RH and 2.28 ± 1.05 at 90 % RH. The subsaturated κ-Köhler hygroscopicity parameter κ for the organic fraction of the aerosol must have been  <  0.10 to be consistent with 75 % of the observations within uncertainties, with a best estimate of κ  =  0.05. This subsaturated κ value for the organic aerosol in the southeastern US is broadly consistent with field studies in rural environments. A new, physically based, single-parameter representation was developed that better described f(RH than did the widely used gamma power-law approximation.

  2. Aging of black carbon particles under polluted urban environments: timescale, hygroscopicity and enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Hu, M.; Guo, S.; Du, Z.; Zheng, J.; Shang, D.; Levy Zamora, M.; Shao, M.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Collins, D. R.; Molina, M.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the hygroscopic and optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using an outdoor environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. The κ (kappa) values of coating materials are calculated as 0.04 at both subsaturation and supersaturation conditions, respectively, indicating that the initial photochemical aging of BC particles does not appreciably alter the BC hygroscopicity. Our findings suggest that BC aging under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF POWDER OF SEMIFINISHED KVASS WORT CONCENTRATE, MALT EXTRACT OF BARLEY AND CHICORY EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry of Russia urgently needs both updating of the manufacturing units of equipment and the creation of new high-tech and energy-saving technologies. Nowadays powdered food products and semifinished foods gained wide popularity in the market of foods and in manufacturing. Due to the caking and low wettability of fine powdered semi-finished products, there is an urgent need for modifying their properties by instanting. This article is devoted to the study of hygroscopic properties of powdered products and semifinished products: chicory extract, barley malt extract, kvass wort concentrate obtained by spray drying with an average dispersed composition of 10-20 microns, to find optimal conditions for packaging, storage and theoretical justification of the instanting process conditions. The article provides a diagram of experimental device for the study of hygroscopic properties of food powdered semi-finished products by accelerated method with the creation of the fluidized bed and the required temperature and humidity characteristics of fluidizing agent. The principles of operation of the device and methods of the experiment carrying out are given. The results are given in the form of sorption isotherms, by which monomolecular poly-molecular and capillary forms of binding of moisture with the test products and semi-finished products are determined. Theoretical nomogram to determine the binding energy of the moisture with the semi-finished products is given. Mathematical dependences of equilibrium humidities in the studied powdered products and semi-finished products on the air relative humidity in the range of 15 to 85 % at a temperature 22 ˚C were obtained. Optimal humidity properties of the resulting products for their production and subsequent storage and for the instanting processes were determined.

  4. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  6. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  8. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  9. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  10. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-08-07

    To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  11. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  13. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; Marques, Schérolin de Oliveira; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-02-04

    Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue.To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes.

  14. Salivary pH changes in children after industrialized fruit juice consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Yassue Barbosa da SILVA; João Armando BRANCHER; João Gilberto DUDA; Estela Maris LOSSO

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The children presented dental erosion and caries in early infancy that were associated to a rich diet in sugars, including the frequent ingestion of industrialized fruit juice (conditioned in boxes).The drink ingestion with pH lower than 5.5 can cause teeth erosion mainly if it is associated with frequent and prolonged teeth contact.The natural protection of teeth is the saliva through its buffering capacity.Objective: Measure the children salivary pH before and after the grape ...

  15. The application of NMR and MS methods for detection of adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, N; Kosir, I J; Spangenberg, J E; Kidric, J

    2003-06-01

    This review covers two important techniques, high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), used to characterize food products and detect possible adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil, all important products of the Mediterranean Basin. Emphasis is placed on the complementary use of SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation nuclear magnetic resonance) and IRMS (isotope-ratio mass spectrometry) in association with chemometric methods for detecting the adulteration.

  16. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  17. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  18. Atributos sensoriais e aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

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    Pamella Rio Branco Pontes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, incluindo questões sobre consumo e compra. Os resultados apontam que o suco integral apresentou cor e gosto amargo mais intensos; o suco concentrado (reconstituído apresentou baixa intensidade em todos os atributos; e o néctar de uva apresentou maior intensidade de gosto doce e sabor característico de uva. O teste de aceitação mostrou que o néctar de uva e o suco integral foram os mais aceitos. A maioria dos consumidores relatou consumir quatro ou mais copos suco de uva por mês. O suco integral recebeu maior intenção de compra e o néctar foi a bebida mais consumida. Concluiu-se que o consumidor aprecia o suco integral da uva, com equilibrada intensidade nos atributos sensoriais investigados, todavia, consume com maior frequência o néctar, bebida à qual são adicionadas água e sacarose.Grape juice contains phenolic compounds in considerable amounts, and it is fit for human consumption since it can increase the intake of natural antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensory attributes and to evaluate the acceptance of commercial grape juices. Three types of commercial grape juices were analyzed: pasteurized juice, concentrated juice, and sugar added pasteurized juice. A modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and an Acceptance Test with a structured nine-point hedonic scale were used including questions about consumption and purchase intention. The results indicated that the pasteurized

  19. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  20. Study of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of organic oxy acids in order to detect sophisticated wines and juice drinks

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    Kuzmina Helen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to International Code of Oenological Practices it is allowed to use acide L(+tartrique for wine acidification, while use of synthetic dihydroxysuccinic acid is forbidden. Today it is impossible to differentiate natural dihydroxysuccinic acid from synthetic one by standard techniques. Even by using very sensitive method of isotope mass spectrometry certain difficulties emerge because total isotope characteristics of carbon of dihydroxysuccinic acid of different nature have the same values. However, isotope characteristics of carbon of intramolecular structural groups of dihydroxysuccinic acid made of different raw materials differ significantly. This allows specifying the nature of dihydroxysuccinic acid that is used for making of wines and juice drinks. In Russia, scientific and research institute of beer brewing and wine-making industry carried out a work for studying isotope characteristics of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of dihydroxysuccinic acid from different origins in order to identify wines and juice drinks. Isotope characteristics of organic oxy acids from different origins were studied including them obtained by synthetic way and numeric range of value δ13 C,‰ were specified. The obtained results allow performing identification tests of wines and juice drinks to find out the products that contain not specified additives as that allowed for its use in production process.

  1. Hygroscopic growth study in the framework of EARLINET during the SLOPE I campaign: synergy of remote sensing and in situ instrumentation

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    A. E. Bedoya-Velásquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of aerosol hygroscopic growth during the Sierra Nevada Lidar AerOsol Profiling Experiment (SLOPE I campaign by using the synergy of active and passive remote sensors at the ACTRIS Granada station and in situ instrumentation at a mountain station (Sierra Nevada, SNS. To this end, a methodology based on simultaneous measurements of aerosol profiles from an EARLINET multi-wavelength Raman lidar (RL and relative humidity (RH profiles obtained from a multi-instrumental approach is used. This approach is based on the combination of calibrated water vapor mixing ratio (r profiles from RL and continuous temperature profiles from a microwave radiometer (MWR for obtaining RH profiles with a reasonable vertical and temporal resolution. This methodology is validated against the traditional one that uses RH from co-located radiosounding (RS measurements, obtaining differences in the hygroscopic growth parameter (γ lower than 5 % between the methodology based on RS and the one presented here. Additionally, during the SLOPE I campaign the remote sensing methodology used for aerosol hygroscopic growth studies has been checked against Mie calculations of aerosol hygroscopic growth using in situ measurements of particle number size distribution and submicron chemical composition measured at SNS. The hygroscopic case observed during SLOPE I showed an increase in the particle backscatter coefficient at 355 and 532 nm with relative humidity (RH ranged between 78 and 98 %, but also a decrease in the backscatter-related Ångström exponent (AE and particle linear depolarization ratio (PLDR, indicating that the particles became larger and more spherical due to hygroscopic processes. Vertical and horizontal wind analysis is performed by means of a co-located Doppler lidar system, in order to evaluate the horizontal and vertical dynamics of the air masses. Finally, the Hänel parameterization is applied to experimental data for

  2. A combination of grapefruit seed extract and concentrated cranberry juice as a potential antimicrobial preservative for the improvement of microbiological stability of hypromellose gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Keraitė, Rasa; Masteiková, Ruta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Savickas, Arūnas

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous hypromellose gels are not microbiologically stable - they show signs of microorganism growth during storage. To extend the shelf-life of the gels, antimicrobial preservatives are needed. Some substances of plant origin are known for their antimicrobial properties, and thus they may be used as an alternative to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological stability of aqueous hypromellose gel and the effectiveness of natural substances - grapefruit seed extract (GSE), concentrated cranberry juice, and a combination thereof - on the antimicrobial protection of the gel. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of GSE and cranberry juice showed that their antimicrobial effects differed. Both cranberry juice and GSE inhibited the growth of the standard gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the effect of GSE was significantly stronger. Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE. For this reason, in order to affect all the microorganisms studied, either a combination of 0.7% GSE and 10% cranberry juice, or 5% GSE alone may be used. The combination of GSE and cranberry juice was effective only in acidic medium (pH being 2.5-5), while the antimicrobial effect of GSE was not dependent on the pH value.

  3. Enhanced bioavailability of lycopene when consumed as cis-isomers from tangerine compared to red tomato juice, a randomized, cross-over clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Ralston, Robin A.; Riedl, Ken M.; Haufe, Thomas C.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; King, Samantha A.; Timmers, Cynthia D.; Francis, David M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tangerine tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are rich in tetra-cis-lycopene resulting from natural variation in carotenoid isomerase. Our objective was to compare the bioavailability of lycopene from tangerine to red tomato juice, and elucidate physical deposition forms of these isomers in tomatoes by light and electron microscopy. Methods and results Following a randomized crossover design, subjects (n=11, 6M/5F) consumed two meals delivering 10 mg lycopene from tangerine (94% cis) or red tomato juice (10% cis). Blood was sampled over 12 hours and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions of plasma (TRLs) were isolated and analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Lycopene was crystalline in red tomato chromoplasts and globular in tangerine tomatoes. With tangerine tomato juice we observed a marked 8.5-fold increase in lycopene bioavailability compared to red tomato juice (PLycopene is markedly more bioavailable from tangerine than from red tomato juice, consistent with a predominance of cis-lycopene isomers and presence in chromoplasts in a lipid dissolved globular state. These results justify using tangerine tomatoes as a lycopene source in studies examining the potential health benefits of lycopene-rich foods. PMID:25620547

  4. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  7. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

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    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  8. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  9. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Jing, Bo; Tan, Fang; Ma, Jiabi; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-10-01

    Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA) and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs) have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH), and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) for mixed OA / AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of AS in mixed OA / AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA / AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4) and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA / AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH4)2SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA / AS droplets is comparable to that of AS or OA at high RH during the dehydration process, Raman growth

  10. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH, and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH for mixed OA ∕ AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of AS in mixed OA ∕ AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA ∕ AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4 and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4 from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA ∕ AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH42SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA

  11. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

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    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  12. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  13. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  14. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  15. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  16. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  17. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-08-30

    Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  18. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  19. Comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane D. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento higroscópico da farinha de pupunha obtida por secagem em estufa a 70°C. Obteve-se dados de equilíbrio de adsorção de umidade a 15°C e 35°C, através de um método estático, onde recipientes de 500mL, contendo soluções saturadas de sais, foram utilizados como ambientes geradores de umidades relativas constantes, na faixa de 11% a 97%, aos quais foram submetidas amostras do produto. A partir dos dados de equilíbrio foram construídas isotermas de adsorção de umidade, sendo observadas isotermas do tipo III e, ainda, que a umidade de equilíbrio diminui com o aumento da temperatura. Determinou-se o calor isostérico de adsorção para diferentes níveis de umidade de equilíbrio e a umidade equivalente à monocamada, observando-se valores inferiores a 5g H2O/100 g s.s. Verificou-se a aplicabilidade do modelo GAB na predição de dados de equilíbrio do produto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a farinha de pupunha apresenta baixa higroscopicidade, ou seja, baixa afinidade por moléculas de água.It was studied the hygroscopic behavior of the pupunha flour obtained by drying in the oven at 70°C. It was collected data of moisture adsorption for two temperatures (15°C and 35°C, using the static method, where the recipients with the capacity of 500mL, having saturated salt solutions, it was used as environment generators of constant relative humidity, ranging from 11% to 97%, which were submitted the samples of the product. From the equilibrium data, it was built isotherms of moisture adsorption, being observed type III isotherms, but even that the equilibrium moisture for the product decreases with the temperature increase. It was determined the isosteric heat of adsorption for different levels of equilibrium moisture and the equivalent moisture to the monolayer, which were inferior of 5g H2O/100 g s.s. It was verified the application of the GAB model in the equilibrium data prediction for the product

  20. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pyogurt. PMID:28078255

  1. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  2. Applying of dietary fiber from sugar beet for diffusion juice purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilot study examined the effects of dietary fiber and filtroperlit on the efficiency of juice purification. The rational consumption of combined sorbent is determined, sorbent contact time with juice and temperature is defined.

  3. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste ( P antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  4. Study of nitrate contaminated samples from a historic building with the hygroscopic moisture content method: Contribution of laboratory data to interpret results practical significance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Skružná, Olga; Válek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, March-April (2018), s. 57-69 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02H012 Keywords : soluble salts * hygroscopicity * moisture content * nitrate salts * deliquescence * porous building materials Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207417302649

  5. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  6. Study on fermentation conditions of palm juice vinegar by response surface methodology and development of a kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural vinegar is one of the fermented products which has some potentiality with respect to a nutraceutical standpoint. The present study is an optimization of the fermentation conditions for palm juice vinegar production from palm juice (Borassus flabellifer wine, this biochemical process being aided by Acetobacter aceti (NCIM 2251. The physical parameters of the fermentation conditions such as temperature, pH, and time were investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM with 2³ factorial central composite designs (CCD. The optimum pH, temperature and time were 5.5, 30 °C and 72 hrs for the highest yield of acetic acid (68.12 g / L. The quadratic model equation had a R² value of 0.992. RSM played an important role in elucidating the basic mechanisms in a complex situation, thus providing better process control by maximizing acetic acid production with the respective physical parameters. At the optimized conditions of temperature, pH and time and with the help of mathematical kinetic equations, the Monod specific growth rate ( µ max= 0.021 h-1, maximum Logistic specific growth rate ( µ 'max = 0.027 h-1 and various other kinetic parameters were calculated, which helped in validation of the experimental data. Therefore, the established kinetic models may be applied for the production of natural vinegar by fermentation of low cost palm juice.

  7. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    lewis, Kristen A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Chakrabarti, Raj; Carrico, Christian M.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Day, Derek E.; Malm, William C.; Laskin, Alexander; Jimenez, Jose L.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Trimborn, Achim; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.

    2009-11-27

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used are Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients reveal a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: 1. Shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; 2. The contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  8. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  9. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Susanne M.; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vege...

  10. Analyzing Households’ Fruit Juice Consumption and Purchasing Tendency: A Case Study From Isparta

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Mevlut; Akpinar, Goksel; Dagistan, Erdal; Yilmaz, Hilal; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    The investments of fruit juice industry had been begun in 1969 in Turkey and accelerated since 1983 in modern sense. 37 fruit juice firms are officially registered as trademark. The fruit juice consumption per head was increased in the beginning of 1970s by about 13 fold augmentation, however, this value is still considerably lower than the developed countries. Relatively high fresh fruit consumption is caused lower fruit juice consumption in Turkey. However, an increasing in the domestic dem...

  11. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  12. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  13. Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Adler, B B; Harrison, M D; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to determine D values of acid-adapted and unadapted cells of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice. Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, S. enterica serotype Saphra, two strains of E. coli O157:H7, and two strains of L. monocytogenes were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1% glucose for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Decimal reduction times (D values) of cells suspended in unpasteurized cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice were determined. Acid-adapted cells of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes, had increased thermal tolerance compared with cells that were not acid-adapted. There was no correlation between soluble solids content of the two types of juice and thermal resistance. Growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe juice, watermelon juice, or other acidic milieu, either in preharvest or postharvest environments, may result in cross protection to heat. The pasteurization conditions necessary to achieve elimination of pathogens from these juices would consequently have to be more severe if cells are habituated to acidic environments. Insights from this study provide guidance to developing pasteurization processes to eliminate Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

  14. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  15. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  16. Quantitative Fate of Chlorogenic Acid during Enzymatic Browning of Potato Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO3 (S control). To study the

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  18. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of...\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012...

  19. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  20. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... standards in order to encourage uniformity and consistency in commercial practices.'' AMS is committed to... Grapefruit Juice. The petitioner requested the removal of the maximum limit for ``free and suspended pulp... concentrate, grapefruit juice, and frozen concentrated grapefruit juice establish limits for maximum free and...

  2. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.

  3. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  4. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  5. Measurements of humidified particle number size distributions in a Finnish boreal forest: derivation of hygroscopic particle growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmili, W.; Schwirn, K.; Nowak, A.; Rose, D.; Wiedensohler, A. (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Petaejae, T.; Haemeri, K.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Joutsensaari, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Dry and humidified size distributions of atmospheric particles were characterised at the atmospheric research station SMEAR 2, Finland between May and July 2004. Particles were classified in a size range between 3 and 800 nm at controlled relative humidities up to 90% by two instruments complementary in size range (HDMPS; Nano-HDMPS). Using the summation method, descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF) were derived for particle diameters between 70 and 300 nm by comparing dry and humidified size distributions. At 90% relative humidity, DHGF showed mean values between 1.25 and 1.45 in the accumulation mode, between 1.20 and 1.25 in the Aitken mode, and between 1.15 and 1.20 in the nucleation mode. Due to the high size resolution of the method, the transition in DHGF between the Aitken and accumulation modes, which reflects differences in the soluble fraction, could be pinpointed efficiently. For the accumulation mode, experimental DHGFs were compared to those calculated from a simplistic growth model initialised by in-situ chemical composition measurements, and yielded maximum deviations around 0.1. The variation in DHGF could only imperfectly be linked to meteorological factors. A pragmatic parameterisation of DHGF as a function of particle diameter and relative humidity was derived, and subsequently used to study the sensitivity of the condensational sink parameter (CS) as a function of height in a well-mixed boundary layer. (orig.)

  6. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Volatility on Aerosol Optical Properties During Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, A.; Grieshop, A. P.; Saha, P.; Subramanian, R.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from biogenic sources can influence optical properties of ambient aerosol by altering its hygroscopicity and contributing to light absorption directly via formation of brown carbon and indirectly by enhancing light absorption by black carbon ("lensing effect"). The magnitude of these effects remains highly uncertain. A set of state-of-the-art instruments was deployed at the SEARCH site near Centerville, AL during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) campaign in summer 2013 to measure the effect of relative humidity and temperature on aerosol size distribution, composition and optical properties. Light scattering and absorption by temperature- and humidity-conditioned aerosols was measured using three photo-acoustic extinctiometers (PAX) at three wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 870 nm). The sample-conditioning system provided measurements at ambient RH, 10%RH ("dry"), 85%RH ("wet"), and 200 C ("TD"). In parallel to these measurements, a long residence time temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) and a variable residence time constant temperature TD in combination with three SMPS systems and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were used to assess aerosol volatility and kinetics of aerosol evaporation. We will present results of the on-going analysis of the collected data set. We will show that both temperature and relative humidity have a strong effect on aerosol optical properties. SOA appears to increase aerosol light absorption by about 10%. TD measurements suggest that aerosol equilibrated fairly quickly, within 2 s. Evaporation varied substantially with ambient aerosol loading and composition and meteorology.

  8. Particle hygroscopicity during atmospheric new particle formation events: implications for the chemical species contributing to particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hygroscopicity of newly formed particles (diameters range 25–45 nm during two atmospheric new particle formation (NPF events in the German mid-level mountains during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010 field experiment. At the end of the NPF event involving clear particle growth, we measured an unusually high soluble particle fraction of 58.5% at 45 nm particle size. The particle growth rate contributed through sulfuric acid condensation only accounts for around 6.5% of the observed growth rate. Estimations showed that sulfuric acid condensation explained, however, only around 10% of that soluble particle fraction. Therefore, the formation of additional water-soluble matter appears imperative to explain the missing soluble fraction. Although direct evidence is missing, we consider water-soluble organics as candidates for this mechanism. For the case with clear growth process, the particle growth rate was determined by two alternative methods based on tracking the mode diameter of the nucleation mode. The mean particle growth rate obtained from the inter-site data comparison using Lagrangian consideration is 3.8 (± 2.6 nm h−1. During the same period, the growth rate calculated based on one site data is 5.0 nm h−1 using log-normal distribution function method. In light of the fact that considerable uncertainties could be involved in both methods, we consider both estimated growth rates consistent.

  9. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  10. Acetone and acetaldehyde determination in tomato juice by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piva, M.-T.; Crouzet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Acetone and acetaldehyde content of tomato juice were determined by isotope dilution techniques. The juice is added to 14 C labelled compounds, carried along by nitrogen at low pressure. The mixture of 2.4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained from volatile compounds is separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel and then on alumina. A determination of radioactivity and concentration of acetone and acetaldehyde 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained after separation and elution allow to calculate the content of these two compounds in the initial product with the same sample. This technique could be used for determination of methanol and ethanol after transformation in 3,5 dinitrobenzoates [fr

  11. The Effect Of Organic Surfactants On The Properties Of Common Hygroscopic Particles: Effective Densities, Reactivity And Water Evaporation Of Surfactant Coated Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrarodriguez, L.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D.; Ellison, B.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol compositions routinely show that organic compounds account for a very large fraction of the particle mass. The organic compounds that make up this aerosol mass represent a wide range of molecules with a variety of properties. Many of the particles are composed of hygroscopic salts like sulfates, nitrates and sea-salt internally mixed with organics. While the properties of the hygroscopic salts are known, the effect of the organic compounds on the microphysical and chemical properties which include CCN activity is not clear. .One particularly interesting class of internally mixed particles is composed of aqueous salts solutions that are coated with organic surfactants which are molecules with long aliphatic chain and a water soluble end. Because these molecules tend to coat the particles' surfaces, a monolayer might be sufficient to drastically alter their hygroscopic properties, their CCN activity, and reactivity. The aliphatic chains, being exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere are expected to be transformed through heterogeneous chemistry, yielding complex products with mixed properties. We will report the results from a series of observations on ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sea salt particles coated with three types of surfactant molecules: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium oleate and laurtrimonium chloride. We have been able to measure the effective densities of internally mixed particles with a range of surfactant concentration that start below a monolayer and extend all the way to particles composed of pure surfactant. For many of the measurements the data reveal a rather complex picture that cannot be simply interpreted in terms of the known pure-compound densities. For unsaturated hydrocarbons we observed and quantified the effect of oxidation by ozone on particle size, effective density and individual particle mass spectral signatures. One of the more important properties of these surfactants is that they can form a

  12. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of ambient organic aerosol at a field site subject to biogenic and anthropogenic influences: relationship to degree of aerosol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Shantz, N. C.; Vlasenko, A.; Liggio, J.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2010-06-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations were measured at Egbert, a rural site in Ontario, Canada during the spring of 2007. The CCN concentrations were compared to values predicted from the aerosol chemical composition and size distribution using κ-Köhler theory, with the specific goal of this work being to determine the hygroscopic parameter (κ) of the oxygenated organic component of the aerosol, assuming that oxygenation drives the hygroscopicity for the entire organic fraction of the aerosol. The hygroscopicity of the oxygenated fraction of the organic component, as determined by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), was characterised by two methods. First, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to separate oxygenated and unoxygenated organic aerosol factors. By assuming that the unoxygenated factor is completely non-hygroscopic and by varying κ of the oxygenated factor so that the predicted and measured CCN concentrations are internally consistent and in good agreement, κ of the oxygenated organic factor was found to be 0.22±0.04 for the suite of measurements made during this five-week campaign. In a second, equivalent approach, we continue to assume that the unoxygenated component of the aerosol, with a mole ratio of atomic oxygen to atomic carbon (O/C) ≈ 0, is completely non-hygroscopic, and we postulate a simple linear relationship between κorg and O/C. Under these assumptions, the κ of the entire organic component for bulk aerosols measured by the AMS can be parameterised as κorg=(0.29±0.05)·(O/C), for the range of O/C observed in this study (0.3 to 0.6). These results are averaged over our five-week study at one location using only the AMS for composition analysis. Empirically, our measurements are consistent with κorg generally increasing with increasing particle oxygenation, but high uncertainties preclude us from testing this hypothesis. Lastly, we examine select periods of different aerosol composition, corresponding

  13. CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, Ryan; de Sá, Suzane S.; Palm, Brett B.; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Castillo, Paulo; Day, Douglas A.; Kuang, Chongai; Manzi, Antonio; Ng, Nga Lee; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III; Souza, Rodrigo; Springston, Stephen; Watson, Thomas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Jimenez, Jose L.; Martin, Scot T.; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    During the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra were characterized at a research site (T3) 60 km downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil, in central Amazonia for 1 year (12 March 2014 to 3 March 2015). Particle hygroscopicity (κCCN) and mixing state were derived from the size-resolved CCN spectra, and the hygroscopicity of the organic component of the aerosol (κorg) was then calculated from κCCN and concurrent chemical composition measurements. The annual average κCCN increased from 0.13 at 75 nm to 0.17 at 171 nm, and the increase was largely due to an increase in sulfate volume fraction. During both wet and dry seasons, κCCN, κorg, and particle composition under background conditions exhibited essentially no diel variations. The constant κorg of ˜ 0. 15 is consistent with the largely uniform and high O : C value (˜ 0. 8), indicating that the aerosols under background conditions are dominated by the aged regional aerosol particles consisting of highly oxygenated organic compounds. For air masses strongly influenced by urban pollution and/or local biomass burning, lower values of κorg and organic O : C atomic ratio were observed during night, due to accumulation of freshly emitted particles, dominated by primary organic aerosol (POA) with low hygroscopicity, within a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. The O : C, κorg, and κCCN increased from the early morning hours and peaked around noon, driven by the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and dilution of POA emissions into a deeper boundary layer, while the development of the boundary layer, which leads to mixing with aged particles from the residual layer aloft, likely also contributed to the increases. The hygroscopicities associated with individual organic factors, derived from PMF (positive matrix factorization) analysis of AMS (aerosol mass spectrometry) spectra, were estimated through

  14. CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thalman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 campaign, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN spectra were characterized at a research site (T3 60 km downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil, in central Amazonia for 1 year (12 March 2014 to 3 March 2015. Particle hygroscopicity (κCCN and mixing state were derived from the size-resolved CCN spectra, and the hygroscopicity of the organic component of the aerosol (κorg was then calculated from κCCN and concurrent chemical composition measurements. The annual average κCCN increased from 0.13 at 75 nm to 0.17 at 171 nm, and the increase was largely due to an increase in sulfate volume fraction. During both wet and dry seasons, κCCN, κorg, and particle composition under background conditions exhibited essentially no diel variations. The constant κorg of ∼ 0. 15 is consistent with the largely uniform and high O : C value (∼ 0. 8, indicating that the aerosols under background conditions are dominated by the aged regional aerosol particles consisting of highly oxygenated organic compounds. For air masses strongly influenced by urban pollution and/or local biomass burning, lower values of κorg and organic O : C atomic ratio were observed during night, due to accumulation of freshly emitted particles, dominated by primary organic aerosol (POA with low hygroscopicity, within a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. The O : C, κorg, and κCCN increased from the early morning hours and peaked around noon, driven by the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and dilution of POA emissions into a deeper boundary layer, while the development of the boundary layer, which leads to mixing with aged particles from the residual layer aloft, likely also contributed to the increases. The hygroscopicities associated with individual organic factors, derived from PMF (positive matrix factorization analysis of AMS (aerosol mass

  15. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  16. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercially available fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yawar, W.; Rahman, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out for the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe in different varieties of commercially available packed fruit juices like apple, mango orange and mixed flavour by using flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. These juices are available at a reasonable price and are commonly used by public. Like many other articles the baseline levels of essential and toxic elements in Pakistani fruit juices are generally not available. It was, therefore, considered to monitor the levels of essential as well toxic elements in the juices. Hence a variety of juices was collected from local market and measurements of the above mentioned elements were made. (author)

  17. Evaluation of radurizited and pasteurized fruits juices during 12 months of storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilska-Jeszka, J.; Skorupinska, A.

    1975-01-01

    Stability of radurized red and black currant, bilberry, plum and tomato juices, stored at a temperature of 20+-3 0 C, was investigated. With 60 Co as radiation source, doses of 0,5 to 1,5 Mrad were applied. In a 12-month period no significant changes in pH, total and volatile acidity were found. Anthocyanic pigment and ascorbic acid losses were greater in radurized than in pasteurized juices. No organoleptic changes occurred after irradiation with 1 Mrad in tomato juices, very little change in plum and bilberry juices and considerable unfavorable changes in currant juice

  18. Influence of kinnow juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Bhargava, V K; James, H; KuJan-Mar, N; Prabhakar, S; Naresh, Ku

    1998-01-01

    Kinnow juice produces a marked and variable increase in carbamazepine bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine was studied after drug administration with 300 ml water or kinnow juice in a randomized cross over trial on nine healthy male volunteers. With kinnow juice peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) was significantly (P kinnow juice enhances carbamazepine bioavailability could be due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzyme, since kinnow juice contains naringin which is considered to be inhibitor of liver microsomal dihydropyridine oxidation.

  19. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  20. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  1. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  2. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    . Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White.......96, P acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  4. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in fruit juice consumption among infants and toddlers: associations with WIC participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElligott, James T; Roberts, James R; Varadi, Eliza A; O'Brien, Elizabeth S; Freeland, Katherine D; Basco, William T

    2012-07-01

    Juice is a common component of a child's diet. Excessive juice consumption may lead to adverse nutritional and dental outcomes. The objective of the study was to evaluate consumption patterns and parental perception regarding juice in a sample of children from families participating or not participating in Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services. Parents of children aged 12 months to 5 years completed a survey consisting of questions about beverage intake and related opinions. Practices were selected to provide a mix of families who do and do not use WIC services. Comparisons were made by WIC use and by quantity of juice consumption. Of 173 surveys, 51% of participants had received benefits from the WIC program. Overall, children who drank larger quantities of fruit juice drank less milk. One-third of all of the parents who responded to the survey reported that they believed that juice was at least as healthy as fresh fruit, with WIC parents reporting this belief more often (56% vs 9%; P juice before their child reached age 12 months, and this was more likely in WIC families (78% vs 54%; P juice consumption is associated with decreased milk consumption. Many parents expressed a belief that juice was at least as healthful as fresh fruit. Being a WIC recipient was associated with an earlier introduction of juice into a child's diet and a greater perception that juice was healthful.

  6. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  7. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  8. Health benefits of orange juice and citrus flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main flavonoids found in orange juice are hesperidin and naringenin, which can affect several metabolic routes that improve blood serum antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory performance, while decreasing insulin resistance protecting against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, or...

  9. Environmental assessment of organic juice imported to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Langer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    -scale farmers imported to Denmark, followed by the farm stage (23%), especially the truck transport of fresh oranges in Brazil and of reconstituted orange juice in Europe. Non-renewable energy use per hectare was significantly lower on the organic small-scale farms than on the conventional, with a similar...

  10. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  11. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089...

  12. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...

  13. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. .... the fruit market in D/Line area of Port Harcourt. .... [16] Neville A.M. 2006 . Properties of concrete. 4th ed.,. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi, India. [17] NIS 235 (1987). Nigerian Industrial Standards. Standards for ...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistically significant (P<0.05) reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN) was more lethal (causing 93% adult mortality), when applied topically on the freshly emerged S. zeamais adults, compared to the ...

  15. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  16. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  17. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  18. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  19. Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fermentation potentials of yeast isolates from Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa for the fermentation of juice extracts of C. limon and H. sabdariffa. Isolation and morphological studies of yeast cells were carried out by standard protocols. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...

  20. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usage of jungle juice on patients in Kenyan public hospitals. Objectives: To .... and the management of the selected institutions ... given to 10kg child indicated that none of the surgeons ... 38(5.8%); burn surgery 37(5.6%); dentistry 24(3.6%).

  1. Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, J.; Schipper, H. G.; Koopmans, R. P.; Butter, J. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered

  2. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  3. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Tsuruoka, Shu-ichi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Gohki; Obi, Yuri; Kaneda, Tae; Takahashi, Masaki; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Fujimura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9. METHODS The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects. CONCLUSIONS Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations. PMID:19694738

  4. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also......-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted...

  5. “Standardization of the pre cleaning of sugar cane juice for farms sugarcane san marcos-sucre”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Javier De Oro Torres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Panela production in Colombia is 1'587 .893 tons / year, which represents 538.905 million pesos for 2002, figures that make this country the second largest producer of panela. Changing eating habits and lifestyle of the population, and the rapid social and technological developments that humanity is experiencing, are a threat to the survival of this agro-industry, which is still at an early stage of development, despite being the backbone of the economy of several regions of Colombia. The new trends in society towards natural food have created a potential market for the agroindustry. To this end it is hoped that this research may become an important tool to maintain and increase the consumption of traditional sugar cane, improving important aspects of the pre juice as one of the reasons the process of Panela production is slow, due to the deficiency that exists to send a clean cooking juice. For this purpose cane juice characterized and tested with models established by the CIMPA precleaning (Centre for Research and Improvement panelera Agribusiness to measure its speed precleaning and choose the best design. The information was tabulated and used to apply an experimental design that helped to interpret all the data, reaching conclusions and recommendations of this research.

  6. Micro- and nano-capsulated fungal pectinase with outstanding capabilities of eliminating turbidity in freshly produced juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Khaled F; Abo-Elmagd, Heba I; Housseiny, Manal M

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the pectinase forms produced from Trichoderma viride-free, micro-capsule, and nano-capsule-in sodium alginate to analyze the pectin that causes the turbidity of orange juice. This was performed along with an estimation of viscosity, residual of pectin, and turbidity. The extracted and purified enzyme was 24.35-fold better than that of the crude enzyme. After application of free one, it loses most of the activity on low degrees of acidity and remains constant on the temperatures of pasteurization. Therefore, the tested enzyme was encapsulated by two different ways using the same polymer. The morphology of the three pectinase forms was obtained by transmission electron microscopy, and the micrographs clearly showed the pores on the surface of sodium alginate matrix after encapsulation. The size of the wall (sodium alginate) ranged from 3.24 to 3.76 µm diameter but was 3.15 µm for core of enzyme. Micro-capsuled and nano-capsuled pectinase can be used in the hydrolysis of pectic substances in orange juice with natural ways and maintaining the quality of final product. Consequently, the cost of juice clarifying can be reduced due to reusing the enzyme several times.

  7. Use of caprylic acid to control pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) in apple juice at mild heat temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caprylic acid (CA) on pathogens in apple juice having intrinsic organic acids, and to determine any synergistic effects. Bactericidal effects of CA were examined against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium present in apple juice at mild heating temperatures. Apple juice containing each of the pathogens was treated with CA (0·1, 0·2, 0·4, 0·6 or 0·8 mmol l(-1)) at 50 or 55°C. Treatment with 0·8 mmol l(-1) (0·013%) CA at 50°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) (0·010%) CA at 55°C for 5 min resulted in the complete eradication of E. coli O157:H7 (initial population: 7·25-7·34 log CFU ml(-1)). Salmonella Typhimurium were more sensitive than E. coli O157:H7: all bacteria (7·81-7·55 log CFU ml(-1)) were eradicated by treatment with 0·2 mmol l(-1) (0·0032%) CA at 55°C for 5 min or with 0·6 mmol l(-1) CA at 50°C for 5 min. By contrast, when pH-adjusted apple juice (pH 7·0) was treated with 0·8 mmol l(-1) CA, there was no significant difference in bactericidal effects between CA-treated samples and controls (heat treatment alone or heat + 0·1% ethanol treatment). This result suggested that acidic pH in the apple juice boost the antibacterial effects of CA. CA treatment did not affect (P > 0·05) the pH, colour or °Brix of the apple juice. This study highlights the utility of CA as a natural antibacterial agent that can eliminate micro-organisms from apple juice at very low concentrations (≤0·013%) and temperatures (≤55°C) within a short time (≤10 min). The results of our study may contribute to the development of an efficient method for improving the microbiological safety of apple juice. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves reaction time in type 2 diabetes: development and application of a novel nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Mark; Winyard, Paul G; Fulford, Jon; Anning, Christine; Shore, Angela C; Benjamin, Nigel

    2014-08-31

    In this substudy of the effect of dietary nitrate on blood pressure, endothelial function, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, we report the development of a novel nitrate depleted beetroot juice for use clinical trials and determine if dietary nitrate supplementation improved cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beetroot juice was treated with the anion exchange resin Purolite A520e. UV-vis-spectrophotometry, and a blind taste test were performed along with determination of sugar content, measurement of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, the ionic composition of juice and Proton NMR. Subsequently, 27 patients, age 67.2±4.9 years, (18 male) were recruited for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomised to begin in either order beetroot juice (nitrate content 7.5 mmol per 250 ml) or placebo (nitrate depleted beetroot juice nitrate content 0.002 mmol per 250 ml). At the end of each 2 week supplementation period cognitive function was assessed using E-prime, E-Studio software with 5 separate tests being performed. The tests utilised in the present study have been adapted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The differences in the UV-vis spectra were comparable to the natural variation found in differing cultivars. There were no discernable differences in taste, sugar content, or Proton NMR. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbate were undetectable in either juice. After 2 weeks of beetroot juice simple reaction time was significantly quicker in the active arm at 327±40 ms versus 341.8±52.7 ms in the placebo arm, mean difference 13.9±25.6 ms (95% CI 3.8-24.0 ms), p=0.009. No other measures of cognitive function differed between treatment arms. We have developed an effective placebo beetroot juice for use in trials of supplementation of dietary nitrate. Two weeks supplementation of the diet with 7.5 mmol of nitrate per day caused a significant improvement in

  9. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Costabile

    Full Text Available A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice. Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  10. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  11. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  12. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  13. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used were Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum, and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens. Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients revealed a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: (1 shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; (2 the lower case contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity (RH to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  14. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, particle collapse, and photoacoustic heat and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmüller, H.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Carrico, C. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Day, D. E.; Malm, W. C.; Laskin, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Huffman, J. A.; Onasch, T. B.; Trimborn, A.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2009-11-01

    Smoke particle emissions from the combustion of biomass fuels typical for the western and southeastern United States were studied and compared under high humidity and ambient conditions in the laboratory. The fuels used were Montana ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Information on the non-refractory chemical composition of biomass burning aerosol from each fuel was obtained with an aerosol mass spectrometer and through estimation of the black carbon concentration from light absorption measurements at 870 nm. Changes in the optical and physical particle properties under high humidity conditions were observed for hygroscopic smoke particles containing substantial inorganic mass fractions that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased under high humidity for these particles, consistent with the hygroscopic growth measured for 100 nm particles in HTDMA measurements. Photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption coefficients revealed a 20% reduction with increasing relative humidity, contrary to the expectation of light absorption enhancement by the liquid coating taken up by hygroscopic particles. This reduction is hypothesized to arise from two mechanisms: (1) shielding of inner monomers after particle consolidation or collapse with water uptake; (2) the lower case contribution of mass transfer through evaporation and condensation at high relative humidity (RH) to the usual heat transfer pathway for energy release by laser-heated particles in the photoacoustic measurement of aerosol light absorption. The mass transfer contribution is used to evaluate the fraction of aerosol surface covered with liquid water solution as a function of RH.

  15. Relating hygroscopicity and optical properties to chemical composition and structure of secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Katrib, Y.; Giorio, C.; Tapparo, A.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Decorse, P.; Mangeney, C.; Doussin, J. F.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene in the CESAM (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber) simulation chamber. The SOA formation and aging were studied by following their optical, hygroscopic and chemical properties. The optical properties were investigated by determining the particle complex refractive index (CRI). The hygroscopicity was quantified by measuring the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the particle size (size growth factor, GF) and on the scattering coefficient (scattering growth factor, f(RH)). The oxygen to carbon atomic ratios (O : C) of the particle surface and bulk were used as a sensitive parameter to correlate the changes in hygroscopic and optical properties of the SOA composition during their formation and aging in CESAM. The real CRI at 525 nm wavelength decreased from 1.43-1.60 (±0.02) to 1.32-1.38 (±0.02) during the SOA formation. The decrease in the real CRI correlated to the O : C decrease from 0.68 (±0.20) to 0.55 (±0.16). In contrast, the GF remained roughly constant over the reaction time, with values of 1.02-1.07 (±0.02) at 90% (±4.2%) RH. Simultaneous measurements of O : C of the particle surface revealed that the SOA was not composed of a homogeneous mixture, but contained less oxidised species at the surface which may limit water absorption. In addition, an apparent change in both mobility diameter and scattering coefficient with increasing RH from 0 to 30% was observed for SOA after 14 h of reaction. We postulate that this change could be due to a change in the viscosity of the SOA from a predominantly glassy state to a predominantly liquid state.

  16. Humidity adsorption and transfer in hygroscopic materials. Percolation-type approach and experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenard, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Water vapor adsorption and transfer in microporous media are studied by using a 3 level hierarchical approach. At the microscopic level (pore size), we describe the basic phenomena (adsorption/desorption, capillary condensation, molecular and Knudsen diffusion, Hagen-Poiseuille flow) that occur during the isotherm water vapor transport in a single cylindrical pore, at the steady state. The transport through a condensed pore is taken into account by its 'vapor equivalent flow' and we underline that capillary condensation may cause vapor flow amplification of several orders of magnitude. We suggest to use an electrical analogy between a cylindrical pore and a Zener diode. Then at the mesoscopic level (material size), we introduce pore networks to provide use with a simplified description of the microstructure. Three types of networks are studied: square, triangular and honeycomb. By using a random distribution of the single cylindrical pores on the 2D networks, we are able to estimate the sorption isotherms and the water vapor permeability which are the two essential characteristics to understand the behaviour of materials towards humidity. To develop this approach we refer to the percolation concept and we use most of its principal results. To estimate the adsorption isotherms we introduce a surface adsorption model and we use the KELVIN-LAPLACE equation. Hysteresis appears naturally thanks to the 'ink-bottle' phenomenon and it is all the more important since the network is ill-connected. The water vapor permeability is calculated thanks to the electrical analogy (cylindrical pore-Zener diode). We emphasize an important amplification of the equivalent permeability when the relative humidity reaches a threshold value. This phenomenon provides use with a possible explanation of numerous experimental results. The respective effects of pore size distribution and temperature, on sorption isotherms and permeability, are presented. We present several

  17. On aerosol hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN spectra and critical supersaturation measured at two remote islands of Korea between 2006 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distribution, total concentration (i.e. condensation nuclei (CN concentration, NCN, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration (NCCN, hygroscopicity at ~90% relative humidity (RH were measured at a background monitoring site at Gosan, Jeju Island, south of the Korean Peninsula in August 2006, April to May 2007 and August to October 2008. Similar measurements took place in August 2009 at another background site (Baengnyeongdo Comprehensive Monitoring Observatory, BCMO on the island of Baengnyeongdo, off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Both islands were found to be influenced by continental sources regardless of season and year. Average values for all of the measured NCCN at 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0% supersaturations (S, NCN, and geometric mean diameter (Dg from both islands were in the range of 1043–3051 cm−3, 2076–4360 cm−3, 2713–4694 cm−3, 3890–5117 cm−3 and 81–98 nm, respectively. Although the differences in Dg and NCN were small between Gosan and BCMO, NCCN at various S was much higher at the latter, which is closer to China.

    Most of the aerosols were internally mixed and no notable differences in hygroscopicity were found between the days of strong pollution influence and the non-pollution days for both islands. During the 2008 and 2009 campaigns, critical supersaturation for CCN nucleation (Sc for selected particle sizes was measured. Particles of 100 nm diameters had mean Sc of 0.19 ± 0.02% during 2008 and those of 81 and 110 nm diameters had mean Sc of 0.26 ± 0.07% and 0.17 ± 0.04%, respectively, during 2009. The values of the hygroscopicity parameter (κ, estimated from measured Sc, were mostly higher than the κ values

  18. Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon rain forest – Part 1: Aerosol size distribution, hygroscopicity, and new model parametrizations for CCN prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pöhlker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved long-term measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the central Amazon Basin over a 1-year period and full seasonal cycle (March 2014–February 2015. The measurements provide a climatology of CCN properties characteristic of a remote central Amazonian rain forest site.The CCN measurements were continuously cycled through 10 levels of supersaturation (S  =  0.11 to 1.10 % and span the aerosol particle size range from 20 to 245 nm. The mean critical diameters of CCN activation range from 43 nm at S  =  1.10 % to 172 nm at S  =  0.11 %. The particle hygroscopicity exhibits a pronounced size dependence with lower values for the Aitken mode (κAit  =  0.14 ± 0.03, higher values for the accumulation mode (κAcc  =  0.22 ± 0.05, and an overall mean value of κmean  =  0.17 ± 0.06, consistent with high fractions of organic aerosol.The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, exhibits remarkably little temporal variability: no pronounced diurnal cycles, only weak seasonal trends, and few short-term variations during long-range transport events. In contrast, the CCN number concentrations exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle, tracking the pollution-related seasonality in total aerosol concentration. We find that the variability in the CCN concentrations in the central Amazon is mostly driven by aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution, while variations in aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition matter only during a few episodes.For modeling purposes, we compare different approaches of predicting CCN number concentration and present a novel parametrization, which allows accurate CCN predictions based on a small set of input data.

  19. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  20. Sucralfate protects blood clots from peptic digestion by gastric juice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysaeter, Gunnar; Berstad, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    To test in vitro the ability of sucralfate to protect a blood clot from peptic digestion by gastric juice. Blood clots adhering to the bottom of plastic tubes were exposed to native acidic gastric juice or gastric juice to which Al-Mg antacids, sucralfate or alkali had been added. The tubes were tilted regularly at room temperature and clot digestion monitored by measuring the diameters of the clots. After 15 h, the liquids, but not the adherent clots, were poured out and the tubes refilled with native acidic gastric juice. Further clot digestion was measured, as before. Native gastric juice digested the clots completely during approximately 7 h, while in neutralized gastric juice or in gastric juice containing antacids or sucralfate no digestion was seen. In the second experiment, native gastric juice completely digested all remaining clots, except those previously exposed to sucralfate. A dose-response study indicated that gastric juice containing 3% or more of sucralfate had this long-lasting, clot-protective effect. In vitro, sucralfate adheres to and protects blood clots from digestion by gastric juice pepsin. This unique effect of sucralfate may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Comparison of Pancreas Juice Proteins from Cancer Versus Pancreatitis Using Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Cooke, Kelly; Moyes, Kara White; Bronner, Mary P.; Goodlett, David R.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. However, it often shares many molecular features with pancreatic cancer. Biomarkers present in pancreatic cancer frequently occur in the setting of pancreatitis. The efforts to develop diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer have thus been complicated by the false-positive involvement of pancreatitis. Methods In an attempt to develop protein biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we previously use quantitative proteomics to identify and quantify the proteins from pancreatic cancer juice. Pancreatic juice is a rich source of proteins that are shed by the pancreatic ductal cells. In this study, we used a similar approach to identify and quantify proteins from pancreatitis juice. Results In total, 72 proteins were identified and quantified in the comparison of pancreatic juice from pancreatitis patients versus pooled normal control juice. Nineteen of the juice proteins were overexpressed, and 8 were underexpressed in pancreatitis juice by at least 2-fold compared with normal pancreatic juice. Of these 27 differentially expressed proteins in pancreatitis, 9 proteins were also differentially expressed in the pancreatic juice from pancreatic cancer patient. Conclusions Identification of these differentially expressed proteins from pancreatitis juice provides useful information for future study of specific pancreatitis-associated proteins and to eliminate potential false-positive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17198186

  2. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  3. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  4. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    OpenAIRE

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  5. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  6. Hydrocarbons by fermenting the juice of the Jerusalem artichoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joud, F R

    1976-02-13

    The artichoke juice containing nonfermentable insulins is acidified to pH 3- and heated at 95/sup 0/ for 30 to 40 minutes to hydrolyze the insulins into fermentable sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. The ethanol is dried and reacted with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to form C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ which is treated at 300/sup 0/ under pressure with a powdered Ni catalyst to form alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

  7. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K m values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydroge...

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Celery and Parsley Juices in Rats Treated with Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals. Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  9. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  10. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  11. Variation with the cultivar on the processing of apples as clear juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Lazar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The researches done at UASVM Cluj-Napoca in the frame of Horticultural product technology Department between 2014-2015 years followed the behavior of five apple cultivars at processing as clear juice. The apple juice characteristics (soluble solids content, organic acids content and clarification grade were analyzed at processing of apples as clear juice and three months later, in order to determine how the initial characteristics of raw material were found again in the finished product. In order to provide the microbiological stability of juice, preservation was done with two chemical methods (sulfur dioxide – SO2 and sodium benzoate and one physical method (pasteurization. The obtained results revealed ‘Florina’ cultivar, which had a processing efficiency as juice about 60%, high soluble solids content, 1% acidity, good clarification grade of juice, and pasteurization as microbiological stabilization method.

  12. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  13. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; To, Tai Lun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2013-05-01

    The potential acute genoprotective effect of orange juice supplementation was investigated. Six healthy subjects (aged 33 to 60 years; 3 women and 3 men) were asked to drink 400 mL of commercial orange juice, which contained 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g sugar. Venous blood (2 mL) was taken before and 2 h after ingestion (test trial). A week later, the subjects were asked to repeat the trial by drinking 400 mL water with 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g glucose (control trial). Lymphocytes isolated from blood samples underwent comet assay on the day of collection. Pre- and postingestion DNA damage scores were measured in both the test and control trials. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide after 2 h of supplementation with orange juice, and no change in baseline DNA damage. There was no significant decrease in the DNA damage in lymphocytes in the control trial.

  14. Energy consumption during Refractance Window evaporation of selected berry juices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nindo, C.I.; Tang, J. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Powers, J.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Bolland, K. [MCD Technologies, Tacoma, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Refractance Window evaporator represents a novel concept in the design of evaporation systems for small food processing plants. In this system thermal energy from circulating hot water is transmitted through a plastic sheet to evaporate water from a liquid product flowing concurrently on the top surface of the plastic. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this evaporator, determine its energy consumption, and capacity at different tilt angles and product flow rates. The system performance was evaluated with tap water, raspberry juice, and blueberry juice and puree as feed. With a direct steam injection heating method, the steam economy ranged from 0.64 to 0.84, while the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was 666 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}. Under this condition, the highest evaporation capacity was 27.1 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry juice and 31.8 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry puree. The energy consumption was 2492-2719 kJ kg{sup -1} of water evaporated. Installation of a shell and tube heat exchanger with better temperature control minimized incidences of boiling and frequent discharge of condensate. The steam economy, highest evaporation rate and overall heat transfer coefficient increased to 0.99, 36.0 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} and 733 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}, respectively. [Author].

  15. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  16. Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M.A.; Imeokparia, O.E. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Jekayinfa, S.O.; Ojediran, J.O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Department

    2008-01-15

    Energy and exergy studies were conducted in an orange juice manufacturing industry in Nigeria to determine the energy consumption pattern and methods of energy optimization in the company. An adaptation of the process analysis method of energy accounting was used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the eight defined unit operations. The types of energy used in the manufacturing of orange juice were electrical, steam and manual with the respective proportions of 18.51%, 80.91% and 0.58% of the total energy. It was estimated that an average energy intensity of 1.12 MJ/kg was required for the manufacturing of orange juice. The most energy intensive operation was identified as the pasteurizer followed by packaging unit with energy intensities of 0.932 and 0.119 MJ/kg, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the pasteurizer was responsible for most of the inefficiency (over 90%) followed by packaging (6.60%). It was suggested that the capacity of the pasteurizer be increased to reduce the level of inefficiency of the plant. The suggestion has been limited to equipment modification rather than process alteration, which constitutes additional investment cost and may not be economical from an energy savings perspective. (author)

  17. Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-Blinded, Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzen, Hossein; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the simultaneous effect of pomegranate juice on components of the metabolic syndrome, including high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an inflammatory index and glycemic and lipid profile indices in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a double- blind 2*2 crossover study, 30 individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome received a daily dose of 500 mL pomegranate juice for a period of one week. After one week of wash out period, they received a placebo for one week. Lipid profile, blood glucose control indices including fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hs-CRP were measured at the beginning and end of the study. To analyze the data, a repeated measure analysis of variance and a t-test were performed. The results indicated that in comparison to the placebo, pomegranate juice was more effective in reducing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.00) and hs-CRP (p = 0.018). The level of triglyceride (p = 0.030) and very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (VLDL-C) (p = 0.014) were increased after the consumption of pomegranate juice, as opposed to the baseline condition. The rest of lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin, and HOMA-IR of the participants did not show any significant difference. Natural pomegranate juice supplementation lowered the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome as well as their blood hs-CRP. However, it also increased their triglyceride and VLDL-C.

  18. Viability of L.casei in symbiotic carrot juice during fermentation and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Hadzieva, Jasmina; Smilkov, Katarina; Geskovski, Nikola; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Although dairy products are generally good matrices for the delivery of probiotics to humans and traditionally the most used, fruit juices are of growing interest, due to their pleasant taste profile and refreshing characteristics. However, the low survival rate of probiotics in fruit juices resulting from acid environment is of concern.In this study, carrot juice was inoculated with free probiotic cells of L. casei and symbiotic microparticles loaded with L. casei to compare the survival rat...

  19. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  20. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...