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Sample records for juice natural hygroscopic

  1. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce...

  2. Influence of refrigeration length and of sugar addition on ascorbic acid content in some natural juices

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Avramiuc; Liviu Fartaies

    2009-01-01

    Following some studies concerning the main factors influencing the concentration of vitamins within food raw materials, especially ascorbic acid, this work tries to evidence the influence of the refrigeration temperature and of the sucrose addition on content of this vitamin in three types of natural juice. The biological material was represented by orange, strawberry and kivi natural juices, obtained from these fruits by means a crushing out process. For each type of juice there ...

  3. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  4. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF FRUIT JUICES ON GRAPE MUST FOR NATURAL BEVERAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chiusano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer attention for products with healthy properties is increased in time, and fruit juices, for their ease of consumption, can satisfy this demand providing them bioactive compounds.The grape juice has numerous health benefits demonstrated by several studies such as, among other, the antioxidant activities and the positive functions of their phenolic compounds. This workis aimed at blending grape and others fruits in a new fruit juice made only with natural ingredients of local production. The grape juice (cv Barbera has substituted water and its percentagewas fixed (70%. It was mixed with apple (cv Golden delicious, pear (cv Williams and peach (cv Red Haven juices to obtain 25 different prototypes. In each of these at least two fruit juices werepresent and added in a percentage variable from 0 to 25%, with a step of 5%. The objectives of this study were to check the feasibility of the mixing process and the evaluation of the samplesoverall pleasantness. Other sensory aspects of samples were also evaluated by consumers with a JAR (just-aboutright structured scale. The results didn’t reveal particular technological problems regarding the blending process. The Brix mean value of the samples was about 15.3, with a significant reductioncompared to that of the grape juice (about 19. The pH mean value of the samples (3.44 was significantly higher than that of the grape juice (3.36. The titrable acidity and the antioxidant capacitymean value of the samples was, namely, 6.22 g L-1 and 535.18 mg L-1. The penalty analysis of the liking test pointed out the importance of the persistence in mouth. The overall pleasantnesswas significantly (p≤0,01 positively correlated with the °Brix/acid ratio (r=0.54 and samples with the highest percentage of pear juice were generally preferred.

  5. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  6. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  7. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  8. Plant tendrils: Nature's hygroscopic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbode, Sharon; Puzey, Joshua; McCormick, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    Plant tendrils are specialized climbing organs that have fascinated biologists and physicists alike for centuries. Initially straight tendrils attach at the tip to an elevated rigid support and then winch the plant upward by coiling into a helical morphology characterized by two helices of opposite handedness connected by a helical perversion. In his renowned treatise on twining and tendril-bearing plants, Charles Darwin surmised that coiled tendrils serve as soft, springy attachments for the climbing plant. Yet, the true effect of the perverted helical shape of a coiled plant tendril has not been fully revealed. Using a combination of experiments on Cucurbitaceae tendrils, physical models constructed from strained rubber sheets, and numerical models of helical perversions, we have uncovered that tendril coiling occurs via anisotropic shrinkage of a strip of specialized cells in the interior of the tendril. Furthermore, variations in the mechanical behavior of tendrils as they become drier and ``woodier'' adds a new twist to the story of tendril coiling.

  9. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  10. The nature of the stimuli causing digestive juice secretion in Dionaea muscipula Ellis (venus's flytrap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, R J

    1976-01-01

    An investigation into the stimuli of the secretory system in the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula is presented. Secretion of fluid and protein are both stimulated by various nitrogenous small molecules. These secretions are studied as a function of time. A new method is described for the collection of secreted juice. Significant differences are found between the quantities of fluid and protein produced in response to different stimuli. The results are discussed in comparison to the mammalian gastro-intestinal secretory systems.

  11. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  12. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Fructanase which Hydrolyzes Natural Polysaccharides from Sugarcane Juice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M. Estrella; Martin, Luisa; Pedrosa, Mercedes M.; Vicente, Carlos; de Armas, Roberto; Martínez, Maritza; Medina, Isabel; Rodriguez, Carlos W.

    1990-01-01

    A new sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fructanase which hydrolyzes both high molecular weight polysaccharides ∣Fructose4:Galactitol5∣n (SP) and moderate-sized carbohydrates ∣Fructose2:Galactitol33∣n (MMWC) has been purified from sugarcane juice. The Km value has been estimated to be 33.7 micrograms per milliliter and 20 micrograms per milliliter for SP and MMWC, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature values are 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Purified protein has a pl value of 6.35 and a molecular weight of 13.2 kilodaltons. Fructanase activity appears to be Mn2+-dependent. PMID:16667334

  13. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Fructanase which Hydrolyzes Natural Polysaccharides from Sugarcane Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M E; Martin, L; Pedrosa, M M; Vicente, C; de Armas, R; Martínez, M; Medina, I; Rodriguez, C W

    1990-03-01

    A new sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fructanase which hydrolyzes both high molecular weight polysaccharides mid R:Fructose(4):Galactitol(5)mid R:(n) (SP) and moderate-sized carbohydrates mid R:Fructose(2):Galactitol(3)3mid R:(n) (MMWC) has been purified from sugarcane juice. The K(m) value has been estimated to be 33.7 micrograms per milliliter and 20 micrograms per milliliter for SP and MMWC, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature values are 6.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Purified protein has a pl value of 6.35 and a molecular weight of 13.2 kilodaltons. Fructanase activity appears to be Mn(2+)-dependent.

  14. Ultrasound assisted forward osmosis concentration of fruit juice and natural colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanukya, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2017-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of higher and lower molecular weight compounds present in the feed on concentration polarization during forward osmosis concentration and its mitigation by the application of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound on transmembrane water flux at different forward osmosis membrane orientations and different model feed solutions consisting of sucrose and pectin have also been evaluated. The feed containing sucrose and pectin subjected towards active layer of the membrane was found to be the most suitable orientation. The application of ultrasound (30kHz) significantly reduced the concentration polarization when the feed contains sucrose concentration up to 5%. Whereas, in case of feed containing 0.5% pectin, the ultrasound was not found to be effective in dislodging the gel layer formation resulting in severe external concentration polarization on the membrane surface. In comparison to the ordinary forward osmosis process, the ultrasound-assisted forward osmosis process resulted in higher water fluxes in case of sweet lime juice as well as rose extract containing anthocyanin. The degradation of rose anthocyanin due to ultrasound was found to be 1.82%. Application of ultrasound was found to be an effective way in mitigating concentration polarization on the forward osmosis membrane resulting in increased flux.

  15. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  16. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  17. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Measurements of Hygroscopicity- and Size-Resolved Sea Spray Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Royalty, T. M.; Reed, R. E.; Petters, M.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a central role in many environmental processes by influencing the Earth's radiative balance, tropospheric chemistry, clouds, biogeochemical cycles, and visibility as well as adversely impacting human health. Based on their origin, atmospheric aerosols can be defined as anthropogenic or natural. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of uncertainty in the radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols is related to uncertainty in natural—background—aerosols. Marine aerosols are of particular interest due to the abundance of oceans covering the Earth's surface. Despite their importance, limited information is currently available for size- and composition-resolved marine aerosol emission fluxes. Our group has designed and built an instrument for measuring the size- and hygroscopicity-resolved sea spray aerosol fluxes. The instrument was first deployed during spring 2015 at the end of the 560 m pier of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. Measurements include 200 nm-sized diameter growth factor (hygroscopicity) distributions, sea spray particle flux measurements, and total sub-micron sized aerosol concentration. Ancillary ocean data includes salinity, pH, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and relative fluorescence (proxy for [Chl-a]). Hygroscopicity distribution measurements show two broad peaks, one indicative of organics and sulfates and another suggestive of sea salt. The fraction of 200 nm-sized salt particles having hygroscopicity similar to that of sea-spray aerosol contributes up to ~24% of the distribution on days with high-speed onshore winds and up to ~3% on calm days with winds blowing from the continent. However, the total concentration of sea-spray-like particles originating from offshore versus onshore winds was relatively similar. Changes in the relative contribution of sea-salt to number concentration were caused by a concomitant changes in total aerosol concentration

  19. Pectin methyl esterase and natural microflora of fresh mixed orange and carrot juice treated with pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, D; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martínez, A; Rodrigo, M

    2003-12-01

    The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) on pectin methyl esterase (PME), molds and yeast, and total flora in fresh (nonpasteurized) mixed orange and carrot juice were studied. The PEF effect was more extensive when juices with high levels of initial PME activity were subjected to treatment and when PEF treatment (at 25 kV/cm for 340 micros) was combined with a moderate temperature (63 degrees C), with the maximum level of PME inactivation being 81.4%. These conditions produced 3.7 decimal reductions in molds and yeast and 2.4 decimal reductions in total flora. Experimental inactivation data for PME, molds and yeast, and total flora were fitted to Bigelow, Hülsheger, and Weibull inactivation models by nonlinear regression. The best fit (lowest mean square error) was obtained with the Weibull model.

  20. Natural iron chelators: Protective role in A549 cells of flavonoids-rich extracts of Citrus juices in Fe(3+)-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Laganà, Pasqualina; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Exogenous iron in particulate matter and imbalanced iron homeostasis cause deleterious effects on health. Natural and synthetic iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit, therefore we evaluated the protective effect of Citrus flavonoids-rich extracts from bergamot and orange juices in iron overloaded human lung epithelial cells. Cytofluorimetric, biochemical and genotoxic analyses were performed in Fe2(SO4)3 exposed A549, pretreated with each extract whose chemical composition was previously detected. Chelating activity was assessed in cells by a calcein ester. Both extracts reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improved mitochondrial functionality, and prevented DNA-oxidative damage in iron-exposed cells. Antioxidant effects were attributed to the chelating property, blocking upstream the redox activity of iron. Flavonoid-rich extracts also induced antioxidant catalase. The bergamot and orange juice extracts had a broad-spectrum protective effect. Their use prevents iron oxidative injury and these natural iron chelators could be used as therapeutic agents.

  1. Study of the effect of Titanium dioxide nano particle size on efficiency of the dye-sensitized Solar cell using natural Pomegranate juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using natural Pomegranate juice as dye-sensitizeris fabricated and characterized. DSSCS consist of a working electrode, a redox electrolyte containing iodide and tri-iodide ions and a counter electrode. A nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor with a wide band-gap coated with a monolayer dye-sensitizer is used as working electrode. The effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle size on efficiency of the DSSC based Pomegranate juice as a sensitizer is studied. For monolayer structure, we used two sizes of TiO2 nanoparticle (25 nm and 100 nm and a mixture of these two sizes. The highest efficiency of 0.61% was obtained with mixture of 25 and 100 nm TiO2 nano-particles in working electrode. For double-layer structure, we used 100 and 400 nm size TiO2 particles as light-scattering. The best efficiency was obtained using 400 nm TiO2 as light-scattering particles.

  2. Theoretical analysis of moisture transport in wood as an open porous hygroscopic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaz; Svensson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Moisture transport in an open porous hygroscopic material such as wood is a complex system of coupled processes. For seasoned wood in natural climate three fully coupled processes active in the moisture transport are readily identified: (1) diffusion of vapor in pores; (2) phase change from one...

  3. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  4. Dehydrated Basella alba Fruit Juice as a Novel Natural Colorant: Pigment Stability, In Vivo Food Safety Evaluation and Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Long; Chiou, Robin Y-Y; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Lai, Li-Jung; Lin, Shu-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Flesh of Basella alba L. mature fruits bearing deep-violet juice provides a novel and potential source of natural colorant. To minimize the pigment purification process and warrant safety acceptability, B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was prepared using mature fruits through a practical batch preparation and subjected to fundamental pigment characterization, food safety assessment and bio-function evaluation. Yield of the dehydrated B. alba colorant powder (BACP) was 37 g/kg fresh fruits. Reconstituted aqueous solution of the BACP exhibited an identical visible spectrum (400-700 nm) as that of fresh juice. Color of the solution (absorbance at 540 nm) was stable in a broad pH ranged from 3 to 8 and enhanced by co-presence of calcium and magnesium ions, while was rapidly bleached by ferrous and ferric ions. For in vivo food safety evaluation, ICR mice were daily gavage administered with BACP up to 1000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Organ weight determination, serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examination of hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys revealed no obvious health hazard. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of BACP was characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. BACP exerted potent anti-inflammatory activity by down-regulation of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 and the blockage of IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κ B (NFκB) activation cascade. These results supported that BACP may serve as a beneficial alternative of natural food colorant.

  5. Hygroscopic behaviour of paper and books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derluyn, Hannelore; Janssen, Hans; Diepens, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This study presents experimental analysis and numerical modeling of hygroscopic moisture buffering by paper and books. First, a literature review of moisture transport properties of paper is presented. Experimental work on two paper types includes SEM analysis of the paper structure, determination...... and not on the relative humidity. Books consist of several paper sheets with air layers between the sheets. To take the air layers into account, a parallel transport model is proposed to determine the effective moisture transport properties of books taking into account the air layers. The dynamic hygroscopic behavior...... of small book samples was measured. It is shown that, although the water vapor permeability of different paper types can be quite different, the effusivity of a book highly depends on the presence of the air layers and can therefore remain comparable for different paper types....

  6. Hygroscopic properties of magnetic recording tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1976-01-01

    Relative humidity has been recognized as an important environmental factor in many head-tape interface phenomena such as headwear, friction, staining, and tape shed. Accordingly, the relative humidity is usually specified in many applications of tape use, especially when tape recorders are enclosed in hermetically sealed cases. Normally, the relative humidity is believed regulated by humidification of the fill gas to the specification relative humidity. This study demonstrates that the internal relative humidity in a sealed case is completely controlled by the time-dpendence of the hygroscopic properties of the pack of magnetic recording tape. Differences are found in the hygroscopic properties of the same brand of tape, which apparently result from aging, and which may have an effect on the long-term humidity-regulating behavior in a sealed case, and on the occurrence of head-tape interface phenomena from the long-term use of the tape. Results are presented on the basic hygroscopic properties of magnetic tape, its humidity-regulating behavior in a sealed case, and a theoretical commentary on the relative humidity dependence of head-wear by tape, is included.

  7. Hygroscopic, Morphological, and Chemical Properties of Agricultural Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Cheek, L.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Littleton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust is a significant source of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. In the Texas Panhandle, daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots are routinely observed in conjunction with increased cattle activity in the late afternoons and early evenings. We conducted a field study to characterize size-selected agricultural aerosols with respect to hygroscopic, morphological, and chemical properties and to attempt to identify any correlations between these properties. To explore the hygroscopic nature of agricultural particles, we have collected size-resolved aerosol samples using a cascade impactor system at a cattle feedlot in the Texas Panhandle and have used the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to determine the water uptake by individual particles in those samples as a function of relative humidity. To characterize the size distribution of agricultural aerosols as a function of time, A GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer and Counter (SMPS) measurements were simultaneously performed in an overall size range of 11 nm to 20 µm diameters at a cattle feedlot. Complementary determination of the elemental composition of individual particles was performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). In addition to the EDS analysis, an ammonia scrubber was used to collect ammonia and ammonium in the gas and particulate phases, respectively. The concentration of these species was quantified offline via UV spectrophotometry at 640 nanometers. The results of this study will provide important particulate emission data from a feedyard, needed to improve our understanding of the role of agricultural particulates in local and regional air quality.

  8. Review on hygroscopic aging of cellulose fibres and their biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H; John, Maya Jacob

    2015-10-20

    This review presents critical literature on effects of humidity and temperature on the properties of natural fibres and its composites. The drawback of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of natural fibre and its composites is evaluated. Numerous researchers have been working to address the moisture absorption issue, with specific attention paid to the surface treatment of fibres and refining the fibre-matrix interface. Because of the natural fibre's positive commercial and environmental outcomes, as well as their desirable properties such as high specific strength, natural fibre reinforced composites are displaying a good potential to be used in various applications such as automotive, aerospace and packaging. This review addresses a comprehensive survey on hygroscopic factors (long term environmental aging) affecting natural fibres and their performance as reinforcement in polymer composites. The effects of cellulose surface chemistry and topography on hydrophobicity are addressed. Furthermore, the review also addresses the progress in the development of superhydrophobic materials based on cellulose material for better moisture resistance. In addition, recent investigations dealing with bio-based coatings prepared from renewable resources are also discussed.

  9. Hygroscopic behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the characterization of buriti fruit (Mauritia flexuosa. Each part of the fruit (peel, pulp, and fibrous part was analyzed and their hygroscopic behavior was evaluated to establish the drying and storage conditions. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained at 25 °C to the monolayer value was estimated, and the application of the Halsey, Handerson, Kuhn, Mizrahi, Oswin, Smith, BET, and GAB models was evaluated to the prediction of the isotherms. The fruit pulp was classified as rich in high quality oil, and like the peel and the fibrous part, it was also considered as rich in dietary fiber. The isotherms of the fruit parts were classified as type II, and their microbiological stability (a w < 0.6 can be maintained at 25 °C if the moisture content is lower than 8.5, 7.3, and 11.0 g H2O.100 g-1 of dry matter (d.m., respectively. The hygroscopic behavior showed that in order to ensure stability, the fruit parts should be packaged with low water vapor permeability. The monolayer demonstrated that the peel, pulp, and the fibrous part cannot be dried under moisture content lower than 5.9, 5.0, and 6.4 g H2O.100 g-1 d.m., respectively. GAB was the most adequate model to describe their isotherms.

  10. Aerosol hygroscopicity at high (99 to 100% relative humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopicity of an aerosol largely determines its influence on climate and, for smaller particles, atmospheric lifetime. While much aerosol hygroscopicity data is available at lower relative humidities (RH and under cloud formation conditions (RH>100%, relatively little data is available at high RH (99.2 to 99.9%. We measured the size of droplets at high RH that had formed on particles composed of one of seven compounds with dry diameters between 0.1 and 0.5 μm, and calculated the hygroscopicity of these compounds. We use a parameterization of the Kelvin term, in addition to a standard parameterization (κ of the Raoult term, to express the hygroscopicity of surface-active compounds.

    For inorganic compounds, hygroscopicity could reliably be predicted using water activity data and assuming a surface tension of pure water. In contrast, most organics exhibited a slight to mild increase in hygroscopicity with droplet diameter. This trend was strongest for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, the most surface-active compound studied. The results suggest that partitioning of surface-active compounds away from the bulk solution, which reduces hygroscopicity, dominates any increases in hygroscopicity due to reduced surface tension. This is opposite to what is typically assumed for soluble surfactants. Furthermore, we saw no evidence that micellization limits SDS activity in micron-sized solution droplets, as observed in macroscopic solutions. These results suggest that while the high-RH hygroscopicity of inorganic compounds can be reliably predicted using readily available data, surface-activity parameters obtained from macroscopic solutions with organic solutes may be inappropriate for calculations of the hygroscopicity of micron-sized droplets.

  11. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  13. The Research of Natural Red Raspberry Juice by the Method of Principal Component Analysis and Response Surface%主成分分析-响应面法优化天然红树莓果汁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗元; 尹佳玉; 李晓静; 吴祎帆; 赵立伟; 白玉坤; 庚新; 张晓丹; 崔歆卬

    2015-01-01

    Fresh raspberries were used as raw materials to study the processing technology of the natural raspberry juice and influencing factors of its quality by heating and cooking. Sensory evaluation indicators were adopted, including flavor, smell, colour and consistency, each of which was scored from 1 points-9 points, and the experiment by the optimization of response surface aimed to attain the influence of process parameters on the raspberry juice. Moreover, through principal component analysis in the process the effect of nutrient composition on raspberry juice was determined. The results were softening temperature 51.88℃, softening time 13.55 min, cooking time 7.72 min, cooking temperature 108.39℃, the amount of sugar 28.23%and under the conditions sensory evaluation index of red raspberry juice was the highest with the best taste and flavor. By detecting raspberry juice, reducing sugar, VC and SOD value had significant differences compared with that of red raspberry, but in raspberry juice the contents of VC, SOD, soluble solids, amino nitrogen were still quite high. Two principal component factors could be extracted with PC1 of 0.880 6, PC2 of 0.099 3. According to the factor loading, raspberry juice nutrients (total acid, soluble solids, VC, amino nitrogen, SOD) and sensory evaluation value had the largest effect on raspberry juice. In the development processing , its nutrient composition and sensory evaluation were vital and the research may provide a reference for the production of raspberry juice.%以新鲜红树莓为原料,研究了红树莓果汁工艺和品质的影响因素.通过加热蒸煮制取红树莓汁,以感官评价为指标,包括口感、气味、色泽、黏稠度4项,每项1分~9分,采用响应面优化,研究工艺参数对树莓果汁的感官评价的影响;并通过主成分分析确定加工过程中各营养成分对果汁的影响.结果表明:软化温度51.88℃,软化时间13.55 min,蒸煮时间7.72 min,蒸煮温度108.39

  14. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  15. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted of conventional and organic juices marketed in Poland, in that pure pressed juices, fermented juice and juices from concentrate, pure and combined with apple or lemon juice. The concentration of vitamin C, organic acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolic acids, flavonoids and betalains has been determined in the juices. All beetroot juices were abundant in betalains, with higher concentrations of these compounds found in pure beetroot juices when compared to juices combined with apple or lemon. Highest concentration of betanin-3-O-glucoside was found in pure conventional juice from concentrate, while highest betanidin content was found in pure organic fermented juice. Highest vitamin C contents were found in pressed organic juices combined with apple and lemon. All juices were abundant in polyphenols, mainly phenolic acids, with highest concentrations of these antioxidants found in conventional pure pressed juice. The study shows that beetroot juices, independently on the beetroot processing technology and agricultural production system, are very valuable products due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, especially betalains, in their composition. Therefore beetroot juice consumption should be promoted among consumers.

  16. 自然发酵酸菜汁中乳杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Strains from Naturally Fermented Pickle Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊瑞; 李欣; 张苗; 李晓忱; 杨臣辰; 岳喜庆

    2012-01-01

    通过选择性培养和形态学观察,从分别采自辽宁省阜新、葫芦岛、兴城、营口、锦州的5份传统发酵酸菜汁中,分离纯化和筛选出4株具有耐酸特性的乳杆菌疑似菌株(HLD1-3、YK1-2、JZ6-3、XC4-4),并对其进行运动性、过氧化氢酶、石蕊牛乳、明胶液化、不同温度生长、不同NaCl质量浓度生长、糖发酵实验等传统生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA序列分析,进一步鉴定其属种。二者结果均表明:4株耐酸乳酸菌均属于乳杆菌属,其中,HLD1-3和YK1-2属于乳杆菌属的清酒乳杆菌种,而JZ6-3和XC4-4属于乳杆菌属的植物乳杆菌种。由此可以推断,东北自然发酵酸菜可作为潜在益生乳酸菌分离筛选的资源库。%Four acid-tolerant suspected Lactobacillus strains(HLD1-3,YK1-2,JZ6-3 and XC4-4) were isolated from five traditional pickle juices respectively collected from five regions of Liaoning province by selective cultivation and morphological observation.The four strains were identified based on physicochemical properties such as motility,catalase activity,litmus milk test,gelatin liquefaction test,growth under varying conditions of temperature NaCl concentration and carbohydrate fermentation tests and 16 S rDNA sequence analysis.The results indicated that all the strains belonged to the Lactobacillus genus.HLD1-3 and YK1-2 strains were identified as Lactobacillus sakei,while JZ6-3 and XC4-4 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.From these results,it can be speculated that naturally fermented pickle from Northeast China is a potential source of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  18. Water activity and activation diameters from hygroscopicity data - Part II: Application to organic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koehler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed for using particle hygroscopicity measurements made with a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA to determine water activity as a function of solute weight percent. In Part I, the method was tested for particles composed of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate. Here, we report results for several atmospherically-relevant organic species: glutaric acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and levoglucosan. Predicted water activities for aqueous dicarboxylic acid solutions are quite similar in some cases to published estimates and the simplified predictions of Köhler theory, while in other cases substantial differences are found, which we attribute primarily to the semivolatile nature of these compounds that makes them difficult to study with the HTDMA. In contrast, estimates of water activity for levoglucosan solutions compare very well with recently-reported measurements and with published data for aqueous glucose and fructose solutions. For all studied species, the critical dry diameters active at supersaturations between 0.2 and 1% that are computed with the HTDMA-derived water activities are generally within the experimental error (~20% estimated in previously-published direct measurements using cloud condensation nuclei counters. For individual compounds, the variations in reported solution water activity lead to uncertainties in critical dry diameters of 5-25%, not significantly larger than the uncertainty in the direct measurements. To explore the impact of these uncertainties on modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, we incorporate the variations in estimates of solution water activities into the description of hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in an adiabatic parcel model and examine the impact on the predicted drop number concentrations. For the limited set of initial conditions examined here, we find that the uncertainties in critical dry diameters for individual species lead to 0-21% changes in

  19. Effect of Natural Hydrophilic Gums on Suspension Stability of Sweet Corn Mix Juice%天然亲水性胶体对甜玉米混汁悬浮稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜; 马珂佳; 尤红磊

    2011-01-01

    研究不同天然亲水性胶体及其不同添加量对鲜嫩甜玉米混汁稳定性的影响。采用响应面法,将不同胶体按照设计添加量添加到玉米汁中,通过测定离心前后的吸光度得出稳定系数,以此判断甜玉米混汁的悬浮稳定性。结果表明:结合单因素试验和响应面法分析得出的最佳复配结果为瓜尔豆胶0.07%、亚麻籽胶0.07%、黄原胶0.07%,此时的稳定系数为87.91%。%The individual and combined effects of various natural hydrophilic gums on the suspension stability of fresh sweet corn mix juice were studied.In one-factor-at-a-time experiments,the effects of adding guar gum,flaxseed gum,sodium alginate or xanthan gum on the stability factor of sweet corn mix juice,obtained by determining absorbance before and after centrifugation,were evaluated.Subsequently,response surface methodology was employed to investigate the effect of adding guar gum,flaxseed gum and xanthan gum together on the stability factor of sweet corn mix juice,and the optimal amounts of guar gum,flaxseed gum and xanthan gum were all found to be 0.07%,resulting in a stability factor of 87.91%.

  20. Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.B.; Wex, H.; Nekat, B.

    2012-01-01

    Humic-like substances (HULIS) constitute a significant fraction of aerosol particles in different environments. Studies of the role of HULIS in hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aerosol particles are scarce, and results differ significantly. In this work...... the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of water extracts (WE) and HULIS extracted from particulate matter (PM) collected at a polluted urban site (Copenhagen, Denmark), a rural site (Melpitz, Germany) and the remote site Storm Peak Laboratory (Colorado, USA) were investigated. Measurements of inorganic ions......(GF)) of 0.25, 0.41 and 0.22, and for supersaturated conditions k(CCN) were 0.23, 0.29 and 0.22 respectively for the urban, rural and remote WE samples. The measured hygroscopic growth and CCN activity were almost identical for the three HULIS samples and could be well represented by k(GF) = 0.07 and k...

  1. Hygroscopic properties of jet engine combustor particles during the partemis campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysel, M.; Nyeki, S.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Petzold, A. [Deutsche Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Wilson, C.W.

    2002-03-01

    The influence of fuel sulphur content (FSC) on particle properties from a jet engine combustor test rig was investigated during the EC-project PartEmis. Hygroscopic growth factors were measured using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA). While particles were hydrophobic at low FSC, hygroscopic growth factors increased significantly with increasing FSC. Under similar conditions small particles were more hygroscopic than large particles. (author)

  2. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duplissy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44. m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF or "κorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by κorg=2.2×f44−0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. The use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  3. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duplissy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44. m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF or "ϰorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by ϰorg = 2.2 × f44 − 0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. The use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  4. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  5. Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale

    2004-06-01

    Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice.

  6. Corrosion inhibition of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longzhe Jin; Lu Wang; Dongke Chen

    2006-01-01

    Metallic corrosion is a serious problem in the application of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor. The basic characteristics of a hygroscopic inorganic dust-depressor and its corrosivity, corrosion mechanism, as well as the principle of corrosion inhibition were analyzed. The static mass-loss test was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior and the effect of the dustdepressor. The static corrosion rates of steel specimens were measured in six different corrosion inhibitor solutions of the dustdepressor, and the suitable corrosion inhibitors for the dust-depressor to reduce the corrosivity were found out.

  7. Research progress of storage of fresh-cut fruits and juices by natural antimicrobials%天然防腐剂在鲜切水果和果汁保鲜中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡; 陆利霞; 熊晓辉

    2012-01-01

    With improved living standard , the demand for low - calorie foods are increasing. The consumption of ready - to - eat fresh - cut fruits and fruit juices is gradually increased because of the attention to the food safety. Due to damaged tissue and form, fresh -cut fruits and fruit juices are easy polluted caused by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. If treated under inappropriate manipulation arid storage conditions, the product may be subject to microhm! diseases and spoilage. Quality loss in fresh -cut fruits and unpasteurized juices may be caused by microbiological, en-isymatic, chemical, or physical changes. Among these, microbiological cause is particularly important; first, micro-bial toxins or pathogenic microorganisms in the product are harmfal to the health of consumers; second , mierobial spoilage may incur economic losses to consumers. The use of antiseptic can effectively reduce mierobial pollution and enhance safety. Natural food additives can assure safety and maintain quality characteristics. Studies on the use of natural substances to prevent fresh - cut fruits and unpasteurized juices from microbiological spoilage have been significantly increased in recent years. This review summaries the different studies on the antimicrobial effectiveness to pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in fresh - cut fruits and fruit juices by natural antimicrobials of animal, plant and mierobial origin%随着国民生活水平的提高,人们对低热量食品的需求不断增大,即食鲜切水果和果汁的消费也逐渐增加,它们的安全性越来越受到人们的重视.鲜切水果和果汁由于组织和形态被破坏极易受到病原微生物和腐败微生物的污染,如果加工或储存条件不当,极易造成微生物致病和腐败.微生物学、酶学、化学或物理学变化均能引起鲜切水果与未高温消毒果汁的质量损失.其中,微生物造成的损失非常重要,有两方面原因:一是微生物毒素或病原微

  8. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  9. Hygroscopic and chemical characterisation of Po Valley aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, J.; Dall Osto, M.; Vaattovaara, P.; Decesari, S.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Laaksonen, A.; O'Dowd, C.

    2014-02-01

    Continental summer-time aerosol in the Italian Po Valley was characterised in terms of hygroscopic properties and the influence of chemical composition therein. Additionally, the ethanol affinity of particles was analysed. The campaign-average minima in hygroscopic growth factors (HGFs, at 90% relative humidity) occurred just before and during sunrise from 03:00 to 06:00 LT (all data are reported in the local time), but, more generally, the hygroscopicity during the whole night is very low, particularly in the smaller particle sizes. The average HGFs recorded during the low HGF period were in a range from 1.18 (for the smallest, 35nm particles) to 1.38 (for the largest, 165 nm particles). During the day, the HGF gradually increased to achieve maximum values in the early afternoon hours 12:00-15:00, reaching 1.32 for 35 nm particles and 1.46 for 165 nm particles. Two contrasting case scenarios were encountered during the measurement period: Case 1 was associated with westerly air flow moving at a moderate pace and Case 2 was associated with more stagnant, slower moving air from the north-easterly sector. Case 1 exhibited weak diurnal temporal patterns, with no distinct maximum or minimum in HGF or chemical composition, and was associated with moderate non-refractory aerosol mass concentrations (for 50% size cut at 1 μ) of the order of 4.5 μg m-3. For Case 1, organics contributed typically 50% of the mass. Case 2 was characterised by >9.5 μg m-3 total non-refractory mass (organic mass concentrations. Specifically, the concentrations of nitrate peaked at night-time, along with the concentrations of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and of semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA). In general, organic growth factors (OGFs) followed a trend which was opposed to HGF and also to the total organic mass as measured by the aerosol mass spectrometer. The analysis of the HGF probability distribution function (PDF) reveals an existence of a predominant "more

  10. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célino, Amandine; Freour, Sylvain; Jacquemin, Frederic; Casari, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior). The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  11. Aerosol hygroscopic growth parameterization based on a solute specific coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Steil, B.; Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.; Lelieveld, J.

    2011-09-01

    Water is a main component of atmospheric aerosols and its amount depends on the particle chemical composition. We introduce a new parameterization for the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), based on an empirical relation between water activity (aw) and solute molality (μs) through a single solute specific coefficient νi. Three main advantages are: (1) wide applicability, (2) simplicity and (3) analytical nature. (1) Our approach considers the Kelvin effect and covers ideal solutions at large relative humidity (RH), including CCN activation, as well as concentrated solutions with high ionic strength at low RH such as the relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD). (2) A single νi coefficient suffices to parameterize the HGF for a wide range of particle sizes, from nanometer nucleation mode to micrometer coarse mode particles. (3) In contrast to previous methods, our analytical aw parameterization depends not only on a linear correction factor for the solute molality, instead νi also appears in the exponent in form x · ax. According to our findings, νi can be assumed constant for the entire aw range (0-1). Thus, the νi based method is computationally efficient. In this work we focus on single solute solutions, where νi is pre-determined with the bisection method from our analytical equations using RHD measurements and the saturation molality μssat. The computed aerosol HGF and supersaturation (Köhler-theory) compare well with the results of the thermodynamic reference model E-AIM for the key compounds NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 relevant for CCN modeling and calibration studies. The equations introduced here provide the basis of our revised gas-liquid-solid partitioning model, i.e. version 4 of the EQuilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM4), described in a companion paper.

  12. The hygroscopic behavior of plant fibres: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eCélino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern has resulted in a renewed interest in bio-based materials. Among them, plant fibres are perceived as an environmentally friendly substitute to glass fibres for the reinforcement of composites, particularly in automotive engineering. Due to their wide availability, low cost, low density, high-specific mechanical properties and eco-friendly image, they are increasingly being employed as reinforcements in polymer matrix composites. Indeed, their complex microstructure as a composite material makes plant fibre a really interesting and challenging subject to study. Research subjects about such fibres are abundant because there are always some issues to prevent their use at large scale (poor adhesion, variability, low thermal resistance, hydrophilic behavior. The choice of natural fibres rather than glass fibres as filler yields a change of the final properties of the composite. One of the most relevant differences between the two kinds of fibre is their response to humidity. Actually, glass fibres are considered as hydrophobic whereas plant fibres have a pronounced hydrophilic behavior. Composite materials are often submitted to variable climatic conditions during their lifetime, including unsteady hygroscopic conditions. However, in humid conditions, strong hydrophilic behaviour of such reinforcing fibres leads to high level of moisture absorption in wet environments. This results in the structural modification of the fibres and an evolution of their mechanical properties together with the composites in which they are fitted in. Thereby, the understanding of these moisture absorption mechanisms as well as the influence of water on the final properties of these fibres and their composites is of great interest to get a better control of such new biomaterials. This is the topic of this review paper.

  13. Physicochemical evaluation and hygroscopic behavior of powdered guava obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Alencar Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types of juice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g-1; 8.43 to 93.00 ºBrix and 2.77-3.79 mg 100 g-1. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting the experimental data to the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin. The Henderson model presented the best fit to the atomised guava powder for all temperatures tested, presenting an error ranging from 09.93 to 12.09% and a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9900 to 0.9934.

  14. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C, feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min, and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. Statistical analysis showed that among the independent variables, inlet air temperature showed greater effect on all the investigated responses. The derived optimum conditions were used for the powder production to check the validity of the quadratic model. Small deviations were observed between the experimental values and the predicted ones and the values were within the acceptable limits. The results showed that the optimum spray drying operating conditions for the production of pomegranate juice powder with optimum quality were 171°C inlet temperature, 30 mL/min feed flow rate, and 2,400 rpm blower speed. Under these optimum conditions, quality pomegranate juice powder with desirable properties of high content of vitamin C and anthocyanin, low moisture content, low hygroscopicity, and high solubility could be produced.

  15. Estimation of hygroscopic of electrotechnical materials by dynamic speckle technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolini, Guillermo Ramón; Cabello, Carmen Inés; Arizaga, R.; Trivi, Marcelo Ricardo; Barbera, Gustavo Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic speckle laser (DLS) technique has been applied to the analysis of different biological systems, inorganic materials and industrial processes. In this paper, we use this technique to analyze the hygroscopic properties of different types of porcelain and papers for electrotechnical purposes. Experimental speckle results showed different behavior depending on physicochemical and textural properties of the samples.

  16. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  17. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  18. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  19. Vibration and acoustic response of an orthotropic composite laminated plate in a hygroscopic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Geng, Qian; Li, Yueming

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a study of the vibration and acoustic response characteristics of orthotropic laminated composite plate with simple supported boundary conditions excited by a harmonic concentrated force in a hygroscopic environment. First the natural vibration of the plate with the in-plane forces induced by hygroscopic stress is obtained analytically. Secondly, the sound pressure distribution of the plate at the far field is obtained using the Rayleigh integral. Furthermore, the sound radiation efficiency is deduced. Third, different ratios of elastic modulus in material principal directions are set to research the effects of increasing stiffness of the orthotropic plate on the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics. Finally, to verify the theoretical solution, numerical simulations are also carried out with commercial finite software. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with the increase of the moisture content and the first two order modes interconvert at high moisture content. The dynamic response and sound pressure level float to lower frequencies with elevated moisture content. Acoustic radiation efficiency generally floats to the low frequencies and decreases with an increase of moisture content. The dynamic and acoustic responses reduce and the coincidence frequency decreases with the enhanced stiffness.

  20. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  1. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  2. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  3. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  4. Biomass-burning impact on CCN number, hygroscopicity and cloud formation during summertime in the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Bezantakos, Spiros; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kalivitis, Nikos; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Biskos, George; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopic properties of particles influenced by biomass burning in the eastern Mediterranean and their impacts on cloud droplet formation. Air masses sampled were subject to a range of atmospheric processing (several hours up to 3 days). Values of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, were derived from CCN measurements and a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was also used to determine the chemical composition and mass concentration of non-refractory components of the submicron aerosol fraction. During fire events, the increased organic content (and lower inorganic fraction) of the aerosol decreases the values of κ, for all particle sizes. Particle sizes smaller than 80 nm exhibited considerable chemical dispersion (where hygroscopicity varied up to 100 % for particles of same size); larger particles, however, exhibited considerably less dispersion owing to the effects of condensational growth and cloud processing. ACSM measurements indicate that the bulk composition reflects the hygroscopicity and chemical nature of the largest particles (having a diameter of ˜ 100 nm at dry conditions) sampled. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the organic ACSM spectra, CCN concentrations follow a similar trend as the biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA) component, with the former being enhanced between 65 and 150 % (for supersaturations ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 %) with the arrival of the smoke plumes. Using multilinear regression of the PMF factors (BBOA, OOA-BB and OOA) and the observed hygroscopicity parameter, the inferred hygroscopicity of the oxygenated organic aerosol components is determined. We find that the transformation of freshly emitted biomass burning (BBOA) to more oxidized organic aerosol (OOA-BB) can result in a 2-fold increase of the inferred organic hygroscopicity; about 10

  5. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  6. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C), feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min), and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm) were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. S...

  7. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  8. Improvement of Organoleptic Properties of Red Grapefruit Juice (Citrus Paradise Processed By Non-Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating and ultrasound on quality parameters of red grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi. The juice was processed by ohmic heating (120 V, 70 and 80 °C, 30 and 180 s and ultrasound (amplitude of 40 and 50 µm, and 2 and 10 minutes. The treatments did not significantly affect the cloud value, pH, non-enzymatic browning and colorimetric parameters. The taste was the determining parameter in the choice of juice by consumers. Juices processed with ohmic heating showed sensory characteristics more like the natural juice. The best juice was obtenied by processing with OH at 70 °C for 30 s. According to the present study it could be suggested that red grapefruit juice processed by ohmic heating could improve sensory characteristics without changes in quality parameter.

  9. The Influence of topography on formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water in Shapotou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanxia; Li, Xinrong; Hui, Rong; Zhao, Yang

    2016-04-01

    The formation characteristics of hygroscopic and condensate water for different topographic positions were observed using the PVC pipes manual weighing and CPM method in the typical mobile dunes fixed by straw checkerboard barriers in Shapotou. The results indicated that the formation amounts and duration of hygroscopic and condensate water show moderate spatial heterogeneity at the influence of topography. The formation amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at different aspects conform to the classical convection model, in which the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts are highest at hollow, and windward aspect gets more water than leeward aspect, the hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different aspects are expressed as: hollow>Western-faced aspect>Northern-faced aspect>hilltop>Southern-faced aspect>Eastern-faced aspect. The hygroscopic and condensate water amounts at different slope positions for every aspect are as follows: the foot of slope>middle slope>hilltop. A negatively linear correlation is got between slope angles and hygroscopic and condensate water amounts, hygroscopic and condensate water amounts decrease gradually along with the increase of slope angles, the amounts of hygroscopic and condensate water at the vertical aspect are only half of horizontal aspect, which indicated topography were important influence factors for the formation of the hygroscopic and condensate water in arid area.

  10. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  11. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  12. Efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation with natural irrigants (Morinda citrifolia juice, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison with 1% sodium hypochlorite for removal of E. faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study evaluated the efficacy of natural derivative irrigants, Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis in comparison to 1% sodium hypochlorite with passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of the intraradicular E. faecalis biofilms in extracted single rooted human permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on the prepared root canal walls of 60 standardized root halves which were longitudinally sectioned. These root halves were re-approximated and the samples were divided into five groups of twelve each. The groups were, Group A (1% NaOCl, Group B (MCJ, Group C (Aloe vera, Group D (Propolis and Group E (Saline. These groups were treated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI along with the respective irrigants. The root halves were processed for scanning electron microscopy. Three images (X2.5, coronal, middle and apical, were taken for the twelve root halves in each of the five groups. The images were randomized and biofilm coverage assessed independently by three calibrated examiners, using a four-point scoring system. Results: 1% NaOCl with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm and was superior to the natural irrigants like MCJ, Aloe vera and Propolis tested in this study. Conclusion: 1% NaOCl used along with passive ultrasonic irrigation was effective in completely removing E. faecalis biofilm when compared to natural irrigants (MCJ, Aloe Vera and Propolis.

  13. Hygroscopicity distribution concept for measurement data analysis and modeling of aerosol particle mixing state with regard to hygroscopic growth and CCN activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Rose, D.; Cheng, Y. F.; Gunthe, S. S.; Massling, A.; Stock, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a general concept and mathematical framework of particle hygroscopicity distribution for the analysis and modeling of aerosol hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The cumulative distribution function of particle hygroscopicity, H(κ, Dd) is defined as the number fraction of particles with a given dry diameter, Dd, and with an effective hygroscopicity parameter smaller than the parameter κ. From hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and size-resolved CCN measurement data, H(κ, Dd can be derived by solving the κ-Köhler model equation. Alternatively, H(κ, Dd can be predicted from measurement or model data resolving the chemical composition of single particles. A range of model scenarios are used to explain and illustrate the concept, and exemplary practical applications are shown with HTDMA and CCN measurement data from polluted megacity and pristine rainforest air. Lognormal distribution functions are found to be suitable for approximately describing the hygroscopicity distributions of the investigated atmospheric aerosol samples. For detailed characterization of aerosol hygroscopicity distributions, including externally mixed particles of low hygroscopicity such as freshly emitted soot, we suggest that size-resolved CCN measurements with a wide range and high resolution of water vapor supersaturation and dry particle diameter should be combined with comprehensive HTDMA measurements and size-resolved or single-particle measurements of aerosol chemical composition, including refractory components. In field and laboratory experiments, hygroscopicity distribution data from HTDMA and CCN measurements can complement mixing state information from optical, chemical and volatility-based techniques. Moreover, we propose and intend to use hygroscopicity distribution functions in model studies investigating the influence of aerosol mixing state on the formation of cloud droplets.

  14. Optimizing spray drying conditions of sour cherry juice based on physicochemical properties, using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Arasb Dabbagh; Pero, Milad; Askari, Gholam Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of main spray drying conditions such as inlet air temperature (100-140 °C), maltodextrin concentration (MDC: 30-60%), and aspiration rate (AR) (30-50%) on the physicochemical properties of sour cherry powder such as moisture content (MC), hygroscopicity, water solubility index (WSI), and bulk density were investigated. This investigation was carried out by employing response surface methodology and the process conditions were optimized by using this technique. The MC of the powder was negatively related to the linear effect of the MDC and inlet air temperature (IT) and directly related to the AR. Hygroscopicity of the powder was significantly influenced by the MDC. By increasing MDC in the juice, the hygroscopicity of the powder was decreased. MDC and inlet temperature had a positive effect, but the AR had a negative effect on the WSI of powder. MDC and inlet temperature negatively affected the bulk density of powder. By increasing these two variables, the bulk density of powder was decreased. The optimization procedure revealed that the following conditions resulted in a powder with the maximum solubility and minimum hygroscopicity: MDC = 60%, IT = 134 °C, and AR = 30% with a desirability of 0.875.

  15. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Duplissy, J; Prevot, A S H; Barmpadimos, I; Jimenez, J L; Gysel, M; Worsnop, D R; Aiken, A C; Tritscher, T; Canagaratna, M R; Collins, D R; Alfarra, M R; Metzger, A; Tomlinson, J; DeCarlo, P F; Weingartner, E; Baltensperger, U

    2011-01-01

    A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f(44)). m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO(2)(+) for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfrau-joch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation b...

  16. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  17. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  18. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, N.O.Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  19. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  20. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  1. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators).

  2. Hygroscopic motions of fossil conifer cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Nestle, Nikolaus; Šandor, Andrea; Reible, Bruno; Masselter, Tom; Bruchmann, Bernd; Speck, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000–113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils. Our analysis emphasizes the functional-morphological integrity of these biological compliant mechanisms which, in addition to their biological fascination, are potentially also role models for resilient and maintenance-free biomimetic applications (e.g., adaptive and autonomously moving structures including passive hydraulic actuators). PMID:28074936

  3. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  4. Effective Expansion: Balance between Shrinkage and Hygroscopic Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, E A; Watson, L E; Tantbirojn, D; Lou, J S B; Versluis, A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hygroscopic expansion and polymerization shrinkage for compensation of polymerization shrinkage stresses in a restored tooth. One resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) (Ketac Nano, 3M ESPE), 2 compomers (Dyract, Dentsply; Compoglass, Ivoclar), and a universal resin-based composite (Esthet•X HD, Dentsply) were tested. Volumetric change after polymerization ("total shrinkage") and during 4 wk of water storage at 37°C was measured using an optical method (n= 10). Post-gel shrinkage was measured during polymerization using a strain gauge method (n= 10). Extracted human molars with large mesio-occluso-distal slot preparations were restored with the tested restorative materials. Tooth surfaces at baseline (preparation), after restoration, and during 4 wk of 37°C water storage were scanned with an optical scanner to determine cuspal flexure (n= 8). Occlusal interface integrity was measured using dye penetration. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and post hoc tests (significance level 0.05). All tested materials shrunk after polymerization. RMGI had the highest total shrinkage (4.65%) but lowest post-gel shrinkage (0.35%). Shrinkage values dropped significantly during storage in water but had not completely compensated polymerization shrinkage after 4 wk. All restored teeth initially exhibited inward (negative) cuspal flexure due to polymerization shrinkage. Cuspal flexure with the RMGI restoration was significantly less (-6.4 µm) than with the other materials (-12.1 to -14.1 µm). After 1 d, cuspal flexure reversed to +5.0 µm cuspal expansion with the RMGI and increased to +9.3 µm at 4 wk. After 4 wk, hygroscopic expansion compensated cuspal flexure in a compomer (Compoglass) and reduced flexure with Dyract and resin-based composite. Marginal integrity (93.7% intact restoration wall) was best for the Compoglass restorations and lowest (73.1%) for the RMGI restorations. Hygroscopic

  5. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan; Petters, Markus D.; O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.

  6. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in Situ Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piens, Dominique S; Kelly, Stephen T; Harder, Tristan H; Petters, Markus D; O'Brien, Rachel E; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K

    2016-05-17

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state of 158 other particles from the sample broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicrometer atmospheric particles.

  7. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  8. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 1 – Inorganic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Kohler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model – ADDEM. The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating solid precipitation. The model framework can accommodate organic components, though this added complexity is considered in a companion paper, this paper describes the development of the modelling architecture to be used and predictions of an inorganic model alone. The modelling framework has been developed to flexibly use a combination of mixing rules and other potentially more accurate techniques where available to calculate the water content. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art general equilibrium models and experimental data are presented and show excellent agreement. The Kelvin effect can be considered in this scheme using a variety of surface tension models. Comparison of predicted diameter dependent phenomena, such as the increased relative humidity for onset of deliquescence with decreasing diameter, with another diameter dependent model is very good despite the different approach used. The model is subject to various sensitivities. For the inorganic systems studied here, the model is sensitive to choice of surface tension scheme used, which decreases for larger aerosol. Large sensitivities are found for the value of dry density used. It is thus likely that the history of the aerosol studied in a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, specifically the nature of the drying process that will influence the final crystalline form, will create systematic uncertainties upon comparisons with theoretical predictions. However, the

  9. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: 1 – Inorganics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Coe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Köhler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model – ADDEM. The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating solid precipitation. The model framework can accommodate organic components, though this added complexity is considered in a companion paper, whereas this paper describes the development of the modelling architecture to be used and predictions of an inorganic model alone. The modelling framework has been developed to flexibly use a combination of mixing rules and other potentially more accurate techniques where available to calculate the water content. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art general equilibrium models and experimental data are presented and show excellent agreement. The Kelvin effect can be considered in this scheme using a variety of surface tension models. Comparison of predicted diameter dependent phenomena, such as the increased relative humidity for onset of deliquescence with decreasing diameter, with another diameter dependent model is very good despite the different approach used. The model is subject to various sensitivities. For the inorganic systems studied here, the model is sensitive to choice of surface tension scheme used, which decreases for larger aerosol. Large sensitivities are found for the value of dry density used. It is thus likely that the history of the aerosol studied in a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, specifically the nature of the drying process that will influence the final crystalline form, will create systematic uncertainties upon comparisons with theoretical predictions. However

  10. Aerosolization, Chemical Characterization, Hygroscopicity and Ice Formation of Marine Biogenic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, P. A.; Radway, J.; Kilthau, W.; Bothe, D.; Knopf, D. A.; Aller, J. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The oceans cover the majority of the earth's surface, host nearly half the total global primary productivity and are a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. However, effects of biological activity on sea spray generation and composition, and subsequent cloud formation are not well understood. Our goal is to elucidate these effects which will be particularly important over nutrient rich seas, where microorganisms can reach concentrations of 10^9 per mL and along with transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) can become aerosolized. Here we report the results of mesocosm experiments in which bubbles were generated by two methods, either recirculating impinging water jets or glass frits, in natural or artificial seawater containing bacteria and unialgal cultures of three representative phytoplankton species, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Emiliania huxleyi, and Nannochloris atomus. Over time we followed the size distribution of aerosolized particles as well as their hygroscopicity, heterogeneous ice nucleation potential, and individual physical-chemical characteristics. Numbers of cells and the mass of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), TEP (which includes polysaccharide-containing microgels and nanogels >0.4 μm in diameter) were determined in the bulk water, the surface microlayer, and aerosolized material. Aerosolized particles were also impacted onto substrates for ice nucleation and water uptake experiments, elemental analysis using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), and determination of carbon bonding with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Regardless of bubble generation method, the overall concentration of aerosol particles, TEP, POC and DOC increased as concentrations of bacterial and phytoplankton cells increased, stabilized, and subsequently declined. Particles air. Our results provide improved

  11. Secondary organic aerosols. Chemical aging, hygroscopicity, and cloud droplet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Angela

    2011-07-06

    Atmospheric aerosols have an important impact on the radiation balance, and thus, on the climate of the Earth. Aerosol particles scatter and absorb incoming solar and terrestrial radiation. Apart from this direct effect, aerosol particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby greatly influencing the microphysics of clouds. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are an important fraction of the total aerosol mass. In many environments these organic compounds are mainly products of the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC). In this study the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of biogenic SOA were investigated which was formed by the oxidation of VOC with O{sub 3} and photochemically formed OH radicals under low NO{sub x} conditions. For this purpose, a complex mixture of VOC emitted by boreal tree species as gas-phase precursors was used in the Juelich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In long-term studies in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR {alpha}-pinene or a defined mixture of {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene, limonene, ocimene, {delta}-3-carene served as precursors. Initial precursor concentrations between 40 and 1000 ppbC were investigated. The observed SOA particles were slightly hygroscopic with an average hygroscopicity parameter {kappa}(CCN) = 0.10 {+-} 0.02 and {kappa}(90%RH) = 0.05 {+-} 0.01. Closure between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation data could be achieved allowing either surface tension reduction, limited solubility, or non-ideality of the solution in the droplet. The SOA solutions in equilibrium with RH <95% are possible highly non-ideal. Therefore the organic-water interaction were investigated by applying the UNIFAC model. Calculations for surrogate compounds exhibited the same strong concentration (i.e. RH) dependence of {kappa} at sub-saturation. The growth curves could be fitted and CCN activation predicted by assuming a binary mixture of water and one hypothetical organic compound. The occurrence of

  12. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  13. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  14. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  15. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  16. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  17. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  18. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 2: Effect on composition, phytochemical content, and physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    Traditional thermal techniques may cause losses in nutritional quality and phytochemical contents, and also in physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of processed fruit juices. This paper provides an overview of the effect on these qualities by the use of alternatives to traditional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing, for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice-yield improvement. These alternatives are UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, Ohmic heating, microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation, and flash-vacuum expansion. Although alternatives to heat treatments seem to be less detrimental than the thermal treatment, there are many parameters and conditions that influence the output, as well as the nature of the juice itself, hampering comparisons between different studies. Additionally, future research should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the overall quality of fruit juices, and also on scaled-up processes, process design, and optimization that need to be deal with in detail to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing while maintaining fruit-juice attributes to the maximum.

  19. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited characterization. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single component such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid and phthalic acid have strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppress its crystallization completely. The interactions between oxalic acid and levoglucosan are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM with UNIFAC method and Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH assuming oxalic acid in a solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH due to positive chemical interactions between solutes. Organic mixture has more complex effect on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan accounts for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly promote water uptake under high RH conditions and thus affect the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, optical properties and chemical reactivity of

  20. Numerical study on hygroscopic material drying in packed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stakić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses numerical simulation for the case of convective drying of hygroscopic material in a packed bed, analyzing agreement between the simulated and the corresponding experimental results. In the simulation model of unsteady simultaneous one-dimensional heat and mass transfer between gas phase and dried material, it is assumed that the gas-solid interface is at thermodynamic equilibrium, while the drying rate of the specific product is calculated by applying the concept of a "drying coefficient". Model validation was done on the basis of the experimental data obtained with potato cubes. The obtained drying kinetics, both experimental and numerical, show that higher gas (drying agent velocities (flow-rates, as well as lower equivalent grain diameters, induce faster drying. This effect is more pronounced for deeper beds, because of the larger amount of wet material to be dried using the same drying agent capacity.

  1. A Study of The Hygroscopic Properties Of Hollow Sandcrete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sunday Omopariola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing refers to the space where the active members as well as youngsters in the society spend most of their time and as such should be suitable and provided with minimum facilities necessary for human health, body and spirit. It is pertinent to state that such buildings that provides housing facilities should be perceived as safe for habitation without the fear of collapse. Environmental degradation has been identified as a contributing factor to cases of building collapse. This study examines the hygroscopic properties of hollow sandcrete blocks which is a major component of building materials. Samples of 150mm and 225mm hollow sandcrete blocks were collected for laboratory tests and control experiment was also set up. Experimental results reveals that Total Water Absorption and moisture content of commercially produced blocks do not meet up with recommended value in literatures while the values obtained in the control experiment are okay. However the total volume porosity for all samples are okay.

  2. Optical and Hygroscopic Studies of Aerosols In Simulated Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.

    2011-08-01

    Basic characteristics of the early Earth climate, the only known environment in the Universe in which life has been known to emerge and thrive, remain a mystery. In particular, little is understood about the Earth's atmosphere 2.8 billion years ago. From climate models and laboratory studies, it is postulated that an organic haze, much like that found on Saturn's largest moon Titan, covered the early Earth. This haze, generated from photolysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), may have had profound climatic consequences. Climate models of the early Earth that include this haze have had to rely upon optical properties of a Titan laboratory analog. Titan haze, though thought to be similar, is formed from a different combination of precursor gases and by different energy sources than early Earth haze. This thesis examines the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosol on early Earth climate by studying the optical and hygroscopic properties of a laboratory analog. A Titan analog is studied for comparison and to better understand spacecraft-retrieved haze chemical and optical properties from Titan. The properties of the laboratory analogs, generated in a flowing reactor cell with a continuum ultraviolet (UV) light source, were primarily measured using cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectroscopy and UV-visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectroscopy. We find that the optical properties of our early Earth analog are significantly different than those of the Titan analog from Khare et al. (1984). In both the UV and visible, when modeled as fractals, particles with the optical properties of the early Earth analog have approximately 30% larger extinction efficiencies than particles with Khare et al. (1984) values. This result implies our early Earth haze analog would provide a more efficient UV shield and have a stronger antigreenhouse effect than the Khare et al. (1984) Titan analog. Our Titan analog has significantly smaller imaginary refractive index values

  3. Effects of Dense Phase-CO2 Treatments on Microflora, Enzymes and Browning of Chinese Winter Jujube Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese winter jujube juice was treated with Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD to inactivate microorganisms, Polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity, Peroxidase (POD activity and control browing. The effect of varying pressures (5 to 30 MPa and different treatment time (0 to 50 min on the amount of natural microorganisms, PPO activity, POD activity and browning degree were measured. After experiment, the inactivation of natural microorganisms, PPO activity and POD activity exposed to DPCD were significantly increased with increasing pressure. Treated jujube juice had lower browning degree than untreated jujube juice. The experimental results showed that the DPCD treatment can be regarded as a good pretreatment means for winter jujube juice processing.

  4. Hygroscopic particle behavior studied by interdigitated array microelectrode impedance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelholz, Eric; Tsui, Lok-kun; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-01-09

    The hygroscopic behavior of soluble salts bears importance in many research fields including atmospheric sciences, corrosion, porous building materials, and pharmaceuticals. Several methods have been used to study deliquescence (solid to liquid) and efflorescence (liquid to solid) phase transitions of these salts. In this study, we measured the deliquescence and efflorescence RH values of single salt microparticles deposited on an interdigitated microelectrode sensor via electrical impedance. The salts examined were NaCl, LiCl, NaBr, KCl, and MgCl2. Measured values were in agreement with in situ optical microscopic observations and, with the exception of MgCl2, literature values. In the case of MgCl2, deliquescence occurred at 33% RH and 12-15% RH, with the latter range being previously unreported. The depressed deliquescence RH was hypothesized to be a result of the formation of a metastable MgCl2 hydrate. Incomplete efflorescence of MgCl2 was also observed after exposure to <1.5% RH for up to 22 h due to formation of solid shells which trapped fluid. The phenomena elucidated by these results provide an explanation for the anomalous water retention and uptake behavior of MgCl2 below 33% RH reported elsewhere in the literature. The results presented in this study validate the use of this method as an alternative or complementary method for study of bulk-phase transitions of substrate-deposited particles across a broad RH range. These findings also demonstrate the utility of this method for detection of fluid trapping which cannot be directly ascertained by gravimetric and line-of-sight techniques commonly used in the study of hygroscopic particles.

  5. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  6. Hygroscopicity of the submicrometer aerosol at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sjogren

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from measurements of hygroscopic growth of submicrometer aerosol with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA during four campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The campaigns took place during the years 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2005, each lasting approximately one month. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF, i.e. the relative change in particle diameter from dry diameter, D0, to diameter measured at higher relative humidity, RH are presented for three distinct air mass types, namely for: 1 free tropospheric winter conditions, 2 planetary boundary layer influenced air masses (during a summer period and 3 Saharan dust events (SDE. The GF values at 85% RH (D0=100 nm were 1.40±0.11 and 1.29±0.08 for the first two situations while for SDE a bimodal GF distribution was often found. No phase changes were observed when the RH was varied between 10–90%, and the continuous water uptake could be well described with a single-parameter empirical model. The frequency distributions of the average hygroscopic growth factors and the width of the retrieved growth factor distributions (indicating whether the aerosol is internally or externally mixed are presented, which can be used for modeling purposes.

    Measurements of size resolved chemical composition were performed with an aerosol mass spectrometer in parallel to the GF measurements. This made it possible to estimate the apparent ensemble mean GF of the organics (GForg using inverse ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson modeling. GForg was found to be ~1.20 at aw=0.85, which is at the upper end of previous laboratory and field data though still in agreement with the highly aged and oxidized nature of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.

  7. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was

  8. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  9. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  10. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  11. Hygroscopicity Behavior, Activation Properties and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosol at a Background Site in the Megacity Region of Peking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Silvia; Nowak, Andreas; Mildenberger, Katrin; Göbel, Tina; Nekat, Bettina; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Zhao, Chunsheng; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2010-05-01

    particles were externally mixed. On average the growth factor in the hydrophobic mode was about 1.1 (200nm @ 98.5%). 12% of the particles were of hydrophobic nature for 200 nm and 15% over all sizes. LACIS-mobile focused on the hygroscopic mode, as this mode is mainly responsible for the optical properties of the atmosphere at high RHs. During the whole campaign very high growth factors (GFmedian = 3.56, 200 nm @ 99.2%) were observed, close to those of ammonium sulfate, with only slight dependence on the air mass. The analysis of the DIGITEL samples showed that the main components of PM1 are inorganic ions like the secondary formed ammonium nitrate und ammonium sulphate, as well as carbonaceous material. The organic carbon fraction is mostly dominated by water soluble organic carbon (80% in average) and was more analyzed in more detail for dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids, sugars and sugar related compounds. High concentrations of tracers like the anhydrosugar levoglucosan suggest biomass burning emissions as a dominant source of organic particles in the area. Closure between hygroscopic growth, CCN activation and chemical composition is aimed for with two different approaches: a) one single-parameter Köhler model applying the hygroscopicity parameter kappa following [Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007] and b) a standard Köhler model using as input parameter 4 major chemical components as analyzed from the DIGITEL samples. First tests for 200 nm particles showed very good agreement for the kappa-approach between measured and predicted critical activation. In the second approach the mass of 4 major components, namely ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride and soluble organic mater were used as input parameter of a standard Köhler model including an insoluble core. Here the hygroscopic growth factor was underestimated, but the activation point was predicted well. Petters, M. D., and S. M. Kreidenweis (2007), A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth

  12. Hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of soot particles: uncoated, succinic or sulfuric acid coated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henning

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of uncoated soot particles and such coated with succinic acid and sulfuric acid were investigated during the IN-11 campaign at the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA facility. A GFG-1000 soot generator applying either nitrogen or argon as carrier gas and a miniCAST soot generator were utilized to generate soot particles. Different organic carbon (OC to black carbon (BC ratios were adjusted for the CAST-soot by varying the fuel to air ratio. The hygroscopic growth was investigated by means of the mobile Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile and two different Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzers (HTDMA, VHTDMA. Two Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (CCNC were applied to measure the activation of the particles. For the untreated soot particles neither hygroscopic growth nor activation was observed at a supersaturation of 1%, with exception of a partial activation of GFG-soot generated with argon as carrier gas. Coatings of succinic acid lead to a detectable hygroscopic growth of GFG-soot and enhanced the activated fraction of GFG- (carrier gas: argon and CAST-soot, whereas no hygroscopic growth of the coated CAST-soot was found. Sulfuric acid coatings led to an OC-content dependent hygroscopic growth of CAST-soot. Such a dependence was not observed for activation measurements. Coating with sulfuric acid decreased the amount of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH, which were detected by AMS-measurements in the CAST-soot, and increased the amount of substances with lower molecular weight than the initial PAHs. We assume that these reaction products increased the hygroscopicity of the coated particles in addition to the coating substance itself.

  13. Hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of soot particles: uncoated, succinic or sulfuric acid coated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henning

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of uncoated soot particles and such coated with succinic acid and sulfuric acid were investigated during the IN-11 campaign at the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA facility. A GFG-1000 soot generator applying nitrogen, respectively argon as carrier gas and a miniCAST soot generator were utilized to generate soot particles. Different organic carbon (OC to black carbon (BC ratios were adjusted for the CAST-soot by varying the fuel to air ratio. The hygroscopic growth was investigated by means of the mobile Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile and two different Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzers (HTDMA, VHTDMA. Two Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (CCNC were applied to measure the activation of the particles. For the untreated soot particles neither hygroscopic growth nor activation was observed, with exception of a partial activation of GFG-soot generated with argon as carrier gas. Coatings of succinic acid lead to a detectable hygroscopic growth of GFG-soot and enhanced the activated fraction of GFG- (carrier gas: argon and CAST-soot, whereas no hygroscopic growth of the coated CAST-soot was found. Sulfuric acid coatings lead to an OC-content dependent hygroscopic growth of CAST-soot. Such a dependence was not observed for activation measurements. Coating with sulfuric acid decreased the amount of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH, which were detected by AMS-measurements in the CAST-soot, and increased the amount of substances with lower molecular weight than the initial PAHs. We assume, that these reaction products increased the hygroscopicity of the coated particles in addition to the coating substance itself.

  14. Hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of soot particles: uncoated, succinic or sulfuric acid coated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, S.; Ziese, M.; Kiselev, A.; Saathoff, H.; Möhler, O.; Mentel, T. F.; Buchholz, A.; Spindler, C.; Michaud, V.; Monier, M.; Sellegri, K.; Stratmann, F.

    2012-05-01

    The hygroscopic growth and droplet activation of uncoated soot particles and such coated with succinic acid and sulfuric acid were investigated during the IN-11 campaign at the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) facility. A GFG-1000 soot generator applying either nitrogen or argon as carrier gas and a miniCAST soot generator were utilized to generate soot particles. Different organic carbon (OC) to black carbon (BC) ratios were adjusted for the CAST-soot by varying the fuel to air ratio. The hygroscopic growth was investigated by means of the mobile Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-mobile) and two different Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzers (HTDMA, VHTDMA). Two Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter (CCNC) were applied to measure the activation of the particles. For the untreated soot particles neither hygroscopic growth nor activation was observed at a supersaturation of 1%, with exception of a partial activation of GFG-soot generated with argon as carrier gas. Coatings of succinic acid lead to a detectable hygroscopic growth of GFG-soot and enhanced the activated fraction of GFG- (carrier gas: argon) and CAST-soot, whereas no hygroscopic growth of the coated CAST-soot was found. Sulfuric acid coatings led to an OC-content dependent hygroscopic growth of CAST-soot. Such a dependence was not observed for activation measurements. Coating with sulfuric acid decreased the amount of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which were detected by AMS-measurements in the CAST-soot, and increased the amount of substances with lower molecular weight than the initial PAHs. We assume that these reaction products increased the hygroscopicity of the coated particles in addition to the coating substance itself.

  15. Field measurements of hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of nucleation mode particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Väkevä

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (UF-TDMA has been used in several field campaigns over the last few years. The investigations were focused on the origin and properties of nucleation event aerosols, which are observed frequently in various environments. This paper gives a summary of the results of 10 nm and 20 nm particle hygroscopic properties from different measurement sites: an urban site, an urban background site and a forest site in Finland and a coastal site in western Ireland. The data can be classified in four hygroscopic growth classes: hydrofobic, less-hygroscopic, more-hygroscopic and sea-salt. Similar classification has been earlier presented for Aitken and accumulation mode particles. In urban air, the summertime 10 nm particles showed varying less-hygroscopic growth behaviour, while winter time 10 nm and 20 nm particles were externally mixed with two different hygroscopic growth modes. The forest measurements revealed diurnal behaviour of hygroscopic growth, with high growth factors at day time and lower during night. The urban background particles had growth behaviour similar to the urban and forest measurement sites depending on the origin of the observed particles. The coastal measurements were strongly affected by air mass history. Both 10 nm and 20 nm particles were hygroscopic in marine background air. The 10 nm particles produced during clean nucleation burst periods were hydrofobic. Diurnal variation and higher growth factors of 10 nm particles were observed in air affected by other source regions. External mixing was occasionally observed at all the sites, but incidents with more than two growth modes were extremely rare.

  16. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  17. Observational study of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors over rural area near Beijing mega-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Pan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated aerosol hygroscopic growth property and its influence on scattering coefficient using M9003 nephelometers in coupling with a relative humidity controlled inlet system at a rural site near Beijing mega-city (Jingjintang from 24th April to15th May 2006. Inlet relative humidity was controlled in an increasing range of 40%–90% while the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH=80%, varied in a range of 1.07–2.35 during the measurement. Estimated periodic mean values of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors are 1.27–1.34, 1.17–1.23, 1.55–1.59 and 2.33–2.48 for clean, dust, urban pollution and mixed pollution periods respectively. An examination of chemical composition of daily filter samples highlighted that aerosol hygroscopicity was generally enhanced with the increasing ratio of ammonium sulfate (AS to organic matter (OMC. Furthermore, strong hygroscopic organic aerosols were observed on 11th (f(RH=80%=2.23 and 15th (f(RH=80%=2.21 of May with organic carbon proportions of PM2.1 reaching 42.3% and 43.0% respectively. Back-trajectory analysis indicated that solar radiation and vertical convective movement along the air mass pathway might strongly influence the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  18. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  19. Influência de diferentes teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados Influence of different contents of insoluble suspended solidS on rheological characteristics of natural and despectinized pineapple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a influência dos sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi in natura e sucos tratados com enzima pectinolítica. Cada um dos dois tipos de suco foi estudado através de seis frações, divididas em quatro peneiradas, uma centrifugada e uma integral, representando seis teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos. Os dados reométricos foram coletados através de um reômetro Haake rotovisco e os dados experimentais ajustados pelo modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. Das seis frações in natura, quatro apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana e outra como dilatante enquanto das seis frações tratadas enzimaticamente cinco apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana. O teor de sólidos insolúveis suspensos mostrou-se o principal fator responsável pelo comportamento reológico dos sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados.The influence of insoluble suspended solid contents in rheological characteristics of pineapple juice, both natural and treated with pectinolytic enzymes, was studied. Each type of juice was examined by six fractions, divided into four sievings, one centrifuged and the others whole, representing six contents of insoluble suspended solids. The rheometric data were collected by means of Haake rotovisco rheometer and the experimental data were adjusted by the Mizrahi-Berk model. In the natural material four fractions showed pseudoplastic behaviour, one characterized as newtonian and the others as dilatant, whereas in the enzyme treated material, five fractions presented pseudoplastic behaviour and one was characterized as newtonian. The insoluble suspended solid content was found to be the principal factor responsible for this rheological behaviour of natural and despectinized pineapple juices.

  20. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-04-28

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer.

  1. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  2. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  3. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  4. Hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles and its relation to nucleation scavenging in clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningsson, B.

    1997-11-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are important in several aspects. Some major aerosol constituents that are deposited in ecosystems are acidic or fertilizers and some minor or trace constituents are toxic. Aerosol particles are also involved in the earth`s radiation balance, both directly by scattering the sunlight and indirectly by influencing the clouds. All these effects are influenced by the interaction between the aerosol particles and water vapour. A tandem differential mobility analyser (TDMA) has been designed to measure hygroscopic growth, i.e. the particle diameter change due to uptake of water at well defined relative humidities below 100%. Tests of the instrument performance have been made using aerosol particles of pure inorganic salts. Three field experiments have been performed as parts of large fog and cloud experiments. Bimodal hygroscopic growth spectra were found: less-hygroscopic particles containing a few percent and more-hygroscopic particles around 50% by volume of hygroscopically active material. In general the fraction of less-hygroscopic particles decreases with particle size and it is larger in polluted continental aerosols than in remote background aerosols. This external mixing cannot be fully understood using present views on the formation of aerosols. Evidence or the importance of the external mixing on the cloud nucleating properties of the particles are found in comparisons between hygroscopic growth spectra for the total aerosol, the interstitial aerosol in clouds, and cloud drop residuals. Cloud condensation nuclei spectra, calculated using aerosol particle size distributions and hygroscopic growth spectra, in combination with information on the major inorganic ions are presented. These CCN spectra reveal for instance that the influence of less-hygroscopic particles on the cloud droplets increases with increasing peak supersaturation. The fraction of the particles that were scavenged to cloud drops, as a function of particle

  5. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  6. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  7. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  8. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  9. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  10. Comparison of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state between winter and summer seasons in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongxin; Tan, Haobo; Tang, Lili; Cai, Mingfu; Yin, Yan; Li, Fei; Liu, Li; Xu, Hanbing; Chan, P. W.; Deng, Xuejiao; Wu, Dui

    2016-03-01

    Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles are important for determining aerosol size distributions, and thus determining scattering and absorption coefficients at ambient atmospheric conditions. In this study, hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at an urban site in Guangzhou, China, were measured using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) system during the winter and the summer. The results show that the urban aerosols were composed of more-hygroscopic, less-hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic particles. For less-hygroscopic particles of 40-200 nm in diameter, the hygroscopic parameter κLH was around 0.15. For more-hygroscopic particles, the κMH was from 0.290 to 0.339 with a particle size from 40 to 200 nm. For non-hygroscopic particles, the κNH was about 0.015. It was found that the number fraction of less-hygroscopic particles (NFLH) was correlated with the atmospheric oxidation which can be presented by OC/EC. This paper attributed the larger NFLH in winter to the higher value of OC/EC (3.0). Such conditions may lead to more formation of less-hygroscopic particles. Backward trajectories cluster analysis shows that there is a certain link between air mass origin and aerosol hygroscopicity, but it seems to be independent of the level of pollution. The difference of NFNH indicates that the mixing state of aerosol particles can also be affected by air mass origin. Diurnal variations in aerosol hygroscopic parameters in both seasons show that during daytime, aerosol particles tend to have a low degree of external mixing or quasi-internal mixing, resulting in a higher NFMH and a larger κmean; during nighttime and early mornings, they tend to be mixed externally, resulting in a lower NFMH and a smaller κmean. This can be attributed to atmospheric aging effect and evolution of mixing layer height and implies that soot (non-hygroscopic) particles present to a large extent as internal mixtures by the time they leave the urban

  11. Hygroscopic properties of jet engine combustor particles during the hot-end simulator (HES) PartEmis campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysel, M.; Nyeki, S.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Petzold, A.; Wilson, C.W.

    2003-03-01

    The influence of the turbine section of a jet engine on particle properties was investigated by means of a hot end simulator (HES) during the EC project PartEmis. Hygroscopic growth factors were measured using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA). The results suggest a slight in-crease of particle hygroscopicity through the HES, but the main particle features are determined at the combustor exit already, i.e. particle hygroscopicity increases with increasing fuel sulphur content (FSC). (author)

  12. Impact of mixing state and hygroscopicity on CCN activity of biomass burning aerosol in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gácita, Madeleine; Longo, Karla M.; Freire, Julliana L. M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-01

    Smoke aerosols prevail throughout Amazonia because of widespread biomass burning during the dry season, and external mixing, low variability in the particle size distribution and low particle hygroscopicity are typical. There can be profound effects on cloud properties. This study uses an adiabatic cloud model to simulate the activation of smoke particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for three hypothetical case studies, chosen as to resemble biomass burning aerosol observations in Amazonia. The relative importance of variability in hygroscopicity, mixing state, and activation kinetics for the activated fraction and maximum supersaturation is assessed. For a population with κp = 0.04, an overestimation of the cloud droplet number concentration Nd for the three selected case studies between 22.4 ± 1.4 and 54.3 ± 3.7 % was obtained when assuming a hygroscopicity parameter κp = 0.20. Assuming internal mixing of the aerosol population led to overestimations of up to 20 % of Nd when a group of particles with medium hygroscopicity was present in the externally mixed population cases. However, the overestimations were below 10 % for external mixtures between very low and low-hygroscopicity particles, as seems to be the case for Amazon smoke particles. Kinetic limitations were significant for medium- and high-hygroscopicity particles, and much lower for very low and low-hygroscopicity particles. When particles were assumed to be at equilibrium and to respond instantly to changes in the air parcel supersaturation, the overestimation of the droplet concentration was up to ˜ 100 % in internally mixed populations, and up to ˜ 250 % in externally mixed ones, being larger for the higher values of hygroscopicity. In addition, a perceptible delay between the times when maximum supersaturation and maximum aerosol activated fraction are reached was noticed and, for aerosol populations with effective hygroscopicity κpeff higher than a certain threshold value, the delay in

  13. Insights into the microstructures of hygroscopic movement in plant seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Rivka; Abraham, Yael

    2014-06-01

    As non-motile organisms, plants develop means to spread their progenies. Hygroscopic movement is a very common mechanism employed in seed dispersal. This type of movement is created when the tissue desiccates and the cell walls dry and shrink. A contraction force develops, the direction and strength of which depends on the architecture of the tissue. This force may be utilized for a simple release of seeds, their catapultion, and for pushing seeds along the soil to a germination locus. We review the formation of a bend, a twist and a coil within various dispersal apparatuses as a reaction to the dehydration of the tissue. We compare the microscopic structures of hygroscopic devices supporting slow or fast movement, adaptations to dry or wet climates, and single use versus repeated movement. We discuss the development of the disconnecting tissues in relation to the development of a hygroscopic mechanism. As plant cultivation is dependent on seed dispersal control, we demonstrate that during the domestication of sesame and wheat, seed dispersal is avoided not due to a defective hygroscopic tissue, but rather a missing dehiscence tissue. Seed dispersal is a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Thus, hygroscopic movement plays a central part in plant ecology and agriculture.

  14. Aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud droplet activation of extracts of filters from biomass burning experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Christian M.; Petters, Markus D.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Engling, Guenter; Malm, William C.

    2008-04-01

    In this laboratory closure study, we compare sub- and supersaturated water uptake properties for aerosol particles possessing a range of hygroscopicity. Measurements for water sub-saturated conditions used a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Simultaneously, measurements of particle critical supersaturation were conducted on the same sample stream with a continuous flow cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. For these experiments, we used filter-collected samples of biomass smoke generated in the combustion of two common wildland fire fuels, western sagebrush and Alaskan duff core. Extractions of separate sections of the filter were performed using two solvents, ultrapure water and methanol. The extracts were subsequently atomized, producing aerosols having a range of hygroscopic responses. HTDMA and CCN measurements were fit to a single-parameter model of water uptake, in which the fit parameter is denoted κ, the hygroscopicity parameter. Here, for the four extracts we observed mean values of the hygroscopicity parameter of 0.06 CCN-derived values of κ for each experiment agreed within approximately 20%. Applicability of the κ-parameterization to other multicomponent aerosols relevant to the atmosphere remains to be tested.

  15. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  16. Identification of xanthans isolated from sugarcane juices obtained from scalded plants infected by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaniella, Blanca; Rodríguez, C W; Piñón, Dolores; Vicente, C; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-04-25

    The exudate gum produced by Xanthomonas albilineans, a specific sugarcane pathogen, has been isolated from juices of diseased sugarcane stalks, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, and the hydrolysate analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Sucrose. cellobiose, mannose, glucose, glucose-1-P and glucuronic acid were identified as the major components of the polysaccharide isolated from diseased stalks. Juices from healthy stalks contained maltose instead of cellobiose. The chemical nature of this polysaccharide is discussed.

  17. submitter Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Yli-Juuti, T; Lawler, M; Keskinen, H; Tröstl, J; Schobesberger, S; Duplissy, J; Amorim, A; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Flagan, R C; Hakala, J; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P; Petäjä, T; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Tomé, A; Williamson, C; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Ehrhart, S; Ye, P; Kirkby, J; Curtius, J; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Lehtinen, K E J; Smith, J N; Riipinen, I; Virtanen, A

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study, we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) at subsaturated conditions (ca. 90 % relative humidity at 293 K) to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7) campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was meas...

  18. Numerical study on heat and mass transfer in hygroscopic rotor during sorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Geun; Park, Il Seouk

    2017-02-01

    Recently, interest in hygroscopic dehumidifiers has rapidly increased in the indoor environment industry because of their potential contribution to the development of hybrid (refrigerating + hygroscopic) dehumidifiers. Heat and mass transport phenomena such as adsorption and desorption, and their complex interactions occur in a desiccant rotor, which comprises many small hygroscopic channels. This study numerically investigated the conjugated heat and mass transfers in a channel modeled with the flow and porous desiccant regions, where only ordinary and surface diffusions (excluding Knudsen diffusion) during the sorption processes were considered. The change in the dehumidification performance depending on operating conditions such as the rotor's rotating speed, air flow rate, and adsorption-desorption ratio, was examined under various working environments. The temporal and spatial variations in the temperature, vapor mass fraction, and liquid water mass fraction in the channel were considered in detail. The closely linked heat and mass transports were clarified for a better understanding of the sorption processes in the desiccant rotor.

  19. Numerical study on heat and mass transfer in hygroscopic rotor during sorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Geun; Park, Il Seouk

    2016-06-01

    Recently, interest in hygroscopic dehumidifiers has rapidly increased in the indoor environment industry because of their potential contribution to the development of hybrid (refrigerating + hygroscopic) dehumidifiers. Heat and mass transport phenomena such as adsorption and desorption, and their complex interactions occur in a desiccant rotor, which comprises many small hygroscopic channels. This study numerically investigated the conjugated heat and mass transfers in a channel modeled with the flow and porous desiccant regions, where only ordinary and surface diffusions (excluding Knudsen diffusion) during the sorption processes were considered. The change in the dehumidification performance depending on operating conditions such as the rotor's rotating speed, air flow rate, and adsorption-desorption ratio, was examined under various working environments. The temporal and spatial variations in the temperature, vapor mass fraction, and liquid water mass fraction in the channel were considered in detail. The closely linked heat and mass transports were clarified for a better understanding of the sorption processes in the desiccant rotor.

  20. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  2. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  3. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  4. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  6. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  7. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  8. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  9. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  10. The effect of hygroscopicity on sea-spray aerosol fluxes: a comparison of high-rate and bulk correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. J. Sproson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance technique is the most direct of the methods that have been used to measure the flux of sea-spray aerosol between the ocean and atmosphere, but has been applied in only a handful of studies. However, unless the aerosol is dried before the eddy covariance measurements are made, the hygroscopic nature of sea-spray may combine with a relative humidity flux to result in a bias in the calculated aerosol flux. "Bulk" methods have been presented to account for this bias, however they rely on assumptions of the shape of the aerosol spectra which may not be valid for near-surface measurements of sea-spray.

    Here we describe a method of correcting aerosol spectra for relative humidity induced size variations at the high frequency (10 Hz measurement timescale, where counting statistics are poor and the spectral shape cannot be well represented by a simple power law. Such a correction allows the effects of hygroscopicity and relative humidity flux on the aerosol flux to be explicitly evaluated and compared to the bulk corrections, both in their original form and once reformulated to better represent the measured mean aerosol spectra. In general, the bulk corrections – particularly when reformulated for the measured mean aerosol spectra – perform relatively well, producing flux corrections of the right sign and approximate magnitude. However, there are times when the bulk methods either significantly over- or underestimate the required flux correction. We thus conclude that, where possible, relative humidity corrections should be made at the measurement frequency.

  11. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Mass-based hygroscopicity parameter interaction model and measurement of atmospheric aerosol water uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we derive and apply a mass-based hygroscopicity parameter interaction model for efficient description of concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol particles with complex chemical composition. The model approach builds on the single hygroscopicity parameter model of Petters and Kreidenweis (2007. We introduce an observable mass-based hygroscopicity parameter κm which can be deconvoluted into a dilute hygroscopicity parameter (κm0 and additional self- and cross-interaction parameters describing non-ideal solution behavior and concentration dependencies of single- and multi-component systems.

    For reference aerosol samples of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate, the κm-interaction model (KIM captures the experimentally observed concentration and humidity dependence of the hygroscopicity parameter and is in good agreement with an accurate reference model based on the Pitzer ion-interaction approach (Aerosol Inorganic Model, AIM. Experimental results for pure organic particles (malonic acid, levoglucosan and for mixed organic-inorganic particles (malonic acid – ammonium sulfate are also well reproduced by KIM, taking into account apparent or equilibrium solubilities for stepwise or gradual deliquescence and efflorescence transitions.

    The mixed organic-inorganic particles as well as atmospheric aerosol samples exhibit three distinctly different regimes of hygroscopicity: (I a quasi-eutonic deliquescence & efflorescence regime at low-humidity where substances are just partly dissolved and exist also in a non-dissolved phase, (II a gradual deliquescence & efflorescence regime at intermediate humidity where different solutes undergo gradual dissolution or solidification in the aqueous phase; and (III a dilute regime at high humidity where the solutes are fully dissolved approaching their dilute hygroscopicity.

    For atmospheric aerosol samples

  13. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  14. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Hygroscopicity and Dimensional Stability of Oak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga JUODEIKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal treatment on moisture exchange between wood and natural environment with variable air parameters as well as on dimensional stability of wood samples was investigated. The experiments were carried out with oak wood samples indoors and outside. The thickness of samples was 30 mm, width was 30 mm and length was 20 mm; conventional density varied from 500 kg/m3 to 580 kg/m3. Initially, the wood was air-dried down to 7 % – 9 % of moisture content. In order to decrease possibility of the both moisture absorption and evaporation during wood application thermal treatment must be applied. Due to that the samples were heated at temperature of 60, 80, 100 and 120 ºC for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The moisture content of wood and its variations after thermal treatment depends on the both heating temperature and duration. The higher temperature and the longer heating duration, the lower wood hygroscopicity can be achieved. The effect of thermal treatment on the moisture content and its changes were observed for wood samples stored indoor and outside. In dependence of thermal treatment conditions moisture content in wood samples independently on storing conditions (indoor or outside can decrease down to 30 % compare to the untreated ones. The change of moisture content during various seasons after 24 hours of storing indoor decreases down to 60 %, while outside that is only 39 %. Dimensional stability of wood samples also depends on the both thermal treatment temperature and duration. The higher treatment temperature and the longer duration, the higher dimensional stability can be obtained. The heat treatment of oak wood samples at selected regimes allows to decrease values of shrinkage and swelling coefficients down to 40 %.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3825

  15. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  16. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  17. Chemical closure study on hygroscopic properties of urban aerosol particles in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Mochida, Michihiro; Kitamori, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2007-10-15

    To assess the link between hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles and the chemical composition, we performed a chemical closure study on the hygroscopicity of organic-inorganic mixed particles nebulized from water extracts of ambient aerosols collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005. The hygroscopicity of 100 nm particles was measured using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at 5-95% relative humidity. The chemical analyses of the extracts showed that inorganic salts accounted for 32-84% of the water-soluble fraction and that the remaining was water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The liquid water content (LWC) of particles was primarily governed by the relative abundance of inorganic salts in particles. The chemical closure with a thermodynamic model did not indicate a significant perturbation of LWC by WSOM at 85% RH with the consideration of the uncertainties estimated. However, a positive perturbation by WSOM was suggested at 50% RH. Individual oxygenated compounds identified using gas chromatography were not abundant enough to substantially increase the LWC at 85% RH.

  18. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T.F.; Goger, B.; Poulain, L.; Schlag, P.; Miettinen, P.; Pajunoja, A.; Virtanen, A.; Baltink, H.K.; Henzing, J.S.; Größ,, J.; Gobbi, G.P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M.C.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol particles hygroscopic properties, their mixing state as well as chemical composition were measured above northern Italy and the Netherlands. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; for chemical composition) and a white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer

  19. Hygroscopicity and ammonia volatilization losses from nitrogen sources in coated urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic fertilizers tend to absorb moisture from the air and may have undesirable characteristics such as moistness, clumping and lower fluidity, hampering the application. The increasing use of urea is due to its numerous advantages, although this nitrogen (N source is highly susceptible to volatilization losses, particularly when applied to the soil surface of management systems with conservation of crop residues. The volatilization losses can be minimized by slow or controlled-release fertilizers, with controlled water solubility of the urea-coating materials; and by stabilized fertilizers, which prolong the period during which N remains in the amide or ammonia forms by urease inhibitors. This study evaluated the hygroscopicity of and ammonia volatilization from urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate or with sulfur. The hygroscopicity of the sources was evaluated over time after exposure to five levels of relative humidity (RH and volatilization evaluated after application to the soil surface covered with sugarcane trash. Ammonium nitrate has a low potential for volatilization losses, but is highly hygroscopic. Although coating with boric acid and copper sulfate or elemental sulfur reduced the critical humidity level of urea, the delay in the volatilization process is a potential positive factor.

  20. Estimation of hygroscopic power of electrotechnical materials by dynamic speckle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, G.; Cabello, C. I.; Arizaga, R.; Trivi, M.; Barbera, Gustavo

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic speckle laser (DLS) technique has been applied to the analysis of different biological systems, inorganic materials and industrial processes. In this paper, we use this technique to analyze the hygroscopic properties of different types of porcelain and papers for electrotechnical purposes. Experimental speckle results showed different behavior depending on physicochemical and textural properties of the samples.

  1. Hygroscopic Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol Measured with an HTDMA in an Urban Background Site in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, E.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Becerril, M.; Coz, E.; Artíñano, B.

    2015-12-01

    The observation of high aerosol hygroscopic growth in Madrid is mainly limited to specific atmospheric conditions, such as local stagnation episodes, which take place in winter time. One of these episodes was identified in December 2014 and the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements obtained in such episode were analysed in order to know the influence of the meteorological conditions on aerosol hygroscopic properties. The prevailing high atmospheric stability triggered an increase of the particle total concentration during the study period, with several peaks that exceeded 4.0 104 particles cm-3, as well as an increase in the inorganic fraction of the aerosol, the NO3- concentration, which in this case corresponded to 25% of the total PM1 non-refractory composition. The aerosol hygroscopic growth distribution was bimodal during the episode, with an average GF around 1.2 for the five dry particle sizes measured and an average GF spread ≥ 0.15. In addition, it is important to note that when a reduction in the concentrations of NO3- is observed, it coincides with a decrease of the GF and its spread. These data suggest, on the one hand, a high degree of external mixing state of the aerosol during the episode and, on the other hand, a notable association between the GF and the inorganic fraction of the aerosol.

  2. Hygroscopic Swelling Determination of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Films by Polarized Light Microscopy Digital Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shikha; Diaz, Jairo A; Ghanbari, Siavash; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-08

    The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) of self-organized and shear-oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was determined by capturing hygroscopic strains produced as result of isothermal water vapor intake in equilibrium. Contrast enhanced microscopy digital image correlation enabled the characterization of dimensional changes induced by the hygroscopic swelling of the films. The distinct microstructure and birefringence of CNC films served in exploring the in-plane hygroscopic swelling at relative humidity values ranging from 0% to 97%. Water vapor intake in CNC films was measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) at constant temperature. The obtained experimental moisture sorption and kinetic profiles were analyzed by fitting with Guggenheim, Anderson, and deBoer (GAB) and Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) models, respectively. Self-organized CNC films showed isotropic swelling, CHS ∼0.040 %strain/%C. By contrast, shear-oriented CNC films exhibited an anisotropic swelling, resulting in CHS ∼0.02 and ∼0.30 %strain/%C, parallel and perpendicular to CNC alignment, respectively. Finite element analysis (FEA) further predicted moisture diffusion as the predominant mechanism for swelling of CNC films.

  3. A simplified empirical method for determination of aerosol hygroscopicity and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Chan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have substantial influence on the Earth's radiation budget, visibility, cloud formation and precipitation. The aerosol hygroscopicity and the composition of aerosols are of vital importance for solar radiation budget calculation, cloud formation mechanism, and measurement of aerosol spatiotemporal distribution through remote sensing, such as Lidar, MODIS and sun/star photometer. In this paper, hourly averaged records of humidity, visibility and aerosol concentration, conducted in Macao, P.R.C. from 1 February 2006 to 31 December 2008 (LT, are used to estimate aerosol hygroscopicity and composition with a simplified empirical method. The result of monthly variation of aerosol hygroscopicity indicates the important role of aerosol composition on optical properties, which is in agreement with the previous study. This aerosol composition pattern is also consistent with the Asiatic Monsoon pattern and vicinity, such as Hong Kong. The monthly variation of aerosol hygroscopicity and composition also shows the necessity to consider such a factor for the aerosols monitoring by remote system and aerosols forcing simulated by climate model.

  4. Relating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity to chemical composition during the HCCT-2010 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle hygroscopic growth at RH =90%, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity, and size-resolved chemical composition were concurrently measured in the Thüringer Wald mid-level mountain range in central Germany in fall season of 2010. The median hygroscopicity parameter values, κ, of 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 nm particles derived from hygroscopicity measurements are respectively 0.14, 0.14, 0.17, 0.21, 0.24, and 0.28 during the sampling period. The closure between HTDMA-measured (κHTDMA and chemical composition-derived (κchem hygroscopicity parameters was performed based on the Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Using size-averaged chemical composition, the κ values are substantially overpredicted (30% and 40% for 150 and 100 nm particles. Introducing size-resolved chemical composition substantially improved closure, and the differences between κHTDMA and κchem are within 10%. We found that the evaporation of NH4NO3, which may happen in H-TDMA system, could lead to a discrepancy in predicted and measured particle hygroscopic growth. The hygroscopic parameter of the organic fraction, κorg is positively correlated with the O : C ratio (κorg =0.19 · (O : C−0.03. Such correlation is helpful to define the κorg value in the closure study. κ derived from CCN measurement was around 30% (varied with particle diameters higher than that determined from particle hygroscopic growth measurements (here, hydrophilic mode is considered only. This difference might be explained by the surface tension effects, solution non-ideality, and the partial solubility of constituents or non-dissolved particle matter. However, due to these effects being included in HTDMA-derived κ calculations, we could not distinguish the specific roles of these effects in creating this gap. Therefore, extrapolating from HTDMA data to properties at the point of activation should be done with great care. Finally, closure study between CCNc-measured (κ

  5. A combined particle trap/HTDMA hygroscopicity study of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardini, A. A.; Sjogren, S.; Marcolli, C.; Krieger, U. K.; Gysel, M.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Peter, T.

    2008-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are often mixtures of inorganic and organic material. Organics can represent a large fraction of the total aerosol mass and are comprised of water-soluble and insoluble compounds. Increasing attention was paid in the last decade to the capability of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles to take up water (hygroscopicity). We performed hygroscopicity measurements of internally mixed particles containing ammonium sulfate and carboxylic acids (citric, glutaric, adipic acid) in parallel with an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds were chosen to represent three distinct physical states. During hygroscopicity cycles covering hydration and dehydration measured by the EDB and the HTDMA, pure citric acid remained always liquid, adipic acid remained always solid, while glutaric acid could be either. We show that the hygroscopicity of mixtures of the above compounds is well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relationship as long as the two-component particle is completely liquid in the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid system; deviations up to 10% in mass growth factor (corresponding to deviations up to 3.5% in size growth factor) are observed for the ammonium sulfate/citric acid 1:1 mixture at 80% RH. We observe even more significant discrepancies compared to what is expected from bulk thermodynamics when a solid component is present. We explain this in terms of a complex morphology resulting from the crystallization process leading to veins, pores, and grain boundaries which allow for water sorption in excess of bulk thermodynamic predictions caused by the inverse Kelvin effect on concave surfaces.

  6. The Hygroscopic Opening of Sesame Fruits Is Induced by a Functionally Graded Pericarp Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Elbaum, Rivka; Bar-On, Benny

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Microscopic observations of the capsules showed that the inner stiff endocarp layer is built of a bilayer of transverse (i.e., circumferential) and longitudinal fiber cells with the layers positioned in a semi-circle, one inside the other. The outer mesocarp layer is made of soft parenchyma cells. The thickness of the fibrous layers and of the mesocarp exhibits a graded architecture, with gradual changes in their thickness around the capsule circumference. The cellulose microfibrils in the fiber cell walls are lying parallel to the cell long axis, rendering them stiff. The outer mesocarp layer contracted by 300% as it dried. Removal of this outer layer inhibited the opening movement, indicating that it is the active tissue. A biomechanical hygro-elastic model based on the relative thicknesses of the layers successfully simulated the opening curvature. Our findings suggest that the sesame capsules possess a functionally graded architecture, which promotes a non-uniform double-curvature hygroscopic bending movement. In contrast to other hygroscopic organs described in the literature, the sesame capsule actuating and resisting tissues are not uniform throughout the device, but changing gradually. This newly described mechanism can be exploited in bio-inspired designs of novel actuating platforms. PMID:27777579

  7. Hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles emitted from biomass fired grate boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Pagels, Joakim; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Bioenergy Technology

    2005-02-01

    This study focuses on the hygroscopic properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles emitted from two small-scale district heating combustion plants (1 and 1.5 MW) burning two types of biomass fuels (moist forest residue and pellets). The hygroscopic particle diameter growth was measured when taken from a dehydrated to a humidified state for particle diameters between 30-350 nm (dry size) using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA). Particles of a certain dry size all showed similar hygroscopic growth and the average diameter growth at RH=90% for 110/100 nm particles was 1.68 in the 1 MW boiler, and 1.52 in the 1.5 MW boiler. These growth factors are considerably higher in comparison to other combustion aerosol particles such as diesel exhaust, and are the result of the efficient combustion and the high concentration of alkali species in the fuel. The observed water uptake could be explained using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule and a chemical composition of only potassium salts, taken from an Ion Chromatography analysis of filter sample (KCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Agglomerated particles collapsed and became more spherical when initially exposed to a moderately high relative humidity. When diluting with hot particle-free air, the fractal-like structures remained intact until humidified in the HTDMA. A method is presented to by which to estimate the fractal dimension of the agglomerated combustion aerosol and correct the measured mobility diameter hygroscopic growth to the more useful property volume growth. The fractal dimension was estimated to be {approx}2.5.

  8. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  10. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  11. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  12. 新鲜果蔬汁稳定性比较%Stability Comparison of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Juices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张銮; 王卫; 金春

    2012-01-01

    The stability and the stable time of fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, pineapple juice and orange juice were analyzed in this paper. Color, flavor, aroma, acid value, clarity of FVJ were determined to assess the stability of FVJ. Results indicated that the color of FVJ changed great- ly after 30 min, especially the watermelon juice, orange juice and cucumber juice; the flavor and aroma of FVJ declined gradually after 10 min; the cucumber juice, pineapple juice, carrot juice, orange juice and to- mato juice were smelling after 3 h; the watermelon juice was smelling after 1 h; the clarity of FVJ decreased continuously after 10 min; the last surface images showed that there were visible deterioration phenomena for FVJ after 7 h. Based on those results, the fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, cucumber juice or watermelon juice should be consumed within 30 min after its preparation so as to maintain its natural flavor and aroma.%探讨了新鲜番茄汁、西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、橘子汁、菠萝汁及胡萝卜汁的稳定性及稳定时间.通过分析各种果蔬汁的色泽、滋味、香气、酸值、澄清度在放置期间的变化.实验发现:各种果蔬汁在制备30min后其色泽有较大变化,尤其是西瓜汁、桔子汁及黄瓜汁;在制备10min后各种果蔬汁的滋味、香气持续下降,放置3h后,黄瓜汁、菠萝汁、胡萝卜汁、桔子汁及番茄汁出现异味,放置1h后西瓜汁出现异味;放置10min后,各种果蔬汁的澄清度随时间增加持续下降;果蔬汁放置后期的实验显示,7h后出现肉眼可见变质现象.实验表明,新鲜西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、番茄汁、胡萝卜汁、黄瓜汁及西瓜汁应在制作后30rain内饮用,以最大程度保留其风味和滋味,而不宜1h后饮用.

  13. [Comparison of Coptidis Rhizoma processed with different ginger juice based on metabolomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-Yun; Su, Dan; Zhu, Jing; Deng, Yu-Fen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of two different ginger juices on the medicinal properties of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) by using UPLC-MS-TOF. The rats were fed with decoction of raw CR (RCR), CR processed with ginger juice from fresh ginger(CRGJFG), CR processed with ginger juice from Zinger (CRGJZ), ginger juice from fresh ginger (GJFG) and ginger juice from Zinger (GJZ), and then their urine was collected at different time points for metabolomics analysis. PeakviewTM 1.7 software was applied to analyze the total ion current under positive ion mode; MarkerviewTM 2.0 software was applied for principal component analysis (PCA). The possible biomarkers were screened and their content changes were described according to the searching results in Scifinder and Chemspider databases and related literature reports. The results showed that CR processed with different ginger juice would produce different effects on energy metabolism. Nine possible biomarkers relating to medicinal properties were found as sarcosine, hippuric acid, creatinine, kynurenine, tyrosine, L-tryptophan, nicotinic acid, arachidonic acid and L-proline. L-tryptophan, kynurenine and nicotinic acid were involved in the metabolism of tryptophan; sarcosine, creatinine, L-proline and tyrosine were involved in arginine and proline metabolism; the content of arachidonic acid in urine, precursor of leukotrienes B4, from high to low were CRGJZ, CRGJFG and RCR. The contents of all biomarkers in GJZ group were higher than those in GJFG group, indicating the cold nature of CR was gradually decreased in the following order: RCR, CRGJZ and CRGJFG, and resulting in different anti-inflammatory effects of samples. The results were in consistent with the conclusion that GJFG had hot nature and GJZ had warm nature. The study provided the scientific basis for proper use of different ginger juice as processing assistants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  15. EXTRACCIÓN Y SECADO DE FLOCULANTES NATURALES USADOS EN LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE JUGOS DE CAÑA EXTRAÇÁO E SECAGEM DE NATURAL USADO FLOCULANTES DE CLARIFICAÇÁO DO SUCOS DE CANA EXTRACTION AND DRYING OF NATURAL FLOCCULANTS USED IN CANE JUICE CLARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ortiz G

    2011-12-01

    ólidos solúveis com 93,6%, seguido pela balsa com 90,4% e guácimo com 89,7%, comparado a 100% da amostra de controlo. Os três floculantes modificados são compostas principalmente de carboidratos (frutóse, glicose e maltose, saponinas e fenóis, e ferro, cálcio e fosfato. Ao comparar os teores de calcio e fosfato foi encontrado que valores mais altos correspondem aos tratamentos modificados bardana e balsa, esses valores influenciaram a sua melhor performance no processo de clarificaçáo do suco de cana.The clarification of cane juice is made by the addition of vegetable mucilage. The objective was to evaluate the clarification of three natural flocculants (balso, cadillo and guásimo in cane juice. The physicochemical properties and insoluble solids retention were characterized versus a synthetic flocculant. Was used a statistical model for randomized block and control sample was the Profloc 985. Mucilage was obtained by pulping the highest quality distilled water, dried at 38°C for 11 hours and reduced to a particle size of 212µm. The ideal clarification was at a concentration 0,03% w/v. The cadillo was dry flocculant showed greater efficiency in the precipitation of soluble solids to 93,6%, followed by the balso with a 90,4% and 89,7% guácimo, compared to 100% of the control sample. The three modified flocculants are composed mainly of carbohydrates (fructose, glucose and maltose, saponins and phenols, and iron, calcium and phosphate. By comparing the contents of calcium and phosphates was found that higher values correspond to the treatments modified cadillo and balso, these values influenced their best performance in the process of clarification of sugar cane juice.

  16. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Goger, B.; Poulain, L.; Schlag, P.; Miettinen, P.; Pajunoja, A.; Virtanen, A.; Bialek, J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J. S.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS) for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer) contained a high nitrate fraction (20%) which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer) small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ) were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0.19 for the

  17. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rosati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer contained a high nitrate fraction (20% which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0

  18. Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study, we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA at subsaturated conditions (ca. 90 % relative humidity at 293 K to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7 campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid–dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid–organics derived from α-pinene oxidation. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles. No clear effect of the sulfuric acid concentration on the hygroscopicity of 10 nm particles produced from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine was observed, whereas the hygroscopicity of 15 nm particles sharply decreased with decreasing sulfuric acid concentrations. In particular, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 5.1 × 106 molecules cm−3 in the gas phase, and the dimethylamine mixing ratio was 11.8 ppt, the measured κ of 15 nm particles was 0.31 ± 0.01: close to the value reported for dimethylaminium sulfate (DMAS (κDMAS ∼ 0.28. Furthermore, the difference in κ between sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid–imethylamine experiments increased with increasing particle

  19. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and unseeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution, with an

  20. Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study, we focus on a challenging size range, i.e. particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake constrains their chemical composition. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA at subsaturated conditions (ca. 90 % relative humidity at 293 K to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7 experiments performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size indicating decreasing acidity of particles. No clear effect of the sulfuric acid monomer concentrations on the hygroscopicities of 10 nm particles produced from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine was observed, whereas the hygroscopicity of 15 nm particles sharply decreased with decreasing sulfuric acid monomer concentrations. In particular, when the concentrations of sulfuric acid was 5.1 × 106 molecules cm−3 in the gas phase, and the dimethylamine mixing ratio was 11.8 ppt, the measured κ of 15 nm particles was 0.31 ± 0.01 close to the value reported for dimethylamine sulfate (DMAS (κDMAS ~ 0.28. Furthermore, the difference in κ between sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine experiments increased with increasing particle size. The κ values of particles in the presence of sulfuric acid and

  1. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  2. Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, I.L.F.; Rasmussen, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinosicle (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange......-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P...... juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma-time curve of naringenin from (2) alpha...

  3. The white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS – a novel airborne system to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rosati

    2014-07-01

    3% and maximal deviation of 9% for GFs at RH = 95%. First airborne measurements in the Netherlands observed GFs (mean value of the GF distribution at RH = 95% between 1.74 and 2.67 with a median of 1.94 for particles with a dry diameter of 500 nm. This corresponds to hygroscopicity parameters (κ between 0.21 and 0.93 with a median of 0.33. The GF distributions indicate externally mixed particles covering the whole range of GFs between ~ 1.0–3.0. On average ~ 74% of the particles were "more hygroscopic" with GFs > 1.5, ~ 15% were non- or slightly hygroscopic with GF 2, indicating influence of sea salt particles, consistent with previous ground-based particle hygroscopicity measurements in this area. The mean dry effective index of refraction for 500 nm particles was found to be rather constant with a value of 1.42 ± 0.04.

  4. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  5. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  6. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  7. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  8. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. 13-month climatology of the aerosol hygroscopicity at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kammermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was operated at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch in order to characterize the hygroscopic diameter growth factors of the free tropospheric Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol. More than ~5000 h of valid data were collected for the dry diameters D0 = 35, 50, 75, 110, 165, and 265 nm during the 13-month measurement period from 1 May 2008 through 31 May 2009. No distinct seasonal variability of the hygroscopic properties was observed. Annual mean hygroscopic diameter growth factors (D/D0 at 90% relative humidity were found to be 1.34, 1.43, and 1.46 for D0 = 50, 110, and 265 nm, respectively. This size dependence can largely be attributed to the Kelvin effect because corresponding values of the hygroscopicity parameter κ are nearly independent of size. The mean hygroscopicity of the Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch was found to be κ≈0.24 with little variability throughout the year.

    The impact of Saharan dust events, a frequent phenomenon at the Jungfraujoch, on aerosol hygroscopicity was shown to be negligible for D0<265 nm. Thermally driven injections of planetary boundary layer (PBL air, particularly observed in the early afternoon of summer days with convective anticyclonic weather conditions, lead to a decrease of aerosol hygroscopicity. However, the effect of PBL influence is not seen in the annual mean hygroscopicity data because the effect is small and those conditions (weather class, season and time of day with PBL influence are relatively rare.

    Aerosol hygroscopicity was found to be virtually independent of synoptic wind direction during advective weather situations, i.e. when horizontal motion of the atmosphere dominates over thermally driven convection. This indicates that the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosol observed at the

  10. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  11. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  12. Ambient black carbon particle hygroscopic properties controlled by mixing state and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The wet removal of black carbon aerosol (BC in the atmosphere is a crucial factor in determining its atmospheric lifetime and thereby the vertical and horizontal distributions, dispersion on local and regional scales, and the direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The in-cloud scavenging and wet deposition rate of freshly emitted hydrophobic BC will be increased on acquisition of more-hydrophilic components by coagulation or coating processes. The lifetime of BC is still subject to considerable uncertainty for most of the model inputs, which is largely due to the insufficient constraints on the BC hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion process from observational field data. This study was conducted at a site along UK North Norfolk coastline, where the BC particles were transported from different regions within Western Europe. A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA was coupled with a single particle soot photometer (SP2 to measure the hygroscopic properties of BC particles and associated mixing state in real time. In addition, a Soot Particle AMS (SP-AMS measured the chemical compositions of additional material associated with BC particles. The ensemble of BC particles persistently contained a less-hygroscopic mode at a growth factor (gf of around 1.05 at 90% RH (dry diameter 163 nm. Importantly, a more-hygroscopic mode of BC particles was observed throughout the experiment, the gf of these BC particles extended up to ~1.4–1.6 with the minimum between this and the less hygroscopic mode at a gf ~1.25, or equivalent effective hygroscopicity parameter κ = ~0.1. The gf of BC particles (gfBC was highly influenced by the composition of associated soluble material: increases of gfBC were associated with secondary inorganic components, and these increases were more pronounced when ammonium nitrate was in the BC particles; however the presence of secondary organic matter suppressed the gf

  13. Hygroscopicity -resistant mechanism of an α -starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHOU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  14. Preparation of Ammonia Adsorbent by Carbonizing and Activating Mixture of Biomass Material and Hygroscopic Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Zhen; BU Xianbiao; LU Zhenneng; LI Huashan; MA Weibin

    2015-01-01

    We put forward a new and ingenious method for the preparation of a new adsorbent by soaking, carbonizing and activating the mixture of hygroscopic salt and biomass material. The new adsorbent has high porosity, uniform distribution and high content of CaCl2, and exhibits high adsorption performance. The ammonia uptake and specific cooling power (SCP) at 5 min adsorption time can reach as high as 0.19 g•g-1 and 793.9 W•kg-1, respectively. The concept of utilizing the biomass materials and hygroscopic salts as raw materials for the preparation of adsorbents is of practical interest with respect to the potential quantity of biomass materials around the world, indicating that there would be a new market for biomass materials.

  15. Aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activation kinetics in a boreal forest environment during the 2007 EUCAARI campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Cerully

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations, subsaturated hygroscopic growth, size distribution, and chemical composition were collected from March through May, 2007, in the remote Boreal forests of Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI campaign. Hygroscopicity parameter, κ, distributions were derived independently from Continuous Flow-Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber (CFSTGC and Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA measurements. CFSTGC-derived κ values for 40, 60, and 80 nm particles range mostly between 0.10 and 0.40 with an average characteristic of highly oxidized organics of 0.20 ± 0.10, indicating that organics play a dominant role for this environment. HTDMA-derived κ were generally 30% lower. Diurnal trends of κ show a minimum at sunrise and a maximum in the late afternoon; this trend covaries with inorganic mass fraction and the m/z 44 organic mass fraction given by a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, further illustrating the importance of organics in aerosol hygroscopicity. The chemical dispersion inferred from the observed κ distributions indicates that while 60 and 80 nm dispersion increases around midday, 40 nm dispersion remains constant. Additionally, 80 nm particles show a markedly higher level of chemical dispersion than both 40 and 60 nm particles. An analysis of droplet activation kinetics for the sizes considered indicates that most of the CCN activate as rapidly as (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol.

  16. Variations in organic aerosol optical and hygroscopic properties upon heterogeneous OH oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Che, Daphne L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2011-08-01

    Measurements of the evolution of organic aerosol extinction cross sections (σext) and subsaturated hygroscopicity upon heterogeneous OH oxidation are reported for two model compounds, squalane (a C30 saturated hydrocarbon) and azelaic acid (a C9 dicarboxylic acid). For both compounds, the σext values at 532 nm increase substantially as the particles undergo oxidation, exhibiting a logarithmic increase with OH exposure. The increase in σext correlates with both an increase in the particle oxygen to carbon (O:C) atomic ratio and density and a decrease in mean molecular weight. The measurements have been used to calculate the variation with oxidation of the mean polarizability, α, of the molecules comprising the particles. The absolute α values for the two systems are shown to be related through the variation in the particle chemical composition, specifically the relative abundances of C, O, and H atoms and the mean molecular weight. Unlike σext, it was found that the evolution of the particle hygroscopicity upon oxidation is quite different for the two model systems considered. Hygroscopicity was quantified by measuring γext, which is a single-parameter representation of hygroscopicity that describes the increase in extinction upon exposure of the particles to a high-relative humidity environment (here, 75% and 85% RH). For unoxidized squalane, γext was zero and only increased slowly as the particles were oxidized by OH radicals. In contrast, γext for azelaic acid increased rapidly upon exposure to OH, eventually reaching a plateau at high OH exposures. In general, γext appears to vary sigmoidally with O:C, reaching a plateau at high O:C.

  17. Evaluation of Parameters Influencing the Moisture Buffering Potential of Hygroscopic Materials with BSim Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangjin Yang; Hua Ge; Paul Fazio; Jiwu Rao

    2014-01-01

    Validated by a large-scale experimental investigation on moisture buffering (MB) effect, a whole building Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) simulation tool, BSim, is applied to evaluate the impact of a number of parameters on the moisture buffering potential of a full-scale test room finished with hygroscopic materials. The Maximum Accumulated Moisture Buffering Value (MAMBV), developed from the moisture balance analyses in the experimental study, is used in the BSim simulation result analyses to ...

  18. Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J.; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun Hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate re...

  19. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; U. Pöschl

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa). BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compoun...

  20. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, E.; Vlasenko, S.; Niessner, R.; U. Pöschl

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of aerosol particles in the 100–200 nm size range composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor at ambient temperature and pressure (25°C, 1 atm) has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Köhler theory calculations. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model subs...

  1. Hygroscopic growth and cloud droplet activation of xanthan gum as a proxy for marine hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Meskhidze, N.; Petters, S. Suda; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the physical characteristics and chemical composition of marine organic aerosols is needed for the quantification of their effects on cloud microphysical processes and solar radiative transfer. Here we use xanthan gum (XG)—a bacterial biopolymer—as a proxy for marine hydrogels. Measurements were performed for pure XG particles and mixtures of XG with sodium chloride, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. The aerosol hygroscopicity parameter (κ) is derived from hygroscopic growth factor measurements (κgf) at variable water activity (aw) and from cloud condensation nuclei activation efficiency (κccn). The Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) hygroscopicity parameter derived for multicomponent systems (κmix, sol) is used to compare measurements of κgf and κccn. Pure XG shows close agreement of κgf (at aw = 0.9) and κccn of 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. Adding salts to the system results in deviations of κgf (at aw = 0.9) from κccn. The measured κgf and ZSR-derived hygroscopicity parameter (κmix, sol) values for different solutions show close agreement at aw > 0.9, while κgf is lower in comparison to κmix, sol at aw < 0.9. The differences between predicted κmix, sol and measured κgf and κccn values are explained by the effects of hydration and presence of salt ions on the structure of the polymer networks. Results from this study imply that at supersaturations of 0.1 and 0.5%, the presence of 30% sea salt by mass can reduce the activation diameter of pure primary marine organic aerosols from 257 to 156 nm and from 87 to 53 nm, respectively.

  2. Effect of Aerosol Size and Hygroscopicity on Aerosol Optical Depth in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Charles; Wagner, Nick; Gordon, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is affected by the size, optical characteristics, and hygroscopicity of particles, confounding attempts to link remote sensing observations of AOD to measured or modeled aerosol mass concentrations. In situ airborne observations of aerosol optical, chemical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties were made in the southeastern United States in the daytime in summer 2013. We use these observations to constrain a simple model that is used to test the sensitivity of AOD to the various measured parameters. As expected, the AOD was found to be most sensitive to aerosol mass concentration and to aerosol water content, which is controlled by aerosol hygroscopicity and the ambient relative humidity. However, AOD was also fairly sensitive to the mean particle diameter and the width of the size distribution. These parameters are often prescribed in global models that use simplified modal parameterizations to describe the aerosol, suggesting that the values chosen could substantially bias the calculated relationship between aerosol mass and optical extinction, AOD, and radiative forcing.

  3. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  4. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  5. DENSIFICATION OF WOOD VENEERS COMBINED WITH OIL-HEAT TREATMENT. PART II: HYGROSCOPICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hua Fang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to achieve high mechanical performance and improved dimensional stability, densification combined with oil-heat treatment (OHT was performed. In our previous study, OHT was successfully applied to densified veneer, which resulted in improved dimensional stability. In the present study, the impact of OHT on densified wood veneer hygroscopicity and mechanical properties was determined. OHT at 180, 200, and 220ºC for 1, 2, and 3 hours was applied to densified Aspen (Populus tremuloides veneers. OHT was found to be an efficient treatment to reduce the hygroscopicity of densified aspen veneers, although OHT had a negative impact on Brinell hardness. However, due to the contribution of densification, the hardness of oil-heat treated veneers was still two to three times higher than that of non-densified veneers. Similar results were found for tensile strength. Bending strength increased slightly at low OHT temperature, and then decreased at high temperature. Bending strength of oil-heat treated densified veneer samples was higher than that of non-densified ones. No significant effect of OHT was found on tensile MOE, but bending MOE increased after OHT. Compared to OHT duration, OHT temperature had a larger impact on densified wood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties.

  6. Connecting hygroscopic growth at high humidities to cloud activation for different particle types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wex, H; Stratmann, F; Hennig, T; Hartmann, S; Niedermeier, D; Nilsson, E; Ziese, M [Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany); Ocskay, R; Salma, I [Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Rose, D [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Department, Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: wex@tropos.de

    2008-07-15

    This work recompiles studies that have been done with respect to hygroscopic growth in the regime of high relative humidities and with respect to activation for different kinds of particle at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the last few years. The particles examined consisted of a mixture of succinic acid and ammonium sulfate, seawater samples, soot coated with an organic and/or an inorganic substance, and two different atmospheric HULIS (HUmic LIke Substance) samples. An influence of changing non-ideal behavior and of slightly soluble substances on the hygroscopic growth was found in varying degrees in the subsaturation regime. The measured hygroscopic growth was extrapolated towards supersaturation, using a simple form of the Koehler equation, and assuming a constant number of molecules/ions in solution for high relative humidities ({>=}95% or {>=}98%, depending on the particles). When the surface tension of water was used, the modeled critical supersaturations reproduced the measured ones for the seawater samples and for the coated soot particles. To reach agreement between measured and modeled critical supersaturations for the HULIS particles, a concentration-dependent surface tension had to be used, with values of the surface tension that were lower than that of water, but larger than those that had been reported for bulk measurements in the past.

  7. Size-dependent hygroscopicity parameter (κ) and chemical composition of secondary organic cloud condensation nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D. F.; Buchholz, A.; Kortner, B.; Schlag, P.; Rubach, F.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.; Watne, À. K.; Hallquist, M.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol components (SOA) contribute significantly to the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. The CCN activity of internally mixed submicron SOA particles is often parameterized assuming a size-independent single-hygroscopicity parameter κ. In the experiments done in a large atmospheric reactor (SAPHIR, Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction chamber, Jülich), we consistently observed size-dependent κ and particle composition for SOA from different precursors in the size range of 50 nm-200 nm. Smaller particles had higher κ and a higher degree of oxidation, although all particles were formed from the same reaction mixture. Since decreasing volatility and increasing hygroscopicity often covary with the degree of oxidation, the size dependence of composition and hence of CCN activity can be understood by enrichment of higher oxygenated, low-volatility hygroscopic compounds in smaller particles. Neglecting the size dependence of κ can lead to significant bias in the prediction of the activated fraction of particles during cloud formation.

  8. Study of the inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in apple juice by pulsed light and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Mariana; Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound (US) (600 W, 20 kHz and 95.2 μm wave amplitude; 10 or 30 min at 20, 30 or 44 ± 1 °C) and pulsed light (PL) (Xenon lamp; 3 pulses/s; 0.1 m distance; 2.4 J/cm(2)-71.6 J/cm(2); initial temperature 2, 30, 44 ± 1 °C) on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris ATCC 49025 spores and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE162 inoculated in commercial (pH: 3.5; 12.5 °Brix) and natural squeezed (pH: 3.4; 11.8 °Brix) apple juices. Inactivation depended on treatment time, temperature, microorganism and matrix. Combination of these technologies led up to 3.0 log cycles of spore reduction in commercial apple juice and 2.0 log cycles in natural juice; while for S. cerevisiae, 6.4 and 5.8 log cycles of reduction were achieved in commercial and natural apple juices, respectively. In natural apple juice, the combination of US + 60 s PL at the highest temperature build-up (56 ± 1 °C) was the most effective treatment for both strains. In commercial apple juice, US did not contribute to further inactivation of spores, but significantly reduced yeast population. Certain combinations of US + PL kept on good microbial stability under refrigerated conditions for 15 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  10. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. Flexible cellulose nanofibril composite films with reduced hygroscopic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), which are generated from abundant, environmentally friendly natural plant resources, display numerous interesting properties such as outstanding mechanical strength, negligible light scattering, and low thermal expansion (Zimmermann et al., 2010). These nanofibers are usually created by mechanical fibrillation or chemical oxidation of pulp...

  12. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  13. 13-month climatology of the aerosol hygroscopicity at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kammermann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was operated at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch in order to characterize the hygroscopic diameter growth factors of the free tropospheric Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol. More than ~5000 h of valid data were collected for the dry diameters D0=35, 50, 75, 110, 165, and 265 nm during the 13-month measurement period from 1 May 2008 through 31 May 2009. No distinct seasonal variability of the hygroscopic properties was observed. Annual mean hygroscopic diameter growth factors (D/D0 at 90% relative humidity were found to be 1.34, 1.43, and 1.46 for D0=50, 110, and 265 nm, respectively. This size dependence can largely be attributed to the Kelvin effect because corresponding κ~values are virtually independent of size. The mean hygroscopicity of the Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol at the free tropospheric site Jungfraujoch was found to be κ≈0.24 with little variability throughout the year.

    The impact of Saharan dust events, a frequent phenomenon at the Jungfraujoch, on aerosol hygroscopicity was shown to be negligible for D0<265 nm. Thermally driven injections of planetary boundary layer (PBL air, particularly observed in the early afternoon of summer days with convective anticyclonic weather conditions, lead to a decrease of aerosol hygroscopicity. However, the effect of PBL influence is not seen in the annual mean hygroscopicity data because the effect is small and those conditions (weather class, season and time of day with PBL influence are relatively rare.

    Aerosol hygroscopicity was found to be virtually independent of synoptic wind direction during advective weather situations, i.e. when horizontal motion of the atmosphere dominates over thermally driven convection. This indicates that the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosol observed at the Jungfraujoch can be considered to be

  14. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  15. Volatility and Hygroscopicity of Atlanta CCN During New Particle Formation Events in Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Scheckman, J.; Williams, B. J.; Jiang, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has the potential to substantially impact the population of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by both by altering their number concentrations and the hygroscopic properties. It is currently thought that while NPF proceeds via condensation of gas-phase sulfuric acid, subsequent growth must be dominated by the condensation of secondary organic species in order to reconcile field observations with theory1,2. This implies size-dependent aerosol composition with varying amounts of organic species, yet the impact of these organics on cloud droplet formation remains one of the largest sources of uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-climate interactions studies. Consequently, there is a need for in-situ, size-resolved field measurements of CCN to unravel these complex effects. // // We present a comprehensive characterization of aerosol and CCN sampled in Midtown Atlanta during the August 2009 Nucleation and CCN intensive campaign (NCCN) at the Jefferson Street monitoring site. A Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Stream-wise Thermal-Gradient Chamber was operated in spectrometer mode using Scanning Flow CCN Analysis (SFCA)3 to provide size-resolved CCN concentrations over a variety of particle sizes (20-50 nm) and supersaturations (0.3-2%) with high temporal resolution (~30 seconds/scan). Continuous measurements of the aerosol size distribution (1-1000 nm) and chemical composition were also made. The inferred hygroscopicity increased substantially during NPF from ~0.2-0.3 (consistent with soluble secondary organic species) to ~0.6-0.8, consistent with sulfate species or organic salts. This finding is contrary to previous work suggesting less-CCN-active aerosol during NPF4. During two special experiments, a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was coupled with the CCN instrument to examine the volatility-dependence of the CCN hygroscopicity of 40-nm particles. Heating particles in the VTDMA was observed to increase their

  16. Physiochemical properties of carbonaceous aerosol from agricultural residue burning: Density, volatility, and hygroscopicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2016-09-01

    Size-resolved effective density, mixing state, and hygroscopicity of smoke particles from five kinds of agricultural residues burning were characterized using an aerosol chamber system, including a volatility/hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (V/H-TDMA) combined with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). To profile relationship between the thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions, smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5 were also measured for the water soluble inorganics, mineral elements, and carbonaceous materials like organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Smoke particle has a density of 1.1-1.4 g cm-3, and hygroscopicity parameter (κ) derived from hygroscopic growth factor (GF) of the particles ranges from 0.20 to 0.35. Size- and fuel type-dependence of density and κ are obvious. The integrated effective densities (ρ) and hygroscopicity parameters (κ) both scale with alkali species, which could be parameterized as a function of organic and inorganic mass fraction (forg &finorg) in smoke PM1.0 and PM2.5: ρ-1 =finorg ·ρinorg-1 +forg · ρorg-1 and κ =finorg ·κinorg +forg ·κorg . The extrapolated values of ρinorg and ρorg are 2.13 and 1.14 g cm-3 in smoke PM1.0, while the characteristic κ values of organic and inorganic components are about 0.087 and 0.734, which are similar to the bulk density and κ calculated from predefined chemical species and also consistent with those values observed in ambient air. Volatility of smoke particle was quantified as volume fraction remaining (VFR) and mass fraction remaining (MFR). The gradient temperature of V-TDMA was set to be consistent with the splitting temperature in the OC-EC measurement (OC1 and OC2 separated at 150 and 250 °C). Combing the thermogram data and chemical composition of smoke PM1.0, the densities of organic matter (OM1 and OM2 correspond to OC1 and OC2) are estimated as 0.61-0.90 and 0.86-1.13 g cm-3, and the ratios of OM1/OC1 and OM2/OC2 are 1.07 and 1.29 on average

  17. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  18. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  19. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  20. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  1. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  2. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  3. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  4. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  6. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  7. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication.

  8. Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic near-coastal sub-micrometre aerosol particle features in summer were characterised based on measured data on aerosol hygroscopicity, size distributions, volatility and chemical ion and organic carbon mass concentrations. Hysplit model was used to calculate the history of the air masses to predict the particle origin. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were utilised. The hygroscopic properties of particles mostly resembled those of marine aerosols. The measurements took place at 130 km from the Southern Ocean, which was the most significant factor affecting the particle properties. This is explained by the lack of additional sources on the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean was thus a likely source of the particles and nucleating and condensing vapours. The particles were very hygroscopic (HGF 1.75 at 90 nm and very volatile. Most of the sub-100 nm particle volume volatilised below 100 °C. Based on chemical data, particle hygroscopic and volatile properties were explained by a large fraction of non-neutralised sulphuric acid together with organic material. The hygroscopic growth factors assessed from chemical data were similar to measured. Hygroscopicity was higher in dry continental air masses compared with the moist marine air masses. This was explained by the aging of the marine organic species and lower methanesulphonic acid volume fraction together with the changes in the inorganic aerosol chemistry as the aerosol had travelled long time over the continental Antarctica. Special focus was directed in detailed examination of the observed new particle formation events. Indications of the preference of negative over positive ions in nucleation could be detected. However, in a detailed case study, the neutral particles dominated the particle formation process. Freshly nucleated particles had the smallest hygroscopic growth factors, which increased subsequent to particle aging.

  9. Measurements of hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles in the rural Pearl River Delta area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Young J.; Park, Kihong

    2011-09-01

    A hygroscopicity and volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (HVTDMA) technique was used to determine the time- and size-resolved properties of ultrafine particles and to infer relative volume fractions of non-volatile and non-hygroscopic (NV_NH), volatile and non-hygroscopic (V_NH), volatile and hygroscopic (V_H), and non-volatile and hygroscopic (NV_H) groups. Cluster analysis of wind direction and air mass backward trajectory have revealed that enhanced ultrafine particle concentrations were often observed when air mass was transported with high wind speed (>3 m s -1) from the polluted northeast region containing a significant amount of SO 2 and experienced a strong photochemical activity. We found the photochemically-produced ultrafine particles to consist primarily of NV_H with a little V_NH and V_H. In morning traffic events, we estimated ultrafine particles to consist of 61% NV_NH, 36% V (volatile group = the sum of V_NH and V_H), and 2% NV_H, while during biomass burning events, ultrafine particles consisted of 69% NV_NH, 21% V and 10% NV_H. Further, as determined by TEM/EDS analysis, the increase in NV_H during the biomass burning event was consistent with the frequent existence of K element in ultrafine particles. Comparison of data among different geometric locations in China and Korea revealed ultrafine particle hygroscopicity and volatility during the photochemical event as being highly variable in locations affected by diverse sources and variable precursor gases (e.g., SO 2 and VOC), while during the combustion events, less hygroscopicity variation across different locations was observed.

  10. Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Asmi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic near-coastal sub-micrometre aerosol particle features in summer were characterised based on measured data on aerosol hygroscopicity, size distributions, volatility and chemical ion and organic carbon mass concentrations. Hysplit model was used to calculate the history of the air masses to predict the particle origin. Additional measurements of meteorological parameters were utilised. The hygroscopic properties of particles mostly resembled those of marine aerosols. The measurements took place at 130 km from the Southern Ocean, which was the most significant factor affecting the particle properties. This is explained by the lack of additional sources on the continent of Antarctica. The Southern Ocean was thus a likely source of the particles and nucleating and condensing vapours. The particles were very hygroscopic (HGF 1.75 at 90 nm and very volatile. Most of the sub-100 nm particle volume volatilised below 100 °C. Based on chemical data, particle hygroscopic and volatile properties were explained by a large fraction of non-neutralised sulphuric acid together with organic material. The hygroscopic growth factors assessed from chemical data were similar to measured. Hygroscopicity was higher in dry continental air masses compared with the moist marine air masses. This was explained by the aging of the marine organic species and lower methanesulphonic acid volume fraction together with the changes in the inorganic aerosol chemistry as the aerosol had travelled long time over the continental Antarctica. Special focus was directed in detailed examination of the observed new particle formation events. Indications of the preference of negative over positive ions in nucleation could be detected. However, in a detailed case study, the neutral particles dominated the particle formation process. Freshly nucleated particles had the smallest hygroscopic growth factors, which increased subsequent to particle aging.

  11. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    and in naturally occurring sugars, and potential sensory acceptance can be obtained using grape juice concentrate in the osmotic dehydration process, followed by air- drying process.

  12. Attributes of packing and intention for purchase towards orange juice and nectar /
    Atributos da embalagem e intenção de compra de suco e néctar de laranja

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Helena Prudêncio; Valéria de Paula Rodrigues; Marta de Toledo Benassi; Marcela Tostes Frata

    2009-01-01

    The attributes of five packages of orange juice and orange nectar were evaluated by focus group and conjoint analysis techniques. The attributes and levels were identified such as brand name (well known and less known), price (high and low), information (“natural, “no food preservative”, “vitamin C-rich” and without information) and type of juice (juice and nectar), as being relevant to consumers purchase attitude. Eight packages images containing different combinations of the chosen attribut...

  13. (1)H NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals a Pedoclimatic Metabolic Imprinting in Ready-to-Drink Carrot Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alberta; Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Capuani, Giorgio; Delfini, Maurizio; Aureli, Walter; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2016-06-29

    Carrots are usually consumed in their native form or processed into many different products. Carrot juice is a popular beverage consumed throughout the world and is attracting increasing attention due to its nutritional value, being a natural source of bioactive compounds. Ready-to-drink carrot juices produced in the same factory were analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The juices were made from carrot roots of the same cultivar grown in three different geographical areas in Italy. More than 30 compounds have been identified and quantified, and the data was subjected to univariate ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Clear geographical-dependent clustering was observed, and the metabolic profiles were related to the different pedoclimatic conditions. The proposed phytoprofiling approach could be employed on an industrial scale to evaluate finished products involving different sites of supply of the raw material, thus improving both the quality and uniformity of the juices.

  14. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.

  15. Impact of panchratna juice in the management of diabetes mellitus: Fresh vs. processed product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the plant sources have excellent nutrient and non-nutrient properties which can be exploited to manage clinical conditions. The current study was undertaken to assess the impact of panchratna juice (Amla, Tulsi, Ginger, Mint and Turmeric in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects. A total of 55 stable type 2 diabetics were enrolled from pathology laboratories and were given either fresh panchratna juice (n = 15 for 45 days or processed panchratna juice (n = 20 for 90 days and compared with diabetic controls (n = 20. Anthropometric profile, glycemic status and lipid profile were assessed on all the subjects at baseline, 45 days and 90 days. Students t test, paired t test and ANOVA were applied using Microsoft Excel. The results indicated that fresh panchratna juice or processed panchratna juice supplementation for long-term did not have any significant impact on the glycemic and lipemic status of diabetic subjects. Thus, the protective effects are lost with processing, and therefore, these plant sources should be consumed in their natural form.

  16. Polyacetylene levels in carrot juice, effect of pH and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, I; Brunton, N; Rai, D K; Balagueró, E; Hossain, M B; Valverde, J

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the study of polyacetylenes in carrot juice and their response to pH, storage and thermal processing conditions. Falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) were in fresh carrot juice at concentrations of 73 and 233 μg/L, respectively. Reducing the pH of the raw carrot juice from its natural pH 6.13 to pH 3.5 resulted in 2 and 5 fold better extraction of FaDOAc and FaOH respectively in comparison to a control sample (pH 6.13). Polyacetylenes were retained better in acidified juices and cold storage temperatures (4 °C) for first week of storage with respect to untreated juices. An increase in FaDOAc and FaOH of 10- and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to raw unprocessed samples was observed when processing samples at 90 °C for 1 min. This was assumed to be due to cell wall polysaccharides dissolution. However, negative correlation between total polyacetylenes and hexoses was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, indicating some biological links between polyacetylenes and soluble sugars.

  17. Functional Properties of Punica granatum L. Juice Clarified by Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Galiano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in pomegranate juice because of the high content of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the interest in the separation of bioactive compounds from natural sources has remarkably grown. In this work, for the first time, the Punica granatum L. (pomegranate juice—clarified by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polysulfone (PSU hollow fiber (HF membranes prepared in the laboratory—was screened for its antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching tests, and for its potential inhibitory activity of the carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The effects of clarification on quality characteristics of the juice were also investigated in terms of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid. Experimental results indicated that PVDF membranes presented a lower retention towards healthy phytochemicals in comparison to PSU membranes. Accordingly, the juice clarified with PVDF membranes showed the best antioxidant activity. Moreover, the treatment with PVDF membranes produced a clarified juice with 2.9-times fold higher α-amylase inhibitory activity in comparison to PSU (IC50 value of 75.86 vs. 221.31 μg/mL, respectively. The same trend was observed using an α-glucosidase inhibition test. These results highlight the great potential of the clarified juice as a source of functional constituents.

  18. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  19. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia(Noni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-hong; XUE Ya-rong; YE Yong-hang; YUAN Feng-feng; LIU Jun-yan; SHUANG Jing-lei

    2007-01-01

    Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni(Morinda citrifolia L.)juice were studied.The antioxidative constituents of 184.6g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether,EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents,and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system and superoxide anion radicals in pyrogallol autoxidation system.The EtOAc extract exhibited most significantly higher(P<0.01)antioxidative activity than mannitol or vitamin C,while the petroleum ether and n-BuOH extracts showed lower activities compared to were isolated from the EtOAc extract by several chromatography techniques for the first time.The results suggest that several compounds,in particular,the phenolic compounds,contribute separately or synergistically to the antioxidative activity of fermented Noni fruit juice.

  1. Hygroscopicity of Chemically Aged, sub-micron Squalane Particles: On the Role of Size and Composition towards the Hygroscopicity Parameter κ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, C. W.; Smith, J. D.; Che, D. L.; Leone, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements presented herein explore cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of sub-micron squalane particles chemically aged by hydroxyl radicals as a function of size and OH exposure. As squalane particles are exposed to OH radicals, size-selected 100, 150, and 200 nm particles monotically decrease in size with increasing OH exposure. Concurrently, their CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter values, κ, increase with OH exposure until saturating at 0.165 in the 100 nm data set, 0.140 in the 150 nm data set, and reach a maximum value of 0.075 in the 200 nm data set at the highest level of OH exposure. The critical super-saturation relative humidity (RH) at which CCN activity is achieved decreases initially with increasing OH exposure and then increases with OH exposure, most notably for the 100 nm data set and weakly with the 150 nm data set. Chemically aged squalane particles from the 200 nm data set show a monotonic decrease in critical super-saturation RH with all values of increasing OH exposure between 0.1-2.5 × 10^13 s molec./cc. The measured O:C ratios of 160 nm chemically aged squalane particles, which were reported previously, are compared to κ values by the CCN derived relationship reported in literature: κ = 0.30*O:C and reasonable agreement is attained in the size-selected 150 nm data set. These values are also compared with the hygroscopic growth factor derived relationship in literature: κ = 0.49*(O:C -0.25) and reasonable agreement is attained at O:C > 0.35.

  2. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption. Results: The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6 had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6. Conclusions: Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.

  3. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol scattering coefficient: A comparative analysis between urban and suburban sites at winter in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yan; Xiaole Pan; Jie Tang; Xiuji Zhou; Renjian Zhang; Limin Zeng

    2009-01-01

    A humidity controlled inlet system was developed to measure the hygroscopic growth of aerosol scattering coefficient in conjunction with nephelometry at an urban site of Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) in Beijing and a rural site at Shangdianzi Regional Background Air Pollution Monitoring Station (SDZ) outside Beijing during winter, from December 2005 to January 2006. Measurements were carried out at a wavelength of 525 nm with an Ecotech M9003 nephelometer. The hygroscopic growth function (or factor) of the aerosol scattering coefficientf(RH) increased continuously with increasing relative humidity (RH) and showed no obvious "step-like" deliquescent behavior at both sites during the experiment. The average growth factorf(RH) at the SDZ site could reach 1.5 when RH increased from less than 40% to 92%, and to 2.1 at the CAMS site when RH increased from less than 40% to 93%. The average hygroscopic growth factor at a relative humidity of 80%, f(RH=80±1%), was found to be about 1.26±0.15 at CAMS and 1.24±0.11 at SDZ. Further analysis indicated that under relatively polluted conditions, the average hygroscopic growth factor was higher at the CAMS site than that at the SDZ site. However, under relatively clean air conditions, the difference between the two sites was small, showing a hygroscopic growth behavior similar to those of burning biomass or blowing dust. These results reflected the different characteristics of aerosol types at the two sites.

  4. Hygroscopicity of ADN with Dynamic Method%动态法研究ADN的吸湿性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧娜; 张皋; 严蕊; 胡岚; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    针对二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的强吸湿性及吸湿性研究的迫切性,建立了动态分析的新方法.采用快速分析方法研究了ADN的吸湿性能,得出了ADN的吸湿过程曲线、临界相对湿度、吸湿速率曲线.比较动态分析方法与干燥器平衡法(标准方法GJB7708 -2005 -404.1)结果,认为两种方法准确度等效.动态分析方法的相对标准偏差为1.45%.%Aim at the strong hygroscopicity of ammonium dinitramid( AND)and the necessity of the hygroscopicity investigation,a new dynamic analytical method was estabilished. The hygroscopicity of AND was studied by a rapid analytical method. The curves describing the hygroscopic process, hygroscopic speed and critical relative humidity were obtained. Compared to airer equity method, the dynamic method showed an equivalent result to the standardization method GJB770B -2005 -404. 1 in accuracy. The relative standard deviation of the dynamic analytical method was 1.45%.

  5. Hygroscopic properties of potassium chloride and its internal mixtures with organic compounds relevant to biomass burning aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Peng, Chao; Wang, Yidan; Liu, Qifan; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-02-01

    While water uptake of aerosols exerts considerable impacts on climate, the effects of aerosol composition and potential interactions between species on hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles have not been fully characterized. The water uptake behaviors of potassium chloride and its internal mixtures with water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) related to biomass burning aerosols including oxalic acid, levoglucosan and humic acid at different mass ratios were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Deliquescence points of KCl/organic mixtures were observed to occur at lower RH values and over a broader RH range eventually disappearing at high organic mass fractions. This leads to substantial under-prediction of water uptake at intermediate RH. Large discrepancies for water content between model predictions and measurements were observed for KCl aerosols with 75 wt% oxalic acid content, which is likely due to the formation of less hygroscopic potassium oxalate from interactions between KCl and oxalic acid without taken into account in the model methods. Our results also indicate strong influence of levoglucosan on hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent mixed particles. These findings are important in further understanding the role of interactions between WSOCs and inorganic salt on hygroscopic behaviors and environmental effects of atmospheric particles.

  6. Hygroscopic properties of potassium chloride and its internal mixtures with organic compounds relevant to biomass burning aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Peng, Chao; Wang, Yidan; Liu, Qifan; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-01-01

    While water uptake of aerosols exerts considerable impacts on climate, the effects of aerosol composition and potential interactions between species on hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles have not been fully characterized. The water uptake behaviors of potassium chloride and its internal mixtures with water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) related to biomass burning aerosols including oxalic acid, levoglucosan and humic acid at different mass ratios were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Deliquescence points of KCl/organic mixtures were observed to occur at lower RH values and over a broader RH range eventually disappearing at high organic mass fractions. This leads to substantial under-prediction of water uptake at intermediate RH. Large discrepancies for water content between model predictions and measurements were observed for KCl aerosols with 75 wt% oxalic acid content, which is likely due to the formation of less hygroscopic potassium oxalate from interactions between KCl and oxalic acid without taken into account in the model methods. Our results also indicate strong influence of levoglucosan on hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent mixed particles. These findings are important in further understanding the role of interactions between WSOCs and inorganic salt on hygroscopic behaviors and environmental effects of atmospheric particles. PMID:28240258

  7. The effects of hygroscopicity on ice nucleation of fossil fuel combustion aerosols in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel black carbon and organic matter (ffBC/OM are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these particles and changes their hygroscopicity. Observational studies at cirrus temperatures (≈−40 °C show that the hygroscopicity of soot particles can modulate their ice nucleation ability. Here, we implement a scheme for 3 categories of soot (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic on the basis of laboratory data and specify their ability to act as ice nuclei at mixed-phase temperatures by extrapolating the observations using a published deposition/condensation/immersion freezing parameterization. The new scheme results in significant changes to anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds. The net forcing in our offline model studies varies from 0.111 to 1.059 W m−2 depending on the ice nucleation capability of hygroscopic soot particles. The total anthropogenic cloud forcing and whole-sky forcing with the new scheme are 0.06 W m−2 and −2.45 W m−2, respectively, but could be more positive (by about 1.17 W m−2 if hygroscopic soot particles are allowed to nucleate ice particles. The change in liquid water path dominates the anthropogenic forcing in mixed-phase clouds.

  8. Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids; it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols.

  9. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  10. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-09-06

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The contribution of aerosol hygroscopic growth to the modeled aerosol radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkola, Harri; Kühn, Thomas; Kirkevåg, Alf; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Arola, Antti

    2016-04-01

    The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant effect on the direct radiative effect of atmospheric aerosol. However, there are significant uncertainties concerning how much of the radiative forcing is due to different chemical compounds, especially water. For example, modeled optical depth of water in global aerosol-climate models varies by more than a factor of two. These differences can be attributed to differences in modeled 1) hygroscopicity, 2) ambient relative humidity, and/or 3) aerosol size distribution. In this study, we investigate which of these above-mentioned factors cause the largest variability in the modeled optical depth of water. In order to do this, we have developed a tool that calculates aerosol extinction using interchangeable global 3D data of aerosol composition, relative humidity, and aerosol size distribution fields. This data is obtained from models that have taken part in the open international initiative AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models). In addition, we use global 3D data for relative humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) flying on board NASA's Aqua satellite and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data. These observations are used to evaluate the modeled relative humidity fields. In the first stage of the study, we made a detailed investigation using the aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ in which most of the aerosol optical depth is caused by water. Our results show that the model significantly overestimates the relative humidity over the oceans while over land, the overestimation is lower or it is underestimated. Since this overestimation occurs over the oceans, the water optical depth is amplified as the hygroscopic growth is very sensitive to changes in high relative humidities. Over land, error in modeled relative humidity is unlikely to cause significant errors in water optical depth as relative humidities are generally

  12. Mass extinction efficiency and extinction hygroscopicity of ambient PM2.5 in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen; Ma, Xin; He, Yujie; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yungang; Sheng, Li; Hu, Jiangkai; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-07-01

    The ambient PM2.5 pollution problem in China has drawn substantial international attentions. The mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and hygroscopicity factor (f(RH)) of PM2.5 can be readily applied to study the impacts on atmospheric visibility and climate. The few previous investigations in China only reported results from pilot studies and are lack of spatial representativeness. In this study, hourly average ambient PM2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, and atmospheric visibility data from China national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks were retrieved and analyzed. It includes 24 major Chinese cities from nine city-clusters with the period of October 2013 to September 2014. Annual average extinction coefficient in urban China was 759.3±258.3Mm(-1), mainly caused by dry PM2.5 (305.8.2±131.0Mm(-1)) and its hygroscopicity (414.6±188.1Mm(-1)). High extinction coefficient values were resulted from both high ambient PM2.5 concentration (68.5±21.7µg/m(3)) and high relative humidity (69.7±8.6%). The PM2.5 mass extinction efficiency varied from 2.87 to 6.64m(2)/g with an average of 4.40±0.84m(2)/g. The average extinction hygroscopic factor f(RH=80%) was 2.63±0.45. The levels of PM2.5 mass extinction efficiency and hygroscopic factor in China were in comparable range with those found in developed countries in spite of the significant diversities among all 24 cities. Our findings help to establish quantitative relationship between ambient extinction coefficient (visual range) and PM2.5 & relative humidity. It will reduce the uncertainty of extinction coefficient estimation of ambient PM2.5 in urban China which is essential for the research of haze pollution and climate radiative forcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  14. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  15. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... vegetable juices includes steps like extraction, clarification, and stabilization .... given by INRAB. Methods. Juice extraction: The collected cashew fruits were ...... Clarification, Preservation and Shelf Life. Evaluation of Cashew ...

  16. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  17. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  18. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  19. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  20. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the boreal forest: diurnal variation, solubility and the influence of sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles present in a boreal forest was measured at a relative humidity of 88%. Simultaneously the gas phase concentration of sulfuric acid, a very hygroscopic compound, was monitored. The focus was mainly on days with new particle formation by nucleation. The measured hygroscopic growth factors (GF correlated positively with the gaseous phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The smaller the particles, the stronger the correlation, with r=0.20 for 50 nm and r=0.50 for 10 nm particles. The increase in GF due to condensing sulfuric acid is expected to be larger for particles with initially smaller masses. During new particle formation, the changes in solubility of the new particles were calculated during their growth to Aitken mode sizes. As the modal diameter increased, the solubility of the particles decreased. This indicated that the initial particle growth was due to more hygroscopic compounds, whereas the later growth during the evening and night was mainly caused by less hygroscopic or even hydrophobic compounds. For all the measured sizes, a diurnal variation in GF was observed both during days with and without particle formation. The GF was lowest at around midnight, with a mean value of 1.12–1.24 depending on particle size and if new particle formation occurred during the day, and increased to 1.25–1.34 around noon. This can be tentatively explained by day- and nighttime gas-phase chemistry; different vapors will be present depending on the time of day, and through condensation these compounds will alter the hygroscopic properties of the particles in different ways.

  3. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  4. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  5. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr; Song, Hyunpa [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangyong [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hyejeong [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwoo [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10{sup 6} cfu/ml, and about 10{sup 2} cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D {sub 10} values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63{+-}0.05 and 1.52{+-}0.05 kGy, respectively. The D {sub 10} value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65{+-}0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  7. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-07-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  9. Measurements of the Sensitivity of Aerosol Hygroscopicity and the kappa Parameter to the O/C Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Andrew M J; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Davies, James F.; Marshall, Frances H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the subsaturated hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles composed of single organic components of varying oxygen-to-carbon ratio up to relative humidities approaching saturation using the techniques of aerosol optical tweezers and an electrodynamic balance. The variation in the hygroscopicity parameter kappa between compounds of even the same O/C ratio is found to be significant with, for example, a range in kappa values from 0.12 to 0.38 for compounds with an O/C of...

  10. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity, Droplet Growth Kinetics and Hygroscopicity of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Defeng; Buchholz, Angela; Kortner, Birthe; Schlag, Patrick; Rubach, Florian; Hendrik, Fucks; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Tillmann, Ralf; Wahner, Andreas; Hallquist, Mattias; Flores, Michel; Rudich, Yinon; Glasius, Marianne; Kourtchev, Ivan; Kalberer, Markus; Mentel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Recent field data and model analysis show that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is enhanced under anthropogenic influences (de Gouw et al. 2005, Spracklen et al. 2011). The interaction of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) with anthropogenic emissions such as anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) could change the particle formation yields and the aerosol properties, as was recently demonstrated (Emanuelsson et al., 2013; Flores et al., 2014). However, the effect of the interaction of BVOCs with AVOCs on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopicity of SOA remains elusive. Characterizing such changes is necessary in order to assess the indirect radiative forcing of biogenic aerosols that form under anthropogenic influence. In this study, we investigated the influence of AVOCs on CCN activation and hygroscopic growth of BSOA. SOA was formed from photooxidation of monoterpenes and aromatics as representatives of BVOCs and AVOCs, respectively. The hygroscopicity and CCN activation of BSOA were studied and compared with that of anthropogenic SOA (ASOA) and the mixture of ASOA and BSOA (ABSOA). We found that ASOA had a significantly higher hygroscopicity than BSOA at similar OH dose, which is attributed to a higher oxidation level of ASOA. While the ASOA fraction had an enhancing effect on the hygroscopicity of ABSOA compared to BSOA, the hygroscopicity of ABSOA cannot be explained by a linear combination of the pure ASOA and BSOA systems, indicating potentially additional non-linear effects such as oligomerization. However, in contrast to hygroscopicity, ASOA showed similar CCN activity as BSOA, in spite of its higher oxidation level. The ASOA fraction did not enhance the CCN activity of ABSOA. The discrepancy between hygroscopicity and CCN activity is discussed. In addition, BSOA, ABSOA and ASOA formed similar droplet size with ammonium sulfate in CCN at a given supersaturation, indicating none of these aerosols had a delay in the water uptake in the supersaturated

  11. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  12. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  13. Hygroscopicity of wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus taeda subjected to thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the thermal treatment technique under two conditions—autoclave combined with electric oven and electric oven only—on the hygroscopic properties of wood from Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, comparing them with results obtained for untreated wood. Three trees at age 25 years were sampled, with boards being removed at DBH level in order to make specimens 2.5 x 2.5 x 5.0 cm in size in the radial, tangential and axial direction respectively. In the combined treatment, specimens were subjected to thermal treatment in an autoclave set at 130°C/± 3°C and kgf/cm² pressure for 3 hours, then to a conditioning period, followed by heat in an electric oven set at 160°C/±1°C for the same time. Properties being evaluated included water absorption rate, volumetric swelling, water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency. Results revealed that the thermal treatments being adopted were effective in reducing hygroscopicity and in increasing the dimensional stability of both species, revealing also that the combined autoclave and electric oven treatment provides best results.

  14. CCN activity and hygroscopic growth of organic aerosols following reactive uptake of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinar, E; Anttila, T; Rudich, Y

    2008-02-01

    Recent field observations suggest that ammonium salts of organic acids may be very important in accounting for aerosols' properties in many environments. In this study we present laboratory experiments and calculations on the influence of ammonia reaction with organic aerosol components and its effect upon their (1) subsaturation hygroscopic growth (HG) and (2) supersaturation cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. By using adipic acid (slightly soluble), citric acid (soluble), and di(ethylene glycol) monovinyl ether (DEGMVE, nonacidic compound) aerosols we show the feasibility and importance of atmospherically relevant acid-base neutralization by ammonia for different organic species. It is suggested that the formation of ammonium salts due to reaction of ammonia with slightly soluble organic acids (such as adipic acid) can affect the CCN activity and hygroscopic growth of aerosols with a significant organic component. It is further confined that the reaction involves carboxylic groups, it requires presence of water in the aerosol, and that the effects are stronger for less soluble organic acids.

  15. Molecular Diversity of Sea Spray Aerosol Particles: Impact of Ocean Biology on Particle Composition and Hygroscopicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Laskina, Olga; Trueblood, Jonathan; Estillore, Armando D.; Morris, Holly S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Sultana, Camile M.; Lee, Christopher; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Dowling, Jackie; Qin, Zhen; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Stone, Elizabeth; Prather, Kimberly; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate depends on the size and chemical composition of individual particles that make-up the total SSA ensemble. While the organic fraction of SSA has been characterized from a bulk perspective, there remains a lack of understanding as to the composition of individual particles within the SSA ensemble. To better understand the molecular components within SSA particles and how SSA composition changes with ocean biology, simultaneous measurements of seawater and SSA were made during a month-long mesocosm experiment performed in an ocean-atmosphere facility. Herein, we deconvolute the composition of freshly emitted SSA devoid of anthropogenic and terrestrial influences by characterizing classes of organic compounds as well as specific molecules within individual SSA particles. Analysis of SSA particles show that the diversity of molecules within the organic fraction varies between two size fractions (submicron and supermicron) with contributions from fatty acids, monosaccharides, polysaccharides and siliceous material. Significant changes in the distribution of these compounds within individual particles are observed to coincide with the rise and fall of phytoplankton and bacterial populations within the seawater. Furthermore, water uptake is impacted as shown by hygroscopicity measurements of model systems composed of representative organic compounds. Thus, the how changes in the hygroscopic growth of SSA evolves with composition can be elucidated. Overall, this study provides an important connection between biological processes that control the composition of seawater and changes in single particle composition which will enhances our ability to predict the impact of SSA on climate.

  16. Organic component vapor pressures and hygroscopicities of aqueous aerosol measured by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chen; Stewart, David J; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-hong; Ohm, Peter; Dutcher, Cari S; Clegg, Simon L

    2015-01-29

    Measurements of the hygroscopic response of aerosol and the particle-to-gas partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds are crucial for providing more accurate descriptions of the compositional and size distributions of atmospheric aerosol. Concurrent measurements of particle size and composition (inferred from refractive index) are reported here using optical tweezers to isolate and probe individual aerosol droplets over extended timeframes. The measurements are shown to allow accurate retrievals of component vapor pressures and hygroscopic response through examining correlated variations in size and composition for binary droplets containing water and a single organic component. Measurements are reported for a homologous series of dicarboxylic acids, maleic acid, citric acid, glycerol, or 1,2,6-hexanetriol. An assessment of the inherent uncertainties in such measurements when measuring only particle size is provided to confirm the value of such a correlational approach. We also show that the method of molar refraction provides an accurate characterization of the compositional dependence of the refractive index of the solutions. In this method, the density of the pure liquid solute is the largest uncertainty and must be either known or inferred from subsaturated measurements with an error of <±2.5% to discriminate between different thermodynamic treatments.

  17. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer – Part 1: Hygroscopic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made during May–September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US under fair-weather, afternoon conditions with well-defined planetary boundary layer structure. Optical extinction at 532 nm was directly measured at three relative humidities and compared with extinction calculated from measurements of aerosol composition and size distribution using the κ-Köhler approximation for hygroscopic growth. Using this approach, the hygroscopicity parameter κ for the organic fraction of the aerosol must have been We present a new parameterization of the change in aerosol extinction as a function of relative humidity that better describes the observations than does the widely used power-law (gamma, γ parameterization. This new single-parameter κext formulation is based upon κ-Köhler and Mie theories and relies upon the well-known approximately linear relationship between particle volume (or mass and optical extinction (Charlson et al., 1967. The fitted parameter, κext, is nonlinearly related to the chemically derived κ parameter used in κ-Köhler theory. The values of κext we determined from airborne measurements are consistent with independent observations at a nearby ground site.

  18. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kamilli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site LHVP in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS. For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS and black carbon photometry (MAAP. In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m3, e.g. during winter.

  19. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m-3, e.g., during winter.

  20. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  1. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  2. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  3. Multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (Green Blood: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Padalia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheatgrass is the young grass of the common wheat plant Triticum aestivum Linn., family Poeaceae (Graminae. It is commonly known as the "green blood" due to its high chlorophyll content which accounts for 70% of its chemical constituents. It contains a plethora of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and vital enzymes like superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. The vitamin content makes it an important adjuvant in anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic treatment, while the enzymes play a pivotal role in the anticancer approach of this herbal drug. A notable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its bioflavonoid content which are the naturally occurring antioxidants and ac-count for many of its clinical utilities such as management of inflammatory bowel disease and as a general detoxi-fier. However, the most remarkable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its high chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll bears structural similarity to hemoglobin and has been found to regenerate or act as a substitute of hemoglobin in hemoglobin deficiency conditions. This might be the reason behind the utility of wheatgrass in clinical conditions like thalassemia and hemolytic anemia. The present article focuses onto the various studies emphasizing the multi-tude potentials of wheatgrass.

  4. Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Nuria; Mena, Pedro; Cánovas, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Saura, Domingo

    2009-05-01

    primates (vertebrates with relative big brain) to lose the capacity to synthesize vitamin C. Oxidative damage has many pathological implications in human health, and AA may play a central role in maintaining the metabolic antioxidant response. The abundance of citrus juices in the Mediterranean diet may provide the main dietary source for natural vitamin C.

  5. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  6. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  7. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  8. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  9. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  10. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  11. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. The food may contain one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  12. Development of a thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Oosterhaven, R.; Ouden, C. den

    1979-01-01

    A thermal storage system based on the heat of adsorption of water in hygroscopic materials has been studied as a component of a solar space heating system. The aim of this project is to decrease the storage volume in comparison with a rock-bed storage system by increasing the stored energy density.

  13. Hygroscopic properties of urban aerosols and their cloud condensation nuclei activities measured in Seoul during the MAPS-Seoul campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Najin; Park, Minsu; Yum, Seong Soo; Park, Jong Sung; Song, In Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Ahn, Joon Young; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hwajin; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Gangwoong

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol physical properties, chemical compositions, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities were measured in Seoul, the highly populated capital city of Korea, during the Megacity Air Pollution Studies (MAPS-Seoul) campaign, in May-June 2015. The average aerosol concentration for particle diameters >10 nm was 11787 ± 7421 cm-3 with dominant peaks at morning rush hours and in the afternoon due to frequent new particle formation (NPF) events. The average CCN concentration was 4075 ± 1812 cm-3 at 0.6% supersaturation, with little diurnal variation. The average hygroscopicity parameter (κ) value determined using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) ranged 0.17-0.27 for a range of particle diameters (30-150 nm). The κ values derived using the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data with three different methods were 0.32-0.34, significantly higher than those from HTDMA due to the uncertainties in the hygroscopicity values of different chemical compositions, especially organics and black carbon. Factors affecting the aerosol hygroscopicity seemed to be traffic and chemical processes during the NPF events. The CCN concentration predicted based on HTDMA κ data showed very good agreement with the measured one. Because of the overestimation of κ, CCN closure with the predicted CCN concentration based on AMS κ data over-predicted CCN concentration although the linear correlation between measured and predicted CCN concentration was still very good.

  14. Polymerization shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion of contemporary posterior resin-based filling materials--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Krüger, Sören; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Janda, Ralf

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the polymerization shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion of contemporary posterior resin-based filling materials. The densities of SureFil (SU), CeramXMono (CM), Clearfil AP-X (CF), Solitaire 2 (SO), TetricEvoCeram (TE), and Filtek P60 (FT) were measured using the Archimedes' principle prior to and 15min after curing for 20, 40 and 60s and after 1h, 24h, 7 d, and 30 d storage at 37 degrees C in water. Volumetric changes (DeltaV) in percent after polymerization and after each storage period in water were calculated from the changes of densities. Water sorption and solubility were determined after 30 d for all specimens and their curing times. Two-way ANOVA was calculated for shrinkage and repeated measures ANOVA was calculated for hygroscopic expansion (p<0.05). DeltaV depended on filler load but not on curing time (SU approximately -2.0%, CM approximately -2.6%, CF approximately -2.1%, SO approximately -3.3%, TE approximately -1.7%, FT approximately -1.8%). Hygroscopic expansion depended on water sorption and solubility. Except for SU, all materials showed DeltaV approximately +1% after water storage. Polymerization shrinkage depended on the type of resin-based filling material but not on curing time. Shrinkage was not compensated by hygroscopic expansion.

  15. Sensitivity of depositions to the size and hygroscopicity of Cs-bearing aerosols released from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Adachi, Kouji; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Zaizen, Yuji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    We recently revealed that the microphysical properties of aerosols carrying the radioactive Cs released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) at an early stage (March 14-15, 2011) of the accident could be very different from what we assumed previously: super-micron and non-hygroscopic at the early stage, whereas sub-micron and hygroscopic afterwards (at least later than March 20-22). In the study, two sensitivity simulations with the two different aerosol microphysical properties were conducted using a regional scale meteorology- chemical transport model (NHM-Chem). The impact of the difference was quite significant. 17% (0.001%) of the radioactive Cs fell onto the ground by dry (wet) deposition processes, and the rest was deposited into the ocean or was transported out of the model domain, which is central and northern part of the main land of Japan, under the assumption that Cs-bearing aerosols are non-hygroscopic and super-micron. On the other hand, 5.7% (11.3%) fell onto the ground by dry (wet) deposition, for the cases under the assumption that the Cs-bearing aerosols are hygroscopic and sub-micron. For the accurate simulation of the deposition of radionuclides, knowledge of the aerosol microphysical properties is essential as well as the accuracy of the simulated wind fields and precipitation patterns.

  16. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    Full Text Available The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L. are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes. Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI, and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and

  17. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-01

    The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption.

  18. Reformulating atmospheric aerosol thermodynamics and hygroscopic growth into fog, haze and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling atmospheric aerosol and cloud microphysics is rather complex, even if chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium is assumed. We show, however, that the thermodynamics can be considerably simplified by reformulating equilibrium to consistently include water, and transform laboratory-based concepts to atmospheric conditions. We generalize the thermodynamic principles that explain hydration and osmosis – merely based on solute solubilities – to explicitly account for the water mass consumed by hydration. As a result, in chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium the relative humidity (RH suffices to determine the saturation molality, including solute and solvent activities (and activity coefficients, since the water content is fixed by RH for a given aerosol concentration and type. As a consequence, gas/liquid/solid aerosol equilibrium partitioning can be solved analytically and non-iteratively. Our new concept enables an efficient and accurate calculation of the aerosol water mass and directly links the aerosol hygroscopic growth to fog, haze and cloud formation.

    We apply our new concept in the 3rd Equilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM3 for use in regional and global chemistry-transport and climate models. Its input is limited to the species' solubilities from which a newly introduced stoichiometric coefficient for water is derived. Analogously, we introduce effective stoichiometric coefficients for the solutes to account for complete or incomplete dissociation. We show that these coefficients can be assumed constant over the entire activity range and calculated for various inorganic, organic and non-electrolyte compounds, including alcohols, sugars and dissolved gases. EQSAM3 calculates the aerosol composition and gas/liquid/solid partitioning of mixed inorganic/organic multicomponent solutions and the associated water uptake for almost 100 major compounds. It explicitly accounts for particle hygroscopic growth by

  19. Aerosol mixing state, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lance

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. κ-Köhler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic hygroscopicity parameter, κ*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTMDA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions (forg are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements, from which predictions of the hygroscopicity parameter are compared against κ*. Strong diurnal changes in aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF events are correlated with an increased κ* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN at 0.51% ± 0.06% supersaturation can surpass by more than a factor of two the corresponding concentrations of 100 nm particles. We also find that at 06:00–08:00 LT throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as "internally mixed". Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events, the early morning "rush hour" and the entire campaign. We show that κ* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for κ* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing state and the presence of refractory

  20. Chemical and hygroscopic properties of aerosol organics at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. Gannet; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Clegg, Simon L.; Samburova, Vera; Taylor, Nathan; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Zielinska, Barbara K.; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Chirokova, Galina; McCubbin, Ian B.; Dodson, Craig; Collins, Don

    2013-05-01

    A combined field and laboratory study was conducted to improve our understanding of the chemical and hygroscopic properties of organic compounds in aerosols sampled in the background continental atmosphere. PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 µm) aerosols were collected from 24 June to 28 July 2010 at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in the Park Range of northwestern Colorado. New particle formation (NPF) was frequent at SPL during this campaign, and the samples were not influenced by regional dust storms. Filter samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water soluble OC (WSOC), major inorganic ions, and detailed organic speciation. WSOC was isolated from inorganic ions using solid phase absorbents. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity of the WSOC were measured in the laboratory. Organic compounds compose the majority (average of 64% with a standard deviation (SD) of 9%) of the mass of measured species and WSOC accounted for an average of 89% (with a SD of 21%) of OC mass. Daily samples were composited according to back trajectories. On average, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols accounted for 12.5 ± 6.2% (average ± SD) of WSOC. Based on the composition of these compounds and that of high molecular weight compounds identified using ultra high resolution mass spectrometry, the organic mass to OC ratio of the WSOC is estimated to be 2.04. The average hygroscopic GFs at RH = 80% (GF80) were 1.10 ± 0.03 for particles derived from isolated WSOC and 1.27 ± 0.03 for particles derived from the total water-soluble material (WSM). CCN activity followed a similar pattern. The critical diameters at a super-saturation of 0.35% were 0.072 ± 0.009 and 0.094 ± 0.006 µm for particles derived from WSM and isolated WSOC, respectively. These GF results compare favorably with estimates from thermodynamic models, which explicitly relate the water activity (RH) to concentration for

  1. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  2. The Effects of Ingestion of Sugarcane Juice and Commercial Sports Drinks on Cycling Performance of Athletes in Comparison to Plain Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Methods Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (...

  3. Hygroscopicity of aerosol particles and CCN activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in the urban atmosphere over Japan during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shuhei; Setoguchi, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ikeda, Yuka; Sawada, Yuuki; Matsumi, Yutaka; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the hygroscopicity of 150 nm particles and the number-size distributions and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of nearly hydrophobic particles in aerosols over Nagoya, Japan, during summer. We analyzed the correlations between the number concentrations of particles in specific hygroscopic growth factor (g) ranges and the mass concentrations of chemical components. This analysis suggests the association of nearly hydrophobic particles with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, elemental carbon and semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), that of less hygroscopic particles with SV-OOA and nitrate and that of more hygroscopic particles with low-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and sulfate. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of organics was derived based on the g distributions and chemical composition of 150 nm particles. The κ of the organics correlated positively with the fraction of the total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 and the volume fraction of the LV-OOA to the organics, indicating that organics with highly oxygenated structures including carboxylic acid groups contribute to the water uptake. The number-size distributions of the nearly hydrophobic particles with g around 1.0 and 1.1 correlated with the mass concentrations of chemical components. The results show that the chemical composition of the particles with g around 1.0 was different between the Aitken mode and the accumulation mode size ranges. An analysis for a parameter Fmax of the curves fitted to the CCN efficiency spectra of the particles with g around 1.0 suggests that the coating by organics associated with SV-OOA elevated the CCN activity of these particles.

  4. Hygroscopic growth and activation of HULIS particles: experimental data and a new iterative parameterization scheme for complex aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth and activation of two HULIS (HUmic LIke Substance and one Aerosol-Water-Extract sample, prepared from urban-type aerosol, were investigated. All samples were extracted from filters, redissolved in water and atomized for the investigations presented here. The hygroscopic growth measurements were done using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator together with a HH-TDMA (High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. Hygroscopic growth was determined for relative humidities (RHs up to 99.75%. The critical diameters for activation were measured for supersaturations between 0.2 and 1%. All three samples showed a similar hygroscopic growth behavior, and the two HULIS samples also were similar in their activation behavior, while the Aerosol-Water-Extract turned out to be more CCN active than the HULIS samples. The experimental data was used to derive parameterizations for the hygroscopic growth and activation of HULIS particles. The concept of ρion (Wex et al., 2007a and the Szyszkowski-equation (Szyszkowski, 1908; Facchini, 1999 were used for parameterizing the Raoult and the Kelvin (surface tension terms of the Köhler equation, respectively. This concept proved to be very successful for the HULIS samples in the saturation range from RHs larger than 98% up to activation. It was also shown to work well with data on HULIS taken from literature. Here, different atmospheric life-times and/or different sources for the different samples showed up in different coefficients for the parameterization. However, the parameterization did not work out well for the Aerosol-Water-Extract.

  5. Changes on indigenous microbiota, colour, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of pasteurised pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Juices prepared from arils of 'Mollar' pomegranates were analysed for naturally occurring microorganisms, CIE Lab colour parameters, total phenols, anthocyanins and punicalagins, ellagic acid content and antioxidant capacity before and after low-, mild- and high-temperature pasteurisations (LTPs, MTPs and HTPs): 65, 80 and 90 °C for 30 or 60s. Mean aerobic plate count (APC), yeast and mold count (YMC), and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for fresh juices were 5.7, 5.36 and 4.0 log CFU/mL, respectively. MTPs and HTPs were sufficiently effective to decrease APCs to nil or negligible levels. An increase in CIE a values and decrease in CIE b values were the characteristic colour changes in heat-treated juices. The effect of pasteurisations showed that total phenols, punicalagins and ellagic acid were not much affected by thermal processing. Total anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity were substantially and significantly influenced by the heat treatment applied. A linear relationship was observed between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values and total anthocyanins, suggesting that they contributed strongly to the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate juice.

  6. Cesium hafnium chloride: A high light yield, non-hygroscopic cubic crystal scintillator for gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Arnold, E-mail: aburger@fisk.edu [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Rowe, Emmanuel; Groza, Michael; Morales Figueroa, Kristle [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Hunter, Steven; Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We report on the scintillation properties of Cs{sub 2}HfCl{sub 6} (cesium hafnium chloride or CHC) as an example of a little-known class of non-hygroscopic compounds having the generic cubic crystal structure of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}. The crystals are easily growable from the melt using the Bridgman method with minimal precursor treatments or purification. CHC scintillation is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs and a light yield of up to 54 000 photons/MeV when measured using a silicon CCD photodetector. The light yield is the highest ever reported for an undoped crystal, and CHC also exhibits excellent light yield nonproportionality. These desirable properties allowed us to build and test CHC gamma-ray spectrometers providing energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV.

  7. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions.

  8. Vacuum FTIR observation on hygroscopic properties and phase transition of malonic acid aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xu; Zhang, Yun; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-02-01

    A novel approach based on a combination of a pulse relative humidity (RH) controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer was utilized to investigate the hygroscopic property and phase transition of malonic acid (MA) aerosols. By using this approach, both water vapor amount around the aerosols and water content within aerosols with sub-second time resolution were obtained. Based on the features of FTIR absorbing bands, it can be known that the evolution of hydrogen-bonding structures of malonic acid aerosols took place from (H2O)n-MA to MA-MA accompanying with phase transition in the dehumidifying process. And in present paper, the stepwise efflorescence of MA aerosols and nucleation rates at different RHs are first reported. Our observation has shown that the efflorescence of MA started at ∼17% RH and the nucleation rates increased with decreasing RH.

  9. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at 35% relative humidity ( and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to 10% at 95% in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation, and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%. These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50% due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The

  10. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  12. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  13. Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at high relative humidity and their diurnal variations in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic properties of submicron aerosol particles were determined at a suburban site (Wuqing in the North China Plain among a cluster of cities during the period 17 July to 12 August 2009. A High Humidity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (HH-TDMA instrument was applied to measure the hygroscopic growth factor (GF at 90%, 95% and 98.5% relative humidity (RH for particles with dry diameter between 50–250 nm. The probability distribution of GF (GF-PDF averaged over the period shows a distinct bimodal pattern, namely, a dominant more-hygroscopic (MH group and a smaller nearly-hydrophobic (NH group. The MH group particles were highly hygroscopic, and their GF was relatively constant during the period with average values of 1.54±0.02, 1.81±0.04 and 2.45±0.07 at 90%, 95% and 98.5% RH (D0=100 nm, respectively. The NH group particles grew very slightly when exposed to high RH, with GF values of 1.08±0.02, 1.13±0.06 and 1.24±0.13, respectively at 90%, 95% and 98.5% RH (D0=100 nm. The hygroscopic growth behaviours at different RHs were well represented by the hygroscopicity parameter κ with a single-parameter Köhler model. Thus, the calculation of GF as a function of RH and dry diameter could be facilitated by an empirical parameterization of κ as function of dry diameter. A strong diurnal pattern in number fraction of different hygroscopic groups was observed, indicating a diurnal variation of aerosol mixing state and/or chemical composition. The average number fraction of NH particles during the day was about 8%, while during the nighttime fractions up to 20% were reached. Correspondingly, the state of mixing in terms of water uptake varied significantly during a day. The high fraction of NH particles measured during the night denotes a high degree of external mixing of ambient aerosols, while during the day the degree of external mixing decreased. Simulations using a particle-resolved aerosol

  14. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  15. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    more interesting possibilities, was obtained by interfacing the clock to a Macintosh 8100/80 microcomputer via Vernier Corporation serial box interface hardware and software (see ref 2). This affordable (100-$250 per computer) interfacing package is being used in our first-year chemistry laboratories. The interfacing setup permitted data to be acquired at the much more meaningful rate of up to 50 points per second. It also permitted us to observe voltage variations with time while the strips in orange juice were hooked up to the clock. When data are taken 50 times per second rather than once every hour, the data take on new meaning. Figure 4 shows that there is a substantial drop in voltage each time the clock ticks. Figure 4.The observed voltage drop in the circuit corresponds to the ticking of the clock. The drop is due to the internal resistance of the orange juice solution. Video of orange juice clock connected to chart recorder demostrating voltage drop in the circuit as clock ticks. Video was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This observation can be explained and can be predicted as part of a student activity, if we understand the nature of an open vs. a short circuit. A battery can, in concept, perform between two extreme points: an open circuit, in which the voltage (V) is at a maximum but there is no current (I), and a short circuit, in which the current is at a maximum but there is no voltage. A battery is best used at an intermediate point where the power, I xV, is a maximum. In summary (eqs 5-7): (5) Open Circuit: V = maximum and I = 0 (6) Short Circuit: I = maximum and V = 0 (7) Battery Use: I x V = power = maximum A 1.5-V battery has an open circuit potential of 1.5 volts. When the battery is working, however, the real voltage will be less than 1.5 V. This is due to the internal resistance of the battery. So the real voltage of the battery (Vreal) equals the open circuit voltage (Vopen) minus the voltage drop

  16. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  17. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver advice in relation to „toothkind‟ juice drinks. The Panel was requested to consider whether conclusions for the substantiation of the beneficial effect, i.e. reduction...... of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...

  18. Analysis of the hygroscopic and volatile properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded SOA particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulphate seeded and un-seeded secondary organic aerosol (SOA derived from the photo-oxidation of atmospherically relevant concentrations of α-pinene were studied. The seed particles were electrospray generated ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 having diameters of approximately 33 nm with a quasi-mono-disperse size distribution (geometric standard deviation σg=1.3. The volatile and hygroscopic properties of both seeded and unseeded SOA were simultaneously measured with a VH-TDMA (volatility – hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. VH-TDMA measurements of unseeded SOA show a decrease in the hygroscopic growth (HGF factor for increased volatilisation temperatures such that the more volatile compounds appear to be more hygroscopic. This is opposite to the expected preferential evaporation of more volatile but less hygroscopic material, but could also be due to enhanced oligomerisation occurring at the higher temperature in the thermodenuder. In addition, HGF measurements of seeded SOA were measured as a function of time at two relative humidities, below (RH 75% and above (RH 85% the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of the pure ammonium sulphate seeds. As these measurements were conducted during the onset phase of photo-oxidation, during particle growth, they enabled us to find the dependence of the HGF as a function of the volume fraction of the SOA coating. HGF's measured at RH of 85% showed a continuous decrease as the SOA coating thickness increased. The measured growth factors show good agreements with ZSR predictions indicating that, at these RH values, there are only minor solute-solute interactions. At 75% RH, as the SOA fraction increased, a rapid increase in the HGF was observed indicating that an increasing fraction of the (NH42SO4 is subject to a phase transition, going into solution

  19. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    ). In addition, we identified a number of proteins that have not been previously described in pancreatic juice (e.g., tumor rejection antigen (pg96) and azurocidin). Interestingly, a novel protein that is 85% identical to HIP/PAP was identified, which we have designated as PAP-2. The proteins identified...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  20. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  1. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  2. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  3. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  4. Determination of the {sup 13}C contents of organic acids and sugars in fruit juices: an inter-comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, C. [JCR-ISPRA, Environment Institute, Food and Drug Analysis and Consumer Protection Unit, TP740, via Fermi 2, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Koziet, J. [Pernod Ricard, 120, av du Marechal Foch, 94015 Creteil cedex (France); Rossmann, A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Chemie und Biochemie, TUM, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Martin, G.J. [CEAIS, Site de la Geraudiere, Rue PA Bobierre, BP 72304, 44323 3 Nantes cedex (France)

    1999-05-03

    The determination of the repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) of the ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) measurement in sugars and organic acids contained in different fruit juices was conducted on an international basis involving 17 laboratories. The mean values of rper thousand (Rper thousand) for acids and sugars are, respectively, equal to 0.58 (1.75) and 0.34 (0.71) and the relatively large values observed for R of acid determinations are related to the preparation step. However, the least significant difference computed for several pairs of natural and spiked juices indicate that the {sup 13}C method can be applied for detecting fruit juice adulteration. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol – Part 2: Composition, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fuentes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colloidal and dissolved organic matter <0.2 μm, secreted by marine biota, on the hygroscopic growth and droplet activation behaviour of the primary marine aerosol was studied. Seawater proxies were prepared by the combination of artificial seawater devoid of marine organics and natural seawater enriched in organic exudate released by laboratory-grown phytoplankton cultures, as described in a companion paper. The primary aerosol was produced by bubble bursting, using a plunging multijet system as an aerosol generator.

    The aerosol generated from seawater proxies enriched with marine exudate presented organic volume fractions on the order of 5–37%, as derived by applying a simple mixing rule. The hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of the marine organics-enriched particles where 9–17% and 5–24% lower, respectively, than those of the aerosol produced from artificial seawater devoid of exudate. Experiments in a companion paper indicated that the cloud nuclei formation could be enhanced in diatom bloom areas because of the increase in the primary particle production induced by marine organics. The experiments in the present study, however, indicate that the impacts of such an enhancement would be counteracted by the reduction in the CCN activity of the primary particles enriched in marine organics.

    The extent of the effect of the biogenic matter on the particle behaviour was dependent on the seawater organic concentration and type of algal exudate. Aerosol produced from seawater proxies containing diatomaceous exudate presented higher hydrophobicity and lower CCN activity than those enriched with nanoplankton exudate. The organic fraction of the particles increased with increasing seawater organic concentration, with the highest organic enrichment found for the diatomaceous exudate. These findings are indicative that, besides the differences induced by the aerosol generator employed

  6. On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol – Part 2: Composition, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fuentes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanogel colloidal and dissolved organic matter <0.2 μm, secreted by marine biota, on the hygroscopic growth and droplet activation behaviour of the primary marine aerosol was studied. Seawater proxies were prepared by the combination of artificial seawater devoid of marine organics and natural seawater enriched in organic exudate released by laboratory-grown phytoplankton cultures, as described in a companion paper. The primary aerosol was produced by bubble bursting, using a plunging multijet system as an aerosol generator.

    The aerosol generated from seawater proxies enriched with marine exudate presented organic volume fractions on the order of 8–37%, as derived by applying a simple mixing rule. The hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of the marine organics-enriched particles where 9–17% and 5–24% lower, respectively, than those of the aerosol produced from artificial seawater devoid of exudate. Experiments in a companion paper indicated that the cloud nuclei formation could be enhanced in diatom bloom areas because of the increase in the primary particle production induced by marine organics. The experiments in the present study, however, indicate that the impacts of such an enhancement would be counteracted by the reduction in the CCN activity of the primary particles enriched in marine organics.

    The extent of the effect of the biogenic matter on the particle behaviour was dependent on the seawater organic concentration and type of algal exudate. Aerosol produced from seawater proxies containing diatomaceous exudate presented higher hydrophobicity and lower CCN activity than those enriched with nanoplankton exudate. The organic fraction of the particles was found to correlate with the seawater organic concentration, without observing saturation of the particle organic mass fraction even for unrealistically high organic matter concentration in seawater. These findings are

  7. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  8. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  9. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  10. Spray-drying of passion fruit juice using lactose-maltodextrin blends as the support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Cabrera Miguel Angel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 ºC, and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa. The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (pO objectivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da efectividade das misturas en diferentes níveis de lactose-maltodextrina (8:5, 10:5, 12:5 % w/v durante a pulverização do sumo de maracujá. A secagem foi feita em um atomizador de laboratório de pulverização (modelo Pulvis GB 22 com 2 entradas de temperatura de ar (180 e 190 ºC, e 2 compressores de pressão de ar (0.10 e 0.20 MPa. O índice da mistura, higroscopicidade e retenção de vitamina C foram avaliados no pó obtido. As curvas de superfície de resposta (p<0.05 mostram que os valores mais baixos do índice da mistura e higroscopicidade foram alcançados no intervalo de temperatura de 188-190 ºC e com uma concentração de 12:5 % w/v de lactosemaltodextrina; o melhor nível de retenção de vitamina C ocorreu a 180 ºC e 0.2 MPa.

  11. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa; Igor dos Santos Masson; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Juliana Pelegrini Roviero; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consi...

  12. Hygroscopicity of internally mixed particles composed of (NH4)2SO4 and citric acid under pulsed RH change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Min; Wu, Feng-Min; Jing, Bo; Wang, Na; Xu, Lin-Lin; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-09-09

    In this research, we applied a pulsed RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) to investigate hygroscopicity of internally mixed (NH4)2SO4(AS)/citric acid (CA) particles. The water content and efflorescence ratio of AS in the particles and ambient relative humidity (RH) as a function of time were obtained with a subsecond time resolution. The hygroscopic behavior of AS aerosols in two different RH control processes (equilibrium and RH pulsed processes) showed that AS droplets crystallize with RH ranging from 42% to 26.5%. It was found that the half-life time ratio between the water content in the CA particles and the gas phase under RH pulsed change was greater than one under low RH conditions (RH), indicating the significant water transfer limitation due to the high viscosity of CA aerosols at low RH, especially at RHRH in atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  15. Hygroscopic growth of water soluble organic carbon isolated from atmospheric aerosol collected at US national parks and Storm Peak Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathan F.; Collins, Don R.; Lowenthal, Douglas H.; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Kumar, Naresh; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.

    2017-02-01

    Due to the atmospheric abundance and chemical complexity of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), its contribution to the hydration behavior of atmospheric aerosol is both significant and difficult to assess. For the present study, the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of isolated atmospheric WSOC particulate matter was measured without the compounding effects of common, soluble inorganic aerosol constituents. WSOC was extracted with high purity water from daily high-volume PM2.5 filter samples and separated from water soluble inorganic constituents using solid-phase extraction. The WSOC filter extracts were concentrated and combined to provide sufficient mass for continuous generation of the WSOC-only aerosol over the combined measurement time of the tandem differential mobility analyzer and coupled scanning mobility particle sizer-CCN counter used for the analysis. Aerosol samples were taken at Great Smoky Mountains National Park during the summer of 2006 and fall-winter of 2007-2008; Mount Rainier National Park during the summer of 2009; Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, during the summer of 2010; and Acadia National Park during the summer of 2011. Across all sampling locations and seasons, the hygroscopic growth of WSOC samples at 90 % RH, expressed in terms of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. Comparisons between the hygroscopicity of WSOC and that of samples containing all soluble materials extracted from the filters implied a significant modification of the hydration behavior of inorganic components, including decreased hysteresis separating efflorescence and deliquescence and enhanced water uptake between 30 and 70 % RH.

  16. Multitude potential of wheatgrass juice (Green Blood: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Raheja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheatgrass is the young grass of the common wheat plant Triticum aestivum Linn., family Poeaceae (Graminae. It is commonly known as the “green blood” due to its high chlorophyll content which accounts for 70% of its chemical constituents. It contains a plethora of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and vital enzymes like superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. The vitamin content makes it an important adjuvant in anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic treatment, while the enzymes play a pivotal role in the anticancer approach of this herbal drug. A notable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its bioflavonoid content which are the naturally occurring antioxidants and account for many of its clinical utilities such as management of inflammatory bowel disease and as a general detoxifier. However, the most remarkable feature of the wheatgrass juice is its high chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll bears structural similarity to hemoglobin and has been found to regenerate or act as a substitute of hemoglobin in hemoglobin deficiency conditions. This might be the reason behind the utility of wheatgrass in clinical conditions like thalassemia and hemolytic anemia. The present article focuses onto the various studies emphasizing the multitude potentials of wheatgrass.

  17. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzers (H-TDMA systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonize H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH uncertainty and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulfate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulfate and soot particles.

    The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system.

    With regard to RH uncertainties, the H-TDMA systems showed deviations up to 4.5% RH from the set point at RH=90% investigating the hygroscopic growth of ammonium sulfate particles and comparing the results with theory.

    The evaluation of number fractions investigating an externally mixed aerosol delivered differences up to +/−8% in calculated number fraction for one and the same aerosol type.

    We analysed the datasets of the different H-TDMAs with one fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures. The results showed that the differences were reduced from +12/−13% to +8/−6%. We can conclude here that a common data evaluation procedure to determine the number fraction of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements.

    We finally recommend, to ensure a good calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the RH control unit and the second DMA and to monitor those

  18. Reformulating atmospheric aerosol thermodynamics and hygroscopic growth into haze and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling atmospheric aerosol and cloud microphysics is rather complex, even if chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium is assumed. We show, however, that the thermodynamics can be considerably simplified by reformulating equilibrium to include water, and transform laboratory-based concepts to atmospheric conditions. We generalize the thermodynamic principles that explain hydration and osmosis – merely based on solute solubilities. In chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium the relative humidity (RH determines the saturation molality, including solute and solvent activities (and activity coefficients, since the water content is fixed by RH for a given aerosol concentration and type. As a consequence, gas/liquid/solid aerosol equilibrium partitioning can be solved analytically and non-iteratively. Our new concept enables an efficient and accurate calculation of the aerosol water mass and to directly link the aerosol hygroscopic growth to haze and cloud formation.

    We apply our new concept in the 3rd Equilibrium Simplified Aerosol Model (EQSAM3. Its input is limited to the species' solubilities from which a newly introduced stoichiometric coefficient for water is derived. Analogously, we introduce effective stochiometric coefficients for the solutes to account for complete or incomplete dissociation. We show that these coefficients can be assumed constant over the entire activity range and calculated for various inorganic, organic and non-electrolyte compounds, including alcohols, sugars and dissolved gases. EQSAM3 calculates the aerosol composition and gas/liquid/solid partitioning of mixed inorganic/organic multicomponent solutions and the associated water uptake for almost 100 major compounds. It explicitly accounts for particle hygroscopic growth by computing aerosol properties such as single solute molalities, molal based activities, including activity coefficients for volatile compounds, and deliquescence relative humidities

  19. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, Sara D.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Helgestad, Taylor M.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Lee, Christopher; Novak, Gordon A.; Sultana, Camille M.; Wang, Xiaofei; Bertram, Timothy H.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 %)) of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs). One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 %) values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 %) measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer) and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer) measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 %) values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 %) depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART) or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART) days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 %) values (relative to pure sea salt) is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM) comprising the SSA. The GF(85 %) values exhibited a reasonable negative

  20. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  1. Hygroscopic behavior of partially volatilized coastal marine aerosols using the volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. R.; Ristovski, Z. D.; D'Anna, B.; Morawska, L.

    2005-10-01

    Coastal marine nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode aerosol particles with back trajectories indicative of marine origin were examined using a volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer (VHTDMA) to reveal the volatilization temperatures of the various component species. The diameter hygroscopic growth factors of the residue particles were continually examined throughout the volatilization process. In each of the three modes the dominant particle type appeared to be composed of the same four physicochemically distinct species though in different ratios. These species exhibited volatility and hygroscopic behavior consistent with combinations of a volatile organic species, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate or bisulfate, iodine oxide, and an insoluble nonvolatile residue. The Aitken and accumulation mode aerosols contain large fractions of the insoluble, volatile, organic-like material, and the volatilization of this species results in a distinct increase in the water volume uptake of the particles. Of the four distinct species, only the sulfuric acid-like species constituted an increasing volume fraction with decreasing particle size. This finding indicates that nucleation mode particles constitute an acidic seed and as such would undergo acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol growth at a faster rate. The lack of a nonvolatile hygroscopic residue consistent with sea salt in these particles implies that the aerosolization of seawater is not the dominant production mechanism for these submicrometer coastal marine aerosols.

  2. Effect of hygroscopic growth on the aerosol light-scattering coefficient: A review of measurements, techniques and error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G.; Cazorla, A.; Zieger, P.; Andrews, E.; Lyamani, H.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Olmo, F. J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the scattering enhancement factor, f(RH), is important for an accurate description of direct aerosol radiative forcing. This factor is defined as the ratio between the scattering coefficient at enhanced relative humidity, RH, to a reference (dry) scattering coefficient. Here, we review the different experimental designs used to measure the scattering coefficient at dry and humidified conditions as well as the procedures followed to analyze the measurements. Several empirical parameterizations for the relationship between f(RH) and RH have been proposed in the literature. These parameterizations have been reviewed and tested using experimental data representative of different hygroscopic growth behavior and a new parameterization is presented. The potential sources of error in f(RH) are discussed. A Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the overall measurement uncertainty, which is found to be around 20-40% for moderately hygroscopic aerosols. The main factors contributing to this uncertainty are the uncertainty in RH measurement, the dry reference state and the nephelometer uncertainty. A literature survey of nephelometry-based f(RH) measurements is presented as a function of aerosol type. In general, the highest f(RH) values were measured in clean marine environments, with pollution having a major influence on f(RH). Dust aerosol tended to have the lowest reported hygroscopicity of any of the aerosol types studied. Major open questions and suggestions for future research priorities are outlined.

  3. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

  4. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  5. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area.

  6. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation for secondary organic aerosols – Part 3: Influence of the chemical composition on the hygroscopic properties and volatile fractions of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying levels of water mixing ratio, r, during the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene on the SOA hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated. The reaction proceeded and aerosols were generated in a mixing chamber and the hygroscopic characteristics of the SOA were determined with the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc. In parallel, a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS located downstream of a thermodenuder (TD sampling from the mixing chamber, to collect mass spectra of particles from the volatile and less-volatile fractions of the SOA. Results showed that both hygroscopic growth and the volatile fraction of the SOA increased with increases in r inside the mixing chamber during SOA generation. An effective density of 1.40 g cm−3 was observed for the generated SOA when the reaction proceeded with r>1 g kg−1. Changes in the concentrations of the fragment CO2+ and the sum of CxHyOz+ (short name CHO and CxHy+ (short name CH fragments as measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were used to estimate changes in the oxidation level of the SOA with reaction conditions, using the ratios CO2+ to CH and CHO to CH. Under humid conditions, both ratios increased, corresponding to the presence of more oxygenated functional groups (i.e., multifunctional carboxylic acids. This result is consistent with the α-pinene ozonolysis mechanisms which suggest that water interacts with the stabilized Criegee intermediate. The volatility and the hygroscopicity results show that SOA generation via ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of water vapour (r<16.9 g kg−1 leads to the formation of more highly oxygenated compounds that are more

  7. Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and CCN activation for secondary organic aerosols – Part 3: Influence of the chemical composition on the hygroscopic properties and volatile fractions of aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying levels of water mixing ratio, r, during the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene on the SOA hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated. The reaction proceeded and aerosols were generated in a mixing chamber and the hygroscopic characteristics of the SOA were determined with LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc. In parallel, a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS located downstream of a thermodenuder (TD sampling from the mixing chamber, to collect mass spectra of particles from the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the SOA. Results showed that both hygroscopic growth and the volatile fraction of the SOA increased with increases in r inside the mixing chamber during SOA generation. An effective density of 1.40 g cm−3 was observed for the generated SOA when the reaction proceeded with r>1 g kg−1. Changes in the concentrations of the fragment CO2+ and the sum of CxHyOz+ (short name CHO and CxHy+ (short name CH fragments as measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were used to estimate changes in the oxidation level of the SOA with reaction conditions, using the ratios CO2+ to CH and CHO to CH. Under humid conditions, both ratios increased, corresponding to the presence of more oxygenated functional groups (i.e., carboxylic groups. This result is consistent with the α-pinene ozonolysis mechanisms which suggest that water interacts with the stabilized Criegee intermediate. The volatility and the hygroscopicity results show that SOA generation via ozonolysis of α-pinene in the presence of water vapour (r<16.884 g kg−1 leads to the formation of more highly oxygenated compounds that are more hygroscopic and

  8. Modal and harmonic response analysis of cutter head of juice extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinkuan; Liu, Zaixin; Zhou, Dingli; Li, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    A cutter head is one of the most important parts in juice extractor, because whether the juice extractor is reliable or secure enough is directly to the cutter head natural frequency as well as its mode shape size. Cutter head is took as an example in this paper. By establishing the vibration dynamics equations and using finite element method, the 6 modal of the cutter head is analyzed. The range of the rotate speed to keep safety is obtained when it is working. The result shows that the highest rotate speed of the cutter head is far lower than its first order critical speed which avoids the sympathetic vibration efficiently, and the cutter head is designed relatively rational. The harmonic response of the cutter head is analyzed based on the result of modal analysis. The resonant frequency and amplitude of cutter head are obtained. They can provide a theoretical basis for the further design optimization of the cutter head.

  9. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. I

  10. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for

  11. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurizatio

  12. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  14. Pancreatic Juice Culture in Acute Pancreatitis and Other Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively evaluated the results of pancreatic juice cultures of patients with acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorders. Methods Twenty patients who underwent pancreatic juice culture were studied. Nine had acute pancreatitis due to alcohol (n=5, idiopathic causes (n=2, drugs (n=1, or gallstones (n=1, and remaining 11 had other pancreatic disorders such as an intraductal papillary mucin-producing neoplasm (n=3 and main pancreatic duct dilatation with a stricture due to a tumorous lesion suspected of pancreatic cancer (n=7 or chronic pancreatitis (n=1 without symptoms. Nasopancreatic drainage tubes were placed for pancreatic duct drainage in acute pancreatitis and for pancreatic juice cytology in other disorders. Pancreatic juice was obtained through the drainage tube and cultured. Results Pancreatic juice cultures were positive in all patients with acute pancreatitis for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species, and others. Six among 11 patients (54.5% with other disorders showed positive results for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus salivarius, and others. The rate of positive pancreatic juice cultures was significantly higher in acute pancreatitis (p=0.038. Seven of the 9 patients with acute pancreatitis were classified as having severe acute pancreatitis, and all survived treatment. Conclusions Pancreatic juice culture was highly positive in acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to confirm the relationship between orally indigenous bacteria identified in the pancreatic juice and acute pancreatitis.

  15. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  16. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  18. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  19. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or...

  20. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  1. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, M.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing,

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  3. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  4. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  6. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  9. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate

  10. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  11. Effect of Briquetting Process Variables on Hygroscopic Property of Water Hyacinth Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of water resistance capacity of briquettes is important in order to determine how sensitive the produced briquettes are to moisture change during storage. The relative changes in length and diameter of briquettes during immersion in water for 6 hours were investigated. This was conducted to determine hygroscopic property of produced briquettes under process variables levels of binder (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight of residue, compaction pressure (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 MPa and particle size (0.5, 1.6, and 4 mm of dried and ground water hyacinth. Data was statistically analysed using Analysis of Variance, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, and descriptive statistics. The relative change in length of briquettes with process variables ranged significantly from % to % (binder, % to % (compaction pressure, and % to % (particle size (. Furthermore, the relative change in diameter of briquettes with binder, compaction pressure, and particle size varied significantly from % to %, % to %, and % to %, respectively (. This study suggests optimum process variables required to produce briquettes of high water resistance capacity for humid environments like the Niger Delta, Nigeria, as 50% (binder proportion, 9 MPa (compaction pressure, and 0.5 mm (particle size.

  12. Comparisons between Hygroscopic Measurements and UNIFAC Model Predictions for Dicarboxylic Organic Aerosol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic behavior was measured at 12°C over aqueous bulk solutions containing dicarboxylic acids, using a Baratron pressure transducer. Our experimental measurements of water activity for malonic acid solutions (0–10 mol/kg water and glutaric acid solutions (0–5 mol/kg water agreed to within 0.6% and 0.8% of the predictions using Peng’s modified UNIFAC model, respectively (except for the 10 mol/kg water value, which differed by 2%. However, for solutions containing mixtures of malonic/glutaric acids, malonic/succinic acids, and glutaric/succinic acids, the disagreements between the measurements and predictions using the ZSR model or Peng’s modified UNIFAC model are higher than those for the single-component cases. Measurements of the overall water vapor pressure for 50 : 50 molar mixtures of malonic/glutaric acids closely followed that for malonic acid alone. For mixtures of malonic/succinic acids and glutaric/succinic acids, the influence of a constant concentration of succinic acid on water uptake became more significant as the concentration of malonic acid or glutaric acid was increased.

  13. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypropylene. An injection press available at NYANGONO PLASTIC factory (Yaounde-Cameroon was used to manufacture our wood- plastic composites.The following combinations were used: 1/3 Padou flour and 2/3 plastic; 1/4 Padou flour and 3/4 plastic; 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic. We found that the composite made of 1/5 Padou flour and 4/5 plastic reaches firstthe hygroscopic saturation point, flowed by the one containing 1/4 of wood and 3/4 of plastic and finally that containing 1/3 of wood and 2/3 of plastic. The moisture content of all the wood-plastic composite made was very low even in a soaked environment enabling us to conclude that these composites will be probably not attacked by fungus and insects.

  14. Evaluation of Parameters Influencing the Moisture Buffering Potential of Hygroscopic Materials with BSim Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjin Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Validated by a large-scale experimental investigation on moisture buffering (MB effect, a whole building Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM simulation tool, BSim, is applied to evaluate the impact of a number of parameters on the moisture buffering potential of a full-scale test room finished with hygroscopic materials. The Maximum Accumulated Moisture Buffering Value (MAMBV, developed from the moisture balance analyses in the experimental study, is used in the BSim simulation result analyses to evaluate the impact of various parameters. The parameters investigated include ventilation rates (0.5–5 ACH, types of materials (uncoated gypsum board, wood paneling, orientated strand board, aerated cellular concrete, and telephone book paper, humidity conditions of supply air, volume rates, and steady-state outdoor conditions. It is found that all these parameters have a significant impact on the moisture buffering potential except for the steady-state outdoor conditions. Two material properties, the moisture capacity and vapor permeability, determine the moisture buffering capacities of materials under different moisture generation regimes.

  15. Composition and hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at Mt. Lu in South China: Implications for acid precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Chi, Jianwei; Shi, Zongbo; Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan; Li, Tao; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Zifa; Shi, Chune; Liu, Liangke; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of aerosol particles were studied at Mt. Lu, an elevated site (115°59‧E, 29°35‧N, 1165 m) within the acid precipitation area. Northeast winds transport copious amounts of air pollutants and water vapor from the Yangtze River Delta into this acid precipitation area. NH4+ and SO42- are the dominant ions in PM2.5 and determine aerosol acidity. Individual particle analysis shows abundant S-rich and metals (i.e. Fe-, Zn-, Mn-, and Pb-rich) particles. Unlike aerosol particles in North China and urban areas, there are little soot and mineral particles at Mt. Lu. Lack of mineral particles contributed to the higher acidity in precipitation in the research area. Nano-sized spherical metal particles were observed to be embedded in 37% of S-rich particles. These metal particles were likely originated from heavy industries and fired-power plants. Hygroscopic experiments show that most particles start to deliquesce at 73-76% but organic coating lowers the particle deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) to 63-73%. The DRHs of these aerosol particles are clearly smaller than that of pure ammonium sulfate particles which is 80%. Since RH in ambient air was relatively high, ranging from 65% to 85% during our study period, most particles at our sampling site were in liquid phase. Our results suggest that liquid phase reactions in aerosol particles may contribute to SO2 to sulfuric acid conversion in the acid precipitation area.

  16. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel;

    2014-01-01

    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model......Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... combined with the Kelvin equation (CS-K) produced better fits to dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 2:1 clays but provided poor fits for soils dominated by 1:1 clays. The shape parameter α of the Oswin model was dependent on clay mineral type, and approximate values of 0.29 and 0.57 were obtained...

  17. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2016-11-18

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and aflatoxin G₁ (AFG₁) were detected. The prevalence of AFB₁ was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG₁ was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB₁ between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer.

  18. Microbiological Quality and Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Fresh-Squeezed Orange Juice Samples Purchased from Street Vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Cano-Gaona, Maria Rosalia; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Helguera-Repetto, Addy C; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Castro-Rosas, Javier; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, Jorge A

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are potentially pathogenic agents commonly found in a natural ecosystem. For this reason, food is considered another source of NTM transmission for humans. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of NTM in fresh-squeezed orange juice samples purchased from street vendors. All 102 samples analyzed were positive for aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), with limits ranging from 1.8 to 6.2 log CFU/ml. A total of 55 (54%), 25 (25%), and 13 (13%) orange juice samples were positive for total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and Escherichia coli , respectively. TC, FC, and E. coli were present with limits ranging from 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/ml, juice samples harbored NTM. These NTM were identified by using three molecular markers (hsp65, rrs, and rpoB genes) and corresponded to the fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 3), Mycobacterium rhodesiae (n = 1), Mycobacterium obuense (n = 1), and a mixture of M. fortuitum and Mycobacterium mucogenicum in an additional sample (n = 1). No correlation was found between the presence NTM in orange juice samples with the presence and concentration of the indicator microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, TC, and FC). Overall, these results suggest that fresh-squeezed orange juice might represent a vehicle for NTM transmission in humans. Therefore, prevention of contamination by humans (proper handling and washing of oranges) during juice preparation should be recommended.

  19. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5–hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  20. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  1. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  2. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    and pulsed electric field (PEF) juice are compared with their probability of choice for pasteurized juice and freshly produced apple juice, and consumer choices are tried explained by values and consequences generated from a MEC study. The study support, at least partly, that means-end chain structures’ have......, within the core of academic consumer research, MEC has been almost ignored. One plausible explanation for this lack of interest may be that studies linking MEC data to choice have been few. In this study, we are to investigate how values and consequences generated from a previous MEC study structure can...... be linked to likelihood of choice. Hypotheses about European consumers’ likelihood of choice for novel processed juice are stated and tested in a rating based conjoint study in Norway, Denmark, Hungary and Slovakia. In the study, consumers probability of choice for high pressure processed (HPP) juice...

  3. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  4. CFDP Configuration: Enclid and Juice Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Alberto; Taylor, Chris; Montesinos, Juan Antonio; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril; Erd, Christian; Magistrati, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the work done within the ESA ESTEC Data Systems Division, targeting the implementation of CFDP in future ESA Science Missions. EUCLID and JUICE currently include CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) as baseline for payload data transfer to ground. The two missions have completely different characteristics, although both present quite demanding scenarios. Using the communication link characteristics as an input, some simulations have been performed to optimize the CFDP configuration and get some preliminary figures on the retransmission overhead, payload data bandwidth and number of parallel transactions needed to maintain full bandwidth utilization. The paper provides some guidelines on CFDP configuration and usage that can be useful in future CFDP implementations.

  5. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (platex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  6. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Alwi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SSs, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages by banana stem juice were 80.1%, 88.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, observed for effluent at pH 7 using 90 mL dosage. The inulin concentration in the banana stem was examined to be 1.22016 mg/mL. It could be concluded that banana stem juice showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes and could be applied in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian spent coolant wastewater prior to secondary treatment.

  7. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice. In thi...

  8. Coca-Cola's Acquisition Over Huiyuan Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's Anti-Monopoly Law,the foundation stone of the market economy,started to be implemented since August 1st 2008.After half a year of investigation,.Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice was put to a stop by Ministry of Commerce on March 18th 2009.It became the first abortive case since the implementation of the Anti-Monopoly Law and caused strong repercussions home and abroad.While the nationalists applauded for the decision,overseas media generally took a skeptical attitude,considering it as a case of trade protectionism.This phenomenon requires a rational interpretation and guidance for the domestic and international media.On the one hand,acquisition by foreign capital may bring advanced technology and management experience and promote economic development;on the other hand,it may lead to the monopoly of relevant market,hamper competition and cause some domestic brands to disappear.We should look at Coca Cola's acquisition of Huiyuan Juice from two aspects.

  9. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity.

  10. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  11. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is considered...

  12. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p fruit juice.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P.; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor”) juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders. PMID:28106740

  15. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  16. Laboratory investigations of mixed organic/inorganic particles: Ice nucleation and optical hygroscopic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melinda R.

    The interactions of ambient aerosol particles with the atmosphere influence global climate and local visibility. Many of these atmospheric interactions are determined by the chemical composition of the aerosol particles. Ice nucleation in the upper troposphere is influenced and modified by the presence of anthropogenic aerosol particles. Also, interactions between particles and solar radiation are influenced by hygroscopic growth upon humidification. This thesis contains laboratory investigations into the role organic compounds play in ice nucleation and optical hygroscopic growth. Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C 3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Light extinction by atmospheric particles is strongly dependent on the size, chemical composition, and water content of the aerosol. Since light extinction by particles directly impacts climate and visibility, measurements of

  17. Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del S; Santander-Martínez, Ingrid Renata; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ariza-Ortega, José A; Omaña-Covarrubias, Ariana; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3-5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L(-1), 255.9 mg·L(-1), 294.4 mg·L(-1), and 276.7 mg·L(-1), respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L(-1), 135.2 mg·L(-1), and 128.5 mg·L(-1), respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•.

  18. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  19. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer; Peter Fickert; Carolin Lackner; Jutta Schmerlaib; Peter Krisper; Michael Trauner; Rudolf E Stauber

    2005-01-01

    NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses.No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice.A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acutehepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice.

  1. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  2. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, M. A.; Proud, S. R.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  3. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organics/water ternary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, M. A.; Proud, S. R.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead, they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance and, therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed-phase aerosol particles. Some results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, but others, such as phase separation properties of 1,2,6-hexanetriol, do not agree with previous work. Because the particles studied in this experiment are of a smaller size than those used in microscopy studies, the discrepancies found could be a size-related effect.

  4. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zawadowicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  5. Socio-economic status and fruit juice consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupler, Matthew; Raine, Kim D

    2017-06-16

    The role of socio-economic status (SES) in fruit juice and fruit drink consumption is not well understood in a Canadian context. This study examines the relationship between SES and Canadian fruit juice and fruit drink consumption. The Canadian Community Health Survey (2011-2012), a cross-sectional survey that employs multistage cluster sampling, provided relevant data for a sample of 103 125 Canadians, aged 12 and older, living in the 10 provinces. Household income level decile, ranked at the health region level, was used as a surrogate measure of SES. Fruit juice and fruit drink consumption data were collected via self-report in telephone/in-person interviews. Multivariable gamma regression was used to model the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes status, daily fruit and vegetable consumption, education level, racial identity and physical activity. A negative relationship was found, with a decreasing daily rate of fruit juice and fruit drink consumption associated with increasing SES. In the adjusted model, Canadians in the lowest SES category consumed fruit juice and fruit drinks at an average daily rate 1.18 times (95% CI: 1.14-1.23) that of Canadians in the highest SES category. The negative association between health region-adjusted SES and fruit juice and fruit drink consumption highlights the potentially important role of socio-economic factors at a local level. Canadian policy that aims to lower fruit juice and fruit drink consumption, and thus sugar intake, should target financial avenues (such as making fruit juice less financially attractive by lowering the cost of whole fruit and vegetables) in addition to communicating health benefits.

  6. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Deriving aerosol hygroscopic mixing state from size-resolved CCN activity and HR-ToF-AMS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattu, Deepika; Tripathi, S. N.; Chakraborty, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    The ability of a particle to uptake water and form a cloud droplet depends on its hygroscopicity. To understand its impact on cloud properties and ultimately radiative forcing, knowledge of chemically-resolved mixing state information or the one based on hygroscopic growth is crucial. Typically, global models assume either pure internal or external mixing state which might not be true for all conditions and sampling locations. To investigate into this, the current study employed an indirect approach to infer the probable mixing state. The hygroscopic parameters derived from κ-Kohler theory using size-resolved CCN measurements (κCCN) and bulk/size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements (κAMS) were compared. The accumulation mode particles were found to be more hygroscopic (κCCN = 0.24) than Aitken mode (κCCN = 0.13), perhaps due to increased ratio of inorganic to organic mass fraction. The activation diameter calculated from size-resolved CCN activity measurements at 5 different supersaturation (SS) levels varied in the range of 115 nm-42 nm with κCCN = 0.13-0.23 (avg = 0.18 ± 0.10 (±1σ)). Further, κAMS>κCCN was observed possibly due to the fact that organic and inorganic mass present in the Aitken mode was not correctly represented by bulk chemical composition and size-resolved fractional contribution of oxidized OA was not accurately accounted. Better correlation of organic fraction (forg) and κCCN at lower SS explained this behaviour. The decrease in κCCN with the time of the day was more pronounced at lower SS because of the relative mass reduction of soluble inorganic species by ∼17%. Despite the large differences between κ measured from two approaches, less over-prediction (up to 18%) between measured and predicted CCN concentration suggested lower impact of chemical composition and mixing state at higher SS. However, at lower SS, presences of externally mixed CCN-inactive aerosols lead to CCN over-prediction reflecting the

  8. Ambient observations of hygroscopic growth factor and f(RH) below 1: Case studies from surface and airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin; Ortega, Amber; Crosbie, Ewan; Wonaschütz, Anna; Perring, Anne E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ziemba, Luke; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Russell, Lynn M.

    2016-11-01

    This study reports a detailed set of ambient observations of optical/physical shrinking of particles from exposure to water vapor with consistency across different instruments and regions. Data have been utilized from (i) a shipboard humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer during the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment in 2011, (ii) multiple instruments on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys in 2013, and (iii) the Differential Aerosol Sizing and Hygroscopicity Spectrometer Probe during ambient measurements in Tucson, Arizona, during summer 2014 and winter 2015. Hygroscopic growth factor (ratio of humidified-to-dry diameter, GF = Dp,wet/Dp,dry) and f(RH) (ratio of humidified-to-dry scattering coefficients) values below 1 were observed across the range of relative humidity (RH) investigated (75-95%). A commonality of observations of GF and f(RH) below 1 in these experiments was the presence of particles enriched with carbonaceous matter, especially from biomass burning. Evidence of externally mixed aerosol, and thus multiple GFs with at least one GF < 1, was observed concurrently with f(RH) < 1 during smoke periods. Possible mechanisms responsible for observed shrinkage are discussed and include particle restructuring, volatilization effects, and refractive index modifications due to aqueous processing resulting in optical size modification. To further investigate ambient observations of GFs and f(RH) values less than 1, it is recommended to add an optional prehumidification bypass module to hygroscopicity instruments, to preemptively collapse particles prior to controlled RH measurements.

  9. Hygroscopicity and CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles and their relation to organics: Characteristics of urban aerosols in Nagoya, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    The size-resolved distributions of hygroscopic growth factor g and the ratios of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to condensation nuclei of atmospheric aerosols were investigated in Nagoya, Japan. The average of the distributions of g at 85% relative humidity was bimodal. The size-resolved mean κ derived from g showed an increasing trend with diameter: 0.17-0.33 at 24-359 nm. The κ values calculated from CCN activation curves were 37% higher than those derived from g. Only 9% of the 37% difference is explained by the difference in the κ of inorganics under subsaturated and supersaturated conditions, suggesting a contribution of organics to the remaining 28% difference. The size-averaged κ of organics (κorg) was calculated as 0.14 and 0.19 by two different methods. The number fractions of CCN predicted from the hygroscopicity data over the range of 24-359 nm are loosely consistent with those observed if the size- and time-averaged g is applied to all particles (differences: -30% to +10%). This consistency improves if size- and time-resolved g and g distribution are used (differences: -19% to -3%). Whereas the number fractions of CCN predicted from the composition data are greatly underestimated if organics are assumed to be insoluble (differences: -64% to -45%), they are more consistent if κorg of 0.14 or 0.19 is applied (differences: -10% to +14%). The results demonstrate the importance of the dependence of the g of particles on time and particle size and the hygroscopicity of organics for CCN number concentrations in the urban atmosphere.

  10. Hygroscopicity of a sugarless coating layer formed by the interaction between mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Shouko; Tamura, Koichi; Sakata, Yukoh

    2014-11-01

    A sugarless layer that provides protection against moisture is formed on tablets when a coating solution comprising mannitol and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is applied. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the formation of such a sugarless layer and the resulting hygroscopic properties in order to derive an appropriate sugarless coating. The hygroscopicity of the sugarless layer is shown to be strongly affected by the addition of PVA, and has the lowest at concentration ratios between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w) of mannitol and PVA. The polymorphic form of mannitol is different in formulations with different mannitol:PVA concentration ratios. Mannitol occurs in the α-form at mannitol:PVA concentration ratios between 15:1 and 15:4 (w/w). Moreover, PVA affects the molecular motions in the region associated with the OH stretch, OH deformation, and CH2 wag of mannitol. In particular, the molecular motions change considerably at mannitol:PVA concentration ratio of 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). In addition, the surface state of the sugarless layer depends on the amount of PVA added, and exhibits the smoothest surface at a mannitol:PVA concentration ratio between 15:2.5 and 15:4 (w/w). Thus, the hygroscopicity is related to the surface states of the sugarless layer, which, in turn, is affected by the change in the molecular motions of mannitol due to the interactions between mannitol and PVA.

  11. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  12. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  13. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  14. Measuring and modeling the hygroscopic growth of two humic substances in mixed aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Zamora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA / inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the water activity range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on chemical composition data for different

  15. Optimization of Combined Pulsed Electric Fields and Mild Temperature Processing Conditions for Red Apple Juice Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Katiyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect on Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO and Peroxidase (POD enzyme activity in red apple juice was evaluated after combined Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF and mild temperature processing using a response surface methodology. Changes in color were also analyzed and compared with thermally treated and unpasteurized juices. The studied factors were electric field strength (10-30 kV/cm, treatment time (200-1000 µs and temperature (20-60°C. A significant second-order response function covering the whole range of experimental conditions was obtained for each enzyme. Treatments conducted at 30 kV/cm, 1000 µs and 60°C led to red apple juice with the lowest residual enzyme activity (0.04 and 0.16 for PPO and POD, respectively. Overall change in color was significantly lower (p<0.05, in comparison with severe thermal treatments. It was feasible to achieve comparable enzyme inactivation and better preserve natural juice color by this hurdle technique.

  16. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khairul Amran Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx and supplementation (Tx groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP sites, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P<0.05. Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. and Nakai juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  17. Characterization and effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diully Mata Balisteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian native fruits are excellent sources of bioactive compounds of phenolic nature. Some of these compounds are able to inhibit carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes (in vitro, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, delaying carbohydrate digestion. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of clarified araçá (Psidium guineenses Sw. juice on postprandial glycemia in humans after consumption of 25 g of available carbohydrates (approximately 50 g of white bread and characterize the phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of araçá juice and pulp. The results showed that the clarified juice had a positive effect on postprandial glycemia reducing the total amount of glucose absorbed, lengthening the time to reach maximum blood glucose concentration, reducing glucose incremental velocity, and decreasing glucose incremental percentage. Both frozen pulp and clarified juice had high amounts of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and proanthocyanidins, among which oligomers (monomers to tetramers, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, octamers, nonamers, decamers, and polymers were detected, and they are probably associated with in vivo effects.

  18. Metabolism Energy, Nitrogen Retention, and Mineral Retention of Phosphorus Calcium and Zinc of Sugarcane Juice in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry feed derived from grains has an anti-nutrient phytic acid. Naturally, phytate forms a complex bond with some minerals (P, Zn, Fe, Mg, and Ca, protein, and amino acids. The mineral-phytate complex cannot be absorbed by the small intestine of non-ruminant livestock and will adversely affect the availability of minerals in the ration. One way to improve the efficiency of mineral and protein utilization from phytate is using phytase. Sugarcane juice containing nutrients and phytase is very potential as liquid supplement for broiler chickens as it can hydrolyze phytic acid. The purpose of this study was to determine the retention of nitrogen, metabolism energy, and retention of minerals (P, Ca and Zn of sugarcane juice in broilers. The study was conducted for 7 days using metabolism cages for 28 broilers of 5 weeks old with 6 treatments of 4 replications, 4 for endogenous. The results showed that the administration of 2.5%/kg sugarcane juice in the ration as well as in 2.5%/liter sugarcane juice in drinking water could provide the same result as giving commercial phytase 250-500 FTU/kg on the retention of nitrogen, metabolizeable energy, and retention of minerals P, Ca and Zn.

  19. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of tooth demineralisation, can be drawn on the basis of studies which do not measure directly net demineralisation but measure the potential for demineralisation of enamel, e.g. reduced pH on dental plaque. The Panel considers that reduction of plaque pH immediately (within about 10 min) following a single...... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  20. Hygroscopic growth of atmospheric aerosol particles based on lidar, radiosonde, and in situ measurements: Case studies from the Xinzhou field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Liu, Dong; Li, Zhanqing; Mao, Jietai; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Yingjian; Xie, Chenbo

    2017-02-01

    Lidar, radiosonde, and ground-based in situ nephelometer measurements made during an intensive field campaign carried out from July to September 2014 at the Xinzhou meteorological station were used to determine the aerosol hygroscopic growth effect in a cloud-capped, well-mixed boundary layer. Aerosol hygroscopic properties at 355 and 532 nm were examined for two cases with distinct aerosol layers. Lidar-derived maximum enhancement factors in terms of aerosol backscatter coefficient derived using a relative humidity (RH) reference value of 85% were 1.19 at 532 nm and 1.10 at 355 nm for Case I and 2.32 at 532 nm and 1.94 at 355 nm for Case II. To derive the aerosol particle hygroscopic growth factor at specific RH values, the Kasten and Hänel models were used. A comparison of the goodness of fit for the two models showed that the Kasten model performed better. The hygroscopic growth curve for RH>90% was much steeper than that for RH in the range of 85-90%. The slopes of the lidar-derived enhancement factor curve (measured from 85% to 95% RH) and the nephelometer-derived enhancement factor curve (measured from 40% to 62% RH) in Case I show similar trends, which lends confidence to using lidar measurements for studying aerosol particle hygroscopic growth. Data from a ground aerosol chemical speciation monitor showed that the larger values of aerosol hygroscopic enhancement factor in Case II corresponded to greater mass concentrations of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere.

  1. Clarification Effects of Chitosan on Apple Fruit Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-fei; LI He-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is a good flocculant. The paper deals with the clarification of apple juice by means of chitosan. The results showed that the transmittance was over 97% and soluble solid content was stable basically, under the technological condition of chitosan of 0.5 - 1.2 g L-1 , temperature of 45 - 55℃ and pH 4.5. After the orthogonal trial, the optimum technological conditions of apple juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.3 g L-1 chitosan, 45℃C and pH 4.5. The research of the apple juice clarification with chitosan made a basis of the application of chitosan and provided the theoretical basis for the clarification of apple juice with chitosan.

  2. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  3. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... ethanol production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain because of the high content of sugar. ... Key words: Ethanol, sweet sorghum, stalk juice, medium ..... production from Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) waste via a.

  4. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  5. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  6. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  8. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; Marques, Schérolin de Oliveira; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-02-04

    Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue.To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes.

  11. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  12. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  13. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  14. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  16. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles.

    The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/−13% to +8/−6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements.

    It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 °C. For the

  17. HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE SORPTION KINETICS MODELING OF CORN STOVER AND ITS FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Corn stover, a major crop-based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, is required to be at an optimum moisture content for efficient bioconversion processes. Environmental conditions surrounding corn stover, as in storage facilities, affect its moisture due to hygroscopic sorption or desorption. The measurement and modeling of sorption characteristics of corn stover and its leaf, husk, and stalk fractions are useful from utilization and storage standpoints, hence investigated in this article. A benchtop low-temperature humidity chamber provided the test environments of 20 C, 30 C, and 40 C at a constant 95% relative humidity. Measured sorption characteristics with three replications for each fraction were obtained from instantaneous sample masses and initial moisture contents. Observed sorption characteristics were fitted using exponential, Page, and Peleg models. Corn stover fractions displayed a rapid initial moisture uptake followed by a slower sorption rates and eventually becoming almost asymptotic after 25 h. Sorption characteristics of all corn stover fractions were significantly different (P < 0.0001) but not the effect of temperature (P > 0.05) on these fractions. The initial 30 min of sorption was found to be critical due to peak rates of sorption from storage, handling, and processing standpoints. The Page and Peleg models had comparable performance fitting the sorption curves (R2 = 0.995), however the exponential model (R2 = 0.91) was not found suitable because of patterned residuals. The Arrhenius type relationship (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.80) explained the temperature variation of the fitted sorption model parameters. The Peleg model fitted constants, among the sorption models studied, had the best fit (R2 = 0.93) with the Arrhenius relationship. A developed method of mass proportion, involving individual corn stover fraction dry matter ratios, predicted the whole corn stover sorption characteristics from that of its individual fractions. Sorption

  18. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massling, A.; Niedermeier, N.; Hennig, T.; Fors, E. O.; Swietlicki, E.; Ehn, M.; Hämeri, K.; Villani, P.; Laj, P.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA) systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH) uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles. The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/-13% to +8/-6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements. It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 °C. For the correct determination of external mixtures

  19. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  20. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  1. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  3. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  4. Characterization of solvent-extractable organics in urban aerosols based on mass spectrum analysis and hygroscopic growth measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Toshiyuki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2011-11-01

    To characterize atmospheric particulate organics with respect to polarity, aerosol samples collected on filters in the urban area of Nagoya, Japan, in 2009 were extracted using water, methanol, and ethyl acetate. The extracts were atomized and analyzed using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The atmospheric concentrations of the extracted organics were determined using phthalic acid as a reference material. Comparison of the organic carbon concentrations measured using a carbon analyzer and the HR-ToF-AMS suggests that organics extracted with water (WSOM) and ethyl acetate (EASOM) or those extracted with methanol (MSOM) comprise the greater part of total organics. The oxygen-carbon ratios (O/C) of the extracted organics varied: 0.51-0.75 (WSOM), 0.37-0.48 (MSOM), and 0.27-0.33 (EASOM). In the ion-group analysis, WSOM, MSOM, and EASOM were clearly characterized by the different fractions of the CH and CO(2) groups. On the basis of the hygroscopic growth measurements of the extracts, κ of organics at 90% relative humidity (κ(org)) were estimated. Positive correlation of κ(org) with O/C (r 0.70) was found for MSOM and EASOM, but no clear correlation was found for WSOM.

  5. Profiling aerosol optical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties in ambient conditions by combining in situ and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marenco, Franco; Nenes, Athanasios; Marinou, Eleni; Solomos, Stavros; Rosenberg, Phil; Trembath, Jamie; Nott, Graeme J.; Allan, James; Le Breton, Michael; Bacak, Asan; Coe, Hugh; Percival, Carl; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    We present the In situ/Remote sensing aerosol Retrieval Algorithm (IRRA) that combines airborne in situ and lidar remote sensing data to retrieve vertical profiles of ambient aerosol optical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties, employing the ISORROPIA II model for acquiring the particle hygroscopic growth. Here we apply the algorithm on data collected from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft during the ACEMED campaign in the Eastern Mediterranean. Vertical profiles of aerosol microphysical properties have been derived successfully for an aged smoke plume near the city of Thessaloniki with aerosol optical depth of ˜ 0.4 at 532 nm, single scattering albedos of ˜ 0.9-0.95 at 550 nm and typical lidar ratios for smoke of ˜ 60-80 sr at 532 nm. IRRA retrieves highly hydrated particles above land, with 55 and 80 % water volume content for ambient relative humidity of 80 and 90 %, respectively. The proposed methodology is highly advantageous for aerosol characterization in humid conditions and can find valuable applications in aerosol-cloud interaction schemes. Moreover, it can be used for the validation of active space-borne sensors, as is demonstrated here for the case of CALIPSO.

  6. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patowary, Manoj [Advanced Technology Development Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar, E-mail: raja.iitchem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Pathak, Khanindra [Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent powder was developed by surface modification of commercially available hygroscopic magnesium carbonate with palmitic acid. • The sorbent powder is capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight. • Reusability test of the sorbent powder infers the retention of hydrophobic as well as oleophilic character even after three times of re-use. • The powder was found to possess sufficient buoyancy, high rate of uptake and selectivity towards oil which is necessary for oil spill clean-ups. - Abstract: The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  7. From hygroscopic aerosols to cloud droplets: The HygrA-CD campaign in the Athens basin - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannis, A; Argyrouli, A; Bougiatioti, A; Remoundaki, E; Vratolis, S; Nenes, A; Solomos, S; Komppula, M; Giannakaki, E; Kalogiros, J; Banks, R; Eleftheriadis, K; Mantas, E; Diapouli, E; Tzanis, C G; Kazadzis, S; Binietoglou, I; Labzovskii, L; Vande Hey, J; Zerefos, C S

    2017-01-01

    The international experimental campaign Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD), organized in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), Greece from 15 May to 22 June 2014, aimed to study the physico-chemical properties of aerosols and their impact on the formation of clouds in the convective Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). We found that under continental (W-NW-N) and Etesian (NE) synoptic wind flow and with a deep moist PBL (~2-2.5km height), mixed hygroscopic (anthropogenic, biomass burning and marine) particles arrive over the GAA, and contribute to the formation of convective non-precipitating PBL clouds (of ~16-20μm mean diameter) with vertical extent up to 500m. Under these conditions, high updraft velocities (1-2ms(-1)) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (~2000cm(-3) at 1% supersaturation), generated clouds with an estimated cloud droplet number of ~600cm(-3). Under Saharan wind flow conditions (S-SW) a shallow PBL (cloud droplet number of ~200cm(-3) and without observed significant PBL cloud formation. The largest contribution to cloud droplet number variance is attributed to the updraft velocity variability, followed by variances in aerosol number concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A comprehensive characterisation of Asian dust storm particles: chemical composition, reactivity to SO2, and hygroscopic property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust comprises of a significant fraction of the globe's aerosol loading. Yet it remains the largest uncertainty in future climate predictions due to the complexity in its components and physico-chemical properties. Multi-analysis methods, including SEM-EDX, FTIR, BET, TPD/mass, and Knudsen cell/mass, were used in the present study to characterise Asian dust storm particles. The morphology, element fraction, source distribution, true uptake coefficient of SO2 and hygroscopic behaviour were studied. The major components of Asian dust storm particles were found to consist of aluminosilicate, SiO2, and CaCO3, which were coated with organic compounds and inorganic nitrate. The dust storm particles have a low reactivity to SO2 (true uptake coefficient of 5.767×10−6 which limits the conversion of SO2 to sulfate during a dust storm period. The low reactivity also demonstrated that the heterogeneous reaction of SO2, in both dry and humid air conditions, had little effect on the hygroscopic behaviour of the dust particles. These results indicate that the impact of dust storms on atmospheric SO2 removal should not be overestimated.

  9. Amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles interacting with water vapor – Part 1: Microstructure, phase transitions, hygroscopic growth and kinetic limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koop

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with water are crucial for the properties, transformation and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. Here we outline characteristic features and differences in the interaction of amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles with water vapor. Using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA, we performed hydration, dehydration and cyclic hydration&dehydration experiments with aerosol particles composed of levoglucosan, oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate (diameters ~100–200 nm, relative uncertainties <0.4%, relative humidities <5% to 95% at 298 K. The measurements and accompanying Köhler model calculations provide new insights into particle microstructure, surface adsorption, bulk absorption, phase transitions and hygroscopic growth. The results of these and related investigations lead to the following main conclusions: 1. Many organic substances (including carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and proteins tend to form amorphous rather than crystalline phases upon drying of aqueous solution droplets. Depending on viscosity and microstructure, the amorphous phases can be classified as glasses, rubbers, gels or viscous liquids. 2. Amorphous organic substances tend to absorb water vapor and undergo gradual deliquescence and hygroscopic growth at much lower relative humidity than their crystalline counterparts. 3. In the course of hydration and dehydration, certain organic substances can form rubber- or gel-like structures (supra-molecular networks and undergo stepwise transitions between swollen and collapsed network structures. 4. Organic gels or (semi-solid amorphous shells (glassy, rubbery, ultra-viscous with low molecular diffusivity can kinetically limit the uptake and release of water by submicron aerosol particles on (multi-second time scales, which may influence the hygroscopic growth and activation of aerosol particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and ice nuclei (IN. 5. The shape and porosity of amorphous

  10. Measuring and modeling the hygroscopic growth of two humic substances in mixed aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Zamora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic Aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA-inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the aw range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on

  11. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

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    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  12. Atributos sensoriais e aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

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    Pamella Rio Branco Pontes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, incluindo questões sobre consumo e compra. Os resultados apontam que o suco integral apresentou cor e gosto amargo mais intensos; o suco concentrado (reconstituído apresentou baixa intensidade em todos os atributos; e o néctar de uva apresentou maior intensidade de gosto doce e sabor característico de uva. O teste de aceitação mostrou que o néctar de uva e o suco integral foram os mais aceitos. A maioria dos consumidores relatou consumir quatro ou mais copos suco de uva por mês. O suco integral recebeu maior intenção de compra e o néctar foi a bebida mais consumida. Concluiu-se que o consumidor aprecia o suco integral da uva, com equilibrada intensidade nos atributos sensoriais investigados, todavia, consume com maior frequência o néctar, bebida à qual são adicionadas água e sacarose.Grape juice contains phenolic compounds in considerable amounts, and it is fit for human consumption since it can increase the intake of natural antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensory attributes and to evaluate the acceptance of commercial grape juices. Three types of commercial grape juices were analyzed: pasteurized juice, concentrated juice, and sugar added pasteurized juice. A modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and an Acceptance Test with a structured nine-point hedonic scale were used including questions about consumption and purchase intention. The results indicated that the pasteurized

  13. Study of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of organic oxy acids in order to detect sophisticated wines and juice drinks

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    Kuzmina Helen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to International Code of Oenological Practices it is allowed to use acide L(+tartrique for wine acidification, while use of synthetic dihydroxysuccinic acid is forbidden. Today it is impossible to differentiate natural dihydroxysuccinic acid from synthetic one by standard techniques. Even by using very sensitive method of isotope mass spectrometry certain difficulties emerge because total isotope characteristics of carbon of dihydroxysuccinic acid of different nature have the same values. However, isotope characteristics of carbon of intramolecular structural groups of dihydroxysuccinic acid made of different raw materials differ significantly. This allows specifying the nature of dihydroxysuccinic acid that is used for making of wines and juice drinks. In Russia, scientific and research institute of beer brewing and wine-making industry carried out a work for studying isotope characteristics of intramolecular isotope heterogeneity of dihydroxysuccinic acid from different origins in order to identify wines and juice drinks. Isotope characteristics of organic oxy acids from different origins were studied including them obtained by synthetic way and numeric range of value δ13 C,‰ were specified. The obtained results allow performing identification tests of wines and juice drinks to find out the products that contain not specified additives as that allowed for its use in production process.

  14. The quality control of fruit juices by using the stable isotope ratios and trace metal elements concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.

    2012-02-01

    In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic "tracers" to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruit juices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.

  15. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

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    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  16. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  17. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  18. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  19. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Table wine from tropical fruits utilizing natural yeast isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, Dipak; Chakraborty, Ivi; Saha, Jayanta

    2016-03-01

    An attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. Fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (Y4 and Y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC-170) collected from IMTECH, Chandigar. Juices were extracted by using pectinase enzyme at 0.15-0.20 % of pulp. Changes in °Brix, titratable acid content, pH, total viable yeast count were recorded and rate of fermentation, sugar use efficiency were determined at every 24-hour interval up to the completion (6 days after inoculation) of fermentation. Considering all the quality parameter as well as fermentation efficiency, yeast isolate Y7 was found superior followed by Y4 as fermenting agent and pineapple juice as sole substrate found to be the most suitable medium for production of wine followed by fruit juice blending. In interpreting the efficacy of fruit and yeast in combination, pineapple juice inoculated with Y7 found to be the best in reducing the degree Brix to its lowest from initial 24 degree.

  1. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  2. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Jazmin D; Beuchat, Larry R; Tauxe, Robert V

    2008-02-01

    Outbreaks of illness associated with consumption of fruit juice have been a growing public health problem since the early 1990s. In response to epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks in which juice was implicated, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented process control measures to regulate the production of fruit juice. The final juice regulation, which became effective in 2002, 2003, and 2004, depending on the size of the business, requires that juice operations comply with a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) receives reports of food-associated outbreaks of illness. We reviewed fruit juice-associated outbreaks of illness reported to the CDC's Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System. From 1995 through 2005, 21 juice-associated outbreaks were reported to CDC; 10 implicated apple juice or cider, 8 were linked to orange juice, and 3 involved other types of fruit juice. These outbreaks caused 1,366 illnesses, with a median of 21 cases per outbreak (range, 2 to 398 cases). Among the 13 outbreaks of known etiology, 5 were caused by Salmonella, 5 by Escherichia coli O157:H7, 2 by Cryptosporidium, and one by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O111 and Cryptosporidium. Fewer juice-associated outbreaks have been reported since the juice HACCP regulation was implemented. Some juice operations that are exempt from processing requirements or do not comply with the regulation continue to be implicated in outbreaks of illness.

  3. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  4. The influence of solder mask and hygroscopic flux residues on water layer formation on PCBA surface and corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    The presence of solder flux residue on the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) surface compromises the corrosion reliability of electronics under humid conditions and can lead to degradation of the device’s lifetime. In this work, the effect of solder mask morphology and hygroscopic residues were...

  5. Aerosol mixingstate, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Sara; Raatikainen, T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Alexander, M. L.; Stolzenberg, Mark; McMurry, Peter; Smith, James N.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2013-05-15

    Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. K¨ohler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic water uptake coefficient, k*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTMDA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions, (forg), are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements, from which kAMS is inferred and compared against k*. Strong diurnal profiles of aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF) events are correlated with an increased k* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN can surpass by more than a factor of two the concentrations of 100 nm particles acting as CCN, at supersaturations of 0.51% +/- 0.06%. We also find that at 0600-0800 in the morning throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally-mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally-mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as “internally-mixed”. Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events), the early morning “rush hour”, and the entire campaign. We show that k* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for k* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing-state and the presence of refractory material not measured by the

  6. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, Siberia, during a summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Mikhailov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO in Central Siberia (61° N; 89° E from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical composition of aerosol particles were analyzed by X-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38% of PM in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8% of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ∼34% in the accumulation vs. ∼47% in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA over the range of 5–99.4% RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same RH, starting at ∼70%, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ∼35% RH for submicron particles vs. ∼50% RH for supermicron particles. This ∼15% RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5–99.4% RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv, ws value related to the water soluble (ws fraction was estimated to be ∼0

  7. Chemical composition, microstructure, and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), Siberia, during a summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, E. F.; Mironov, G. N.; Pöhlker, C.; Chi, X.; Krüger, M. L.; Shiraiwa, M.; Förster, J.-D.; Pöschl, U.; Vlasenko, S. S.; Ryshkevich, T. I.; Weigand, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we describe the hygroscopic properties of accumulation- and coarse-mode aerosol particles sampled at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia (61° N, 89° E) from 16 to 21 June 2013. The hygroscopic growth measurements were supplemented with chemical analyses of the samples, including inorganic ions and organic/elemental carbon. In addition, the microstructure and chemical compositions of aerosol particles were analyzed by x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mass closure analysis indicates that organic carbon accounted for 61 and 38 % of particulate matter (PM) in the accumulation mode and coarse mode, respectively. The water-soluble fraction of organic matter was estimated to be 52 and 8 % of PM in these modes. Sulfate, predominantly in the form of ammoniated sulfate, was the dominant inorganic component in both size modes: ~ 34 % in the accumulation mode vs. ~ 47 % in the coarse mode. The hygroscopic growth measurements were conducted with a filter-based differential hygroscopicity analyzer (FDHA) over the range of 5-99.4 % RH in the hydration and dehydration operation modes. The FDHA study indicates that both accumulation and coarse modes exhibit pronounced water uptake approximately at the same relative humidity (RH), starting at ~ 70 %, while efflorescence occurred at different humidities, i.e., at ~ 35 % RH for submicron particles vs. ~ 50 % RH for supermicron particles. This ~ 15 % RH difference was attributed to higher content of organic material in the submicron particles, which suppresses water release in the dehydration experiments. The kappa mass interaction model (KIM) was applied to characterize and parameterize non-ideal solution behavior and concentration-dependent water uptake by atmospheric aerosol samples in the 5-99.4 % RH range. Based on KIM, the volume-based hygroscopicity parameter, κv, was calculated. The κv,ws value related to the water-soluble (ws

  8. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Naderi, Gholamali; Asgary, Seddigheh; Nayeri, Hashem

    2011-07-01

    We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. 5 μl of lime juice didn't change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  9. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pjuice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  10. [RP-HPLC fingerprint evaluating different ginger juice as processing material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao; Gao, Hui-Min

    2008-05-01

    To establish a method for comparing the differences between fresh and dried ginger juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprint method was performed on an Alltech C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with mobile phase in gradient elution composed of A-acetonitrie and B-water at a flow rate: 0.8 mL x min(-1). The detecting wavelength was 280 nm, and the column temperature 25 degrees C. There was no significant difference among the same breed ginger juice of different batches. But there was significant difference between crushed ginger juice and the boiled juice. Trytophan, 6-gingerol were common constituents of the three kinds of ginger juice, the fresh ginger and the dry ginger. Besides, 6-shogaol emerged in the boiled juice. The RP-HPLC fingerprints spectrum can be used to distinguish different ginger juices. And the crushed juice of fresh ginger have the same chemical consititents with the fresh ginger.

  11. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  12. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  13. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn′t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  14. Research progress in modification technology for hygroscopic polyacrylonitrile fiber%聚丙烯腈纤维吸湿改性方法及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅珍; 徐岽双; 王海霞; 曹孔明

    2011-01-01

    The research status of hygroscopic polyacrylonitrile ( PAN) fibers was reviewed in China and abroad. The hygroscopic mechanism and the influential factors bearing upon the hygroscopicity of PAN fiber were described. The chemical and physical technologies for improving the hygroscopicity of PAN fiber were introduced in details. The chemical technolgies included hydro-philic group introduction by polymerization and copolymerization, grafting copolymerization with hydrophilic material, alkali decrement treatment or hydrophilic finishing on the fiber surface, plasma treatment. The physical technologies included blending with hydrophilic material, fiber micropore formation, fiber cross section shaping, fiber surface roughening. It was pointed out that the development trend of PAN fiber should be focused on PAN fibers with favorable hygroscopicity and clothing comfort.%综述了国内外吸湿性聚丙烯腈(PAN)纤维的研究现状;阐述了PAN纤维的吸湿机理及影响吸湿性的因素;详细介绍了改善PAN纤维的吸湿性的化学方法和物理方法;PAN纤维吸湿改性化学方法有通过聚合和共聚引进亲水基团、与亲水物质接枝共聚、对纤维表面进行碱减量处理、纤维表面的亲水整理、等离子体处理等;PAN纤维吸湿改性物理方法有与亲水性物质共混、纤维结构微孔化、纤维截面异形化和表面粗燥化等;指出开发吸湿性能好、服用舒适的PAN纤维是今后PAN纤维的主要发展方向.

  15. Toward Quantifying the Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Individual Submicron Atmospheric Aerosol Particles with STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey Piens, D.; Kelly, S. T.; OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Petters, M. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols influences their optical and cloud-nucleation properties, and therefore affects climate. Although changes in particle size as a function of relative humidity have often been used to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles, it has been noted that calculations of hygroscopicity based on size contain error due to particle porosity, non-ideal volume additivity and changes in surface tension. We will present a method to quantify the hygroscopic behavior of submicron aerosol particles based on changes in mass, rather than size, as a function of relative humidity. This method results from a novel experimental approach combining scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near-edge x-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), as well as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) on the same individual particles. First, using STXM/NEXAFS, our methods are applied to aerosol particles of known composition ‒ for instance ammonium sulfate, sodium bromide and levoglucosan ‒ and validated by theory. Then, using STXM/NEXAFS and SEM/EDX, these methods are extended to mixed atmospheric aerosol particles collected in the field at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility at the Southern Great Planes sampling site in Oklahoma, USA. We have observed and quantified a range of hygroscopic behaviors which are correlated to the composition and morphology of individual aerosol particles. These methods will have implications for parameterizing aerosol mixing state and cloud-nucleation activity in atmospheric models.

  16. A case study of single hygroscopicity parameter and its link to the functional groups and phase transition for urban aerosols in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Ming; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yu-Quan

    2016-05-01

    The hygroscopicity, functional groups and phase transitions of urban aerosol particles in Taipei City were studied using a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc) with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an attenuated total reflectance with infrared (ATR-IR) detection technique. With the assumption of larger particles being activated first, the derived single hygroscopicity parameter (κ) exhibited an increasing trend with particle size, i.e., from 0.022 ± 0.01 at 87 ± 10 nm to 0.13 ± 0.03 at 240 ± 20 nm. The collected size-selected particles were characterized using ATR-IR for the functional groups of alkyl, carbonyl, ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, which showed various size dependence patterns, linked to different formation mechanisms. The hygroscopic response based on the ratio (xW_solute) for sample film of absorption by the enhanced water-stretching peak to that by the selected solute showed a better consistency with pure ammonium sulfate for sub-micron size particles. Based on the derived ammonium sulfate volume fraction from IR analysis, the κ received from CCNc measurements was concluded mainly contributed by ammonium sulfate for sub-micrometer particles. The increasing trend of sodium nitrate absorbance at aerosol diameter ≥1 μm was due to a reaction of nitric acid with sea salt particles. The micrometer sized particles were apparent not only in a significantly higher xW_solute than pure sodium nitrate but also had a deliquescence RH of 69 ± 1%, similar to that of sodium nitrate-sodium chloride mixtures. Overall, the organic species in this study exhibited a low hygroscopicity with less than 0.036 of contribution for the overall κ, and the major hygroscopic material of urban aerosols consisted primarily of ammonium sulfate in the sub-micrometer particles and sodium nitrate with sea salt in the coarse particles.

  17. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  18. Effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Oyelami, O A; Olatunya, O S; Adeyemi, L A

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty children with acute uncomplicated malaria who were managed at the children's outpatient department of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa (a unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria) were recruited into the study to determine the effects of lime juice on malaria parasite clearance. These children were randomized into treatment with World Health Organization recommended antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapy, ACT) either alone or with lime juice. Nine of them were lost to follow-up, four were in the group that were managed with ACT and lime, and five in the group that were managed on ACT alone. The average (SD) time to achieve >75% reduction in parasite load was significantly lower in patients on ACT and lime; 30.5 ± 2.4 h against 38.6 ± 3.3 h for those on ACT alone (p lime juice achieved complete parasite clearance by 72 h of therapy (p = 0.007), ten (18.2%) patients without lime had early treatment failure (p = 0.003). There were no side effects with the use of lime juice. It may therefore be inferred, from this preliminary work, that lime juice when used with the appropriate antimalarial may enhance malaria parasite clearance especially in those with uncomplicated malaria.

  19. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  20. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions.

  1. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  2. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Juice. 51.1177 Section 51.1177... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1177 U.S. Grade A Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated “U.S. Grade A Juice...

  3. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  4. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Manoj; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Pathak, Khanindra

    2014-11-01

    The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  5. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF HYGROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF POWDER OF SEMIFINISHED KVASS WORT CONCENTRATE, MALT EXTRACT OF BARLEY AND CHICORY EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry of Russia urgently needs both updating of the manufacturing units of equipment and the creation of new high-tech and energy-saving technologies. Nowadays powdered food products and semifinished foods gained wide popularity in the market of foods and in manufacturing. Due to the caking and low wettability of fine powdered semi-finished products, there is an urgent need for modifying their properties by instanting. This article is devoted to the study of hygroscopic properties of powdered products and semifinished products: chicory extract, barley malt extract, kvass wort concentrate obtained by spray drying with an average dispersed composition of 10-20 microns, to find optimal conditions for packaging, storage and theoretical justification of the instanting process conditions. The article provides a diagram of experimental device for the study of hygroscopic properties of food powdered semi-finished products by accelerated method with the creation of the fluidized bed and the required temperature and humidity characteristics of fluidizing agent. The principles of operation of the device and methods of the experiment carrying out are given. The results are given in the form of sorption isotherms, by which monomolecular poly-molecular and capillary forms of binding of moisture with the test products and semi-finished products are determined. Theoretical nomogram to determine the binding energy of the moisture with the semi-finished products is given. Mathematical dependences of equilibrium humidities in the studied powdered products and semi-finished products on the air relative humidity in the range of 15 to 85 % at a temperature 22 ˚C were obtained. Optimal humidity properties of the resulting products for their production and subsequent storage and for the instanting processes were determined.

  7. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of § 102.5...

  8. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently omitted from Tables I and II. The corrections... of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.go v or http://www.ams.usda...

  9. 77 FR 6773 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... the United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice. The proposal includes changes to the grade standards for grapefruit juice to remove the parameters for maximum ``free and suspended pulp'' to account...

  10. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices ha

  11. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake.

  12. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  13. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  14. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with sta