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Sample records for juice flavor quality

  1. Effect of Liberibacter infection (huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John; Narciso, Jan; Irey, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Some anecdotal reports suggest that infection of citrus trees with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how Las infection affects juice quality with respect to cultivar, maturity, or processing method. Hamlin, Midsweet, and Valencia oranges were harvested over 2 y from trees that tested negative (Las-) or positive (Las+) for Las from different groves and included normal looking (nonsymptomatic) and symptomatic fruit (small, green, and lopsided) from Las+ trees. In the 1st year, fruit were manually juiced, while in the 2nd year, a commercial process was used. Juice from Las+ trees was compared to juice from Las- trees in difference-from-control tests, and by descriptive analysis. Results showed large variability due to tree, harvest date, and cultivar. Juice from Hamlin Las+ trees tended to be more bitter and sour than its Las- counterpart. In contrast, hand processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to have some off-flavor and bitterness compared to control, but the following year, commercially processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to be only slightly more sour than juice from Las- trees for the April harvest, and to be sweeter for the June harvest. When juice from individual replicates was pooled to be more representative of a commercial situation, there was no difference between Las+ and Las- juice in Valencia. Trained panel differences were noted for juice from Hamlin Las+ fruit, especially for symptomatic fruit. Assumptions that juice made from oranges harvested from Huanglongbing (from infection with Liberibacter sp.) affected trees is off-flavored appeared to be generally more true for Hamlin juice than for Midsweet or Valencia, especially for Hamlin juice made from symptomatic fruit. For Midsweet and Valencia, flavor differences between juice made from fruit harvested from diseased or

  2. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene.

  3. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained.

  4. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  6. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  7. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  8. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  9. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  10. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  12. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A

    2015-04-01

    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Flavor characterization of sugar-added pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices treated with ultra-high pressure and thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Wongfhun, Pronprapa; Gordon, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    The flavor characteristics of pennywort juices with added sugar treated by ultra-high pressure, pasteurization, and sterilization were investigated using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons comprised the major class of volatile components present and the juices had a characteristic aroma due to the presence of volatiles including beta-caryophyllene and humulene and alpha-copaene. In comparison with heated juices, HPP-treated samples could retain more volatile compounds such as linalool and geraniol similar to those present in fresh juice, whereas some volatiles such as alpha-terpinene and ketone class were apparently formed by thermal treatment. All processing operations produced juice that was not significantly different in the concentration of total volatiles. Practical Application: Pennywort juice is considered a nutraceutical drink for health benefits. Therefore, to preserve all aroma and active components in this juice, a nonthermal process such as ultra-high pressure should be a more appropriate technique for retention of its nutritive values than pasteurization and sterilization.

  14. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

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    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  15. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  16. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  17. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

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    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  18. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  19. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

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    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  20. Studies on Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke Juice by Beneficial Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Flavor Compounds of Fermented Jerusalem artichoke Juice%乳酸菌发酵菊芋汁及其风味的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信; 董英; 程新; 刘崇万

    2012-01-01

    对不同品种和产地的菊芋主要成分进行了测定,并利用乳酸菌对菊芋汁进行发酵,研究了不同乳酸菌在菊芋汁中的生长规律、低温存活性及发酵菊芋汁中主要风味物质。结果表明,4种乳酸菌在菊芋汁中均生长良好,最高活菌数可达到10^9CFU/mL;菊芋汁经乳酸菌发酵后具有良好风味,其风味的差异与发酵菌种有关;发酵菊芋汁中乳酸菌在4℃低温贮藏过程中具有较好的低温存活性,4周后活菌数保持在10^9CFU/mL。菊芋汁适用于开发成新的功能性乳酸菌饮料。%Jerusalem artichoke possesses abundant inulin, high content of potassium and low content of sodium. The main nutritional compositions of Jerusalem artichoke from diverse varieties and regions were analyzed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the growth of four lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis) on Jerusalem artichoke juice and the production of flavor com- pounds in these bacteria. Growth rule, low-temperature survivability of lactic acid bacteria in Jerusalem artichoke and the major flavor compounds of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice were considered in this study. In this research it was found that four lactic cultures grew well on the Jerusalem artichoke juice, and the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reached 10^9CFU/mL. Jerusalem artichoke juice that was fermented by beneficial lactic acid bacteria had a good flavor, the main flavor compounds were diverse due to the different species of lactic acid bacteria. Although the lactic cultures of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice gradually lost their viability during cold storage, the viable cell counts of these lactic acid bacteria still remained at 10^8CFU/mL after 4 weeks of refrigeration at 4℃. The results of this study showed that Jerusalem artichoke juice was a potential substrate to be used for healthy

  1. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pjuice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  2. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

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    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  3. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  4. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

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    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  5. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

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    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  6. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  7. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Lerner

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used, and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292 in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that

  8. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice. Assessment by the use of microbiological methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. I

  9. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for

  10. The inner quality of orange juice and apple juice : assessment by the use of microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekasari, I.

    1989-01-01

    A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruit juices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurizatio

  11. Quality of pasteurised pineapple juice in the context of the Beninese marketing system

    OpenAIRE

    Hounhouigan, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a result of the interdisciplinary project Co-Innovation for Quality in African Food Chains (CoQA). The objective of the research was to improve the quality of pasteurised pineapple juice taking the characteristics of the Beninese pineapple marketing system into account. The specific objectives were to: (i) evaluate the adaptation of Beninese pineapple marketing system to the introduction of the pasteurised pineapple juice business; (ii) assess the extent to which pineapples with...

  12. Studies on Juice Quality Obtained from Pomegranate and Various Vegetables Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the interest in antioxidants, mainly present in fruits and vegetables, has prompted research in the field of commercial beverages. Taking into account new requirements to improve the quality of feeding behaviour by getting juices without added sugar, the consumer health benefits and high organoleptics properties, it was decided to study the correlation quality of raw pomegranates with other vegetables such as celery, carrot and sharon fruit in order to obtain pomegranate juice with vegetable additions. The vegetable raw materials were chosen in order to improve the quality and organoleptic properties of the pomegranate juice with vegetable additions by optimizing the “in-house” method, to obtaining a stable formulation. The main objectives of the study were characterization of raw and addition materials, studied by psycho-chemical analysis, evaluating of the antioxidant capacity of 4 types of pomegranate juice with additions in different proportions,  establish the best type of mixture juice. Consumer preference was established in sensory analysis  based on hedonic test with 9 point scale, the type of juice with additions with the following concentrations: pomegranate 50%, Sharon 10%, celery 30%, carrot 10%. Positive correlations were performed between antioxidant capacity and type of juice preferred by consumers.

  13. Fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental assessment of the sensory quality of tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivittayasil, Vipavee; Tsuta, Mizuki; Imamura, Yoshinori; Sato, Tsuneo; Otagiri, Yuji; Obata, Akio; Otomo, Hiroe; Kokawa, Mito; Sugiyama, Junichi; Fujita, Kaori; Yoshimura, Masatoshi

    2016-03-15

    Sensory analysis is an important standard for evaluating food products. However, as trained panelists and time are required for the process, the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as a rapid instrumental method to approximate sensory characteristics was explored in this study. Thirty-five out of 44 descriptive sensory attributes were found to show a significant difference between samples (analysis of variance test). Principal component analysis revealed that principal component 1 could capture 73.84 and 75.28% variance for aroma category and combined flavor and taste category respectively. Fluorescence fingerprints of tomato juices consisted of two visible peaks at excitation/emission wavelengths of 290/350 and 315/425 nm and a long narrow emission peak at 680 nm. The 680 nm peak was only clearly observed in juices obtained from tomatoes cultivated to be eaten raw. The ability to predict overall sensory profiles was investigated by using principal component 1 as a regression target. Fluorescence fingerprint could predict principal component 1 of both aroma and combined flavor and taste with a coefficient of determination above 0.8. The results obtained in this study indicate the potential of using fluorescence fingerprint as an instrumental method for assessing sensory characteristics of tomato juices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Diversity in sensory quality and determining factors influencing mandarin flavor liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex. Tan), Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and tangelo (Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi). Consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide diversity in flavor preferences among mandarin varieties and subgroups. Furthermore, descriptive flavor-analysis tests conducted with the aid of a trained sensory panel revealed that the 9 most preferred varieties had similar flavor profiles, characterized by high sweetness, moderate to low acidity levels, low bitterness and gumminess, strong fruity and mandarin flavor, and high juiciness. The average total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels among the highly preferred varieties were 13.1% and 1.1%, respectively. In contrast, the 8 least preferred varieties were either too sour or gummy or had low levels of sweetness, fruity, or mandarin flavor, and either high acidity levels (>1.4%) or low TSS levels (mandarin flavor, and negative correlations with acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between highly accepted varieties that were tightly correlated with high TSS levels and perceptions of sweetness fruitiness and mandarin flavor, as compared with the least accepted varieties that were correlated with high acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess.

  15. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  17. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Shashi Kishor; Wan, Zifan; Colonna, William; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality-based comparison of cold plasma treatment with thermal pasteurization treatment of white grape juice was done. HVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in a 7.4 log10 CFU mL(-1) reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any significant (P > 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. An increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed, but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, but they were found to be comparable to those resulting from thermal pasteurization. An increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments. HVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found to be comparable to thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of Leaf Extracts of Selected Plants on Quality of Stored Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbenga O. ADEOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in the quality of fruits during storage has been a concern to the consumers and the effect can be felt on the economy of developing countries. Leaves of plants such as Canna indica, Megaphrynium macrostachyum and Thaumatococcus daniellii have been documented as food packaging materials in West Africa. Based on this, the quality of stored sweet orange juice was investigated using ethanolic extracts of leaves of C. indica, M. macrostachyum and T. daniellii to enhance the shelf life of the juice. The extracts were used to assess the quality of juice for 30 days using quantitative parameters such as total soluble solid, browning potential, pH, microbial analysis and turbidity at 4 oC and at room temperature (27-31 oC. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents of the extracts were determined. The extracts’ toxicity was determined using Brine shrimp. The quality assessment evidently revealed that the freshly squeezed orange juice with the extracts possess tolerable activity to enhance the shelf life of orange juice. The leaf extract of M. macrostachyum had the highest preservation rate on the juice after 30 days. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids in the three plants tested. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts in the three plants revealed that M. macrostachum had the highest contents of alkaloids (107.48 mg/g and flavonoids (56.92 mg/g.The study showed that the extracts were non-lethal on Brine shrimp. This study ascertained the potential preservative qualities of the test plants for enhancing the shelf-life of orange juice.

  20. Quality of pasteurised pineapple juice in the context of the Beninese marketing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a result of the interdisciplinary project Co-Innovation for Quality in African Food Chains (CoQA). The objective of the research was to improve the quality of pasteurised pineapple juice taking the characteristics of the Beninese pineapple marketing system into account. The specific ob

  1. Quality of pasteurised pineapple juice in the context of the Beninese marketing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a result of the interdisciplinary project Co-Innovation for Quality in African Food Chains (CoQA). The objective of the research was to improve the quality of pasteurised pineapple juice taking the characteristics of the Beninese pineapple marketing system into account. The specific

  2. NMR-Based Multi Parametric Quality Control of Fruit Juices: SGF Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available With SGF Profiling™ we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the quality control of fruit juices. This method has been developed in a joint effort by Bruker BioSpin GmbH and SGF International e.V. The system is fully automated with respect to sample transfer, measurement, data analysis and reporting and is set up on an Avance 400 MHz flow-injection NMR spectrometer. For each fruit juice a multitude of parameters related to quality and authenticity are evaluated simultaneously from a single data set acquired within a few minutes. This multimarker/multi-aspect NMR screening approach features low cost-per-sample and is highly competitive with conventional and targeted fruit juice quality control methods.

  3. Efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA sobre a qualidade do suco de banana Effect of enzymatic clarifier complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA on the quality of banana juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Helena Cardoso

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi observado o efeito dos complexos enzimáticos clarificantes Clarex e CEC1-CTAA, adicionados na proporção de 0,03% v/p sobre purê de banana (Musa cavendishii, em condições amenas de hidrólise (40ºC, 15 minutos visando determinar a qualidade, aqui representada pelos indicadores: rendimento; viscosidade; Brix; pH; composição centesimal; contagens de bolores e leveduras e de mesófilos, e propriedades sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor e corpo dos sucos de banana clarificados. O suco clarificado com Clarex apresentou-se significativamente (p The effect of the clarifier enzymatic complexes Clarex and CEC1-CTAA, used in the proportion 0.03% v/w in industrialized banana (Musa cavendishii pulp, at the conditions of gentle hydrolysis 40 degree Celsius, 15 minutes, was observed to determine the quality here represented by indicators such as yield, viscosity, Brix, pH, centesimal composition, counts of moulds and yeasts and of mesophilics, and sensorial properties of color, aroma, flavor and body by both clarified banana juices. The juice clarified by Clarex was significantly (p < 0.01 more yellow, less grey, less opaque and less viscous than that obtained with CEC1-CTAA. There was no significant difference between the means of aroma of fresh banana and flavor in these juices. Furthermore, the values obtained for flavor for both juices were judged good (6.72 and 6.05 for the juices clarified with Clarex and CEC1- CTAA, respectively, because they were up the middle of the scale (from 0 to 10.

  4. Analysis and comparison of flavor compounds between soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce%剁椒坯盐水酱油与普通酱油香气特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明浩; 胡璇; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    Flavor compounds of soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce were identified and analyzed hy Solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) combined with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper. The result showed that 84 flavor compounds were identified including 12 alcohols, 12 esters, 15 acids, 15 aldehydes ketones, 17 heterocyelic, 5 phenolic, 3 hydrocarbons, 1 ether, 2 N-containing compounds and 2 S-containing compounds. Soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice had 15 more flavor components than normal soy sauce and Both have 30 same flavor components. Therefore, soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice have better flavors than normal soy sauce.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME- GC- MS)方法,对剁椒坯盐水酱油和普通酱油的香气成分进行分析和鉴定.共鉴定出84种风味化合物,其中包括醇类物质12种,酯类物质12种,酸类物质15种,醛酮类物质15种,杂环类物质17种,酚类物质5种,烃类物质3种,醚类物质1种,含N化合物2种,含S化合物2种.其中剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油的香气物质多15种,两种酱油的共有香气成分有30种,说明剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油风味更优.

  5. Mathematic Models for Analysis of Quality Components in Sugarcane Juice with Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gan; TAN Zhong-wen; LIANG Ji-nan; LONG Yong-hui; ZHOU Xue-qiu

    2003-01-01

    With the technique of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, the calibration models for quantitative analysis of sucrose and polarization in sugarcane juice were developed by using transmission mode and calibrating with partial least square (PIS) algorithm. The determination coefficients (R2)of the predicted models for sucrose and polarization in juice were 0. 9980 and 0. 9979 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0. 143 and 0. 155% for sucrose and polarization in juice respectively. The predictive errors measured by FT-NIR were close to those by routine laboratory methods. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR methods had high accuracy and they were able to replace the routine laboratory analysis. It was also demonstrated that as a rapid and accurate measurement, the FT-NIR technique had potential applications in quality control of mill sugarcane, establishment of payment system based on sugarcane quality, and selection of clones in sugarcane breeding.

  6. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall quality parameters of white grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Wu, Sz-Jie; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP), over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliform and yeast/mold counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids, and retained less than 50% PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  8. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.

  9. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.

  10. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machine to determine quality change of tomato juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Yi-bin YING

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was investigated to study the quality change of tomato juice during the storage. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first measurement was taken when the tomato juice was fresh and had not undergone any changes, and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine a potential capability of separating juice before and after the storage. The soluble solid content (SSC) and pH of the juice samples were determined. The results show that changes in certain compounds between tomato juice before and after the storage period were obvious. An excellent precision was achieved by LS-SVM model compared with discriminant partial least-squares (DPLS), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) models, with 100% of a total accuracy. It can be found that N1R spectroscopy coupled with LS-SVM, DPLS, SIMCA, and DA can be used to control the quality change of tomato juice during the storage.

  11. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  12. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  13. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C, feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min, and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. Statistical analysis showed that among the independent variables, inlet air temperature showed greater effect on all the investigated responses. The derived optimum conditions were used for the powder production to check the validity of the quadratic model. Small deviations were observed between the experimental values and the predicted ones and the values were within the acceptable limits. The results showed that the optimum spray drying operating conditions for the production of pomegranate juice powder with optimum quality were 171°C inlet temperature, 30 mL/min feed flow rate, and 2,400 rpm blower speed. Under these optimum conditions, quality pomegranate juice powder with desirable properties of high content of vitamin C and anthocyanin, low moisture content, low hygroscopicity, and high solubility could be produced.

  14. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Chemical and sensory analysis of commercial tomato juices present on the Italian and Spanish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Valli, Enrico; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-06

    A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of a set of 12 organic and conventional tomato juices sold in Spanish and Italian markets. The volatile compounds of tomato juices were also studied. Twelve sensory descriptors, selected by a trained panel, evaluated the sensory profile of the samples. Some tomato juices were characterized by dominant positive notes typical of tomatoes (tomato paste, vegetable notes), whereas others by negative sensory attributes (off-flavors, high intensity of acidity, and sweetness). The volatile pattern of the samples, studied by SPME/GC-MS, was correlated with the sensory results: basically, organic tomato juices were characterized by vegetable notes and higher volatile compounds than conventional samples, regardless of their geographical origin. Conventional tomato juices were grouped in a closer cluster, whereas organic tomato juices were more diversified. Moreover, "defective" samples showed higher amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  16. Drink Red: Phenolic Composition of Red Fruit Juices and Their Sensorial Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ food quality perception and sensorial experience are important in food consumption behavior and food choice. Red fruit juices are appreciated fruit juices for almost all consumers, due to their flavor and intense red color. Studies have also shown that their phytochemical composition, which is associated with their antioxidant activity, shows a protective effect against many chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and concentration of anthocyanins are different in function of the fruit used; therefore, the color and health benefits of the juices also show differences. Some red fruit juices have lower concentrations of anthocyanins, for example strawberry, and others have higher concentrations, such as elderberry and black currant juices. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and red fruit juices’ total anthocyanins concentration. Therefore, this review will addresses red fruit juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the challenges for future, and some ideas on the sensory impact.

  17. 超高压处理对菠萝汁品质的影响%Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on Quality of Pineapple Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微; 李汴生

    2009-01-01

    分析了超高压(UHP)处理对菠萝汁杀菌效果、理化指标、感官品质的影响.结果表明:随着压力值(300-500 MPa)的上升菌落总数逐渐减少,400 MPa压力下达商业无菌;pH值、可溶性固形物含量与对照样差异不显著(P>0.05);浊度随着压力上升逐渐下降,当压力超过450 MPa,浊度下降不再显著(P>0.05);还原型Vc保留率达92.54%以上,400MPa压力下保留率达95.89%;450 MPa压力下,△E~*值为0.77,很好地保持了菠萝汁原有色泽;感官分析通过定量描述分析法对不同压力处理后的样品进行分析评定,结果表明,超高压技术很好地保持了食品的色、香、味,感官品质与对照样非常接近.因此,超高压技术不仅具有较好的杀菌效果,而且较好地保持了菠萝汁的品质.%Ultra-high pressure(UHP) treatment was applied to analyze the pasteurization of pineapple juice. The changes in the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of pineapple juice were studied as well. The results showed that total number of bacteria declines with pressure (300 -500 MPa) increase and arrived commercial asepsis at 400 MPa; pH value and soluble solid content had no significant change in UHP treatment(P >0. 05) ;the turbidity decreased with pressure increased, and it changed indistinctively over 450 MPa(P >0. 05) ; the retention of antitype Vitamin C was more than 92. 54% . Under 400MPa, Vitamin C was up to 95. 89% ;△E~* value was 0. 77 at 450 MPa and the color of pineapple juice was well maintained; the results of QDA showed that the pineapple juice after UHP treatment was close to the control sample in color, flavor and taste. It is concluded that UHP treatment can effectively inactivate the microbe and maintain the quality of pineapple juice.

  18. Clarification of pomegranate juice with chitosan: changes on quality characteristics during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Ozge; Baysal, Taner

    2015-08-01

    In this study, for the first time, the use of chitosan as a clarifying agent in the production of clear pomegranate juice was evaluated and its effects on quality characteristics of juice were investigated. A central composite face centered design was used to establish the optimum conditions for clarification of pomegranate juice (PJ) using response surface methodology. The three factors were concentration of chitosan (10-120 mg/100ml), process temperature (10-20°C), and process time (30-90 min) and their effects on turbidity and a(∗) values were investigated. Using a desirability function method, the optimum process conditions were found to be 68.93 mg/100ml chitosan at a process temperature and time of 10°C and 30 min, respectively. PJ was produced using the optimum conditions and the quality characteristics such as turbidity, colour characteristics (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗)), titratable acidity, total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanin, and protein contents were evaluated during storage at 4 and 20°C for 6 months.

  19. Study on combined effects of blanching and sonication on different quality parameters of carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Saqib; Abid, Muhammad; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhu, Xiuling; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of blanching and sonication on carrot juice quality. Carrots were blanched at 100 °C for 4 min in normal and acidified water. Juice was extracted and sonicated at 15 °C for 2 min keeping pulse duration 5 s on and 5 s off (70% amplitude level and 20 kHz frequency). No significant effect of blanching and sonication was observed on Brix, pH and titratable acidity except acidified blanching that decreased pH and increased acidity significantly. Peroxidase was inactivated after blanching that also significantly decreased total phenol, flavonoids, tannins, free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant capacity and ascorbic acid and increased cloud and color values. Sonication could improve all these parameters significantly. The present results suggest that combination of blanching and sonication may be employed in food industry to produce high-quality carrot juice with reduced enzyme activity and improved nutrition.

  20. Correlation of malt quality parameters and beer flavor stability: multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Luís F; Curto, Andreia F; Boivin, Patrick; Benismail, Nizar; Gonçalves, Cristina R; Barros, Aquiles A

    2007-02-07

    Malt is known to have an impact on beer flavor stability mainly due to the presence of antioxidants. In this study, five barley varieties were malted at industrial and micro scale, and quality parameters of the resulting malts were measured (diastatic power, friability, beta-glucan content, antiradical power, reducing power, lipoxygenase activity, and nonenal potential) and correlated with the sensory data obtained for the corresponding fresh and forced aged beers. A statistical strategy using multiple linear regressions was applied to explore relationships between the malt chemical parameters and beer sensory data, showing antiradical power as the major contribution of malt to beer flavor stability. Additionally, the measured antiradical power, which is well correlated with the polyphenolic content, was found to be very similar for malt and barley, emphasizing the key role of barley endogenous polyphenols.

  1. Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaleno, Leonardo L.; Ravaneli, Gisele C.; Presotti, Leandro E.; Mutton, Marcia J.R. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia; Mutton, Miguel A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Fernandes, Odair A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-01-15

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 {+-} 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). (author)

  2. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  3. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices.

  4. The Influence Concentration to Mulberry Juice Nutritional Quality%浓缩对桑葚汁营养品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春玲; 姜绍通; 沈鸿; 齐路路

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨旋转蒸发浓缩的温度和浓缩度对桑葚汁营养品质和有机酸含量的影响,将鲜榨的桑葚汁于不同温度的条件下进行旋转蒸发浓缩处理,得到可溶性固形物含量为30、40、50、60°Brix的四种浓缩汁,比较分析各复原汁与新鲜桑葚汁的色泽、总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮、Vc、5-HMF以及有机酸种类和含量。结果表明:随着浓缩温度和浓缩汁可溶性固形物含量的增加,桑葚复原汁的颜色变暗,色差值△E值逐渐变大,总糖、花青素、总酚、总黄酮和维生素C的含量有所减少,而褐变度和5-HMF含量逐渐升高。桑葚汁中主要的有机酸是苹果酸和柠檬酸,随着可溶性固形物含量的不断增加,有机酸中除了柠檬酸的含量有所增加,其余五种有机酸的含量逐渐下降。综上,旋转蒸发的温度为60℃、浓缩度为50°Brix时能更好的保持桑葚复原汁中的风味营养物质。%Fresh mulberry juice was rotaried,evaporated and concentrated in the conditions of different temperature in order to explore the influence of rotary evaporation concentration to mulberry juice nutritional quality and organic acid content. Take four concentrations respectively includes soluble solids content of 30°Brix,40°Brix,50°Brix,and 60°Brix, and compare and analyze the color,total sugar,anthocyanin,total phenol and flavonoids,Vc,5-HMF,organic acid types and levels between reconstituted juice and fresh mulberry juice. Results indicate that with the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content in the concentrate mulberry reconstituted juice,color darkened;total color difference△E value increased gradually;total sugar,anthocyanin,Vc,total flavonoids and total phenol content have decreased but the 5-HMF content has increased. The main organic acids in mulberry juice are malic acid and citric acid. With the increase of concentrated temperature and soluble solids content

  5. The Metabolic Changes of the Mixed Fruit Flavor Meal in the Arteriovenous Difference of Dairy Cow Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan-fen; WANG Li-fang; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionMilk favored by consumers because milk contain a large number of nutrients,such as protein,amino acids,fat,lactose,a variety of vitamins,immune activity factors,essential minerals and so on,and the proportion of the nutrients is very reasonable and those nutrients are easy to digest and absorb.So,milk is nearly a perfect food.But at present,the flavor milk is produced by adding fruit flavor meal or fruit juice into the milk,which results in fewer varieties of flavor milk products and accompanies some problems of quality and safety.The fruit-flavored milk produced by adding mixed fruit flavor meal into a diet of dairy cows could ensure the production of raw fruit-flavored milk with higher quality and security.

  6. Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

    2014-07-01

    Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C.

  7. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C), feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min), and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm) were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. S...

  8. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile.

  9. Understanding the effect of novel approaches based on ultrasound on sensory profile of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work investigates the effects of novel non thermal processing based on ultrasound on the sensory profile of orange juice and also compares the observed trends with the conventional thermal pasteurization. A novel treatment methodology based on combination of ultrasound and UV irradiations was investigated. The juice quality was assessed in terms of standard parameters (taste, flavor, odor, mouth feel etc.) by panel tests. Physicochemical analysis in terms of color of processed juice (which is an important physical attribute) and oxidation reduction potential (a good indicator of the quantum of oxidants present in the fruit juices) has also been performed. Thermally treated juices had significantly different characteristics that were not very appealing as compared to the ultrasound treated juices or those treated using the combined approach. The sensory properties of the ultrasound treated juices showed that the samples were most acceptable to the consumers and rated at par with the quality parameters of the fresh untreated juices. Overall the present work is the first to report and conclusively establish the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment approaches for maintaining the sensory profile in comparison with the thermally processed juice.

  10. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological quality and safety of carrot juice during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret F; McKay, Alan M; Connolly, Malachy; Linton, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The microbial quality of untreated and pressure-treated carrot juice was compared during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C. High pressure treatment at 500 MPa and 600 MPa (1 min/20 °C) reduced the total counts by approximately 4 log CFU ml⁻¹ and there was very little growth of the survivors during storage at 4 °C for up to 22 days. Total counts increased during storage of pressure-treated juice at 8 °C and 12 °C but took significantly longer to reach maximum levels compared to the untreated juice. The microflora in the untreated juice consisted predominantly of Gram-negative bacteria, identified as mostly Pantoea spp., Erwinia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Initially the pressure-treated juice contained low numbers of spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp.) and Gram-positive cocci; the spore-formers continued to dominate during storage. When irradiation-sterilised juice was inoculated with a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes, numbers decreased during storage at 4 °C and 8 °C by 1.50 and 0.56 log CFU ml⁻¹ respectively. When the inoculated carrot juice was pressure treated (500 MPa/1 min/20 °C) no L. monocytogenes were found immediately after pressure treatment or during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C (>6 log inactivation). In contrast, pressure treatment in TSBYE only resulted in 1.65 log inactivation and survivors grew rapidly. This suggests that the antilisterial effect of carrot juice is enhanced by HPP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of ultraviolet radiation treatments on the quality of freshly prepared tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev

    2016-12-15

    Impact of ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation treatments (0, 15, 30 and 60min) on freshly extracted tomato juice quality (physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and microbial load) was evaluated. On exposure to UV-C, level of water activity, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity exhibited non-significant increase up to 30min of exposure time. Regarding colour analysis, L∗ value significantly increased with subsequent decrease in a∗ and b∗ values post UV-C treatments. Clarity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content significantly increased, whereas ascorbic acid level significantly reduced at 60min of UV-C exposure time. So also, lycopene content exhibited a non-significant decrease after UV-C treatment. Microbial studies showed reduction in total plate count and total mould counts post UV-C treatment. Overall, UV-C treatment being a physical, non-thermal method of food preservation holds the ability to improve or preserve vital quality parameters in freshly prepared tomato juices, and henceforth possesses high scope for commercial exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zbrzeźniak Monika; Nordlund Emilia; Mieszczakowska-Frąc Monika; Płocharski Witold; Konopacka Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields ob...

  13. Improved nutrient intake and diet quality with 100% fruit juice consumption in children: NHANES 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...

  14. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  15. The Effects of Mixed Fruit Flavor Meal on Epithelial Cell Growth and Cycle as well as Milk Composition in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan-fen; WANG Li-fang; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionMilk favored by consumers because milk contain a large number of nutrients,such as protein,amino acids,fat,lactose,a variety of vitamins,immune activity factors,essential minerals and trace elements and so on,and the proportion of these nutrients is very reasonable and easy to digest and absorb,so milk is nearly a perfect food.But at present the flavor milk is produced by adding fruit flavor meal or fruit juice into the milk,which results in fewer varieties of flavor milk products and much more problems of quality and safety.So the fruit-flavored milk production by adding the fruit flavor meal into the diet of dairy cow can ensure the produced raw fruit-flavored milk is high quality and security.

  16. Enhancing antioxidant activity, microbial and sensory quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice by γ-irradiation and its in vitro radioprotective potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Kondapalli; Varakumar, Sadineni; Variyar, Prasad Shekhar; Sharma, Arun; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi

    2015-07-01

    Gamma irradiation is an effective method currently being used for microbial decontamination and insect disinfestations of foods. In the present study, mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice was irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy and microbial load, total polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activities, colour and sensory properties were evaluated immediately after irradiation and also during storage. Microbiological assay of the fresh and stored mango juice showed better quality after γ-irradiation. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were significantly (p mango juice without any adverse changes in the sensory qualities. Significant in vitro plasmid DNA protection was observed in the presence of mango juice against radiation induced damage, even at the dose of 5 kGy. This study confirmed the potential of γ-irradiation as a method for microbial decontamination and improving the quality of the mango juice without compromising on the sensory attributes.

  17. Physico-chemical parameters, bioactive compounds and microbial quality of thermo-sonicated carrot juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor E; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Pokhrel, Prashant Raj; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2015-04-01

    Thermosonication has been successfully tested in food for microbial inactivation; however, changes in bioactive compounds and shelf-life of treated products have not been thoroughly investigated. Carrot juice was thermo-sonicated (24 kHz, 120 μm amplitude) at 50 °C, 54 °C and 58 °C for 10 min (acoustic power 2204.40, 2155.72, 2181.68 mW/mL, respectively). Quality parameters and microbial growth were evaluated after processing and during storage at 4 °C. Control and sonicated treatments at 50 °C and 54 °C had 10, 12 and 14 d of shelf-life, respectively. Samples sonicated at 58 °C had the best quality; microbial growth remained low at around 3-log for mesophiles, 4.5-log for yeasts and molds and 2-log for enterobacteria after 20 d of storage. Furthermore, thermo-sonicated juice at 58 °C retained >98% of carotenoids and 100% of ascorbic acid. Phenolic compounds increased in all stored, treated juices. Thermo-sonication is therefore a promising technology for preserving the quality of carrot juice by minimising the physicochemical changes during storage, retarding microbial growth and retaining the bioactive compounds.

  18. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ) has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice ...

  19. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled.

  20. Identification of a Solanum pennellii Chromosome 4 Fruit Flavor and Nutritional Quality-Associated Metabolite QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHONGYUAN LIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A major resource for tomato quality improvement and gene discovery is the collection of introgression lines (ILs of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum that contain different, defined chromosomal segments derived from the wild tomato relative, S. pennellii. Among these lines, IL4-4, in which the bottom of S. lycopersicum (cv. M82 chromosome 4 is replaced by the corresponding S. pennellii segment, is altered in many primary and secondary metabolites, including many related to fruit flavor and nutritional quality. Here, we provide a comprehensive profile of IL4-4 ripe fruit metabolites, the transcriptome and fine mapping of sub-ILs. Remarkably, out of 327 quantified metabolites, 185 were significantly changed in IL4-4 fruit, compared to the control. These altered metabolites include volatile organic compounds, primary and secondary metabolites. Partial least squares enhanced discriminant analysis of the metabolite levels among sub-ILs indicated that a genome region encompassing 20 putative open reading frames is responsible for most of the metabolic changes in IL4-4 fruit. This work provides comprehensive insights into IL4-4 fruit biochemistry, identifying a small region of the genome that has major effects on a large and diverse set of metabolites.

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... quality or flavor of the finished product. In the case of bulky flavoring ingredients such as pimento, the...

  2. Blueberry juices: a rapid multi-analysis of quality indicators by means of dispersive Raman spectroscopy excited at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccheri, L.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, S.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Trono, C.; Yuan, L.; Mignani, A. G.

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry juices produced in China and in Italy were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. The reference data of important nutraceutical indicators such as degrees Brix and carbohydrates were available. Some juices were produced from fresh organic fruits, while others were industrial grade, differing in qualities and prices. Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 1064 nm were acquired using a dispersive fiber-optic spectrometer. Degrees Brix were measured by means of a commercial refractometer, while carbohydrate contents were available from the producers. Multivariate processing was used for predicting Brix and carbohydrates from Raman spectra and from the reference data. Determination coefficients equal to 0.88 and 0.84, respectively, were obtained. This experiment further confirms the excellent potentials of Raman spectroscopy for both non-destructive and rapid assessments of food quality.

  3. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  4. [Physical, chemical and microbiological quality of concentrated orange juices made in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R M; Hernández, P

    1996-03-01

    Concentrated fruit juices are a very attractive type of product because of the many advantages they offer for reductions in packing, transportation and storage costs, and in addition, they offer the possibility of consumption outside harvesting time. Due to their potential in the international market, it is necessary to evaluate if they are accomplishing the quality requirements, and to know the different factors that can affect their stability. For this purpose, samples of national products were analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics; the diacetyl test was performed as a measure of the sanitary conditions under processing. The samples analyzed comply with the national standards established by the Comision Venezolana de Normas Industriales (COVENIN N(o) 2395-86 Concentrados de frutas para consumo directo). It is advisable to determine the zero tolerant yeasts population because this type of microorganisms are responsible for spoilage whenever cold storage is interrupted, and because they can not be detected by the official procedures used to detect yeasts.

  5. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  6. [NIR spectroscopy based on least square support vector machines for quality prediction of tomato juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Wang, Hui-jun; Xu, Hui-rong; Wang, Jian-ping; Ying, Yi-bin

    2009-04-01

    The application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method based on statistics study theory to the analysis with near infrared (NIR) spectra of tomato juice was introduced in the present paper. In this method, LS-SVM was used for establishing model of spectral analysis, and was applied to predict the sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) in tomato juice samples. NIR transmission spectra of tomato juice were measured in the spectral range of 800-2,500 nm using InGaAs detector. The radial basis function (RBF) was adopted as a kernel function of LS-SVM. Sixty seven tomato juice samples were used as calibration set, and thirty three samples were used as validation set. The results of the method for sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) prediction were: a high correlation coefficient of 0.9903 and 0.9675, and a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0056 degree Brix and 0.0245, respectively. And compared to PLS and PCR methods, the performance of the LSSVM method was better. The results indicated that it was possible to built statistic models to quantify some common components in tomato juice using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure, and LS-SVM could be a rapid and accurate method for juice components determination based on NIR spectra.

  7. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  8. Fatores que influem na qualidade do suco de laranja Factors of influence in the quality of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolpho da Silva CORRÊA NETO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O suco de laranja é um produto complexo cuja vida-de-prateleira é influenciada por fatores como o desenvolvimento de microrganismos deteriorantes, ação de enzimas e reações químicas, que comprometem as características de cor, aroma e sabor, e também, provocam perdas nutricionais. Nesta revisão, apresentam-se os fatores responsáveis pela estabilidade do suco de laranja e as alterações que ocorrem durante sua comercialização.Fruit juices are complex foods so that their shelflife is limited by factors like microbiological spoilage, enzymatic action and chemical reactions, that compromise their characteristics of color, taste, odor and also loss of nutritional value. In this review the factors responsible for the orange juice stability and their changes in quality are discussed.

  9. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 50-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine.

  10. Effect of High Pressure Homogenization and Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC) on Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of Mulberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Zou, Bo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) on microbial and nutrient qualities of mulberry juice was evaluated. Results showed that repeated HPH passes at 200 MPa or adding DMDC at 250 mg/L significantly inactivated the indigenous microorganisms in mulberry juice (P 0.05) in the population of microorganisms during subsequent storage at 4 °C. Moreover, no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the physical attributes, including pH, TSS ((o) Brix), L*, a*, and b* values were observed in the samples treated by the HPH-DMDC or by HT. Compared with HT, HPH-DMDC treatment resulted in a higher degree of retention in total phenolics, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, although the treatment led to higher losses in cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and antioxidant capacity. Overall, HPH-DMDC treatment can be a useful alternative to conventional thermal pasteurization of mulberry juice, considering its ability to inactive, and inhibit indigenous microorganisms.

  11. Price versus Non-price Incentives for Participation in Quality Labeling: The Case of the German Fruit Juice Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bleich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance and labeling play an important and increasing role in firms’ marketing strategies. In almost all cases, a price incentive has been stressed as the major incentive for firms to participate in such schemes. We argue here that important non-price incentives for participation in quality labeling may exist, too. In German retailing, it can be observed that discount retailers are listing more and more foods with quality labels. Processors may then participate in voluntary quality labeling in order to enter the large and growing market of discount retailers. The price-premium versus the market-entry hypothesis are analyzed theo-retically. We investigate then in an empirical hedonic pricing model for the German fruit juice market and for participation in the quality label of the Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG which of the two hypotheses is consistent with the data. There is strong support for the market-entry hypothesis

  12. Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Massini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids; it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols.

  13. Impact of changing wax type during storage on mandarin flavor and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) packers sometimes apply a storage wax (SW) designed to limit water loss during the initial part of storage and then replace it with a higher shine pack wax (PW) prior to shipment of the fruit. Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors as a result of lo...

  14. Flavor variability and flavor stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M A; Drake, M A; Gerard, P D

    2009-09-01

    Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P flavor (R(2)= 0.38, P flavor (R(2)= 0.61, P flavor and flavor stability.

  15. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  16. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  17. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Peaches: Identification of the Key Individual Characteristic Flavor Compounds by Integrating Consumers' Acceptability with Flavor Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng XI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the key flavor compounds influencing the consumers' choice for honey peach, nectarine, and flat peach and provide important information for orientation breeding, sugars, organic acids, and aroma volatiles in 3 types of peaches were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and their key individual characteristic flavor compounds were identified by multivariate analysis integrated with consumers' evaluation. No significant differences in sugar and organic acid were observed between 3 types of peaches. In hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA models, 3 types of peaches could not be differentiated by sugars or organic acids, but could be identified completely by aroma volatiles or by flavor compounds. A partial least squares regression (PLSR model revealed that the key individual characteristic volatiles in nectarine, honey peach, and flat peach are C9 compounds and terpenic compounds, norisoprenoids and C6 compounds, and benzaldehyde, γ-decalactone, and δ-dodecalactone, respectively. These results suggest that sugars and organic acids form the background flavor of peach fruit and lactones shape the typical peach aroma. However, the individual aroma volatiles play the decisive role in unique flavor determination of different types of peaches.

  19. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  20. Microbiological Quality and Occurrence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Fresh-Squeezed Orange Juice Samples Purchased from Street Vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Cano-Gaona, Maria Rosalia; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Helguera-Repetto, Addy C; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Castro-Rosas, Javier; Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, Jorge A

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are potentially pathogenic agents commonly found in a natural ecosystem. For this reason, food is considered another source of NTM transmission for humans. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of NTM in fresh-squeezed orange juice samples purchased from street vendors. All 102 samples analyzed were positive for aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), with limits ranging from 1.8 to 6.2 log CFU/ml. A total of 55 (54%), 25 (25%), and 13 (13%) orange juice samples were positive for total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and Escherichia coli , respectively. TC, FC, and E. coli were present with limits ranging from 1,100 most probable number (MPN)/ml, juice samples harbored NTM. These NTM were identified by using three molecular markers (hsp65, rrs, and rpoB genes) and corresponded to the fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium fortuitum (n = 3), Mycobacterium rhodesiae (n = 1), Mycobacterium obuense (n = 1), and a mixture of M. fortuitum and Mycobacterium mucogenicum in an additional sample (n = 1). No correlation was found between the presence NTM in orange juice samples with the presence and concentration of the indicator microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, TC, and FC). Overall, these results suggest that fresh-squeezed orange juice might represent a vehicle for NTM transmission in humans. Therefore, prevention of contamination by humans (proper handling and washing of oranges) during juice preparation should be recommended.

  1. The Effect of Two Methods of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L Juice Extraction on Quality During Storage at 4∘C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two extraction methods of pomegranate juice on its quality and stability was evaluated. The first method consisted of separation of the seeds from fruits and centrifugation. The second method consisted of squeezing fruit halves with an electric lemon squeezer. During a period of 72 hours of cold storage at 4∘C, the juices were evaluated for the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins. Delphinidin 3-glucoside was identified to be the major anthocyanin present at the level of 45–69 mg/L. Among the organic acids, oxalic and tartaric acids dominated. The major sugars detected in pomegranate juice were glucose and sucrose. No significant differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, or anthocyanins in juices obtained through application of the two different extraction methods were detected, with the exception of the drastic decrease of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside level in juice obtained by seed centrifugation. The pH did not show differences between treatments. Titrable acidity and the level of sugars expressed as ∘Brix decreased after 32 and 15 hours after extraction, respectively, when juice was obtained by centrifuging the seeds.

  2. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  3. Influence of ultra high pressure on quality of fresh orange juice%超高压处理对鲜榨橙汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝荣; 罗佳丽; 潘年龙; 蒋和体

    2012-01-01

    Fresh orange juice were processed by ultra high pressure (UHP)and thermal treatments respectively, and their qualities were compared by relational evaluation. Both the two processing ways led to the loss of main components in orange juice to different degrees. However, the effect of main constituents on fresh orange juice processed by UHP was better than that by thermal treatment and less influence of UHP was observed on the color of fresh orange juice.After processed,the relative contents of ester, alcohols and ketones in orange juice slightly decreased.The relative contents of aldehydes in both processing orange juice was more than four times higher than that in fresh orange juice.The relative contents of hydrocarbons and other aroma components in orange juice also decreased.%研究比较超高压处理和热处理对鲜榨橙汁品质的影响。研究结果表明:鲜榨橙汁经处理后,其主要成分都呈现不同程度的损失,但超高压处理鲜榨橙汁效果较热处理好,且对色泽影响较小;鲜榨橙汁经处理后,其香气成分发生了变化,酯类、醇类、酮类总含量变化相对较小,醛类经热处理及超高压处理后与鲜榨橙汁比较有所降低,降低比例都在4倍以上;烃类及其它类物质含量与鲜榨橙汁比较也有所下降。

  4. 蟹油制作及风味品质的控制%Crab Oil Production and Flavor Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛党辰

    2011-01-01

    Crab oil, as a kind of flavor relish, is fragrant, fresh and colored yellow. The production of crab oil should consider the differences in the crabs in different seasons, freshness and species. Skillful extraction and processing of crab meat, crab cream and proper quality control in crab cream production and preserve will guarantee the fine flavor quality the final product.%蟹油作为一种鲜味调味品,具有色泽金黄、滋味香鲜的特点。蟹油制作在选料时需注重其季节性、鲜活性和品种差异,并能熟练掌握蟹肉、蟹黄的取料加工,在蟹油熬制及保藏过程中进行必要的质量控制,才能使熬成的蟹油保持良好的风味品质。

  5. Quality changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage: A kinetic study of specific parameters and their relation to colour instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Grauwet, Tara; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Tomic, Jovana; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-11-15

    In view of understanding colour instability of pasteurised orange juice during storage, to the best of our knowledge, this study reports for the first time in a systematic and quantitative way on a range of changes in specific quality parameters as a function of time and as well as temperature (20-42 °C). A zero-order (°Brix, fructose, glucose), a first-order (vitamin C), a second-order (sucrose) and a fractional conversion model (oxygen) were selected to model the evolution of the parameters between parentheses. Activation energies ranged from 22 to 136 kJ mol(-1), HMF formation being the most temperature sensitive. High correlations were found between sugars, ascorbic acid, their degradation products (furfural and HMF) and total colour difference (ΔE(∗)). Based on PLS regression, the importance of the quality parameters for colour degradation was ranked relatively among each other: the acid-catalysed degradation of sugars and ascorbic acid degradation reactions appeared to be important for browning development in pasteurised orange juice during ambient storage.

  6. Effect of mash maceration on the polyphenolic content and visual quality attributes of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalev, Kiril; Schieber, Andreas; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-12-01

    The effects of enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Using HPLC-ESI-MS, cryptochlorogenic acid was identified in cv. Brettacher cloudy apple juice for the first time. Commercial pectolytic enzyme preparations with different levels of secondary protease activity were tested under both oxidative and nonoxidative conditions. Without the addition of ascorbic acid, oxidation substantially decreased chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents due to enzymatic browning. The content of chlorogenic acid as the major polyphenolic compound was also influenced by the composition of pectolytic enzyme preparations because the presence of secondary protease activity resulted in a rise of chlorogenic acid. The latter effect was probably due to the inhibited protein-polyphenol interactions, which prevented binding of polyphenolic compounds to the matrix, thus increasing their antioxidative potential. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the advantage of the nonoxidative mash maceration for the production of cloud-stable apple juice with a high polyphenolic content, particularly in a premature processing campaign.

  7. Consumption of 100% fruit juice is associated with better nutrient intake and diet quality but not with weight status in children: NHANES 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the impact of various levels of 100% fruit juice (FJ) consumption on intake of nutrients, diet quality, and weight in children using the more recent national data. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining the data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090). Intake of nutrien...

  8. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

  9. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice. Part I: Impact on overall quality attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Knol, J.J.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Matser, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mild heat pasteurization, high pressure processing (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of freshly squeezed orange juice were comparatively evaluated examining their impact on microbial load and quality parameters immediately after processing and during two months of storage. Microbial co

  10. One hundred percent orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutient adequacy, and no increased risk for overweight/obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100 percent orange juice consumption by children 2 to 18 years of age (n = 7250) participating in the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with intakes of select nutrients, MyPyramid food groups, diet quality-measur...

  11. 橙汁中主要芳香组分分析研究进展%Review of Main Odor Compounds in Orange Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑静; 何佳; 陈其勇; 宓捷波; 郑文杰; 张晓

    2014-01-01

    芳香物质构成了橙汁的特有风味,是影响其整体品质的重要因子。研究其芳香化合物对于保持橙汁的特征香气,防止其在加工贮藏过程中的损失,提高橙汁的整体香气品质具有重要意义。该文概述了鲜榨橙汁的主要芳香类化合物及其对橙汁品质的贡献,并且论述了芳香组分加工工艺或灭菌处理的影响。%Aromatic compounds are composed of unique flavor orange juice, and is an important factor affecting the quality of orange juice. The research on aroma compounds in orange juice is important in preserving the characteristic flavor, preventing the loss of aroma compounds during processing and storage, enhancing the total aroma quality. The main aroma compounds in orange juice were reviewed, and their contribution to the quality of orange juice. The changes of aroma compound during the processing (such as heat treatment and sterilization) were also discussed.

  12. Quality stability and sensory attributes of apple juice processed by thermosonication, pulsed electric field and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.

  13. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  14. Effect of Marination with Fruit and Vegetable Juice on the Some Quality Characteristics of Turkey Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gök

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of marination with antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetable juices, including black carrot juice, black mulberry juice, black grape and pomegranate juice, mixed vegetable juice (yellow carrot, tomato, zucchini, pepper, black carrot, cucumber and lettuce for 24 and 48 hours on chemical, textural and sensorial properties of turkey breast meat was investigated. Moisture content of the samples marinated for 24 hours and cooked varied between 58.85 and 70.51%, with the control sample presenting the moisture highest value. The samples marinated in red grape juice for 48 hours had the highest cooking loss (49.11%, while the lowest cooking loss was recorded in the samples marinated in black carrot juice (40.61%. Moreover, the phenolic content of the samples marinated for 24 hours (250.12-1354.76 mg ga/L was higher than those marinated for 48 hours (210.56-1156.43 mg ga/L. Reduced hardness values were obtained in turkey breast meat marinated in pomegranate (1.36 kg and red grape (0.86 kg juices, suggesting that these juices may potentially to be used as processing ingredients. Marination for 48 hours promoted better sensorial properties than marination for 24 hours.

  15. Color, flavor, texture, and nutritional quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: desirable levels, instrumental and sensory measurement, and the effects of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Diane M; Beaulieu, John C; Shewfelt, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The color, flavor, texture, and the nutritional value of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products are factors critical to consumer acceptance and the success of these products. In this chapter, desirable and undesirable quality attributes of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products are reviewed. Both instrumental and sensory measurements for determining these critical quality attributes are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of sensory and instrumental quality measurements are described. A review of typical unit operations involved in the production of fresh-cut products is presented. The effects of fresh-cut processing techniques and treatments on sensory quality, including the appearance, texture, flavor (taste and aroma) of vegetables, and fruits are detailed.

  16. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  17. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  18. Identification of a solanum pennellii chromosome 4 fruit flavor and nutritional quality-associated metabolite QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major resource for tomato quality improvement and gene discovery is the collection of introgression lines (ILs) of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum that contain different, defined chromosomal segments derived from the wild tomato relative, S. pennellii. Among these lines, IL4-4, in which the bottom...

  19. Analysis of Flavoring Components in Physalis peruviana Fruit Juice and Physalis peruviana Wine by GC-MS%GC-MS分析灯笼果果汁和果酒的香气成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立华; 牟德华; 张哲琦; 李艳

    2015-01-01

    香气决定水果和果酒的风味典型性。利用液液萃取及气相色谱和质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析灯笼果果汁及果酒中的香气物质。结果表明,灯笼果果汁中检出22种香气物质,主要香气成分为亚油酸和苯乙烯;灯笼果果酒中共检测出37种香气物质,主要香气成分为苯乙醇、琥珀酸二乙酯、己二酸二(2-乙基己)酯、苹果酸乙酯和异戊醇。本研究数据可为灯笼果酿酒工艺改进提供参考。%The flavor typicality of fruit and fruit wine is determined by its flavoring components. In this study, the flavoring components in Phy-salis peruviana fruit and Physalis peruviana wine were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that, there were 22 kinds of flavoring compo-nents detected in Physalis peruviana fruit (among them, the main flavoring components were linoleic acid and styrene), and there were 37 kinds of flavoring components detected in Physalis peruviana wine (among them, benzene ethanol, amber acid diethyl, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adi-pate, ethyl malic acid and isoamyl alcohol were the main flavoring components). The research data provided useful reference for technical im-provement of Physalis peruviana wine.

  20. 不同包装橙汁贮藏期问物理品质的变化%Physical Quality Changes of Different Packaged Orange Juice during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春芝; 许洪高; 高彦祥; 李绍振

    2012-01-01

    The changes of browning degree, total soluble solid, pH, apparent viscosity and rheological behavior of orange juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages, general PET bottles, and nitrogen filled PET bottles under different temperature for 24 weeks were monitored. The results indicated that browning degree of orange juices from different packages follows first-order kinetics models; orange juices during storage are pseudoplastic fluids; pH value decreases with storage time; total soluble solid content in orange juices stored at 37℃ and 55 ℃ has on a rising trend, while it has little different in orange juices stored at 4 ℃ and 20 (P〉0.05). It was concluded that laminated paperboard packages can keep the physical quality of orange juices better, while from cost saving and being easy to carry points of view, PET bottle with filling nitrogen is still the optimum package means for orange juice.%以纸铝塑复合包装、普通PET瓶和充氮PET瓶包装的橙汁为研究对象,监测其物理指标,如褐变度、可溶性固形物、pH值、表观黏度及流变特性,在不同温度下贮藏24周过程中的动态变化。结果表明,试验周期内不同包装橙汁褐变度的变化符合一级动力学模型;橙汁的流体性质均属于假塑性流体;pH值随贮藏时间延长而降低;可溶性固形物含量在4℃和20℃下无显著变化(P〉0.05),而在37℃和55℃下呈上升趋势。研究表明,纸铝塑复合包装可以保持橙汁物理品质相对稳定,而从节约成本和携带方便等方面考虑,充氮PET瓶仍是较优的包装方式。

  1. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  2. Effects of sonication and ultraviolet-C treatment as a hurdle concept on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-04-01

    The growing demand for fresh-like food products has encouraged the development of hurdle technology of non-thermal processing. In this study, freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was treated by paired combinations of sonication (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃, 40 kHz frequency) and UV-C treatment (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃). Selected physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, microbial inactivation and other quality parameters of combined treated juice were compared to conventional thermal treatment (at 90 ℃ for 60 s). After thermal and combined treatment, no significant changes occurred in physicochemical properties. A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (15%), polyphenols (37%), flavonoids (35%) and enhancement in antioxidant capacity was observed after combined treatment. Thermal and combined treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial load. Results obtained support the use of sonication and UV-C in a hurdle technology to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standards. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. 热处理对酸樱剌匕景汁品质的影响%Effects on quality of sour cherry juice by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圆圆; 王宝刚; 冯晓元; 纪淑娟; 李文生; 张开春

    2012-01-01

    To explore the effects of thermal treatment on quality of sour cherry juice, changing patterns of juice quality during thermal treatment at 50-100 ℃ were studied. Results showed that thermal treatment did not obviously affect soluble solid content and pH. Thermal treatment of sour cherry juice at 80 ℃ could reach national hygiene standard. Turbidity increased 20.5%, light transmittance reduced 1.37%, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid retention were 93.14% and 64.3%, respectively.%为探讨热处理对酸樱桃果汁品质的影响,将调配后的酸樱桃果汁在50-100℃温度下进行热处理,研究了酸樱桃果汁品质指标的变化规律。结果表明,热处理对可溶性固形物含量和pH影响不显著,80℃热处理酸樱桃果汁可以达到国家卫生标准,浊度增大20.5%,透光率降低1.37%,花青素和抗坏血酸保留率分别为93.14%和64.3%。

  4. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  5. O2浓度对鲜榨番木瓜汁品质的影响%Influence of O2 Concentration on Fresh Papaya Juice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪雪雁; 张钦发; 何淑华; 张义珂

    2015-01-01

    以鲜榨番木瓜汁为研究对象,以番木瓜汁感官评价及果汁中糖、酸、醇和醛的变化量作为其品质的判定指标,以不同浓度的O2气体成分对鲜榨番木瓜汁进行储藏,研究气调储藏对鲜榨番木瓜汁品质的影响。结果表明:随着储藏时间的延长,在高O2浓度下,番木瓜汁的品质明显变化较快,而在低O2浓度为下,番木瓜汁的品质变化较慢。所以,低的O2浓度利于鲜榨番木瓜汁的保藏。%Taking fresh papaya juice as research object, effect of controlled atmosphere storage on its qualitywas studied by the means of storing it in O2 gas with different concentrations, taking variations of sugar, acid, alcohol, aldehyde and sensory evaluation in fresh papaya juice as index to judge its quality. Results indicated thatthere were apparent quicker changes of quality of papaya juice in higher concentration of oxygenas the storage time extension, while changes slowdown in lower oxygen concen-tration. Conclusion was that low concentration of O2 was conducive to preservation of fresh papaya juice.

  6. Genetic Correlation Analysis of Flavor Quality Traits of Tomato%番茄果实风味品质性状的遗传相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2015-01-01

    The test is executed for studying genetic correlation of fruit flavor quality, it took the theoretic components of variance and covariance, estimated the flavor influence of main composition material of sugar quantity, acid quantity and the ratio of sugar and acid. The test result shows that the influence element of organic acid is citric acid, simple sugar is fructose;the correlation of the flavor qual-ity trait and taste is not obvious.%为研究果实风味品质性状的遗传相关性,采用方差、协方差的理论成分,估算风味品质主要构成物质糖量、酸量和糖酸比含量对番茄风味的影响。试验结果表明:影响果实风味的有机酸为柠檬酸、单糖为果糖;风味品质性状与口感的相关关系不显著。

  7. 超高压加工对天然椰子汁品质的影响%Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Processing on the Quality of Fresh-squeezed Coconut Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊晶; 马永昆; 严蕊; 马善丽; 张龙

    2011-01-01

    采用200~600MPa压力对天然椰子汁处理10min,研究其理化性质、营养品质、抗氧化活性及感官品质的变化情况。结果表明:经高压处理后椰子汁的可溶性固形物、pH值、总糖、总酸及总酚含量与空白样相比无显著差异(P〉0.05);VC含量减少较显著,保存率为87.9%~97.6%;氨基酸在500、600MPa处理后含量显著增加(P〈0.05);抗氧化活性在400MPa处理后显著降低,600MPa处理后显著增加(P〈0.05)。感官评定结果表明:400MPa超高压处理10min的椰子汁与椰子原汁相比无明显差异,因此,采用超高压处理能较好地保持天然椰子汁的风味和营养品质。%The effects of ultra-high pressure processing(UHPP)(200-600 MPa for 10 min) on physicochemical properties,nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of fresh-squeezed coconut juice were studied.The results showed that,compared to the control,UHPP did not significantly change the contents of soluble solid content,total sugar,total acid and total phenol and pH in coconut juice(P 0.05).The contnent of free amino acids increased significantly after 500 or 600 MPa processing(P 0.05).The content of vitamin C reduced significantly,with a retention rate of 87.9%-97.6% after UHPP treatment.The antioxidant activity decreased significantly after 400 MPa processing,but increased after 600 MPa processing(P 0.05).Sensory evaluation showed no difference between UHPP treated coconut milk and the control.In summary,UHPP can effectively protect the natural flavor and and nutritional components of fresh-squeezed coconut juice.

  8. Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Valerie B; Rawal, Shristi; Park, Jeeha; Brand, Mark H; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from 'Viking' aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal

  9. Effect of high pressure processing on the qualities of blueberry juice%超高压处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (200~500MPa for 5~15min)on the quality changes of blueberry juice were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by HPP.Compared with the control samples, the color, the reducing sugar and the soluble solids in blueberry juice had no significant change treated by HPP treatment, while total sugars and total phenol were decreased after HPP treatment.Anthocyanins and Vc were well retained after HPP treatment.%以蓝莓汁为原料,采用200~500MPa高压分别对蓝莓汁处理5~15min,对处理后的蓝莓汁进行微生物和理化指标检测 研究结果表明:超高压处理杀菌效果显著,400MPa处理10min已无菌落检出;高压处理对蓝莓汁色泽、还原糖、可溶性固形物的影响较小,蓝莓汁中的花青素和Vc含量在高压处理后保留率达90%以上,而总酸和总酚含量略有下降.

  10. Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Elena; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2008-03-12

    Two clonal selections of lemon tree (Citrus limon Burm. f. cv. Fino), named Fino-49-5 and Fino-95, were studied to ascertain the influence of genetic (clone) and environmental (season) factors on the human-health bioactive compounds of lemon juice (vitamin C and flavonoids) and the possible relationship between composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power) of the juice. The cultivar Fino-49-5 performed better in terms of flavonoid and vitamin C contents. Variability in the weather conditions determined, at least in part, differences in the content of lemon juice bioactives more importantly than the genetic background did. Therefore, the food industry would have phytochemically rich and nutritive lemons with practically complete independence of the harvest time and the selected cultivar.

  11. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  12. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge ADJOU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  13. Effect of UHP Treatment on the Quality of Kiwi Juice%超高压处理对猕猴桃汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧明; 王颖; 周典飞

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of ultra-high pressure (UHP) treatment on the quality of kiwi juice, fresh kiwi juice was treated with ultra-high pressure at a pressure level between 200 MPa and 500 MPa. The results showed that the changes in soluble solids, total acid, pH and other quality parameters of kiwi juice were not obvious with increasing pressure. However, the contents of vitamin C and chlorophyll revealed a slight decrease. After UHP treatment, acids and aldehydes (belonging to aroma components) revealed an increase trend, while esters and alcohols exhibited a decrease trend. The losses of vitamin C and chlorophyll in UHP-treated kiwi juice after 28 d of storage at 4℃ were 21.8% and 40.5%, respectively, indicating a trend towards deterioration. The losses of vitamin C and chlorophyll after 120 d of storage at - 18℃ were 14.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Therefore, the nutrients of kiwi juice can be better maintained during storage at - 18 ℃.%为了研究超高压处理对猕猴桃汁品质的影响,对新鲜猕猴桃进行200~500MPa超高压处理。结果表明:超高压猕猴桃汁中可溶性固形物、总酸、pH值等指标随压力升高变化不显著,VC及叶绿素含量有少量降低,香气成分中酸类、醛类物质在超高压处理后增加,酯类、醇类物质减少。超高压猕猴桃汁4℃条件下贮藏28d时VC损失21.8%,叶绿素损失40.5%,果汁趋于变质;-18℃条件下贮藏120d时,VC损失14.6%,叶绿素损失20.8%,因此-18℃贮藏条件能较好保持超高压处理后猕猴桃汁的营养物质。

  14. Heavy Metal Removal from Commercially-available Fruit Juice Packaged Products by Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing trend in the production and consumption of local and imported fruit juices in Iran. The presence of impurities and foreign matter in finished products for human consumption is of great concern because they present health hazards when they exceed beneficial limits. The manufacture of juices requires special attention in terms of purity and the sources of water and its purification are crucial for maintaining quality and safety. Biosorption can be defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by biological material. citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. Levels of heavy metals: Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in 180 selected fruit juice commercially available packaged samples (Pineapple, Orange, Mango, Tropical, Cherry& Grape purchased from Tehran local Market in 2014. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS by wet digestion method in Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran-Iran. From the obtained result Ni, Cd and Pb were detectable in 85% of samples especially in Mango and Tropical juices. The efficiency removal of Nickel, lead and Cadmium and neutralization of calculus contain of juice by Citric acid as a chelating were carried out by using of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and cadmium in addition to this removal were increased by increasing the citric acid. The enhancing of citric acid in removal of lead and cadmium caused to create a

  15. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  16. Elucidating the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors in mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fallik, Elazar; Porat, Ron

    2011-11-09

    To elucidate the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors, 'Mor' mandarins were exposed to anaerobic atmospheres for 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days to gradually increase juice ethanol and acetaldehyde levels through enhanced fermentation. Exposure to anaerobic atmosphere caused progressive decline in fruit sensory quality, from nearly "good" to "very bad", because of decreased typical mandarin flavor and increased sensation of 'musty' and 'ethanol' off-flavors. GC-MS analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in the contents of 12 aroma volatiles, including the ethanol fermentation metabolites ethanol and acetaldehyde, and several fatty acid and amino acid catabolism derivates, 7 of which were ethyl esters, which suggests that they were esterification products of ethanol and acyl-CoA's derived from fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. These de novo synthesized anaerobiosis-regulated ethyl esters impart 'pungent', 'ethereal', 'waxy', 'musty', and 'fruity' notes. Overall, these results suggest that besides the direct effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, downstream ethanol esterification products may also be involved in causing off-flavor sensation in mandarins.

  17. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Miranda,Maria Raquel Alcântara de; Sousa,Paulo Henrique Machado de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use ...

  18. Approximate flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Rašin, Andrija

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  19. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  20. The quality control of fruit juices by using the stable isotope ratios and trace metal elements concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.

    2012-02-01

    In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic "tracers" to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruit juices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.

  1. 超高压处理对草莓果浆品质的影响%Effect of Ultra High Pressure Treatment on the Quality of Strawberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓晖; 方国姗; 李富华; 夏春燕; 明建

    2012-01-01

    草莓果浆经两种不同参数超高压处理后,通过测定果浆中细菌总数、酚类物质含量、酶活性(过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)及营养成分(还原糖、可溶性固形物、VC含量)指标,研究超高压处理对草莓果浆品质的影响。结果表明:随着处理压力上升细菌总数逐渐减少,400MPa压力条件下处理10min即可达到商业无菌;还原糖含量、可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸含量与对照相组比无显著性差异(P〉0.05);除400MPa、25min超高压处理的草莓果浆VC含量下降之外,其他处理组均有显著增加;超高压处理后草莓果浆的抗氧化能力增强,亮度提高,其中400MPa、15min的超高压处理组能最好地保持草莓果浆的原有色泽。%In order to explore the effect of ultra high pressure(UHP) treatment on the quality of strawberry juice,fresh strawberry juice was subjected to UHP treatment with various pressures and pressure-holding times.The total number of bacteria,and the activities of POD,POD and PG as well as the contents of nutritional components such as reducing sugar,TTS and vitamin C were detected.The total number of bacteria declined with increasing pressure from 200 to 500 MPa.UHP treatment at 400 MPa for 10 min achieved commercial sterility,but no significant difference in reducing sugar,soluble solid and titratable acid contents was observed in comparison with the control group(P 0.05).VC content was significantly increased in all treatment groups tested except for treatment for 25 min at 400 MPa.The antioxidant activity and brightness of strawberry juice were enhanced after UHP treatments,and the original color of strawberry juice could be best preserved by UHP treatment at 400 MPa for 15 min.

  2. Comparative study on the quality of different citrus juice sacs%不同品种柑橘汁胞的品质比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子玉; 唐颂; 任婧楠; 台亚楠; 董曼; 潘思轶; 范刚

    2015-01-01

    汁胞是柑橘汁胞饮料中重要的组成部分,其品质决定了柑橘汁胞饮料的色泽、口感等一系列感官指标.本文以夏橙、赣南脐橙、温州蜜柑和湘西椪柑四种柑橘作为研究对象,比较了四种不同柑橘汁胞可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸、汁胞柄长度、色度等理化指标的差异,并对不同品种的柑橘汁胞进行了感官评定,综合二者进行评价.结果表明,四个不同品种柑橘汁胞中VC含量在20~45 mg/1 00mL之间,其中赣南脐橙的VC含量最高,湘西椪柑可溶性固形物含量最高;除湘西椪柑与赣南脐橙之外,四个品种两两之间色度差异较大;感官分析结果表明湘西椪柑汁胞具有最良好的感官特征.%Citrus juice sacs are important portion of the citrus juice sacs drink,its quality determines series of sensory index of the citrus juice sacs drink.Valencia Orange,Gannan navel orange,Satsuma orange and Xiangxi ponkan were selected as research materials,the physicochemical indexes of these four cultivars were determined,and sensory evaluation was also investigated.The results showed that the VC contents were 20~45mg/100mL of these citrus juice sacs,and the highest level of VC in Gannan navel orange was observed.The content of soluble solid in Xiangxi ponkan was the highest among these citrus cultivars.A great difference on the color was observed beween the two cultivars except for Xiangxi ponkan and Gannan navel orange.The sensory evaluation results showed that Xiangxi ponkan had the best sensory attribute.

  3. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B

    2010-10-01

    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  4. Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kunitake

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh sugarcane juice is quite limited due to the high rates of microbiological and enzymatic reactions which take place after extraction. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization temperature on quality and stability of sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp, nine batches of sugarcane juice with 4g/100g passion fruit pulp were processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C for 30 s, in triplicate. The pasteurized beverage was aseptically packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and stored at 7 °C in the dark. The beverage was characterized by physicochemical tests. Activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were determined before and after processing. Coliforms and Salmonella tests were carried out to assure the beverage´s microbiological safety. Color parameters were measured in the processed juice throughout the storage period. Fifty panelists evaluated the beverage's appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall impression using seven-point hedonic scale tests. Sensory stability was estimated by considering score averages above four and percentages of acceptance above 60%. The pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity of end product ranged from 3.96 to 4.19, 19.7 to 20.1 ºBrix, and 0.163 to 0.175 g/100g citric acid, respectively. The three processing binomials were effective for PPO inactivation; however, complete POD inactivation was reached at 95 °C/30 s only. The estimated sensory shelf-lives for sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C/30 s were 30, 40 and 50 days, respectively. Thus, the increase of pasteurization temperature had a positive effect on product's stability.

  5. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanovec Michael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y (n = 1665, 6-12 y (n = 2446, 13-18 y (n = 3139, and 19+y (n = 8861. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables, using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups ( Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.

  6. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  7. Neutrino Flavor Oscillations without Flavor Mixing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Sarcevic, Ina

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that sizable neutrino flavor oscillations can be generated in a model with large extra spacetime dimensions even if the physics on the brane is flavor-diagonal, the bulk neutrino theory is flavor-neutral, and the brane/bulk couplings are flavor-blind. We also discuss several phenomenological aspects of the ``bulk-mediated'' neutrino oscillations inherent in this model. [Based on talks given at Neutrino 2000 (Sudbury, Canada, June 2000), the Aspen Workshop on Neutrinos with Mass (Aspen, Colorado, July 2000), and DARK 2000 (Heidelberg, Germany, July 2000).

  8. 风味蛋白酶提升烟叶抽吸品质的研究%Improvement of tobacco quality by flavored proteinase degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖明礼; 杨庆; 林锐峰; 普元柱; 包秀萍; 李仙

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of upper tobacco leaves , proteins in tobacco leaves were degraded by fla-vored proteinase , and the physical structure , free amino acids , aroma component of the processed tobacco leaves were compared with the control .The protein content decreased by 19.1%after proteinase degradation , and the tex-ture of tobacco leaves became loose .The sensory characters were improved due to increased aroma , lightened miscel-laneous odors, lowered irritation, and cleaner aftertaste.Especially, the bitterness and pungent taste was obviously eliminated.Besides, the content of free amino acid and aroma significantly increased .The above results indicated that flavored proteinase degradation was effective to improve the smoking quality of upper tobacco leaves .%为了提升上部烟叶的抽吸品质,采用风味蛋白酶处理降低烟叶中蛋白质含量,并分析了风味蛋白酶处理后烟叶的物理结构、游离氨基酸及香气物质的变化情况。烟叶经风味蛋白酶处理后,质地变疏松;蛋白质含量降低,最大降幅达19.1%;香气质改善,杂气减轻,刺激减小,余味干净,苦味和辛辣味明显减弱;游离氨基酸和香气物质含量增加。上述结果表明,风味蛋白酶处理可以从多方面提升烟叶抽吸品质。

  9. Use of electronic tongue and nose sensors to differentiate between juice from greening (Huanglongbing) and healthy fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...

  10. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  11. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  12. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g(-1), respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  13. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Elgart, Benjamin Z.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d′, of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation. PMID:19079746

  14. Gras flavoring substances 24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Mcgowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.; Williams, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) presented safety and usage data on 236 GRAS flavor ingredients in its 24th publication. The publication revealed that these 236 flavor ingredients were of Japanese origin that were granted GRAS status. It revealed that the G

  15. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  16. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  17. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  18. 红枣浓缩清汁生产工艺的探讨%An Analysis of Jujube Concentrated Juice Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建钢

    2012-01-01

    In the production of Jujube concentrated juice, there are many factors that affect the quality and nutri- tive value of products, including the variety of raw materials, extraction method and process and so on. In recent years, the jujube concentrated juice production technology is more matured, but there are still some problems in the process of production. The article discusses how to keep the color and flavor of the Jujube juice while preserve its ric- hest nutrition and physiological active materials to improve the extraction rate and quality of Jujube concentrated juice.%在生产红枣浓缩清汁时,影响产品质量和营养成分的因素颇多,主要有原料的品种、提取方法和提取工艺参数等。目前国内红枣浓缩清汁的生产工艺日趋成熟,但是在生产过程中还存在一些问题,文中就在保证枣汁色泽和风味的同时,最大限度地保留红枣中各种丰富营养成分和提取具有生理活性物质,并且尽量提高原料提取率和商品红枣浓缩清汁的品质进行了探讨。

  19. 高压脉冲电场和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of pulsed electric field(PEF) and thermal treatments on quality of blueberry juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 陶晓赟; 陈健; 张师; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    以蓝莓汁为原料,比较了高压脉冲电场(PEF)杀菌和热力杀菌处理对蓝莓汁中微生物和理化指标的影响,以及不同处理的蓝莓汁在贮藏期间的品质变化规律。结果表明:PEF可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;PEF杀菌对蓝莓汁色泽参数影响程度小;杀菌处理后,贮藏期内PEF处理和热处理对蓝莓汁的还原糖、总酸、可溶性固形物含量、总酚含量影响较小,PEF处理较热处理能更好地保持蓝莓汁中的VC和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material.Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by pulsed electric field(PEF)and thermal treatments respectively and their qualities were analyzed and compared by microorganisms chemical evaluation.The change of fresh blueberry juice qualities during storage were studied.The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated effectively by PEF.Less influence of PEF was observed on the color quality of blueberry juice.After sterilization,there was no significant change in the relative content of deoxidize sugar,total acid,soluble solid content and total phenol.Fresh blueberry juice treated with PEF sterilization was better than that with heat sterilization not only in VC,but also in anthocyanins.

  20. COMPOSITION OF THE CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF WHITE VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2015-02-01

    be functional to improve the cardiovascular system. On the basis of the tasting we have conducted mixing of the juices from the varieties of Viorica and citron Magaracha with other juice varieties 50:50 and 70:30. Sensory evaluation showed that blending juices from the varieties of Viorika and citron juice Tsitronnyy Magaracha other varieties improves product quality and 50:50 increases by one the total score, and 70:30 - two units. Blend of the varieties of Viorica and Tsitronnyy Magaracha does not increase the total score, but gives the product a special flavor and aroma. Hence, using the grape varieties under study we can produce varietal juices with the name of their ampelographic type and blended juices to extend the assortment

  1. Influence of Different Production Lines on Quality of Orange Juice%两种加工工艺各单元操作对柑橘汁品质影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宅; 曹玉姣; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    通过比较美国食品机械公司的FMC中型浓缩柑橘汁生产线加工工艺与实验室模拟浓缩柑橘汁生产线加工工艺的各单元操作对3种常见柑橘类果汁品质的影响,以选择能够提高浓缩柑橘汁品质的操作方式。结果表明:在工厂生产线加工工艺中北碚447柑橘汁浓缩后柠檬苦素含量是榨汁后的4.78倍,中育7号是3.81倍,无核雪柑是3.39倍;在实验室生产线加工工艺中北碚447是2.78倍,中育7号是2.48倍,无核雪柑是2.32倍。两种加工工艺的榨汁和均质操作对浓缩柑橘汁品质的影响差异较小,实验室模拟浓缩柑橘汁生产线加工工艺的灭菌和浓缩方式更有利于提高冷冻浓缩柑橘汁的品质。%This paper compares the quality of orange juice from three cultivars, Beipei 447, Zhongyu 7 and Wuhexuegan produced by two different concentrated orange juice production lines, FMC medium and lab-simulated production lines with the aim of selecting the better of the production lines. The results showed that the Beipei 447, Zhongyu 7 and Wuhexuegan concentration orange juices produced by the industrial production line exhibited 4.78-, 3.81-, and 3.39-fold increases in limonin content when compared with the corresponding fresh juices. By contrast, 2.78-, 2.48-, and 2.32-fold increases in limonin content were observed for Beipei 447, Zhongyu 7 and Wuhexuegan concentration orange juices produced by the lab-simulated produc- tion line. Squeezing and homogenization in the production lines had little effect on the quality of concentrated orange juice. The sterilization and concentration modes used in the lab-simulated production line were more conducive to increasing the quality of concentrated orange juice.

  2. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  3. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific common ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific ...

  4. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  5. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  6. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Renée; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent.

  7. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  8. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P fruit juice.

  9. Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnwall, Outi; Silventoinen, Karri; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Perola, Markus; Tuorila, Hely; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-04-01

    Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami ('mouthfeel flavor' taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n=140, adventurous n=152; non-grouped n=39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36-92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated.

  10. Identification of 3-methylbutanoyl glycosides in green Coffea arabica beans as causative determinants for the quality of coffee flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Keiko; Setoyama, Daiki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Seta, Harumichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2015-04-15

    The quality of coffee green beans is generally evaluated by the sensory cupping test, rather than by chemical compound-based criteria. In this study, we examined the relationship between metabolites and cupping scores for 36 varieties of beans, using a nontargeted LC-MS-based metabolic profiling technique. The cupping score was precisely predicted with the metabolic information measured using LC-MS. Two markers that strongly correlated with high cupping scores were determined to be isomers of 3-methylbutanoyl disaccharides (3MDs; 0.01-0.035 g/kg of beans) by spectroscopic analyses after purification, and one of them was a novel structure. Further, both the 3MDs were determined to be precursors of 3-methylbutanoic acid that enhance the quality of coffee. The applicability of 3MDs as universal quality indicators was validated with another sample set. It was concluded that 3MDs are the causative metabolites determining beverage quality and can be utilized for green bean selection and as key compounds for improving the beverage quality.

  11. Detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Concord and Niagara grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J; Karthik, A; Inglis, D; Sears, M; Ker, K

    2008-08-01

    2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) is the compound responsible for the off-flavor known as ladybug taint, which occurs when Harmnonia axyridis beetles become incorporated with the grapes during juice processing. It is also an important grape-derived component of juice flavor in some varieties. The main objective of this study was to determine the orthonasal (ON) and retronasal (RN) detection thresholds for IPMP in juice. The ASTM E679 ascending forced choice method of limits was used to determine detection thresholds for 26 individuals in Concord and Niagara juices. Group best estimate thresholds (BETs) averaged 0.93 ng/L and were 50% and 21% higher in Concord than in Niagara juices for ON and RN evaluation, respectively. Group BETs for IPMP (ng/L) for Concord were ON: 1.11; RN: 1.02 and for Niagara were ON: 0.74; RN: 0.84. Variation in individual detection thresholds was observed, although familiarity with ladybug taint was not associated with individual threshold values. We conclude that humans are very sensitive to IPMP in juice, and that detection thresholds are more strongly influenced by grape variety than evaluation mode. These results may assist juice producers in establishing tolerance levels for IPMP in juice affected by ladybug taint or derived from grapes of suboptimal ripeness.

  12. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilame, Susmit A; Satyavir, V Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used.

  13. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...... with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception....

  14. 添加不同营养物质对西式香肠质量的影响%Effects of Different Nutritional Additives on the Quality of Western-flavor Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艾祥

    2001-01-01

    本文对添加胡萝卜泥、牛肝及淀粉的西式香肠的感官质量进行了研究,结果表明:添加10%胡萝卜泥、4%淀粉能改善西式香肠的色泽、弹性、硬度及口感风味(P<0.05),对其切面组织无不良影响(P<0.05);而添加10%牛肝会造成香肠色泽发暗、弹性硬度差、口感风味不良及切面组织粗糙等(P<0.05),此外,随着储藏期的增长(2~7d),其色泽变差(P<0.05)。%Effects of several nutritional additives on the sensory quality of western-flavor sausage were discussed in this paper. The results were as follows: 10% carrot, 4% starch could improve color, elasticity, stiffness and flavor of western-flavor sausage without any bad effects on cutting surface; while 10% bovine liver could make sausage dark, stiff, bad flavor and crude cutting surface and Long storage period (2-7 days) might cause bad color, too.

  15. Flavored Orbifold GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-01-01

    Orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs) solve several problems in GUT model building. Therefore, it is intriguing to investigate similar constructions in the flavor context. In this letter, we propose that a flavor symmetry might emerge due to orbifold compactification and be simultaneously broken by boundary conditions of the orbifold. The combination of the orbifold parities in gauge and flavor space determines the zero modes. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10)\\times S_4 orbifold GUT model.

  16. 贡柑果实采后可溶性糖代谢和风味品质变化的关系%Relationship of Soluble Sugars Metabolism and Flavor Quality Change of Gonggan in Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建良; 陈璐; 许沛朋; 崔英德; PAUL L. CHEN

    2011-01-01

    In order to search for the physiological mechanism of fruit flavor quality change of Gonggan fruit (Citrus sinensis Osb.cv.Gonggan), the changes of soluble sugars, the total soluble solids and titratable acid content, and acid invertase activity and their relationship with flavor quality was studied during storage of Gonggan fruit.The results showed that the peaks of total soluble solid (TSS) and titratable acid content and acid invertase activity were inversely related with flavor quality of recession in control during fruit storage 6-12 d.The changes of sucrose, glucose, fructose and soluble sugars of Gonggan fruit in control were "S" model, but showed no relationship with the increase of TSS content and closely relationship with the change of flavor quality during fruit storage 6-12 d.The flavor quality level and period of Gonggan fruit treated by 2, 4-D was better and longer, and its good fruit and pedicle rates were significantly higher than that in control, and also no peaks different from "S"model of control in the changes of sucrose, glucose, fructose and soluble sugars from higher activity of acid invertase, that the lower level of soluble sugars was closely related with the change of flavor quality of Gonggan fruit.It is concluded the sweet flavor quality to be thick or light was positively related with the change of soluble sugars content, and preserving effect of 2, 4-D with inhibiting odor generated could not delayed the decrease of soluble sugars contents and being light for sweet flavor quality.%研究德庆贡柑常温贮藏条件下果实蔗糖、葡萄糖和果糖等可溶性糖类含量、可溶性固形物含量、酸性转化酶活性等变化及其与风味品质变化的关系,探求贡柑果实风味品质变化的生理机制.结果表明,贡柑果实在贮藏后6~12 d先后出现可溶性固形物(TSS)、可滴定酸含量和酸性转化酶活性的增加,果实的风味品质则同期呈现变淡和出现异味等非正向变化;蔗糖

  17. Flavors Fragrance Delivery Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quellet, Christian; Schudel, Markus; Ringgenberg, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    This article focusses on the art of encapsulating flavors and fragrances into carrier materials, emphasizing the scientific challenges imposed by the particular nature of these essentially volatile encapsulants...

  18. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa; Igor dos Santos Masson; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Juliana Pelegrini Roviero; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076), the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consi...

  19. One hundred percent orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, and no increased risk for overweight/obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Rampersaud, Gail C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% orange juice (OJ) consumption by children 2 to 18 years of age (n = 7250) participating in the 2003 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with intakes of select nutrients, MyPyramid food groups, diet quality-measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, weight status, and associated risk factors. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and MyPyramid food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement were determined. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese. Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 1.7 oz/d. Among consumers, the usual intake of 100% OJ for children (n = 2183; 26.2% of population) was 10.2 oz/d. Consumers had higher (P obese between consumers and nonconsumers (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.05). Compared with nonconsumers, consumers had a higher (P children as a component of a healthy diet.

  20. Flavor violation in supersymmetric theories with gauged flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study flavor violation in supersymmetric models with gauged flavor symmetries. There are several sources of flavor violation in these theories. The dominant flavor violation is the tree-level $D$-term contribution to scalar masses generated by flavor symmetry breaking. We present a new approach for suppressing this phenomenologically dangerous effects by separating the flavor-breaking sector from supersymmetry-breaking one. The separation can be achieved in geometrical setups...

  1. Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-03-18

    Flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations can modify liking for a flavor CS, while flavor-flavor associations can also modify the sensory experience of the trained flavor. Less is known about how these associations modify behavioral responses to the trained CS. To test this, 60 participants classified as sweet likers were divided into five training conditions with a novel flavor CS. In the flavor-flavor only condition, participants consumed the target CS in a sweetened, low-energy form, with energy (maltodextrin) but no sweetness added in the flavor-nutrient only condition and both energy and sweetness (sucrose) in the combined flavor-flavor, flavor-nutrient condition. Comparison groups controlled for exposure to the CS, and repeat testing. Training was conducted in a hungry state on four non-consecutive days. To test for acquired changes in evaluation and intake, the flavor CS was processed into a low-energy sorbet, which was evaluated and consumed ad libitum on test days before and after training. Liking for the flavor CS increased only in the sucrose-sweetened condition, but intake increased significantly in both high-energy conditions. In contrast, rated sweetness of the sorbet increased in both sucrose-sweetened and aspartame-sweetened conditions. These findings suggest that liking changes were maximal when flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations co-occurred, but that behavioral changes were specific to flavor-nutrient associations.

  2. Polyphenols in apple fruits and their derived products, an overview of their variability, reactivity and properties in relation to organoleptic qualities of French juices and ciders

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    World apple production accounted for 80 million tons per year (1.7 and 3.1 Mts in France and Poland, respectively). Most of this production corresponds to dessert apples. However, in France, ciders (fermented apple juices) are famous beverages produced from specific apple varieties classified according to two main criteria: polyphenol concentration and acidity of the crude juice (i.e. the must). Indeed, polyphenols are divided into six main classes: phenolic acids, catechins, procyanidins (i....

  3. Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and

  4. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  5. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...

  6. 不同热力灭菌条件对锦橙汁品质的影响及其DNA稳定性分析%Effects of Different Heat Sterilization Treatments on Jincheng Orange Juice Quality and Its DNA Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星鑫; 付一帆; 周宇; 李骥; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    Fresh Jincheng orange juice was treated by high-temperature instantaneous method (93 ℃, 30 s), low-temperature and long-time method (70 ℃, 15 min) and the method (80℃, 10 rain) commonly used by domestic enterprises in order to study the effects of different heat sterilization methods on the quality of orange juice. Physio-chemical characteristics including juice color, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), VC, organic acids, reducing sugars and microbiological indexes of Jincheng orange juice were determined. At the same time DNA integrity was preliminarily studied. The results showed that both high temperature and long heating time had an unfavorable effect on orange juice, the contents of VC and organic acids decreased and genomic DNA integrity was significantly impaired. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that treatment at 80 ℃ for 10 min is better than the other two in maintaining the quality of orange juice.%为探讨不同的热力杀菌条件对锦橙汁品质的影响,采用高温瞬时(93℃、30s),低温长时(70℃、15min)以及目前国内工厂常用的杀菌条件(80℃、10min)对鲜榨锦橙汁进行处理,测定锦橙汁理化性质(色度、pH值、可溶性固形物含量、总酸含量、VC含量、有机酸含量和还原糖含量)的变化及其杀菌效果,并对其DNA的稳定性进行探究。结果表明,温度过高或加热时间过长均对橙汁品质产生不好的影响,VC和有机酸含量大量降解,DNA完整性被破坏。最后得出80℃、10min灭菌的橙汁在品质上表现出较强的优势。

  7. MEMPELAJARI KARAKTERISTIK SARI BUAH DARI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn. YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI FERMENTASI [Characteristic of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Juice Produced by Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne P Kusuma3

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the methods to get noni juice. In this research, noni is fermented in hanged system and submerged system for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The result showed the longer fermentation increased pH, alcohol content, turbidity, viscosity, microbial content, and decrease ascorbic acid and acid content, soluble solid content, color and flavor acceptance. Differennt system fermentation affected percent yield, soluble solid content, turbidity of juice, panels opinion to color significantly. Noni juice of submerged system has higher percent yield, higher soluble solid content, turbidity, but provided lighter color than noni juice of hanged system. Juice of submerged system is better than hanged system. Juice from three weeks fermentation indicated changes of metabolism activity which is shown by some characteristic changes. Fruit juice made by submerged fermentation system had more diverse compounds than fruit juice without fermentation.

  8. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic E. coli in strawberry juice by pulsed electric field, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Current regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment may ...

  9. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  10. Multisensory Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace provides state-of-the-art coverage of the latest insights from the rapidly-expanding world of multisensory flavor research. The book highlights the various types of crossmodal interactions, such as sound and

  11. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...

  12. Effect of vector control and foliar nutrition on the quality of orange juice affected by Huanglongbing: Sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-year study was undertaken to establish the effect of field nutritional sprays, combined or not with insecticide treatments against Asian Citrus psyllid, on the fruit quality of ‘Valencia’ orange trees affected by the greening disease Huanglongbing (HLB). Four replicated plots were harvested, jui...

  13. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  14. Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontempo, L.; Caruso, R.; Fiorillo, M.; Gambino, G.L.; Perini, M.; Simoni, M.; Traulo, P.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Gagliano, G.; Camin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association

  15. Application of previously fermented juice to improve the quality of forage corn silage%绿叶汁发酵液为添加剂改善玉米青贮品质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严萍; 张永辉; 麦热姆妮萨·艾麦尔; 阿不都克尤木·买买提; 乌斯满·依米提

    2012-01-01

    1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% concentration of previously fermented juice was made from forage corn silage, and these previously fermented juices were used to additives for improving the quality of corn silage. In this study, different concentration previously fermented juice were added into fermented forage corn with 1% and 3% concentration NaCI and the treated forage corn was ensiled in plastic bottles under vacuum for 60 days. Treated samples were used to estimate the quality (microbial community, pH value, content of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL and organic acid) and in vitro digestibility of silage. This study showed that addition of previously fermented juice significantly improved silage quality, obviously decreased pH value, significantly increased DM,CP and organic acid Content (P〈0.05). The result of in vitro digestibility showed that addition of previously fermented juice improved silage digestibility when compared with traditional silage process, in which additives was only NaCI.%本研究以饲料玉米(Zeamays)为原料,采用绿叶汁发酵液1.0%、1.5%、2.0%作青贮添加剂,并与传统青贮工艺添加1%、3%NaCI做比较,在实验室条件下贮藏60d。测定其青贮品质(包括微生物群落结构、pH值、祖蛋白、干物质、纤维素含量、有机酸含量)及体外消化率,并与传统青贮工艺做比较。结果显示,添加绿叶汁发酵液可以明显改善青贮品质,pH值显著降低,干物质、粗蛋白及有机酸含量均有显著性增加(P〈0.05)。经体外消化试验可知,与对照相比,添加绿叶汁发酵液可显著提高青贮饲料消化率。

  16. Flavored Co-annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debtosh; Vempati, Sudhir K

    2011-01-01

    In minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) or CMSSM, one of the main co-annihilating partners of the neutralino is the right handed stau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_R$. In the presence of flavor violation in the right handed sector, the co-annihilating partner would be a flavor mixed state. The flavor effect is two fold: (a) It changes the mass of the $\\tilde{\\tau}_{1}$, thus modifying the parameter space of the co-annihilation and (b) flavor violating scatterings could now contribute to the cross-sections in the early universe. In fact, it is shown that for large enough $\\delta \\sim 0.2$, these processes would constitute the dominant channels in co-annihilation regions. The amount of flavor mixing permissible is constrained by flavor violating $\\tau \\to \\mu$ or $\\tau \\to e$ processes. For $\\Delta_{RR}$ mass insertions, the constraints from flavor violation are not strong enough in some regions of the parameter space due to partial cancellations in the amplitudes. In mSUGRA, the regions with cancelations within LFV amplitudes do no...

  17. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  18. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on processing quality and functional food ingredients in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Moustapha; Ahn, Taehyun; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    Even though several types of phosphorus fertilizers are used in crop production, the influence of phosphorus on produce quality is not well understood. Several quality attributes of tomato juice were analyzed in relation to phosphorus supplementation during a three-year field study (2000-2002). In addition to the recommended phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus supplementations, either through soil (low and high) or through foliar spray (hydrophos, seniphos), were tested. In general, soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation did not provide a statistically significant increase in yield. Tomato juice was evaluated for various quality characteristics including pH, titratable acidity, precipitate weight ratio, total solids, serum viscosity, Brookfield viscosity, color, lycopene levels, vitamin C, and flavor volatiles. Changes observed in several quality parameters were marginal, statistically insignificant and influenced by the season. Therefore, it appears that phosphorus supplementation may not significantly affect the processing quality parameters in tomato fruits.

  19. Nonthermal processing of orange juice using a pilot-plant scale supercritical carbon dioxide system with a gas-liquid metal contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of pilot-plant scale, non-thermal supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) processing on the safety and the quality of orange juice (OJ), SCCO2 processed juice was compared with untreated fresh juice and equivalently thermal processed juice in terms of lethality. SCCO2 processing ...

  20. 超高压加工对鲜榨胡萝卜汁品质的影响%The effect of high pressure processing on the qualities of fresh-squeezed carrot juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马善丽; 程磊晶; 马永昆; 范晓波

    2011-01-01

    重点研究了热敏性胡萝卜汁经200~600MPa超高压处理10min后其感官品质、理化性质及营养品质的变化情况。实验结果表明:经高压处理后胡萝卜汁色泽、可溶性固形物、总糖、α-和β-胡萝卜素含量与对照样相比差异不明显(P〉0.05);总抗氧化能力在400MPa压力处理后降低较显著,600MPa处理有较显著的提高(P〈0.05);此外,超高压处理后胡萝卜汁的pH降低,总酸含量增加,且样品的沉降稳定性提高,且变化都比较显著(P〈0.05)。综合实验各方面的处理效果,600MPa处理后的胡萝卜汁品质最佳。因此,超高压能较好保持胡萝卜汁原有的品质和营养价值,可达到保持营养、提高品质和延长货架期的目的。%The effects of high pressure processing(HPP)(200~600 MPa for 10 min) on the changes of sensory quality,physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of carrot juice were studied.The results showed that:compared with the control samples,the colors,total soluble solids,total sugars,α-and β-carotene contents had no significant differences after HPP(P﹥0.05),The total antioxidant capacity reduced significantly after 400 MPa processing,while increased a lot after 600 MPa processing.In addition,by HPP,the pH of carrot juice was decreased,total acid content increased,sedimental stability was improved,all of which were changed significantly(P0.05).Based on an overall consideration of various experimental results,carrot juice had the best quality after 600 MPa processing.Therefore,the HPP can maintain a fairly good quality and nutritional value of carrot juice,which can achieve the purpose of maintaining nutritional quality and extending its shelf life.

  1. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Mennella; Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.

  2. Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

  3. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  4. Quality of sour cherry juice of different clones and cultivars (Prunus cerasus L.) determined by a combined sensory and NMR spectroscopic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2011-01-01

    Juice was manufactured from seven different sour cherry clones/cultivars and evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The sensory evaluation showed a large variation in several sensory attributes between the sour cherry clones/cultivars, which could be divid...

  5. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Grauwet, T.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical

  6. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  7. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  8. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices.

  9. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  10. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  11. On the Creation of Experience Situations of "Color, Fra―grance, Flavor, Appearance, Consciousness and Quality"in Chemistry Teaching%在化学教学中创设"色香味形意养"的体验情境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云华

    2015-01-01

    本文依据情境认知理论,联系学生的生活实际,从"色香味形意养"六个方面提出了在化学教学中创设有效情境以使学生获得体验的途径.%According to Situated Cognition, this article linked students' life reality, and proposed ways of"color, fragrance, fla-vor, appearance, consciousness and quality" to create effective chemistry situations to help students obtain ways of experience.

  12. 影响双岐南瓜酸奶品质因素的探讨%Study on Quality of Yoghourt with Active Bifidobacterium and Pumpkin Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳

    2012-01-01

    Study on difference temperature of Yoghourt with active bifidobacterium and pumpkin Juice about quality, flavour and bifidobacterium number of changes, Compare different store temperature on pumpkin with acidity, flavour and material, bifidobacterium number of changes; the Pumpkin polysaccharides change in the storage period. Result show: at 38℃fermentation, yogurt with water, the diacetyl content, or bifidobacterium numbers,bifidobacterium number and score acidity of the senses is highest, the contents of aldehyde is 17.25mg·kg-1; In 2℃ storage acidity increased slowly, acetaldehy and diacetyl ratio is close to 3, bifidobacterium number down slowly; pumpkin polysaccharides in the storage period on the downward trend in the first 6d down, then a relatively rapid pace of decline.%研究了不同发酵温度对双岐南瓜酸奶质构、风味及菌群数量的影响,比较了不同贮藏温度下南瓜双岐酸奶酸度、风味物质、双歧杆菌数量的变化,探讨了双岐南瓜酸奶在贮藏期南瓜多糖的变化情况.结果表明:在38℃条件下发酵,酸奶的持水力、表观粘度、双乙酰含量、双歧杆菌数量、感官评分达最高,胶体收缩最小,乙醛含量为17.25mg· kg-1;在2℃条件下贮存酸度上升缓慢,乙醛与双乙酰含量比值均接近3,双歧杆菌数量下降缓慢;南瓜多糖在贮存期内呈现下降趋势,在前6d下降缓慢,随后下降较快.

  13. The Application of Flavor Evaluation Technology in Evaluating the Pork Quality%风味评价技术及其在评定猪肉品质中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺民; 程定均; 宋振硕

    2009-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living level,consumers not only demand for pork qualities are nutrition and safety,also have a higher pursue tO the pork palatability.Flavor evaluation,which is the main means for the consumers to objectively evaluate the palatability of pork.is a direct,reliable method of qualities evaluation.This article introducs the concept of the flavor evaluationtechnology,the necessity to use it in evaluation of pork quality,and the content and the design of theflavor evaluation technology.%随着大众生活水平的提高,消费者对猪肉品质的要求不仅局限于营养与安全,对猪肉的可口性也有更高的追求.风味评价是一种直接的、可靠的肉质评价方法,是消费者客观评价猪肉风味适口性的主要手段.本篇阐述了风味评价技术的概念、风味评价在猪肉品质评定中的必要性以及风味评价的内容与设计.

  14. Effect of absorbers and fermented juice on the fermentation quality about potato residue.%吸收剂和发酵液对马铃薯渣发酵品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宇; 王运肖; 李建国; 高艳霞; 杨武; 冯庆华; 李建楠; 李秋凤; 李运起

    2013-01-01

    This test researched the effect of fermented juice, absorbents, and absorbent + fer⁃mented liquid on the fermented feed quality of potato starch residue. Using a randomized block design, the test was divided into a control group, the fermented juice group, the adsorbent group, and the adsorbent + fermented liquid group. The adsorbent were naked oat straw, corn stalks, wheat straw, peanut shells and bran. Each test group produced six parallel to determine the indicators for the test. Each treatment can complete the fermentation process for lactic acid fermentation type. Adding fermented juice alone had no significant effect on improving fermenta⁃tion quality of potato residue. Adding absorbers or adding absorbent and fermentation juice can significantly improve the lactic acid content of the feed. However, it differently affected the pH value, acetic acid content, NH3-N/TN and aerobic stability. Considering the sensory evaluation, fermentation quality, aerobic stability and nutrients facts, the test group 8 (corn straw + ferment⁃ed liquid) and test group 6(bran) were better than others.%  试验旨在研究发酵液、吸收剂和吸收剂+发酵液对马铃薯渣发酵饲料品质的影响。采用随机分组试验设计,将试验分为对照组、发酵液组、吸收剂组、吸收剂+发酵液组,吸收剂分别为莜麦秸秆、玉米秸秆、小麦秸秆、花生壳和麸皮,每个处理6个平行用于试验各指标的测定。结果表明:各试验组均能完成发酵过程,且为乳酸发酵类型。单独添加发酵液对改善马铃薯渣发酵品质效果不显著,添加吸收剂或同时添加吸收剂和发酵液可显著提高发酵饲料的乳酸含量,但对pH值、乙酸含量、氨态氮/总氮及有氧稳定性的影响效果不一。综合考虑感官评定、发酵品质、有氧稳定性及营养成分,以试验8组和试验6组效果较好。

  15. 5个苹果优系果实品质特性和制汁适性评价%Evaluation on Fruit Quality Characters and Juice Processing Adaptability of Five Apple Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏玲玲; 张玉刚; 祝军; 戴洪义

    2014-01-01

    The fruit quality characters and juice processing adaptability of 5 apple strains were measured and evaluated .The results showed that ‘7-C-001 ’ ,‘7-C-090 ’ and ‘95-086 ’ were suitable for fresh eating with excellent appearance and flesh quality .And the soluble solids and titratable acid content were 12.2~13.6°Brix and 0.292%~0.299%respectively.‘7-C-102’ had nice fruit color.And its soluble solids content was 12.4°Brix, the titratable acid content was 0.417%, and the acidity of concentrated juice was 2.550%.So it was both suitable for processing concentrated juice and fresh eating .%对5个苹果优系果实品质特性和制汁适性进行了测定与评价。结果表明,优系‘7-C-001’、‘7-C-090’和‘95-086’果实的外观和内在品质优良,可溶性固形物含量在12.2~13.6°Brix之间,可滴定酸在0.292%~0.299%之间,适于鲜食;优系‘7-C-102’的果实色泽艳丽,可溶性固形物含量为12.4°Brix,可滴定酸为0.417%,浓汁酸度为2.550%,适于苹果浓缩汁的制作,还可兼用于鲜食。

  16. Improvement of Organoleptic Properties of Red Grapefruit Juice (Citrus Paradise Processed By Non-Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating and ultrasound on quality parameters of red grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi. The juice was processed by ohmic heating (120 V, 70 and 80 °C, 30 and 180 s and ultrasound (amplitude of 40 and 50 µm, and 2 and 10 minutes. The treatments did not significantly affect the cloud value, pH, non-enzymatic browning and colorimetric parameters. The taste was the determining parameter in the choice of juice by consumers. Juices processed with ohmic heating showed sensory characteristics more like the natural juice. The best juice was obtenied by processing with OH at 70 °C for 30 s. According to the present study it could be suggested that red grapefruit juice processed by ohmic heating could improve sensory characteristics without changes in quality parameter.

  17. On Debitterzing Technique of Concentrated Orange Juice%浓缩橙汁脱苦技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国良; 秦云

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究脱苦工艺对浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果以及对果汁品质的影响.[方法]试验采用活性炭对浓缩橙汁进行脱苦,以橙汁中的柚皮苷(碱性二甘醇显色法)和柠檬苦素(对-二甲氨基苯甲醛显色法)的含量变化来表征浓缩橙汁的脱苦效果.[结果]通过单因素试验结合感官评定,确定了较适于橙汁的脱苦工艺:脱苦条件为常温20℃,活性炭用量35 g/L浓缩果汁(可溶性固形物含量50.5%),搅拌时间20 min.采用最佳工艺处理,得到的浓缩果汁中柚皮苷和柠檬苦素的脱除率分别为49.5%和73.5%.[结论]脱苦后浓缩橙汁苦味明显变淡,风味自然,口感适中.%[Objective] To study effects of debitterzing technique on concentrated orange juice debitterzing effect and juice quality.[Method]Active carbon was used to conduct debitterzing.naringin and limonin in orange juice was showed effect of concentrated orange juice.[Result]Through single-factor experiment and sensory assessment,the optimum debitterzing technique was identified at temperature 20 ℃,active carbon 35 g/L (soluble solids content 50.5%),processing time 20 min.The concentrated juice naringin and limonin removal rates were 49.5% and 73.5% under the above conditions.[Conclusion] After debitterzing,the concentrated juice is:gentle flavor,mild taste.

  18. 鲜榨苹果汁的理化特性和感官品质相关性%Correlations between Physico-chemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality of Fresh Apple Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚宏; 王周利; 李彩霞; 岳田利; 赵镭

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice from 9 varieties. The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations among partial physico-chemical characteristics of apple juice; 2) significant correlations were found between physicochemical characteristics and sensory measures of apple juice. The fruity aroma of apple juice was significantly correlated with its pH and titratable acidity. A positive correlation was observed between the faint scent and color value or total sugar content. The astringent taste had a positive correlation with the titratable acidity total phenol content or buffer capacity, but revealed a negative correlation with the pH, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. The acidic taste was correlated with the pH, total sugar content, titratable acidity, buffer capacity, sugar/acid ratio or solid/acid ratio. Moreover, the sweet taste presented a correlation with soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity, buffer capacity or solid/acid ratio; 3)the developed regression model for taste evaluation of apple juice was significant, indicating that there are good correlations between physico-chemical characteristics and sensory measures of fresh apple juice. Thus physicochemical characteristics can be measures for predictive analysis of the sensory quality of fresh apple juice.%以9种苹果鲜榨汁为材料,通过理化指标测定和感官评价,研究鲜榨苹果汁理化特性和感官品质之间的相关性。结果表明:1)部分理化指标之间具有显著的相关性;2)理化指标与感官特性之间存在显著的相关性:苹果香与pH值、可滴定酸含量有显著的相关性;清香与色值、总糖含量呈正相关;涩味与可滴定酸含量、多酚含量、缓冲容量成正相关,与pH值、糖酸比、固酸比呈现显著的负相关;酸味与pH值、总糖含量、可滴定酸含量、缓

  19. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  20. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  1. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  2. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  3. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  4. Fermentation Quality of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Silages Treated with Pre-fermented Juices, Sorbic Acid, Glucose and Encapsulated-Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Tao; Oba, Noriko; Shimojo, Masataka; Masuda, Yasuhisa

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding encapsulated-glucose, glucose, sorbic acid or pre-fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on the fermentation characteristics and residual mono-and disccharides compositions of forage oat silages. The additive treatnents were as followes: (1) control (no addition), (2) encupsulated-glucose addition at 0.5% as glucose, (3) glucose addition at 1%, (4) sorbic acid addition at 0.1%, (5) FJLB additioni at a theolrt...

  5. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid induce sublethal injury and enhance pulsed electric field inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic surrogate E. coli in strawberry juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current FDA regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be conducte...

  6. Development of non-sweet, flavored food cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Food cubes exhibit flavor and quality stability for periods of four weeks in 100 deg F environment. They are suitable for field rations, emergency rations or snacks and should interest the food processing industry.

  7. Study on the development of pomegranate juice processing technology: clarification of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardin, Hasan; Fenercioğlu, Hasan

    2003-10-01

    The effects of clarification agents and methods on pomegranate juice quality were studied. Fruits were pressed as whole, and extracted juice was clarified with gelatin, polyvinylypolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and natural sedimentation. In order to determine the effects of these clarifying techniques on product quality, pH, total phenolic substances (TPS), anthocyanin, turbidity, and total colour density tests were applied to each sample. In clarification, the main purpose was to reduce the amount of phenolic substances. Phenolic substances were controlled in each clarification method. The most effective method was the application of 1 g/L gelatine for clarification. Sensory evaluation also applied for clarified juices and gelatin application was selected by panelists to be superior.

  8. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  9. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  10. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  11. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Arsad P; Sukor R; Wan Ibadullah WZ; Mustapha NA; Meor Hussin AS

    2015-01-01

    The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by in...

  12. 高密度二氧化碳对荔枝汁品质的影响%Effect of Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide on the Quality of Litchi Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉娟; 温靖; 肖更生; 吴继军; 陈于陇; 余元善; 唐道邦; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dense phase carbon dioxide(DPCD) as a non-thermal sterilization technology on the quality and physio-chemical properties of litchi juice,freshly prepared litchi juice was subjected to DPCD treatment at 8 MPa and 36 ℃ for 10 min.The changes of pH,soluble solid content,conductivity,browning degree,vitamin C and free amino acids were evaluated.The results showed that DPCD treatment had a significant effect on pH,total acidity and PPO,but had no obvious effect on other indicators.Slight increases in reducing sugar,total polyphenol content and free amino acid content in DPCD-treated litchi juice were observed.%为探讨高密度二氧化碳(DPCD)非热杀菌技术对荔枝汁品质的影响,将新鲜荔枝汁经DPCD处理(8MPa、3 6℃、1 0 m in)后,测定p H值、可溶性固形物含量、电导率、褐变度、V C含量和游离氨基酸含量等指标的变化。结果表明:DPCD处理对荔枝汁的pH值、总酸度和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性有显著影响,经DPCD处理后荔枝汁的还原糖、总多酚和游离氨基酸的含量略有增加,其他指标没有明显变化。

  13. Effect of high pressure processing on the qualities of fresh blackberry juice%超高压处理对鲜榨黑莓清汁品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 许颖; 马辉; 白洁; 马永昆

    2012-01-01

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP)(300-600MPa for 15min)on the quality changes of blackberry juice were studied.The results showed that compared with the control sample, pH values significantly decreased( p 〈 0.05 ), the total acids significantly increased ( p 〈 0.05 ), while total sugars and soluble solids in blackberry juice had no significant change.Anthocyanins and polyphenols in blackberry juice were well retained and all the retention rates were high above 90%.The scavenging activity on DPPH· were significantly enhanced with increasing pressure except being treated at 300MPa,15min.%研究了鲜榨黑莓清汁经300-600MPa处理15min后其品质的变化。研究结果表明:黑莓清汁经超高压处理后,pH随处理压力升高而显著降低(p〈0.05),总酸显著增加(P〈0.05),超高压处理后其可溶性固形物、总糖含量无显著变化(P〉0.05);花色苷、多酚含量保留率迭90%以上,且还原能力显著增强;300MPa处理15min后黑莓清汁清除DPPH·能力显著下降,而其余压力下黑莓清汁清除DPPH·能力均随压力升高显著增强。

  14. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  15. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D.; Leischow, Scott J.; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  16. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D; Leischow, Scott J; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-11-20

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers' interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers' view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers.

  17. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720 among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902 used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers.

  18. The mystery of flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed.

  19. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  20. Gluino Meets Flavored Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizabl...

  1. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  2. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  3. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsad P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by increasing the yield of the fruit juice. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of different enzymatic treatment on sugar palm fruit juice processing. Sugar palm fruit purees were treated individually and in combination using two types of commercial enzymes: Novozymes Cellulase and Pectinex Ultra SP-L at a concentration of 0.05% (w/w and incubated at 45°C for 60 min. The results showed that there are significant (p<0.05 reduction on proximate content such as crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate for the enzymes treated juices as compared to the untreated juice. The enzyme treatment also significantly (p<0.05 reduced the juice viscosity and ascorbic acid content, promoted juice clarification and increased L value, yield, TSS and sugar content. In conclusion, the quality of sugar palm fruit juice can be improved by using the combination treatment of pectinase and cellulase enzymes.

  4. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  5. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association.

  6. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  7. 雪梨汁饮料工艺的研究%Technology of Sydney Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思宁

    2012-01-01

    本文以浓缩雪梨汁为原料,通过正交试验设计澄清梨汁饮料,确定梨汁饮料的合理配方.结果表明,浓缩汁含量5%、白砂糖6%、柠檬酸0.18%、香精添加量0.06%,以适量果胶和CMC-Na为复合稳定剂时,可以制成风味、色泽良好的梨汁饮料.%In this paper, concentrated Sydney juice as raw material, by orthogonal experimental to design clarified pear juice drinks, a reasonable formula of pear juice drink was determined. The results showed that the juice content of 5%, 6% sugar, 0.18%citric acid, 0.06% flavor, a modest pectin and CMC-Na as a composite stabilizer, the flavor, color and good pear juice drinks could be made.

  8. 新鲜果蔬汁稳定性比较%Stability Comparison of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Juices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张銮; 王卫; 金春

    2012-01-01

    The stability and the stable time of fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, pineapple juice and orange juice were analyzed in this paper. Color, flavor, aroma, acid value, clarity of FVJ were determined to assess the stability of FVJ. Results indicated that the color of FVJ changed great- ly after 30 min, especially the watermelon juice, orange juice and cucumber juice; the flavor and aroma of FVJ declined gradually after 10 min; the cucumber juice, pineapple juice, carrot juice, orange juice and to- mato juice were smelling after 3 h; the watermelon juice was smelling after 1 h; the clarity of FVJ decreased continuously after 10 min; the last surface images showed that there were visible deterioration phenomena for FVJ after 7 h. Based on those results, the fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, cucumber juice or watermelon juice should be consumed within 30 min after its preparation so as to maintain its natural flavor and aroma.%探讨了新鲜番茄汁、西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、橘子汁、菠萝汁及胡萝卜汁的稳定性及稳定时间.通过分析各种果蔬汁的色泽、滋味、香气、酸值、澄清度在放置期间的变化.实验发现:各种果蔬汁在制备30min后其色泽有较大变化,尤其是西瓜汁、桔子汁及黄瓜汁;在制备10min后各种果蔬汁的滋味、香气持续下降,放置3h后,黄瓜汁、菠萝汁、胡萝卜汁、桔子汁及番茄汁出现异味,放置1h后西瓜汁出现异味;放置10min后,各种果蔬汁的澄清度随时间增加持续下降;果蔬汁放置后期的实验显示,7h后出现肉眼可见变质现象.实验表明,新鲜西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、番茄汁、胡萝卜汁、黄瓜汁及西瓜汁应在制作后30rain内饮用,以最大程度保留其风味和滋味,而不宜1h后饮用.

  9. Rapid differentiation of commercial juices and blends by using sugar profiles obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-03-18

    A method for the determination of sugars in several fruit juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV-vis detection has been developed. Under optimal conditions, commercial fruit juices and nectars from several fruits were analyzed, and the sugar and cyclamate contents were quantified in less than 6 min. A study for the detection of blends of high-value juices (orange and pineapple) with cheaper alternatives was also developed. For this purpose, different chemometric techniques, based on sugar content ratios, were applied. Linear discriminant analysis showed that fruit juices can be distinguished according to the fruit type, juice blends also being differentiated. Multiple linear regression models were also constructed to predict the adulteration of orange and pineapple juices with grape juice. This simple and reliable methodology provides a rapid analysis of fruit juices of economic importance, which is relevant for quality control purposes in food industries and regulatory agencies.

  10. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  11. The supersymmetric flavor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, Savas; Sutter, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The supersymmetric SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1) theory with minimal particle content and general soft supersymmetry breaking terms has 110 physical parameters in its flavor sector: 30 masses, 39 real mixing angles and 41 phases. The absence of an experimental indication for the plethora of new parameters places severe constraints on theories posessing Planck or GUT-mass particles and suggests that theories of flavor conflict with naturalness. We illustrate the problem by studying the processes \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma and K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing which are very sensitive probes of Planckian physics: a single Planck mass particle coupled to the electron or the muon with a Yukawa coupling comparable to the gauge coupling typically leads to a rate for \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma exceeding the present experimental limits. A possible solution is that the messengers which transmit supersymmetry breaking to the ordinary particles are much lighter than M_{\\rm Planck}.

  12. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  13. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  14. The mystery of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peccei, R.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take sam...

  16. Bromofenóis simples relacionados ao "flavor" de organismos marinhos Brominated phenols as key flavor compounds found in marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the flavor is an important attribute of quality in marine fish and other seafoods, being the first and main factor of discrimination for the evaluation, later acceptance and preference of the product by the consumer. Recently, the simple bromophenols have been considered an important group of key flavor compounds occurring in a wide variety of seafood species like fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and algae. When present in high concentration, in seafood, the bromophenols produce an undesirable flavor and are associated with inferior quality. Meanwhile, when present in low concentration levels (for example ng g-1 these compounds produce a desirable marine - or ocean-like - flavor and enhance the existing flavor in seafood. Indeed, simple bromophenols are widespread in seafood but virtually absent in freshwater fish. Herein we present a review on these flavor components found in the marine environment.

  17. Study on the retentivity of the volatile components of simulated guava juice using ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Hashim Khalil

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on retentivity of major guava juice volatile compounds during ultrafiltration is presented in this paper. Simulated guava juice solutions were used throughout the study and the ultrafiltration was carried out in a batch stirred cell system. Polyethersulfone membranes with MWCO of 100,000 and 500,000 were used. The effects of important process operating parameters such as pressure and pectin concentration were studied. It was found that hydrophobic interactions with the membrane are the major factors, which control the flavor retention. A qualitative correlation between component polarity and retentivity was also observed.

  18. Application of fuzzy expert system approach on prediction of some quality characteristics of grape juice concentrate (Pekmez) after different heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ozlem; Arslan, Derya; Taşdemir, Sakir; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2011-08-01

    Effects of heat treatment on physicochemical characteristics and sensory properties of different fruit juice concentrates (pekmez) were studied. Apricot pekmez had the highest viscosity followed by mulberry and date pekmez. Apricot and date pekmez had higher scores for odour, taste and consistency than others. Hydroxymethyl furfural concentration of all pekmez samples increased after heat treatments. Samples heated at 75°C showed highest L* values while at 65°C the lowest mean L* values. L* values of all pekmez samples were similar while carob Pekmez had higher L* values. Also a development of the Fuzzy Expert System (FES) was made for prediction. Using the experimental values, FES model of the system was designed. Accordance was found with experimental and FES results when compared statistically. This study provides advantage for prediction possibility of unknown sub-values', which were not experimentally studied.

  19. The production of guava juice fortified with dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganya Chanthachum

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of guava juice fortified with soluble dietary fiber as pectin extracted from guava cake (peel, pulp, seeds was conducted. The waste guava cake from juice processing plant was used for pectin extraction using sodium hexametaphosphate method followed by pectin precipitation using acidified ethanol method. A yield of 30.50±0.34% crude pectin was achieved. Crude pectin also contained 4.71±0.18% moisture, 0.34±0.21% protein, 0.68±0.00% ash, 20.70±0.16 g (%dwb soluble dietary fibers. pH of crude pectin was 3.06±0.02. The L* a*and b* values were 81.17±0.21, 4.76±0.04 and 15.43±0.07, respectively. Water holding capacity and bulk density were 0.90±0.01 g.water/g.solid and 0.96±0.05 g/ml, respectively. This study found that the optimum conditions for guava juice extraction using pectinase at 45oC were 0.10 % v/v pectinase concentration and 21 2 h incubation time. Under these optimum conditions, production of guava juice with different ratios of total soluble solids (oBrix to acid as citric acid content (% including, 24.0, 28.0, 32.0, 35.0 and 40.0 oBrix-acid ratio, and product sensory evaluation were also conducted. By the consideration from the greatest perceived scores of all sensory evaluation attributes including color, turbidity, odor, flavor and overall acceptability, the oBrix-acid ratio of 40.0 was selected for guava juice processing. The clarified guava juice was then fortified with pectin powder extracted from previous experiments using various pectin concentrations: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% (w/w. It was found that the perceived scores of the overall acceptability attribute decreased (p<0.05 with increasing of pectin concentration. The greatest perceived score of the mouthfeel attribute was observed from the use of 0.25% pectin. Therefore, the optimum concentration of 0.25% soluble dietary fiber as pectin for guava juice fortification is selected for further guava juice processing.

  20. 凝固型雪莲果风味发酵乳的研制%Production of the Flavored Fermented Milk of Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋淑红; 赵艳; 闫浩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To discuss the optimum production technology of the flavored fermented milk of Smallanthus sonchifolius. [Method] With the raw materials of Smallanthus sonchifolius juice and milk,the flavored fermented milk was produced,based on single factor test,an orthogonal experiment was conducted with the four factors of juice content, strain inoculation,fermentation temperature and fermentation time at three levels. [ Result]With 15% Smallanthus sonchifolius juice,3% strain inoculation ,42 ℃ of fermentation temperature and 5 h of fermentation time,the sensory quality of the fermented milk product was evaluated from its color, aroma, state and taste so as to produce excellent flavored fermented milk. [ Conclusion]The study provided references for the deep-level and multi-level processing of Smallanthus sonchifolius so that it can have greater market value.%[目的]探讨雪莲果风味发酵乳的最佳生产工艺.[方法]以雪莲果果汁和牛奶为原料进行风味发酵乳的研制,在单因素试验的基础上采用正交试验方法,以果汁含量、菌种接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间为指标,进行4因素3水平试验.[结果]当雪莲果果汁添加量为15%,菌种接种量为3%,发酵温度为42℃,发酵时间为5h时,从雪莲果发酵乳的色泽、气味、组织状态、滋味4个方面对产品进行感官评价,可获得风味最佳的雪莲果发酵乳.[结论]研究可为雪莲果的深层次、多元化加工提供参考,使雪莲果具有更大的市场开发潜力.

  1. Interpretation of Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a charged-lepton flavor violating process would be a definite sign for physics beyond the Standard Model, but would actually only prove that one particular linear combination of lepton numbers is violated. We categorize lepton-flavor-violating processes by their quantum numbers and show how their discovery can be interpreted model-independently, studying in particular which processes are required to establish that the entire flavor group is broken. We also comment on total lepton number, seeing as lepton number violation practically implies lepton flavor violation as well.

  2. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 2: Effect on composition, phytochemical content, and physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    Traditional thermal techniques may cause losses in nutritional quality and phytochemical contents, and also in physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic properties of processed fruit juices. This paper provides an overview of the effect on these qualities by the use of alternatives to traditional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing, for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice-yield improvement. These alternatives are UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation, pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, Ohmic heating, microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation, and flash-vacuum expansion. Although alternatives to heat treatments seem to be less detrimental than the thermal treatment, there are many parameters and conditions that influence the output, as well as the nature of the juice itself, hampering comparisons between different studies. Additionally, future research should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the overall quality of fruit juices, and also on scaled-up processes, process design, and optimization that need to be deal with in detail to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing while maintaining fruit-juice attributes to the maximum.

  3. Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical and sensory properties of winter melon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Duan, Yongping; Bai, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. The juices had low sugars (juice were significantly lower than in HP juice. The phenolic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were detected at 10-45 mg L(-1) levels, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 36 to 49 mg gallic acid L(-1) . C6 and C9 aldehydes were mainly found in HP juice, and boiling induced the accumulation of sulfur compounds and C5 aldehydes. The LPNB juice showed the highest acceptability in the sensory panel. The frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) reconstituted with LPNB was preferable to regular FCOJ for 31% of panelists and not different for 20% of panelists. The low sugar/low acid LPNB juice with 'fresh' flavor could be developed to replace water for reconstituting FCOJ with enhanced nutritional value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  5. Cane Honey: Process, Quality and Harmlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain hydrolyzed honey, evaluate its quality, harmlessness, and productivity of the process, in order to diversify and make dynamic the panela production. The quality and food safety about the product is determined by the control in every stage of the process especially in natural clarification and concentration. Two pH factors were tested and the final concentration of the solution was tested by response variables such as viscosity, flavor, and the presence of crystals. The results showed that pH and concentration impact considerably the quality and safety. These are objectively valued through a sensorial and microbiological analysis. The production yield regarding hydrolyzed honey is vital for panela and natural sugar production since it increases with the extraction of juice in an efficiency manner

  6. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mystery of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Peccei, Roberto D

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher-dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. The twin roles that family symmetries and GUT's can have on the spectrum of quarks and leptons is emphasized, along with the dominant role that the top mass is likely to play in the dynamics of mass generation.

  8. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  9. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency $\\Delta m^2/2E$. However, even in the simple case of a $\

  10. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  11. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  12. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  13. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary O(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-...

  14. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    OpenAIRE

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah; Yusianto Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  15. The Research of Natural Red Raspberry Juice by the Method of Principal Component Analysis and Response Surface%主成分分析-响应面法优化天然红树莓果汁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗元; 尹佳玉; 李晓静; 吴祎帆; 赵立伟; 白玉坤; 庚新; 张晓丹; 崔歆卬

    2015-01-01

    Fresh raspberries were used as raw materials to study the processing technology of the natural raspberry juice and influencing factors of its quality by heating and cooking. Sensory evaluation indicators were adopted, including flavor, smell, colour and consistency, each of which was scored from 1 points-9 points, and the experiment by the optimization of response surface aimed to attain the influence of process parameters on the raspberry juice. Moreover, through principal component analysis in the process the effect of nutrient composition on raspberry juice was determined. The results were softening temperature 51.88℃, softening time 13.55 min, cooking time 7.72 min, cooking temperature 108.39℃, the amount of sugar 28.23%and under the conditions sensory evaluation index of red raspberry juice was the highest with the best taste and flavor. By detecting raspberry juice, reducing sugar, VC and SOD value had significant differences compared with that of red raspberry, but in raspberry juice the contents of VC, SOD, soluble solids, amino nitrogen were still quite high. Two principal component factors could be extracted with PC1 of 0.880 6, PC2 of 0.099 3. According to the factor loading, raspberry juice nutrients (total acid, soluble solids, VC, amino nitrogen, SOD) and sensory evaluation value had the largest effect on raspberry juice. In the development processing , its nutrient composition and sensory evaluation were vital and the research may provide a reference for the production of raspberry juice.%以新鲜红树莓为原料,研究了红树莓果汁工艺和品质的影响因素.通过加热蒸煮制取红树莓汁,以感官评价为指标,包括口感、气味、色泽、黏稠度4项,每项1分~9分,采用响应面优化,研究工艺参数对树莓果汁的感官评价的影响;并通过主成分分析确定加工过程中各营养成分对果汁的影响.结果表明:软化温度51.88℃,软化时间13.55 min,蒸煮时间7.72 min,蒸煮温度108.39

  16. Impact of lysine and liquid smoke as flavor enhancers on the quality of low-fat Bologna-type sausages with 50% replacement of NaCl by KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2017-01-01

    Low-fat Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of NaCl replaced by KCl and with addition of lysine and/or liquid smoke as flavor enhancers. The influence of sodium reduction on technological, physicochemical, and microbiological properties was determined. In addition, the sensory properties were evaluated using a Check all that apply questionnaire (CATA) and a consumer study. The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not have negative impacts on physicochemical, technological, and microbiological properties. However, the addition of KCl affected the sensory acceptance, as consumers identified by CATA questionnaire a reduction in salty taste and an increase in bitter, astringent, and metallic taste. The isolated or combined addition of lysine and liquid smoke reduced the sensory quality defects caused by the addition of KCl. Therefore, high quality low-fat Bologna-type sausages with sodium reduction close to 50% can be produced by replacing 50% NaCl by KCl and with addition of 1% lysine and/or 0.1% liquid smoke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives.

  18. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  19. 绿汁发酵液对水稻秸青贮品质的影响%Effects of Previously Fermented Juice on Fermentative Quality of Rice Straw Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华金玲; 郭亮

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Previously Fermented Juice (PFJ) on the fermentative quality and changes in chemical composition during fermentation of rice straw silage were investigated in this study. The result showed that the PFJ and dPFJ treated silages had significantly(P〈0.05) lower pH and ammonia-nitrogen content, while significantly higher lactic acid content compared with treatments. This study confirmed that the applying of PFJ and dPFJ improved fermentation quality of silage.%本试验利用绿汁发酵液作为青贮添加剂,研究其对水稻秸青贮品质的影响。结果表明,绿汁发酵液(PFJ)或其发酵液稀释再发酵后的绿汁发酵液(dPFJ)处理组青贮稻秸中的pH值和氨态氮水平明显低于其他处理组(P〈0.05),乳酸含量也显著高于其他处理组。由此可见,PFJ和dPFJ能够明显地改善水稻秸青贮品质。

  20. 绿汁发酵液对水稻秸青贮品质影响的研究%Effect of previously fermented juice on fermentative quality of rice straw silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华金玲; 庞训胜; 王立克

    2011-01-01

    The effect of previously fermented juice (PFJ) on the fermentative quality and changes in chemical composition during fermentation of rice straw silage were investigated. The result showed that the PFJ and dPFJ treated silages had significantly (P<0.05) lower pH and ammonia-nitrogen content, while significantly higher lactic acid content compared with treatments. This study confirmed that the applying of PFJ and dPFJ improved fermentation quality of silage.%利用绿汁发酵液作为青贮添加剂研究其对水稻秸青贮品质的影响。结果表明,绿汁发酵液(PFJ)或其发酵液稀释再发酵后的绿汁发酵液(dPFJ)处理组的青贮稻秸中的pH和氨态氮水平明显低于其他处理组(P<0.05),乳酸含量显著高于其他处理组(P<0.05)。由此可见,PFJ和dPFJ能够明显地改善水稻秸青贮品质。

  1. Improve fermentation quality of alfalfa silage by addition of fermented juice prepared from Kobresia littledalei%藏嵩草绿汁发酵液提高苜蓿青贮发酵品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉环; 廉美娜; 郭旭生

    2013-01-01

      为探讨不同海拔藏嵩草绿汁发酵液(previous fermented juice, PFJ)对青贮饲料发酵品质和营养价值的影响,以苜蓿为青贮原料,分别添加4种不同海拔的藏嵩草 PFJ及添加等量蒸馏水为对照制作苜蓿青贮,每个处理4次重复,青贮60 d后分别测定其发酵品质和营养成分.结果表明,藏嵩草附着及PFJ中乳酸菌数随着海拔升高显著增加(P The results showed that count of lactic acid bacteria living cells in Kobresia littledalei and PFJ growing at different altitudes significantly increased as altitude increased (P In conclusion, adding Kobresia littledalei PFJ can improve alfalfa silage fermentation quality, inhibit protein degradation; the higher the altitude, the better the quality. It had an important role not only in improving the utilization of alfalfa silage protein, but also in providing reference for using local native grass resources for forage grass silage in cold area in future.

  2. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  3. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  4. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  5. Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge on Microorganism Inactivation and Quality of Orange Juice%介质阻挡放电对橙汁灭菌及其品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅西; 邵先军; 彭兆裕; 张增辉; 张冠军; 石兴民

    2012-01-01

    In order to eliminate some unwanted side-effects caused by thermal processes sterilization,non-thermal sterilization techniques have been rapidly developed in recent years.The low temperature plasma(LTP) generated by parallel-plate electrode DBD was employed to sterilize three kinds of microorganisms inoculated with and without orange juice,and its influence on quality of orange juice was investigated.Three kinds of typical microorganisms,Staphylococcus aureus(gram-positive),Escherichia coli(gram-negative),and Candida albicans(typical of fungi),were employed to explore the inactivation mechanisms.The effect of LTP on microorganism inactivation with different treatment time was investigated.In addition,the effect of LTP on shelf life of orange juice was studied,and the biological and medical detection methods and instruments(4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetry,sodium hydroxide titration,Abbe refractometer,acidometer and spectrophotometer) were employed to measure the Vit C concentration,total acid,°Brix,pH value and turbidity in orange juice before and after plasma treatment,also the effect of pH value on microorganism inactivation was investigated.The experimental results show that: low temperature plasma is safe and effective in inactivating microorganisms(Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,and Candida albicans) in orange juice,and can significantly extend its shelf life.LTP treatment has hardly effect on nutritional,physical and chemical characteristics of the orange juice.The pH value does not play an important role in microorganism inactivation.It is proposed that microorganism inactivation is mainly due to reactive oxygen species(ROS) and charged particles.%为了消除加热杀菌的不利影响,开发和研究冷灭菌技术日益受到人们的重视。为此,利用大气压空气中平行平板介质阻挡放电(DBD)产生的低温等离子体对橙汁灭菌效果及品质的影响进行了研究。选取了3种具

  6. Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell

    2011-05-01

    The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid.

  7. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  8. 木酢液对2种类型蔬菜感官品质和质量安全的效应%Effects of Wood Vinegar on Flavor Quality and Food Safety of Vegetables in Two Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    塔娜; 姚志斌; 孙江; 戴伟; 马珣

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to study the effects of wood vinegar on flavor quality and food safety indicators of tomato and Chinese cabbage by designing different concentration of wood vinegar. The results showed that lycopene content, Vc content and sugar-acid ratio of tomato and contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein and Vc of Chinese cabbage were increased greatly under the low concentration treatment (P500).Lycopene content of tomato was obviously decreased and chlorophyll content of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased under the high concentration treatment (P300), while other indicators were not markedly changed. In addition, nitrite content of both vegetables were remarkably decreased under two wood vinegar treatments, while it seemed no conspicuous increase in the enrichment of heavy metals. Therefore, wood vinegar of suitable concentration can improve the flavor quality and effectively keep food safety of vegetables.%为了研究木酢液对蔬菜感官品质和质量安全的影响,对番茄和大白菜施用不同浓度的木酢液进行对照试验.结果表明:经低浓度500倍木酢液处理后,番茄体内番茄红素含量、Vc含量以及糖酸比均显著增加;大白菜体内可溶性糖含量、可溶性蛋白含量和Vc含量提高明显.而经高浓度300倍木酢液处理后,番茄中番茄红素含量减少,其他指标无显著变化;大白菜除叶绿素含量显著升高外,其他指标变化不显著或降低.此外,木酢液处理显著降低了番茄和大白菜的亚硝酸盐水平,并且没有明显增加重金属的富集程度.这说明适宜浓度的木酢液可以改善蔬菜品质,并能有效保障2类蔬菜的食品质量安全.

  9. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  10. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  11. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  12. Flavor-diagonal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The focus of this brief review is on new physics (NP) sources of CP violation, especially related to the flavor-diagonal phenomena of electric dipole moments (EDMs) of elementary particles and atoms. Using weak scale supersymmetry as an example, we illustrate various aspects of the "new physics CP-problem". We also explore the interplay between flavor-changing and flavor-diagonal CP violation in the context of the recent hints from the Tevatron for new sources of CP violation in the B-meson systems.

  13. Characterization and comparison of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and instrumental taste profile of juices from different botanical origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Karnopp, A.R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 billion litres of juices in 2011 and a great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed at mapping the quality of various juices from different b

  14. Characterization and comparison of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and instrumental taste profile of juices from different botanical origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Karnopp, A.R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 billion litres of juices in 2011 and a great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed at mapping the quality of various juices from different

  15. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  16. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  17. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  18. Flavor formation and character in cocoa and chocolate: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Paterson, Alistair; Fowler, Mark; Ryan, Angela

    2008-10-01

    Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However, the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment, and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to the variations in flavor character would have significant commercial implications.

  19. Nicotine concentrations with electronic cigarette use: effects of sex and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Cheryl A; Litt, Mark D; McLaughlin, Lynn D; Burki, Nausherwan A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when using a popular e-cigarette and 18 mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations. We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5 min ad libitum. Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after the onset of e-cigarette use. Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5 min by 4 ng/mL at the first laboratory session (p flavor (based on smoking history) on changes in nicotine concentrations. After adding preferred flavor, sex, and visit order to the model, there was a significant preferred flavor by sex interaction (p flavors had lower nicotine concentrations and rated their e-cigarette as less likeable (p flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with e-cigarette use in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Nutritional Role of Flavored and White Milk in the Diets of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L., III

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some schools are removing flavored milk from lunchrooms based on the perception that consumption has a negative impact on the overall dietary quality. The goal of this study was to assess the contribution of flavored and white milk in the diets of children. Methods: Intake data from children 2 to 18?years (N?=?7332) participating in…

  1. Mandarin flavor and aroma volatile composition are strongly influenced by holding temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin flavor quality often declines during storage but the respective contributions to the flavor disorder of warm versus cold temperature portions of the storage regime were unknown. To determine this ‘W. Murcott’ mandarins were stored for either 6 weeks at a continuous 5 ºC or held at 20 ºC fo...

  2. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  3. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neil Carol E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  4. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  5. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Du, Bao-Lei; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Chun-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice. High hydrostatic pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the total viable count from 4.38 log cfu/ml to nondetectable level and completely inactivated yeasts and molds in raw mulberry juice, ensuring the microbiological safety as thermal processing at 85 ℃ for 15 min. High hydrostatic pressure processing maintained significantly (p juice than thermal processing. The main volatile compounds of mulberry juice were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. High hydrostatic pressure processing enhanced the volatile compound concentrations of mulberry juice while thermal processing reduced them in comparison with the control. These results suggested that high hydrostatic pressure processing could be an alternative to conventional thermal processing for production of high-quality mulberry juice.

  6. Approximate Flavor Symmetry in Supersymmetric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the maximal approximate flavor symmetry in the framework of generic minimal supersymmetric standard model. We consider the low energy effective theory of the flavor physics with all the possible operators included. Spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking leads to the approximate flavor symmetry in Yukawa sector and the supersymmetry breaking sector. Fermion mass and mixing hierachies are the results of the hierachy of the flavor symmetry breaking. It is found that in this theory i...

  7. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.

  8. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  9. Preparation on Solidity Jujube Juice Soybean Yogurt%凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤春; 高冬婷

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] The study aimed to study the optimum fermentation conditions for solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt. [ Method ] With the jujube juice and soybean flour as main raw materials, the solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt was made through inoculating with the mixture of Str. ThemophUus and L bulgaricw(1: 1). The orthogonal tests with L,(3 ) design was used to confirm the optimum curd formula and the best quality formula and the quality of the product was identified on base of the sense tested scoring table. [ Result]The optimum formula for solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt obtained through the orthogonal tests was as follows: the adding amount of jujube juice was 20.0% , that of sugar was 8.0% and that of honey was 2.0% , the fermentation temperature was 42 X., the inoculating quantity was 4.0% and the fermentation time was 6 h. Kept at low temperature,the products were good in texture condition,without whey separation and with normal flavor and uniform color. But compared with the shelf life (15 d) of sold yogurt,its shelf life was partial short. [Conclusion]The solidity jujube juice soybean yogurt showed the health care function of 3 materials including soy beans,red jujube and lactic acid,and had characters of all nutrition,simple and practical preparation process and the cost was less than the common yoghurt.%[目的]研究凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的最佳发酵条件.[方法]以红枣汁和豆粉为主要原料,将嗜热链球菌和保加利亚乳酸杆菌按1∶1的比例混合发酵,研制凝固型枣汁豆酸乳,采用L9(34)正交试验设计,确定最佳凝乳配方和最优品质配方,并根据感官检验评分表鉴定产品的品质.[结果]通过正交试验得出凝固型枣汁豆酸乳的最佳配方为:枣汁添加量20.0%,蔗糖8.0%,蜂蜜添加量2.0%,发酵温度为42℃,接种量4.0%,发酵时间为6h.低温保存后,产品的组织状态良好,无乳清分离,风味正常,色泽均匀一致,但与市售酸奶保质期15 d

  10. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  11. Research of intensive ways of diffusion juice production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying of preparation methods influence for beet shavings and waters to the extraction process with application of different reagents (aluminum sulfate, bentonite and gypsum to produce the electrochemically activated solutions on quality indicators of sugar beet produced juice.

  12. Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Michael D; Elliott-Eller, Melanie; Weidner, Gerdi; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Chew, Mailine H; Marlin, Ruth; Raisin, Caren J; Ornish, Dean

    2005-09-15

    Pomegranate juice contains antioxidants such as soluble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins and may have antiatherosclerotic properties. However, no study has investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on patients who have ischemic coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated whether daily consumption of pomegranate juice for 3 months would affect myocardial perfusion in 45 patients who had CHD and myocardial ischemia in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups: a pomegranate juice group (240 ml/day) or a placebo group that drank a beverage of similar caloric content, amount, flavor, and color. Participants underwent electrocardiographic-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomographic technetium-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy at rest and during stress at baseline and 3 months. Visual scoring of images using standardized segmentation and nomenclature (17 segments, scale 0 to 4) was performed by a blinded independent nuclear cardiologist. To assess the amount of inducible ischemia, the summed difference score (SDS) was calculated by subtracting the summed score at rest from the summed stress score. The experimental and control groups showed similar levels of stress-induced ischemia (SDS) at baseline (p >0.05). After 3 months, the extent of stress-induced ischemia decreased in the pomegranate group (SDS -0.8 +/- 2.7) but increased in the control group (SDS 1.2 +/- 3.1, p pomegranate juice may improve stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients who have CHD.

  13. Optimization of polyphenol removal from kiwifruit juice using a macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenpeng; Yu, Zhifang; Yue, Tianli; Quek, Siew Young

    2017-06-01

    The separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential for enhancing sensory properties and prevent the browning reaction in juice during processing and storage. The present study investigated the dynamic adsorption and desorption of polyphenols in kiwifruit juice using AB-8 resin. The model obtained could be successfully applied to predict the experimental results of dynamic adsorption capacity (DAC) and dynamic desorption quantity (DDQ). The results showed that dynamic adsorption of polyphenols could be optimised in a juice concentration of 19 °Brix, with a feed flow-rate of 1.3 mL min(-1) and a feed volume of 7 bed volume (BV). The optimum conditions for dynamic desorption of polyphenols from the AB-8 resin were an ethanol concentration of 43% (v/v), an elute flow-rate of 2.2 mL min(-1) and an elute volume of 3 BV. The optimized DAC value was 3.16 g of polyphenols kg(-1) resin, whereas that for DDQ was 917.5 g kg(-1) , with both values being consistent with the predicted values generated by the regression models. The major polyphenols in the dynamic desorption solution consisted of seven compositions. The present study could be scaled-up using a continuous column system for industrial application, thus contributing to the improved flavor and color of kiwifruit juice. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Adhesion of Asaia bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, Hubert; Kregiel, Dorota; Czyzowska, Agata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.

  15. Characteristic of Fermented Whey Beverage with Addition of Tomato Juice (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Sari, A. M.; Laksono, P. W.; Aprilia, E. N.

    2017-04-01

    Whey is the liquid resulting from the coagulation of milk from cheese manufacture. The availability of lactose in whey and presence of other essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms makes it one of the potential substrate for the production of different bio-products through fermentation process. Lactic acid production through fermentation from lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative processing route for whey lactose utilization. However, a problem with such approaches is the low total solids content. Sucrose and tomato juice added to increases the total solids content. The aim of this work was to study the characteristic of fermented whey beverage with different tomato juice concentration (5, 10, 15%) using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid content, pH, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of fermented whey beverage samples were examined after 18hours fermentation. Fermented whey beverage with 5% tomato juice obtained the highest scores for color, aroma, flavor, texture and overall attributes. The lactic acid content and pH of fermented whey beverage ranged from 0.326 to 0.437% and from 4.13 to 4.64, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity (9.073%) was found in sample with 15% tomato juice concentration. The best formulation is the sample with 5% of tomato juice concentration.

  16. Inactivation of microorganisms in apple cider and orange juice using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juice processors have traditionally used thermal pasteurization to prevent deterioration by spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, thermal processing may cause adverse effects on product quality such as undesirable taste and destruction of heat sensi...

  17. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  18. Detection of off-flavor in catfish using a conducting polymer electronic-nose technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Oberle, Charisse S; Oberle, Daniel F

    2013-11-25

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.

  19. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  20. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  1. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  2. Effects of added glutamate on liking for novel food flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John

    2004-04-01

    Adding glutamate to foods increases their umami quality, their acceptability and their consumption. The functional significance of this palatability is unclear. Other highly palatable substances, e.g. sugar and fats, also increase liking for novel flavors with which they are repeatedly paired, especially when ingested. This is thought to reflect the rewarding effects of sugar and fat energy, post-ingestion. To determine if a liking for novel flavors can also be conditioned using glutamate, 44 subjects rated 10 ml samples of three novel soups for liking and familiarity, both before and after seven daily exposures to each of two soup flavors-one with added monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) (0.5% w/w; MSG+) and one without (MSG-). During exposure, subjects received either a 250 ml bowl of soup (Consume group) or a 10 ml sample (Taste group). There were no significant differences as a function of samples or groups, despite some trends for changes in liking to be higher in the consumed MSG+ condition. In a second experiment, 69 subjects were divided into three groups (Consume MSG+; Consume MSG-; Taste MSG+) in which they received nine exposures to one novel soup flavor. The Consume MSG+ group showed a significantly greater increase in liking than either the Consume MSG- or the Taste MSG+ groups, which did not differ. Changes in familiarity ratings reflected amount consumed, not MSG content. Pairing glutamate with a novel flavor can condition liking for that flavor. While post-ingestive effects of glutamate may be rewarding, flavor conditioning cannot be ruled out.

  3. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  5. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Couto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix corresponding to a Volumetric Concentration Factor (VCF of 2.9. The concentration of soluble solids, total solids, and total acidity increased proportionally to FCV. The concentrated juice and three commercial concentrated pineapple juices were evaluated regarding preference and purchase intention by 79 pineapple juice consumers. The concentrated juice by reverse osmosis was the preferred among consumers. It can be concluded that this process may be considered an alternative to the pre-concentration of fruit juices.

  6. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  7. Contextual control of flavor neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Díaz, E

    2013-06-13

    The role of context in the retrieval of learned information has been widely analyzed in the associative learning domain. However, evidence about the effect of context on flavor memory retrieval is more limited. We have carried out four experiments with rats testing for possible interactions between neophobia habituation and the context in which flavors are presented, by manipulating prior experience with contexts. Our results point to the relevance of context familiarity for the establishment and recovery of a safe taste memory trace. More specifically, the use of the animals' home cages as experimental context favored neophobia habituation (Experiments 1A and 2), reduced dopamine levels induced by administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 disrupted neophobia habituation when tested in presence of a new context (Experiment 1B), and testing in the animal's home cage increases the amount of flavor consumed, even when such flavor had a previous history of aversive conditioning (Experiment 3). We propose that exploring context without aversive consequences generates a safe memory trace of such context that becomes in the basis of increased flavor consumption.

  8. Bacteria Strains Selection for the Lactic Acid Fermentation Loquat Juice and their Fermentation Characteristics%枇杷汁乳酸发酵优良菌株筛选及其发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓姿; 梁璋成; 何志刚; 李维新; 魏巍

    2011-01-01

    以枇杷汁为原料,以乳酸发酵风味为主要评判指标,采用纯种控温发酵技术,筛选枇杷果汁乳酸发酵的优良乳酸菌,并研究其发酵特性.实验结果表明,枇杷果汁乳酸发酵的最适菌株为植物乳杆菌R23,其次为干酪乳杆菌R35,且2者发酵风格各具特色.发酵温度低于30℃时,菌细胞生长有较长的稳定期.枇杷果汁发酵过程中,总酸先降后升,酸代谢增减速率与发酵温度呈正相关.植物乳杆菌R23最适发酵温度25~30℃,发酵时间2~3 d.原果酸含量对发酵风味影响不显著.%To select the excellent lactic acid bacteria for the development of the lactic acid fermentation loquat beverage and provide theoretical basis for the quality regulation of lactic acid fermentation. Loquat fruit juice was used as the material. Using the pure species and temperature-controlled fermentation technology, the excellent lactic acid bacteria for lactic acid fermentation was selected by using the flavor of lactic acid fermentation as the major judging index. Then its fermentation characteristics were studied. The results showed that, Lactobacillus plantarum R23 was screened as the most suitable bacterium for lactic acid fermentation loquat juice, and next came Lactobacillus casei R35, and the flavor were different and special. When the fermentation temperature was lower than 30 ℃,the growth of lactic acid bacteria had a long stationary stage. In the fermentation process, a trend that acids decreasing at the first stage and increasing at the later stage was present, and the acid metebolism rate had positive effect on the fermentation temperature. The most suitable temperature of Lactobacillus plantarum R23 was 25~30 ℃ and the most time was 2~3 days. Fruit acid content of loquat juice wasn't significant influence for fermentation flavor.

  9. Sheepmeat flavor and the effect of different feeding systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Peter J; Frank, Damian; Singh, Tanoj K; Young, Owen A; Warner, Robyn D

    2013-04-17

    Lamb has a unique flavor, distinct from other popular red meats. Although flavor underpins lamb's popularity, it can also be an impediment to consumer acceptance. Lack of familiarity with sheepmeat flavor itself can be a barrier for some consumers, and undesirable feed-induced flavors may also compromise acceptability. Against the backdrop of climate uncertainty and unpredictable rainfall patterns, sheep producers are turning to alternatives to traditional grazing pasture systems. Historically, pasture has been the predominant feed system for lamb production in Australia and around the world. It is for this reason that there has been a focus on "pastoral" flavor in sheep meat. Pasture-associated flavors may be accepted as "normal" by consumers accustomed to meat from pasture-fed sheep; however, these flavors may be unfamiliar to consumers of meat produced from grain-fed and other feed systems. Over the past few decades, studies examining the impacts of different feeds on lamb meat quality have yielded variable consumer responses ranging from "no effect" to "unacceptable", illustrating the diverse and sometimes inconsistent impacts of different forages on sheepmeat flavor. Despite considerable research, there is no consensus on which volatiles are essential for desirable lamb aroma and how they differ compared to other red meats, for example, beef. In contrast, comparatively little work has focused specifically on the nonvolatile taste components of lamb flavor. Diet also affects the amount of intramuscular fat and its fatty acid composition in the meat, which has a direct effect on meat juiciness and texture as well as flavor, and its release during eating. The effect of diet is far from simple and much still needs to be learned. An integrated approach that encompasses all input variables is required to better understand the impact of the feed and related systems on sheepmeat flavor. This review brings together recent research findings and proposes some novel

  10. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  11. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (pgallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice.

  12. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  13. Lepton-Flavor Violating Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Galon, Iftah; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV $\\gamma$-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  14. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  15. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  16. Effects of oral chemical irritation on tastes and flavors in frequent and infrequent users of chili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Stevenson, R J

    1995-12-01

    The studies reported here addressed the question of whether the pungent principle in chilies, capsaicin, suppresses taste and flavor intensity. Over a period of several minutes, groups of frequent and infrequent eaters of chili repeatedly rated the taste and flavor intensities of sweet and sour solutions that also contained either orange or vanilla flavor, and capsaicin at 0, 2, 4, and 16 ppm. As well as the intensity of the qualities while in the mouth, measures of the number of rating periods for the intensity to dissipate to zero, and the summed total intensity were also derived. Infrequent chili users rated the capsaicin burn as more intense than did the frequent users. With few exceptions, and for groups, sweetness was suppressed by the presence of capsaicin. By contrast, sourness was unaffected by capsaicin. Flavor intensities also showed suppression by capsaicin. High correlations between ratings of sweetness and flavor were found, suggesting that perceptual confusion between the two qualities may have been responsible for the flavor suppression. A second experiment examined the effects of capsaicin on ratings of strawberry flavor alone. This study produced little evidence of flavor suppression by capsaicin. These results are discussed in terms of an attentional model of capsaicin's effects.

  17. 加强产品质量管理,促进咸味食品香精产业平稳健康发展%Enhance Product Quality Management to Promote Savory Flavoring Industry Stable and Healthy Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道兴; 宋云萍; 闫庆博

    2012-01-01

    A scientific and efficient food safety management team should be organized to lead the development of enterprises.The food safety and quality assurance system for savory flavoring industry should be improved.A comprehensive grasp of national laws and regulations and product standards,and the in-depth understanding of customer demand were necessary.The scientific and rational design of each recipe and the risk assessment were needed.Also the risk assessment of raw materials,good control of the production process and the public security emergency response mechanism should be established.%做好咸味食品香精的生产工作,首先要建立一支科学高效的食品安全管理队伍来带领整个企业的发展,要建立健全食品安全质量保证体系,全面把握国家的法律法规和产品标准,深入了解客户的需求及其相关方需求,科学合理地设计每一个配方并对每一个配方做好风险评估.还要把好原料源头关,对每一种原辅料做好充分的风险评估,对到货的每一批原料做好验收,做好生产过程的控制,制定切实可行的食品防护计划,建立发生公共突发安全事件时的应急处理机制.

  18. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  19. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  20. Flavored axion-monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raymundo

    2016-10-01

    In this talk we consider the breaking of a flavor-symmetric potential as the origin of the pseudo-Goldstone bosons responsible for inflation. The breaking of flavor symmetry generates the fermion mass hierarchy while the breaking of accidental symmetries leads to pseudo-Goldstone bosons with an axion-monodromy potential appropriate for inflation. We deal with models where the inflaton is a linear combination of two fields. We will show that the mechanism by which inflation ends depends on the choice of parameters.

  1. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  2. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  3. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  4. Flavor issues in the Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which the flavor structure of SUSY model induces, either radiatively or through mixing, new flavor-violating interactions in the Higgs sector. The radiative flavor mediation mechanism is illustrated using the minimal SUSY extension of the SM (MSSM) with generic trilinear A-terms, and applied to evaluate the corrections to Lepton Flavor-Violating (LFV) and Flavor-Conserving (LFC) Higgs vertices. Flavor mediation through mixing is discussed within the context of an $E_6$-inspired multi-Higgs model, suplemented with an abelian flavor symmetry. Tevatron and LHC can probe the flavor structure of these models through the detection of the LFV Higgs mode h->tau mu, while NLC can perform high-precision tests of the LFC mode h ->tau+ tau-.

  5. Effects of Fermented Green Juice and Cellulase on the Fermentation Quality of Banana Leave Silage%绿汁发酵液和纤维素酶对香蕉叶青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶杭; 贺宇; 张国轶; 张文昌; 陈国富; 庄益芬

    2014-01-01

    To research the effect of fermented green juice and cellulase on the fermentation quality of banana leaves silage ,banana leaves single silage was set as the control group and other silages were set up into the following groups with the different additives :2 mL · kg -1 fermented green juice (FGJ) group ,0.05 ,0.15 and 0.25 g · kg -1 of cellulose groups (CEL1 ,CEL2 and CEL3) and 2 mL · kg -1 FGJ+0.05 g · kg -1 cell,2 mL · kg -1 FGJ +0.15 g · kg -1 celland 2 mL · kg -1 FGJ+ 0.25 g · kg -1 cellmixed groups (MIX1 ,MIX2 and MIX3) respectively . Then ,they were ensiled at room temperature and opened 60 days later .In the end ,the fermentation quality and the chemical composition were analyzed .The same results were obtained in all three replicates .Our results showed that the pH and GLR of the other groups are decreased (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05) ,compared with the control group . Meanwhile ,the DMR of three MIX groups were increased (P<0.01) compared with the FGJ ,and the DMR and WSC of MIX groups were increased (P<0.01) ,but the AN/TN were reduced (P<0.01) ,compared with the cellgroups with the same level′s cellulase enzyme .Furthermore ,the pH was declining on trend ,DMR and WSC were increased with the levels of cellulose in three MIX groups .Our results suggested that fermented green juice and cellulase improved the quality of banana leaves silage ,and the effect of M IX3 is the best .%为开发利用香蕉叶生产青贮饲料,研究绿汁发酵液和纤维素酶对香蕉叶青贮品质的影响,在香蕉叶青贮中以香蕉叶单独青贮为对照组,设置如下处理:添加2 mL · kg -1绿汁发酵液(FGJ)组;分别添加0.05、0.15、0.25 g · kg -1纤维素酶(CEL1、CEL2和CEL3)组;分别添加2 mL · kg -1 FGJ+0.05 g · kg -1 CEL、2 mL · kg -1 FGJ +0.15g·kg -1CEL和2mL·kg -1FGJ+0.25g·kg -1CEL混合(MIX1、MIX2和MIX3)组。每个处理重复3次。常温下贮存60 d开封,测定青贮的发酵品质和化学成分

  6. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  7. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  8. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  9. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL FACTORS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUICE PURIFICATION IN THE PROCESS OF II SATURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of reducing substances in the final stage of lime - carbon dioxide purification of raw juice is studied in the article. The presence of significant amounts of reducing substances in the juice of the I saturation increases chroma and calcium salts in the purified product. It is actual to apply additional techniques and methods of cleaning of production sugar-containing solutions at the final stage of lime -carbon dioxide cleaning - II saturation, that will increase the completeness of precipitation of organic and mineral non-sugars, improve the quality of the purified juice, increase the yield of white sugar and improve its quality. The effect filtroperlit as seed material for forming the structure of particles of calcium carbonate precipitate with a larger surface adsorption is studied. The effect of phosphate input for further improvement of the efficiency of adsorption in the juice purification process was also studied. The effect of flow of activated filtroperlit on II saturation filtration speed was studied. It was found out that the more non-sugars are present in the juice, the smaller electrokinetic potential has the surface sediment. Rational consumption of reagents depending on the quality of the feedstock is calculated. In the process of cleaning the juice of various technological quality, it is necessary to control the reagents flow. It was found out that for cleaning juice of satisfactory technological quality the flow of filtroperlit is 0.015 - 0.033% by weight of juice and 15% РО4 3- . When cleaning the juice obtained from sugar beet of poor quality, it is necessary to increase the filtroperlit flow up to 0.050% and phosphate up to 20 %. It is necessary to control permanently the main liming process, the maximum decomposition of reducing substances to obtain thermally stable juice.

  11. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep......-lat

  12. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  13. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if

  14. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raidal, M.; van der Schaaf, A.; Bigi, I.; Mangano, M. L.; Semertzidis, Y.; Abel, S.; Albino, S.; Antusch, S.; Arganda, E.; Bajc, B.; Banerjee, S.; Biggio, C.; Blanke, M.; Bonivento, W.; Branco, G. C.; Bryman, D.; Buras, A. J.; Calibbi, L.; Ceccucci, A.; Chankowski, P. H.; Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A.; DeMille, D. P.; Deppisch, F.; Diaz, M. A.; Duling, B.; Felcini, M.; Fetscher, W.; Forti, F.; Ghosh, D. K.; Giffels, M.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giudice, G.; Goudzovskij, E.; Han, T.; Harris, P. G.; Herrero, M. J.; Hisano, J.; Holt, R. J.; Huitu, K.; Ibarra, A.; Igonkina, O.; Ilakovac, A.; Imazato, J.; Isidori, G.; Joaquim, F. R.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; King, S. F.; Kirch, K.; Kozlov, M. G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, O.; Lusiani, A.; Ma, E.; Marchiori, G.; Masiero, A.; Masina, I.; Moreau, G.; Mori, T.; Muntel, M.; Neri, N.; Nesti, F.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Paradisi, P.; Petcov, S. T.; Picariello, M.; Porretti, V.; Poschenrieder, A.; Pospelov, M.; Rebane, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Ritz, A.; Roberts, L.; Romanino, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A.; Rueckl, R.; Senjanovic, G.; Serra, N.; Shindou, T.; Takanishi, Y.; Tarantino, C.; Teixeira, A. M.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Turzynski, K. J.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Vempati, S. K.; Vives, O.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the report of the "Flavor in the era of the LHC" Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the ma

  15. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if th

  16. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points in Cherry Juice Processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qingdao is one of the homelands for Cherry in China and in recent years, deep processing industry of cherry is developing rapidly. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP quality control system is introduced into production process of cherry juice, which has effectively controlled food safety risks in food production processes. The practices have proved that application of HACCP system reduced probability of pollution in cherry juice production process effectively. The application of risk control system in cherry juice production provides benefits for standardization of the production process and helps in food safety supervision in production processes.

  17. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simões Couto; Lourdes Maria Corrêa Cabral; Virgínia Martins da Matta; Rosires Deliza; Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix correspon...

  18. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  19. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  20. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  1. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on

  2. Flavor Constraints on New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    This talk highlights, from a theoretical point of view, some recent exciting results in flavor physics, as well as future prospects. We discuss possible implications of a subset of the experimental results in tension with the standard model, such as the $4\\sigma$ deviation in the $B\\to D^{(*)}\\tau\\bar\

  3. Three Neutrino Flavors are Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to account for all three experimental indications for neutrino oscillations with just three neutrino flavors. In particular, we suggest that the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies are to be explained by the same mass difference and mixing. Possible implications and future tests of the resulting mass-mixing pattern are given.

  4. Lepton-Flavored Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Huai-Ke; Liu, Tao; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We explore lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis, driven by CP-violation in leptonic Yukawa sector, using the $\\tau-\\mu$ system in the two Higgs doublet model as an example. This setup generically yields, together with the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, a tree-level Jarlskog-invariant that can drive dynamical generation of baryon asymmetry during a first-order electroweak phase transition and results in CP-violating effect in the decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$. We find that the observed baryon asymmetry can be generated in parameter space compatible with current experimental results for the decays $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and $\\tau \\rightarrow \\mu \\gamma$, as well as the present bound on the electric dipole moment of the electron. The baryon asymmetry generated is intrinsically correlated with the CP-violating decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau\\mu$, which thus may serve as "smoking guns" to test lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis.

  5. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  6. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract.

  7. Perception of melting and flavor release of ice cream containing different types and contents of fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvönen, L; Linna, M; Tuorila, H; Dijksterhuis, G

    2003-04-01

    Temporal effects of dairy and vegetable fats (0 to 18%) on perception of strawberry flavor release and melting of ice cream were studied using the time intensity sensory method. Also, aroma and flavor attributes of the ice cream samples were evaluated. Only slight effects of fat on the rate of flavor release and flavor intensity were perceived. A slightly faster flavor release from the vegetable fat compared with dairy fat was noticed. Polydextrose and maltodextrin as bodying agents in the fat-free ice cream significantly increased flavor release and melting rate of the ice cream. Increasing fat content slightly retarded melting of ice cream in the mouth. No significant effect of the fat quality on perceived melting was noticed. Significant differences in aroma and flavor attributes of the fat-free and other samples were perceived. Intensity and sharpness of the strawberry aroma and flavor were greater in fat-free samples and they were perceived as nontypical. Fattiness and creaminess were highly correlated. Maltodextrin and polydextrose increased perceived fattiness and creaminess of fat-free ice cream.

  8. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  9. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points in Cherry Juice Processing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Peilong Xu; Na Na

    2015-01-01

    Qingdao is one of the homelands for Cherry in China and in recent years, deep processing industry of cherry is developing rapidly. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) quality control system is introduced into production process of cherry juice, which has effectively controlled food safety risks in food production processes. The practices have proved that application of HACCP system reduced probability of pollution in cherry juice production process effectively. ...

  10. 餐饮企业自制鲜榨果汁卫生质量的调查与分析%Investigation and analysis on sanitary quality of fresh fruit juice manufactured by catering business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕英; 刘华清; 顾勤明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the microbial pollution situation of fresh fruit juice manufactured by catering business in Gusu district of Suzhou. Methods Totally 117 item fresh fruit juice and operative appliance were sampled by sterile operation in catering business from 2013 to 2014, the microbial pollution index included aerobic bacterial count, fecal coliform count and pathogenic bacteria. Results Pathogenic bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and mycete were found from fresh fruit juice. Qualified rate of fresh fruit juice for aerobic bacterial count, fecal coliform count and pathogenic bacteria were 93.0%, 68.4% and 84.2%, respectively. Sanitation qualified rate of fresh fruit juice was higher in 2014 than 2013, the rates were 73.3% and 48.2% respectively. Sanitation qualified rate of sanitary cup was 100%. Qualified rate of juice extractor for aerobic bacterial count, pathogenic bacteria and fecal coliform counts were 100%, 100% and 86.7%, respectively. Conclusion Fresh fruit juice can be easily polluted by microbial, so more supervision and administration should be taken to catering business.%目的:通过苏州市姑苏区餐饮企业现售鲜榨果汁微生物污染情况的调查,了解市售鲜榨果汁食品安全状况。方法2013至2014年抽取区内餐饮企业现售的鲜榨果汁及加工用具共117件(份),检测菌落总数、大肠菌群、致病菌。结果鲜榨果汁中检出致病菌(金黄色葡萄球菌和霉菌),菌落总数、大肠菌群和致病菌合格率分别为93.0%、68.4%、84.2%。2014年鲜榨果汁卫生指标合格率高于2013年,两年分别为73.3%、48.2%。一次性杯子卫生指标合格率均为100%。榨汁机菌落总数、致病菌合格率均为100%,大肠菌群合格率为86.7%。结论市售鲜榨果汁容易受微生物污染,需加强对市售鲜榨果汁制售单位监督和管理。

  11. Avaliação da qualidade de caldo de cana envasado a quente e por sistema asséptico Quality of sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice packed by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Samorano da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois processos térmicos foram aplicados ao caldo de cana com o objetivo de se obter um produto estável à temperatura ambiente. A variedade de cana de açúcar (Sacharum ssp. utilizada foi a RB72 - 454. A metodologia de planejamento fatorial foi aplicada a fim de se verificar a melhor combinação entre acidez (pH e doçura (°Brix. Houve uma tendência para melhor aceitação sensorial quando o pH foi maior que 4,0 e °Brix maior que 15. Primeiramente, o caldo foi submetido a 141 °C /10 s e envasado assepticamente em garrafas de vidro previamente esterilizadas. No segundo processo, o caldo foi submetido ao tratamento térmico a 110 °C /10 s e envasado a quente (90 ± 5 °C em garrafas de vidro. Análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais foram realizadas durante a estocagem dos lotes à temperatura ambiente. O lote processado assepticamente apresentou vida útil de 30 dias e o envasado a quente, 60 dias, não apresentando diferença estatística (p The objective of this work is to evaluate two thermal processes in order to obtain sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice stable at room temperature in glass bottles. An experimental methodology was applied to obtain the best combination between pH and °Brix based on the sensory results. There was a tendency for a better sensory acceptance for pH > 4.0 and °Brix > 15. Two thermal processes were applied to sterilize the juice. Firstly, the juice was submitted to 141 °C /10 s, and then aseptically filled in glass bottles previously sterilized. In the second process, the juice was submitted to 110 °C /10 s and filled into glass bottles at 90 ± 5 °C. Physical-chemical changes, microbiological counts and sensory acceptance were evaluated during the storage at room temperature. The shelf life of aseptically processed juice was 30 days and 60 days for the hot filled juice based on the sensory evaluation. These results indicated that the hot fill process was more efficient for sugarcane

  12. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  13. Flavor Mixing Phenomenology in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the flavor mixing effects in supersymmetric models on electroweak precision observables, Higgs boson mass predictions, B-physics observables, quark flavor violating Higgs decays, lepton flavor violating charged lepton decays and lepton flavor violating Higgs decays. The flavor mixing effects are studied in model independent way i.e. by putting off-diagonal entries in the sfermion mass matrix by hand as well as in the minimal flavor violating constrained MSSM, where mixing can originate from CKM matrix in the case of squarks and from PMNS matrix in the case of sleptons. We found that flavor mixing can have large impact to some observables, enabling us to put new constraints on parameter space in supersymmetric models.

  14. A magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst for fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojitra, Uttam V; Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2016-12-15

    The major complications in fruit juice quality improvement are the presence of polysaccharides components in the form of disrupted fruit cell wall and cell materials. Hence, breakdown of cellulose along with pectin and starch is important for the juice processing. In this context, magnetic tri-enzyme nanobiocatalyst was prepared by simultaneously co-immobilizing three enzymes; α-amylase, pectinase and cellulase onto amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle by 60mM glutaraldehyde concentration with 10h cross-linking time for one pot juice clarification. The prepared nanobiocatalyst was characterized by FT-IR, SEM and XRD. The thermal (50-70°C) and pH (3-6) stability studies indicated more than two folds increment in half-life and enhanced tolerance to lower pH. The immobilized enzymes retained up to 75% of residual activity even after eight consecutive cycles of reuse. Finally, the clarification of apple, grapes and pineapple juices using magnetic tri-enzyme showed 41%, 46% and 53% respective reduction in turbidity till 150min treatment.

  15. Alternatives to conventional thermal treatments in fruit-juice processing. Part 1: Techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2017-02-11

    This paper provides an overview of alternatives to conventional thermal treatments and a review of the literature on fruit-juice processing for three key operations in fruit-juice production such as microbial inactivation, enzyme inactivation, and juice yield enhancement, these being radiation treatments (UV light, high-intensity light pulses, γ-irradiation), electrical treatments (pulsed electric fields, radiofrequency electric fields, ohmic heating), microwave heating, ultrasound, high hydrostatic pressure, inert gas treatments (supercritical carbon dioxide, ozonation), and flash-vacuum expansion. The nonthermal technologies discussed in this review have the potential to meet industry and consumer expectations. However, the lack of standardization in operating conditions hampers comparisons among different studies, and consequently ambiguity arises within the literature. For the juice industry to advance, more detailed studies are needed on the scaling-up, process design, and optimization, as well as on the effect of such technologies on juice quality of juices in order to maximize their potential as alternative nonthermal technologies in fruit-juice processing.

  16. 鱼香肉丝风味蛋糕制作工艺的研究%Study on Production Process of Fish-flavored Shredded Pork Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家硕; 黄漫青

    2015-01-01

    本研究将蛋糕的绵密丝滑与鱼香肉丝的甜辣鲜香相结合,同时使用更安全的白醋和活性干酵母替代塔塔粉和泡打粉,使蛋糕的食用性更安全健康,口味和营养更丰富。试验结果表明,蛋糕的最佳配方为:鱼香肉丝粉9 g,面粉120 g,鸡蛋150 g,白糖80 g,大豆油25 g,牛奶125 g,酵母0.5 g,柠檬汁8 g,白醋0.5 g。按此配方制得的蛋糕绵密丝滑,光泽度与弹性较好,甜味和咸味适中,微辣,鱼香肉丝的风味浓郁,综合品质最佳。%We aim to find out an appropriate formula that well combines the fish fresh sweet spicy flavor of shredded pork with the tight-knit silky flavor of cake, at the same time, use more safe white vinegar and active dry yeast instead of Tata flour and baking powder in the process of making cake. All these attempts could make the cake safer and healthier, more nutritious and have more abundant taste than previous products. The results suggests than appropriate formula of the cake is as follows:the fish-flavored shredded pork powder 9 g;flour 120 g;eggs 150 g;sugar 80 g;oil 25 g;milk 125 g;baking powder 0.5 g;lemon juice 8 g;white vinegar 0.5 g. According to this formula, we get fish-flavored shredded pork cake with good luster and elasticity, moderate sweetness and the best comprehensive quality.

  17. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  18. Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50 ± 2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage.

  19. Effect of cultivation line and peeling on food composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Fukunaga, Hibiki; Yamano, Yoshimasa; Hou, De-Xing; Maeda, Goki; Wada, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice from four main cultivation lines subjected to two peeling practices (with or without peeling) were discriminated in terms of quality attributes, represented by sugar and organic acid composition, taste characteristic, aroma profile, and antioxidant activity. Shiikuwasha juice from these lines had diverse food compositions; 'Izumi kugani' juice had lower acidity but contained more ascorbic acid than that of other cultivation lines. The composition of volatile aroma components was influenced by fruit cultivation line, whereas its content was affected by peeling process (20.26-53.73 mg L(-1) in whole juice versus 0.82-1.58 mg L(-1) in flesh juice). Peeling also caused Shiikuwasha juice to be less astringent and acidic bitter and to lose its antioxidant activity. Moreover, the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of Shiikuwasha juice positively influenced its antioxidant activity. Each fruit cultivation line had a distinct food composition, taste characteristic, and aroma profile. Peeling in Shiikuwasha juice production might reduce aftertaste, and thus might improve its palatability. Comprehensive information on the effect of cultivation line and peeling on quality attributes will be useful for Shiikuwasha juice production, and can be applied to juice production of similar small citrus fruits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  1. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  2. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  3. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  4. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hazard, Derek E

    2016-01-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays $M \\to \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ of quarkonium states $M$ with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating $M \\to \\gamma \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  5. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  6. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  7. Avaliação da qualidade do caldo extraído de toletes de cana-de-açúcar minimamente processada, armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas Evaluation of the quality of the juice extracted of pieces of fresh cut sugar cane stored under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rodrigues Rabelo de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica do caldo extraído de toletes de cana-de-açúcar minimamente processada, armazenados sob três temperaturas. Colmos de cana-de-açúcar foram minimamente processados na forma de toletes com 60 cm de comprimento, higienizados e acondicionados em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade. Cada embalagem acondicionou 12 toletes de cana-de-açúcar devidamente higienizados. Em seguida, procedeu-se o armazenamento das embalagens sob três temperaturas: ambiente (22 a 25 °C, utilizada como controle, refrigeração (4 °C e congelamento (-20 °C. Foram avaliadas a qualidade físico-química do caldo e a sua composição microbiológica, em intervalos de 6 dias, durante 24 dias de armazenamento. O caldo extraído dos toletes armazenados sob congelamento apresentou boa qualidade físico-química e microbiológica durante todo o período avaliado. Por outro lado, o caldo extraído dos toletes armazenados sob refrigeração e o controle apresentaram elevadas alterações microbiológicas, limitando o período de conservação dos toletes até 12 e 6 dias, respectivamente, o que permitiu concluir que o tratamento mais eficiente para a preservação da qualidade do caldo foi o congelamento da cana-de-açúcar minimamente processada.The present work aimed at evaluating the microbiological and physicochemical quality of fresh cut sugar cane juice. Sugar cane stalks were cut in pieces of 60 cm of length, sanitized, and conditioned in polyethylene packaging of low density. Each package conditioned 12 pieces of sanitized sugar can. After that, they were stored at three different temperatures: room temperature (22-25 °C, used as control, refrigeration (4 °C, and freezing (-20 °C. The microbiological and physicochemical quality of the juice was evaluated every 6 days of storage for 24 days. The sugar cane juice stored under freezing temperatures presented good quality for all

  8. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  9. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  10. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (u anti-u, d anti-d and s anti-s) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of q anti-q pairs leads automatically to an excess of anti-d over anti-u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data.

  11. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  12. Flavors of Supersymmetry Beyond Vanilla

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the territory of supersymmetry beyond the vanilla MSSM. With a viewpoint guided by electroweak naturalness, the review focuses on constructions that weaken or bypass current LHC constraints. Models of SUSY containing Dirac gluinos, compressed spectra, flavor-violating squarks, R-parity violation, stealth sectors, exotic detector objects, and more are discussed. In addition to presenting ways of hiding SUSY, these models highlight a few opportunities to improve LHC coverage.

  13. Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass

  14. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  15. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  17. Flavor effects on leptogenesis predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, S; Bari, Pasquale Di; Blanchet, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Flavor effects in leptogenesis reduce the region of the see-saw parameter space where the final predictions do not depend on the initial conditions, the strong wash-out regime. In this case we show that the lowest bounds holding on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass and on the reheating temperature for hierarchical heavy neutrinos, do not get relaxed compared to the usual ones in the one-flavor approximation, M_1 (T_reh) \\gtrsim 3 (1.5) x 10^9 GeV. Flavor effects can however relax down to these minimal values the lower bounds holding for fixed large values of the decay parameter K_1. We discuss a relevant definite example showing that, when the known information on the neutrino mixing matrix is employed, the lower bounds for K_1 \\gg 10, are relaxed by a factor 2-3 for light hierarchical neutrinos, without any dependence on \\theta_13 and on possible phases. On the other hand, going beyond the limit of light hierarchical neutrinos and taking into account Majorana phases, the lower bounds can be relaxe...

  18. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  19. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  20. Flavor Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C S; Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resultant flavor changing neutral current processes in the SU(3) \\otimes SU(3)_\\text{color} gauge-Higgs unification scenario. To achieve flavor violation is a challenging issue in the scenario, since the Yukawa couplings are originally higher dimensional gauge interactions. We argue that the presence of Z_2-odd bulk masses of fermions plays a crucial role as the new source of flavor violation. Although introducing brane-localized mass terms in addition to the bulk masses is necessary to realize flavor mixing, if the bulk masses were universal among generations, the flavor mixing and flavor changing neutral current processes are known to disappear. We also discuss whether natural flavor conservation is realized in the scenario. It is shown that the new source of flavor violation leads to flavor changing neutral current processes at the tree level due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. As a typical example we calculate the rate of K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing due to th...

  1. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L(-1) , 2 g L(-1) and 3 g L(-1) inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Extraction of DNA from orange juice, and detection of bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Baldwin, Elizabeth; Liao, Hui-Ling; Zhao, Wei; Kostenyuk, Igor; Burns, Jacqueline; Irey, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Orange juice processed from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected fruit is often associated with bitter taste and/or off-flavor. HLB disease in Florida is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem-limited bacterium. The current standard to confirm CLas for citrus trees is to take samples from midribs of leaves, which are rich in phloem tissues, and use a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test to detect the 16S rDNA gene of CLas. It is extremely difficult to detect CLas in orange juice because of the low CLas population, high sugar and pectin concentration, low pH, and possible existence of an inhibitor to DNA amplification. The objective of this research was to improve extraction of DNA from orange juice and detection of CLas by qPCR. Homogenization using a sonicator increased DNA yield by 86% in comparison to mortar and pestle extraction. It is difficult to separate DNA from pectin; however, DNA was successfully extracted by treating the juice with pectinase. Application of an elution column successfully removed the unidentified inhibitor to DNA amplification. This work provided a protocol to extract DNA from whole orange juice and detect CLas in HLB-affected fruit.

  4. Cido fruit juice entangled in quality scare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu Veterinaar- ja Toidulabor avastas Lätis toodetud Cido greibimahlakontsentraadist 210 mg/kg mürkainet, mis on üle nelja korra lubatud määrast rohkem mürkainet. Cido turundusdirektori Dmitrijs Tairovsi sõnul leiti Lätis ja Saksamaal tehtud testide põhjal ainet tunduv alt vähem. Ettevõtte tegevdirektor Vadims Vlasovs kahtlustab Leedu konkurente

  5. Cido fruit juice entangled in quality scare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu Veterinaar- ja Toidulabor avastas Lätis toodetud Cido greibimahlakontsentraadist 210 mg/kg mürkainet, mis on üle nelja korra lubatud määrast rohkem mürkainet. Cido turundusdirektori Dmitrijs Tairovsi sõnul leiti Lätis ja Saksamaal tehtud testide põhjal ainet tunduv alt vähem. Ettevõtte tegevdirektor Vadims Vlasovs kahtlustab Leedu konkurente

  6. Control panels of meat juice samples for a Salmonella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    In the Danish pig production system, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies in meat juice is used for Salmonella surveillance. Quality control (QC) of this ELISA was previously based on repeated testing of control serum samples. The purpose of the study...... reported here was to collect, characterize, and implement a panel of meat juice pools for supplemental internal QC. Muscle samples for extraction of meat juice were collected from slaughter pigs of 5 herds infected with Salmonella spp. and from 4 herds without Salmonella infection. A QC panel with 39 pools...... of meat juice, yielding ELISA optical density (OD) values covering the full range of expected OD values, was prepared and tested repeatedly to determine mean and SD OD values. Each pool was tested twice on each microtitration plate, and the results were used to determine limits for validity of future...

  7. Impact of Brassica and Lucerne Finishing Feeds and Intramuscular Fat on Lamb Eating Quality and Flavor. A Cross-Cultural Study Using Chinese and Non-Chinese Australian Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Watkins, Peter; Ball, Alex; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Sewell, James; Ortuño, Jordi; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2016-09-14

    Use of forage brassicas (Brassica napus) and lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa) as ruminant feeds has been linked to unacceptable flavors in sheepmeat. Lambs from low and high intramuscular fat sires were allocated to one of four finishing feeds-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), lucerne, and two brassica forages-for a 6 week period. Grilled loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were subjected to chemical and sensory analysis by a trained panel and also evaluated by non-Chinese and Chinese background Australian consumers. Consumer liking was similar for both groups, and liking was highest for the brassica- and lucerne-finished lamb, especially from high intramuscular fat sires. No evidence of a distinctive lucerne- or brassica-induced flavor taint was measured by the trained panel or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The diets influenced the composition of lipids and branched-chain fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat, and the concentration of total branched-chain fatty acids was positively correlated with flavor and overall liking. Significantly higher levels of key aroma volatiles were measured in the higher fat samples.

  8. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  9. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems.

  10. New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the IceCube collaboration announced the first detection of extra-terrestrial ultra high energy neutrinos. Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools to investigate the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this paper, we study the effect of new physics in the context of the ultra high energy neutrino flavor content. We find that in new physics dominated scenarios, the flavor content at Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content at Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  11. Holographic Thermodynamics and Transport of Flavor Fields

    CERN Document Server

    O'Bannon, Andy

    2008-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  12. Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Andrew Hill

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  13. 超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁品质的影响%Influence of Ultra High Pressure and Thermal Treatments on the Quality of Blueberry Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 张蒙; 李路宁; 张师; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    以蓝莓汁为原料,进行了超高压(UHP)和热力处理对蓝莓汁微生物和理化指标的影响,以及贮藏期内蓝莓汁品质变化的研究。结果表明:超高压可以有效杀灭蓝莓汁中的微生物;超高压处理后,蓝莓汁表现出更诱人的颜色;贮藏期内超高压和热处理对蓝莓汁的总酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物含量影响较小;与热处理相比,超高压处理能更好的保持蓝莓汁中的Vc和花青素含量。%The fresh blueberry was selected as the trial material. Two samples of blueberry juice were sterilized by ultra high pressure (UI-IP) and thermal treatments respectively. The physicocbemical property were analyzed and compared during the storage. The results showed that microorganisms in fresh blueberry juice could be inactivated ef- fectively by UHP. Blueberry Juice showed better color after UHP. UI-IP had no significant effect on titratable acids, reducing sugar, Brix. Fresh blueberry juice treated with UHP was better than that with heat sterilization not only on Vc, but also on anthocyanins.

  14. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.

  16. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  17. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor...

  18. 酶制剂在果蔬汁澄清及加工中的应用研究进展%Application progress of enzyme preparation in fruit and vegetable juice clarification and processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏苏; 吕长鑫; 李萌萌; 石超; 顾娜泥; 梁洁玉; 杜静芳

    2014-01-01

    当前我国果蔬汁工业迅猛发展,因酶制剂可解决果蔬汁加工中出汁率低、澄清难、易褐变、风味物质易流失和苦味物质难去除等问题,在该领域中得到广泛的应用。目前在果蔬汁加工中应用的酶制剂主要有果胶酶、纤维素酶、淀粉酶、葡萄糖氧化酶、柚苷酶等。本文介绍了果胶酶、纤维素酶、淀粉酶等常见酶制剂在提高果蔬出汁率方面的作用机制及应用进展,比较了酶制剂与其他方法对果蔬汁澄清效果的差异,陈述了葡萄糖氧化酶、柚苷酶、β-葡萄糖苷酶等在改善果蔬汁感官品质方面的应用现状。在分析酶制剂在果蔬汁加工中存在问题的基础上,对酶制剂的应用前景和发展方向进行了展望,为酶制剂在果蔬汁行业的应用提供进一步的依据和参考。%The current fruit and vegetable juice industries in our country developed rapidly, because enzyme preparation could solve the problems such as the low juice yielding, the difficult clarification, the easy brown-changing, the easy lose of flavor substance, and the hardly remove of bitter substance. So the enzyme preparation are widely used in fruit and vegetable juice processing field. At present, enzyme preparation which was used in the fruit and vegetable juice processing included pectinase, cellulase, amylase, glucose oxidase, and naringin enzymeetc. In this paper, for fruit and vegetable juice, the mechanism action and application progress in advancing yield about pectinase, cellulase, and amylase were introduced, the enzymes and other methods for fruit and vegetable juice clarification effects were compared, the application status in improving the sensory quality aspects of glucose oxidase, naringin enzyme, andβ-glycosidase enzymes were stated. When the problems of enzymes used in fruit and vegetable juice processing were analyzed, the enzyme preparation application perspective and development direction were

  19. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  20. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, M.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; Muntel, M.; Rebane, L. [National Inst. for Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Schaaf, A. van der [Physik-Inst. der Univ. Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bigi, I. [Univ. of Notre Dame du Lac, Physics Dept., Notre Dame, IN (United States); Mangano, M.L.; Ceccucci, A.; Felcini, M.; Giudice, G.; Lebedev, O.; Masina, I. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abel, S.; Underwood, T.E.J. [Durham Univ., Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Albino, S. [Univ. of Hamburg, II. Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Antusch, S.; Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Arganda, E.; Herrero, M.J.; Joaquim, F.R. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica (Spain)]|[IFT/CSIC-UAM, Madrid (Spain); Bajc, B. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Physics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Blanke, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Bonivento, W.; Serra, N. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFN Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Branco, G.C.; Rebelo, M.N. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. de Fisica (Portugal)]|[Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Bryman, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, TRIUMF, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Buras, A.J.; Duling, B.; Poschenrieder, A.; Tarantino, C. [TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Calibbi, L. [SISSA (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]|[Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain)]|[Dipt. di Fisica ' G. Galilei' (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy); Chankowski, P.H. [Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A. [Univ. Lyon-1, IPNL, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    2008-09-15

    This chapter of the report of the ''Flavor in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. (orig.)

  1. Minimal Flavor Violation in the Lepton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Grinstein, Benjamin; Isidori, Gino; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    We extend the notion of Minimal Flavor Violation to the lepton sector. We introduce a symmetry principle which allows us to express lepton flavor violation in the charged lepton sector in terms of neutrino masses and mixing angles. We explore the dependence of the rates for flavor changing radiative charged lepton decays (ell(i) -> ell(j) + gamma) and mu-to-e conversion in nuclei on the scales for total lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation and the neutrino masses and mixing angles...

  2. Theoretically palatable flavor combinations of astrophysical neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the particle physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of each flavor to the total flux. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the full range of received flavor ratios for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. With just standard neutrino mixing, this range is quite small. Even when a broad class of new-physics effects is included, it remains surprisingly small. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their measurements imply standard, new, or truly exotic physics.

  3. Neutrino flavor oscillations in rotating matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of the neutrinos system in rotating matter. Neutrinos are supposed to be mixed massive particles interacting with background fermions by means of the electroweak forces. First we find the solutions of wave equations for the neutrino mass eigenstates in matter. Then we study the behavior of neutrino flavor eigenstates in background matter. The problems of neutrino bound states and neutrino flavor oscillations are discussed. We also derive the analog of the quantum mechanical evolution equation for the system of two flavor neutrinos in rotating matter and analyze its solution for the particular initial condition for neutrino flavor eigenstates.

  4. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 寒富×四倍体嘎拉苹果三倍体后代果实风味品质的研究%Fruit Flavor Quality of Apple Triploid Hybrids of Hanfu × Tetraploid Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 王玉霞; 李林光; 程来亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the differences of fruit flavor quality of new apple triploid genotypes, the volatile compounds, sugar and acid compounds in fruits of six triploid hybrids and parents of Hanfu and Tetraploid Gala were identified and analyzed by static headspace -gas chromatography -mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.There were six, four, seven, four, four, eight, five and three characteristic compounds (CICs) in H4G1, H4G2, H4G4, H4G5, H4G8, H4G9, Hanfu and Tetraploid Ga-la, respectively.Hexyl acetate and hexyl-2-methylbutyrate were the common compounds of all tested varie-ties.Among which, hexyl acetate was the CIC for all hybrids and their parental cultivars, meanwhile hexyl-2-methylbutyrate contributed to odor of all tested varieties except for Hanfu.Fructose, glucose, sucrose and malic acid were the common taste compounds of all tested varieties, and their contributions to taste of H4G4 were larger than other varieties.The transgressive segregations of volatile characteristic compounds and taste compounds were all generated in six triploid hybrids.%为了解苹果三倍体新种质果实风味品质的差异,本研究采用静态顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用和高效液相色谱技术,测定了6份苹果三倍体杂交后代及2个亲本寒富、四倍体嘎拉果实挥发性成分、糖酸组分等风味物质的含量和组成。结果表明,H4G1、H4G2、H4G4、H4G5、H4G8、H4G9、寒富、四倍体嘎拉分别含有6、4、7、4、4、8、5、3种特征香气成分,其果实中均检测到乙酸己酯和2-甲基丁酸己酯,前者影响所有三倍体株系及2个亲本果实香味,后者仅对寒富果实香味没有贡献;果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖和苹果酸是苹果果实的味感组分,且对H4 G4的味感贡献大于其他株系;6份子代特征香气成分和味感成分在遗传过程中均产生了超亲分离现象。

  6. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  7. Thermodynamics for two flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; Tar, C D; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kärkkäinen, L; Neile, C M; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Wingate, M; Gottlieb, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We conclude our analysis of the N_t=6 equation of state for two flavor QCD, first described at last year's conference. We have obtained new runs at am_q=0.025 and improved runs at am_q=0.0125. The results are extrapolated to m_q=0, and we extract the speed of sound as well. We also present evidence for a restoration of the SU(2) X SU(2) chiral symmetry just above the crossover, but not of the axial U(1) chiral symmetry.

  8. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my hand-written notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that someone may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  9. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my handwritten notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that some may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  10. Néctar de caju adoçado com mel de abelha: desenvolvimento e estabilidade Honey-sweetened cashew apple juice: development and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Alves Silva

    2008-06-01

    development of the product, four formulations (A, B, C and D with different amounts of cashew apple juice (15 and 20% associated to different amounts of honey in soluble solids (10 and 11 °Brix were evaluated through sensory analysis (flavor and overall acceptability. The best accepted formulation was processed and evaluated after processing and every 45 days until the end of the storage period. Among the formulations tested, the favorite was formulation D, with 20% cashew apple juice and 11 °Brix. In the stability studies, the product maintained good acceptability until the end of the storage period, regarding the attributes color, flavor, overall acceptability and purchase intention. The product maintained satisfactory microbiological quality, in agreement with the current Brazilian legislation. The chemical and physicochemical changes did not characterize lack of stability of the product, except for the content of vitamin C, that presented an accentuated decrease at the end of storage. The product developed can be considered an interesting alternative for the fruit beverage market.

  11. Effects of Lipoxygenase Null Genes of Soybean in Controlling Beany-flavor of Soymilk and Soyflour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; GUAN Chun-yun; HE Xiao-ling; ZHANG Guo-zheng; DIN An-lin

    2002-01-01

    The flavor of the soymilk and soyflour obtained from the lipoxygenase mutant isolines was concentrated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and its constituents were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the same 24 flavor constituents were isolated in both soymilk and soyflour, and most of them were aldehydes and alcohols. Lox2 was most responsible for the production of the volatile and beany-flavor components, and Lox1 less responsible.Lox3 was least responsible and can reduce the yield of hexanal. Either Lx1 or Lx2 could significantly reduce the volatile and beany-flavor, and Lx3 could significantly increase the yield of hexanal. Primary and secondary interactions existed among the null mutant genes, and the major effects and interactions could be affected by processing conditions. The isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes yielded the least volatile and beany-flavor components, and the isoline without the lipoxygenase gene Lx3 produced the greatest amount of the volatile and beany-flavor components. The amounts of volatile and beany-flavor components produced by the other isolines were between that of the isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes and the isoline without lipoxygenase gene Lx3. According to the correlation analysis, the hexanal amount could be used as an index in evaluating the importance of lipoxygenase isozymes in the yield of beany-flavor compounds, and the effects of the different types of lipoxygenase null mutants in controlling beany-flavor compounds. The cultivars with triple lipoxygenase null genes will be a quality raw material for soyfood processing.

  12. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature.

  13. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  15. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  16. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  17. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  18. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  19. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Efrati, Aielet; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-01-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  20. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Aielet; Falkowski, Adam; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-07-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  1. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  2. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  3. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Grinstein, B.

    2017-01-01

    Two short introductory lectures on Flavor Physics delivered at CLASHEP 2015. Among included topics: The KM matrix and the KM model of CP-violation, Determination of KM Elements, FCNC and GIM, New Physics and Flavor, Neutral Meson Mixing and CP Asymmetries. Many problems for the student, and solutions to selected problems, included.

  4. Impact of PEF and Thermal Processing on Apple Juice Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Torkamani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pulsed electric field (PEF is a novel emerging technology which is believed to have the potential to substitute conventional thermal pasteurization (HTST. In the current study PEF was compared with HTST based on microbial inactivation and quality attributes.Materials and Methods: Juice was prepared by extracting it from Semirum apples. They were chilled to 4ºC over night. Then were divided into two lots, one was treated by PEF and the other by HTST. The treated juices were cultured on tryphtic soy broth (TSB and results were recorded for 168 days. Quality changes were characterized by color and sensory test. Color changes were quantified using Hunter Lab equipment and equation. Sensory changes were evaluated by test panelists.Results: Using selective media E. Coli was enumerated, the total count of the organism was noticeably lower than PEF treated specimen and after 168. The count didn't reach the initial population. Whereas in PEF treated juice bacterial count bounced back to the initial count and exceeds. Results from Hunter Lab indicated a of 3.04 and 3.08 system for PEF and HTST treated juices. Sensory panel showed that PEF is superior to thermal treatment.Conclusion: The study indicated HTST is more suitable based on food safety encounters. However PEF treated are closer to fresh juices based on quality factors. It can be concluded that PEF has the potential to become a suitable replacement to conventional process if improvements in design are applied.

  5. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  6. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on Sterilization and Quality of Blueberry Juice%高压脉冲电场对蓝莓汁杀菌效果及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓赟; 王寅; 陈健; 李路宁; 孙爱东

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluated the sterilizing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Escherichia coli in blueberry juice and its impact on physicochemical property of blueberry juice. The results showed that the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli was enhanced when the electric field strength and total treatment time were increased. With PEF treatments at 35 kV/cm and 82 ~s, the reduction of Escherichia coli was 5. 12 logarithms. When the electric field strength was constant and the electric conductivity was increased, the inactivation effect of Escherichia coli declined slightly. PEF had no significant effect on the content of vitamin C, anthocyanin, total phenols, titratable acids, re- ducing sugar, and Brix in blueberry juice and its color.%研究了高压脉冲电场(PEF)对蓝莓汁的杀菌效果及其对蓝莓汁理化性质的影响。结果显示:随电场强度、处理时间的增大,PEF对蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌的杀灭效果增强。当电场强度为35kV/cm,处理时间为82μs时,蓝莓汁中大肠杆菌致死率为5.12个对数。电场强度一定时,电导率增大,PEF对大肠杆菌的钝化效果略微下降。PEF对蓝莓汁Vc、花青素、总酚、可滴定酸、还原糖、可溶性固形物及色泽等理化性质没有影响。

  7. Quark-flavored scalar dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; Dupuis, Grace; London, David

    2015-01-01

    It is an intriguing possibility that dark matter (DM) could have flavor quantum numbers like the quarks. We propose and investigate a class of UV-complete models of this kind, in which the dark matter is in a scalar triplet of an SU(3) flavor symmetry, and interacts with quarks via a colored flavor-singlet fermionic mediator. Such mediators could be discovered at the LHC if their masses are $\\sim 1$ TeV. We constrain the DM-mediator couplings using relic abundance, direct detection, and flavor-changing neutral-current considerations. We find that, for reasonable values of its couplings, scalar flavored DM can contribute significantly to the real and imaginary parts of the $B_s$-$\\bar B_s$ mixing amplitude. We further assess the potential for such models to explain the galactic center GeV gamma-ray excess.

  8. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  9. Collective neutrino flavor conversion: Recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino flavor evolution in core-collapse supernovae, neutron-star mergers, or the early universe is dominated by neutrino-neutrino refraction, often spawning "self-induced flavor conversion", i.e., shuffling of flavor among momentum modes. This effect is driven by collective run-away modes of the coupled "flavor oscillators" and can spontaneously break the initial symmetries such as axial symmetry, homogeneity, isotropy, and even stationarity. Moreover, the growth rates of unstable modes can be of the order of the neutrino-neutrino interaction energy instead of the much smaller vacuum oscillation frequency: self-induced flavor conversion does not always require neutrino masses. We illustrate these newly found phenomena in terms of simple toy models. What happens in realistic astrophysical settings is up to speculation at present.

  10. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.

  11. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  12. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  13. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  14. Separation of Water to Concentrate Aloe Vera Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Abdullah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aloe Vera is a succulent plant and is found in different arid areas. Due to its healing effect and soothing properties it is being used in herbal medicines for years and its importance has grown due to use in cosmetic products. It contains more than thirty active ingredients, which are utilized in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. It also contains 98% water. To remove water from those active ingredient Reverse osmosis is used in order not to thermally damage the active ingredients present in the juice. A reverse osmosis is a separation technique which utilizes difference in pressure to segregate water from plant without damaging the active ingredients present in the plant. This research is dedicated to evaluate the parameter for separation of water from aloe Vera so that aloe Vera can be obtained in a form which can be utilized for different purposes such as cosmetics and medicine. Osmosis technique is preferred over other conventional technique for the separation purpose because it is not operated at high temperature, which will not damage the aloe Vera juice quality. Next step in this research is the preserving, drying and analysis of this juice so that this product can be utilized in versatile way.

  15. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  16. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  17. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liang [Hebei Normal University, Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China); Qiao, Cong-Feng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub bs} x [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub du} tetraquark currents with J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m{sub s}, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle. (orig.)

  18. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector.

  19. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R J

    2001-01-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector. (8 refs).

  20. Flavor Physics and Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, C M

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to resolve new physics effects is, largely, limited by the precision with which we calculate. The calculation of observables in the Standard (or a new physics) Model requires knowledge of associated hadronic contributions. The precision of such calculations, and therefore our ability to leverage experiment, is typically limited by hadronic uncertainties. The only first-principles method for calculating the nonperturbative, hadronic contributions is lattice QCD. Modern lattice calculations have controlled errors, are systematically improvable, and in some cases, are pushing the sub-percent level of precision. I outline the role played by, highlight state of the art efforts in, and discuss possible future directions of lattice calculations in flavor physics.

  1. ABJM with Flavors and FQHE

    CERN Document Server

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    We add fundamental matters to the N=6 Chern-Simons theory (ABJM theory), and show that D6-branes wrapped over AdS_4 x S^3/Z_2 in type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 give its dual description with N=3 supersymmetry. We confirm this by the arguments based on R-symmetry, supersymmetry, and brane configuration of ABJM theory. We also analyze the fluctuations of the D6-brane and compute the conformal dimensions of dual operators. In the presence of fractional branes, the ABJM theory can model the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with RR-fields regarded as the external electric-magnetic field. We show that an addition of the flavor D6-brane describes a class of fractional quantum Hall plateau transition.

  2. Retention of Ascorbic Acid and Solid Concentration via Centrifugal Freeze Concentration of Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orellana-Palma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze concentration of liquid foods produces high-quality concentrates while retaining the heat-labile compounds found in fresh samples. Centrifugal freeze concentration is a cryoconcentration method assisted by an external force, centrifugation, to enhance the separation of concentrate from the ice. When applying centrifugal freeze concentration to orange juice, after the third cryoconcentration cycle, the ascorbic acid content in the concentrate showed retention close to 70% of the initial value. After the third cycle, the solutes in the concentrate increased 4 times the initial value of the fresh sample with 70% efficiency. The color evaluation showed that the final concentrated fraction was darker than the fresh juice. The centrifugal freeze concentration in orange juice was effective for obtaining a high-quality concentrate with a higher concentration of solids and ascorbic acid retention.

  3. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P whey samples were also different (P whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  4. A Flavor Protection for Warped Higgsless Models

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D higgsless models and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) satisfying electroweak and flavor constraints. The "new custodially protected representation" is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and RS-GIM for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming CKM-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero mode approximation, which are...

  5. A flavor protection for warped Higgsless models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Curtin, David

    2009-07-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D Higgsless models on a Randall-Sundrum (RS) background, and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) which satisfies electroweak and flavor constraints. The “new custodially protected representation” is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and an “RS-GIM” mechanism for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual Higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero-mode approximation, which are significant for Higgsless-type models.

  6. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  7. Effectiveness of High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP) treatments for the control of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in apple juice, orange juice and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgan, I; Caminiti, I M; Muñoz, A; Noci, F; Whyte, P; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G

    2011-02-01

    High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP) represent an emerging processing technology which uses short (100-400 μs) light pulses (200-1100 nm) for product decontamination. In this study, model and real foods of differing transparencies (maximum recovery diluent (MRD), apple and orange juices and milk) were exposed to HILP in a batch system for 0, 2, 4 or 8 s at a frequency of 3 Hz. After treatment, inactivation of Escherichia coli or Listeria innocua was evaluated in pre-inoculated samples. Sensory and other quality attributes (colour, pH, Brix, titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) were assessed in apple juice. Microbial kill decreased with decreasing transparency of the medium. In apple juice (the most transparent beverage) E. coli decreased by 2.65 and 4.5 after exposure times of 2 or 4 s, respectively. No cell recovery was observed after 48 h storage at 4°C. No significant differences were observed in quality parameters, excepting TEAC and flavour score, where 8 s exposure caused a significant decrease (p<0.05). Based on these results, HILP with short exposure times could represent a potential alternative to thermal processing to eliminate undesirable microorganisms, while maintaining product quality, in transparent fruit juices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 施有机肥及套袋对鸭梨果实风味品质的影响%Effect of organic fertilizer and bagging on fruit flavor quality of Yali pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏树伟; 张勇; 王宏伟; 王海波; 高华君; 王少敏

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer and bagging on fruit flavor quality of Yali Pear. The effect of organic fertilizer and bagging on the ingredients and contents of volatile compound, sugar and organic acid in Yali pear fruits were bagged and used organic fertilizer in growing were studied, using static headspace and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The thirty different ingredients of volatiles were detected in Yali pear fruit, including 26 esters, 3 alkenes and 1 alcohol. Organic fertilizer increased but bagging decreased the ingredients and the contents of volatiles in Yali pear fruit. In comparison with compound fertilizer, organic fertilizer increased 8 and 6 volatile ingredients of bagged and not bagged Yali pear fruit, respectively, and increased the contents of volatiles by 182.89% and 127.16% in bagged and unbagged Yali pear fruit, respectively. Bagging reduced 8 and 10 volatile ingredientsin organic fertilizer and compound fertilizertreated Yali pear fruit, respectively, and reduced the contents of volatiles by 66.32% and 72.96% in organic fertilizerand compound fertilizertreated Yali pear fruit, respectively. Four sugar ingredients with fructose being the dominating followed by sucrose, sorbitol and glucose and 7 organic acids with malic acid being the most aboudent followed by acetic, citric,shikimic acid, quinic acid,tartaric acid,succinic acid were detected in Yali pear fruit. Organic fertilizer increased but bagging decreased the contents of sugars and organic acids. Organic fertilizer increased but bagging decreased the ingredients and the contents of volatiles in Yali pear fruit. Organic fertilizer increased but bagging decreased the contents of sugars and organic acids in Yali pear fruit.%为探讨施有机肥和套袋对鸭梨果实风味品质的影响,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)及高效液相色

  9. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  10. Pomegranate Juice Augments Memory and fMRI Activity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Mild Memory Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Y. Bookheimer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emphasis on the potential of dietary antioxidants in preventing memory loss and on diet as a precursor of neurological health, rigorous studies investigating the cognitive effects of foods and their components are rare. Recent animal studies have reported memory and other cognitive benefits of polyphenols, found abundantly in pomegranate juice. We performed a preliminary, placebo-controlled randomized trial of pomegranate juice in older subjects with age-associated memory complaints using memory testing and functional brain activation (fMRI as outcome measures. Thirty-two subjects (28 completers were randomly assigned to drink 8 ounces of either pomegranate juice or a flavor-matched placebo drink for 4 weeks. Subjects received memory testing, fMRI scans during cognitive tasks, and blood draws for peripheral biomarkers before and after the intervention. Investigators and subjects were all blind to group membership. After 4 weeks, only the pomegranate group showed a significant improvement in the Buschke selective reminding test of verbal memory and a significant increase in plasma trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and urolithin A-glucuronide. Furthermore, compared to the placebo group, the pomegranate group had increased fMRI activity during verbal and visual memory tasks. While preliminary, these results suggest a role for pomegranate juice in augmenting memory function through task-related increases in functional brain activity.

  11. Preparation on compound juice with carrot and corn%玉米胡萝卜复合汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙于庆; 曾维丽

    2012-01-01

    This article, taking carrot and fresh sweet corn as the main raw material, studied the processing technique for the mixed juice and its stability. According to sense assessment, the best prescription for the mixed juice was determined. The best product formula is as below: the ratio of the corn juice and the carrot juice is 2:1, the amount of sugar added is 10%, the amount of citric acid is 0.15%, the amount of compound stabilizer is 0.6%. The product is a kind of beverage, which has stable, smooth taste and the flavor is coordinated for the aged and children.%以胡萝卜、新鲜甜玉米为主要原料,通过感官评价,确定了玉米胡萝卜复合汁的最佳产品配方为:玉米汁与胡萝卜汁的比例为2:1、蔗糖添加量10%、柠檬酸添加量0.15%、复合稳定剂添加量0.6%。产品均匀稳定,酸甜适口,口感细腻柔和,风味协调,是一种营养丰富老少皆益的饮品。

  12. Pomegranate juice augments memory and FMRI activity in middle-aged and older adults with mild memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookheimer, Susan Y; Renner, Brian A; Ekstrom, Arne; Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Brown, Jesse A; Jones, Mike; Moody, Teena; Small, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the potential of dietary antioxidants in preventing memory loss and on diet as a precursor of neurological health, rigorous studies investigating the cognitive effects of foods and their components are rare. Recent animal studies have reported memory and other cognitive benefits of polyphenols, found abundantly in pomegranate juice. We performed a preliminary, placebo-controlled randomized trial of pomegranate juice in older subjects with age-associated memory complaints using memory testing and functional brain activation (fMRI) as outcome measures. Thirty-two subjects (28 completers) were randomly assigned to drink 8 ounces of either pomegranate juice or a flavor-matched placebo drink for 4 weeks. Subjects received memory testing, fMRI scans during cognitive tasks, and blood draws for peripheral biomarkers before and after the intervention. Investigators and subjects were all blind to group membership. After 4 weeks, only the pomegranate group showed a significant improvement in the Buschke selective reminding test of verbal memory and a significant increase in plasma trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and urolithin A-glucuronide. Furthermore, compared to the placebo group, the pomegranate group had increased fMRI activity during verbal and visual memory tasks. While preliminary, these results suggest a role for pomegranate juice in augmenting memory function through task-related increases in functional brain activity.

  13. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  14. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yosef Nir; Yael Shadmi

    2004-12-01

    We argue that neutrino flavor parameters may exhibit features that are very different from those of quarks and charged leptons. Specifically, within the Froggatt–Nielsen (FN) framework, charged fermion parameters depend on the ratio between two scales, while for neutrinos a third scale – that of lepton number breaking – is involved. Consequently, the selection rules for neutrinos may be different. In particular, if the scale of lepton number breaking is similar to the scale of horizontal symmetry breaking, neutrinos may become flavor-blind even if they carry different horizontal charges. This provides an attractive mechanism for neutrino flavor anarchy.

  15. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  16. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  17. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times, but could be inadequate in the crucial shock revival/explosion epoch of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new paradigm in supernova modeling.

  18. The Relations between Flavoring Components and Sensory Quality of Market-sold Grape Wine%市售葡萄酒风味物质与感官品质的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓华

    2015-01-01

    In this study, esters, alcohols and organic acids of eight market-sold wine products were analyzed by GC. Meanwhile, those wine products were scored by sensory evaluation. It was found that, the varieties and content of flavoring components of white wine were lower than red wine, and wine with high sensory evaluation score had higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate. Active-amyl alcohol had key influ-ence on wine flavor. In addition, relativity analysis suggested that wine sensory score had positive correlations with the content of n-butanol, acetic acid, heptylic acid, 2,3-butanediol andβ-phenethylamine.%采用气相色谱对8种市售葡萄酒中酯类、醇类与有机酸风味物质进行分析,同时对葡萄酒进行感官品评和评分.结果表明,白葡萄酒中风味物质种类及含量均低于红葡萄酒;感官品评得分较高的葡萄酒中乙酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯含量较高.活性戊醇是对葡萄酒的风味起着关键影响的风味物质.此外,通过相关性分析发现正丁醇、乙酸、庚酸、2,3-丁二醇、β-苯乙醇与葡萄酒感官品评得分呈正相关.

  19. Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie H S; Gardner, Elaine J; Walker, Drew

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered separately from F&V? Studies comparing the effects of fibre and antioxidants were reviewed, yielding the finding that the impact of F&V may relate more strongly to antioxidants, than to fibre. For the second question, high-quality published studies that considered PFV juices were reviewed. The impact of PFV juices on cancer risk was weakly positive, although a lack of human data and contradictory findings hampered conclusions. For CVD, there was convincing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that PFV juices reduced risk via a number of probable mechanisms. It was concluded that the view that PFV juices are nutritionally inferior to F&V, in relation to chronic disease risk reduction, is unjustified.

  20. 加速试验条件下锦橙汁品质劣变关键指标评价%Evaluation of Key Quality Deterioration Parameters of Jincheng Orange Juice under Accelerated Testing Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇明; 钟瑞; 王鲁峰; 王思远; 王可兴

    2012-01-01

    An accelerated shelf life testing(ASLT) model was applied to determined shelf-life of not-from-concentrated Jincheng orange juice which was freshly squeezed in laboratory.Selected temperature were chosen as accelerated factor and the sensory evaluation and physical and chemical indicators were checked at regular intervals.The shelf life storage test was performed o 35 d and 12 d at 30 ℃ and 40 ℃,respectively.The results show that with the increase of storage time,the ascorbic acid content of not-from concentrated Jincheng orange juice significantly decreased while the total color difference and browning index increased sharply at 30 ℃and 40 ℃.These three indices were significantly correlated to overall sensory assessment(r0.95).It's reasonable to choose deterioration of ascorbic acid,total color difference and browning index as the key deteriorated indicators for not-from-concentrated Jincheng orange juice during the storage.%以自制非浓缩还原锦橙汁为原料,利用加速破坏性试验模型,选择导致橙汁品质劣变温度作为加速因子,分别在30℃和40℃条件下进行35d和12d货架期贮藏试验,每隔一定时间对样品进行感官评定和理化检测。结果表明:在30℃和40℃贮藏温度下,随着贮藏时间的增加,非浓缩还原橙汁的抗坏血酸含量显著下降,总色差和褐变指数显著增加,且变化值与感官总体评价变化之间达到了极显著相关(r〉0.95),因此可以将抗坏血酸降解率、总色差、褐变指数作为非浓缩还原型锦橙汁贮藏期间品质劣变的关键指标。

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  2. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  3. Cerasus humilis juice beverage preparation of small shrubs ecological economic tree species%小灌木生态经济树种欧李果汁饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕庆玲; 王庆茹; 王新宇

    2016-01-01

    Cerasus humilis fruits, green tea, carrots and soft sugar were chosen as the principal raw material to prepare Cerasus humilis juice beverage.The best formula was researched by orthogonal experiment and regarded the flavor evalua-tion score as index.The result showed that the best additive amount of Cerasus humilis juice, green tea juice, carrots juice and soft sugar were 30%, 15%, 8.5%and 12%.The juice was transparent and the taste was soft and delicate.It had a-bundant nutrition and reserved original flavor of Cerasus humilis fruits well.%以欧李果、绿茶、胡萝卜、绵白糖为主要原料制备欧李果汁饮料,以口感评价分数为指标,通过正交试验研究最佳配方,结果表明:欧李汁、绿茶汁、胡萝卜汁、绵白糖最佳添加量分别为30%、15%、8.5%和12%;果汁澄清透明、口感细腻柔和、营养丰富,并较好地保留欧李果实原有风味.

  4. Process of Soy Milk Adding Orange Juice%橘子豆奶的调制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬娟; 黄艾祥

    2011-01-01

    To optimize formula of orange fruit juice soy milk and parameters of sterilization process. Results showed that the addition content of orange juice is the main factor affecting the flavor and the effect of compound stabilizer is better than that of single stabilizer. The best orange fruit juice soy milk formula is as follows: 35% raw materials of soybean (soybean: water = 1:12), 10% orange juice, 7% sugar, 0.1% citric acid, 0.05% malic acid, 0.05% monoglyceride, 0.04% xanthan gum, and 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC).The best sterilization process for soy milk is 80℃ for 25min.%以橘子、大豆为原料,经科学加工制成橘子酸化豆奶饮料.以感官评价指标,通过正交试验筛选最佳风味配方,并进行稳定性及最佳杀菌工艺的研究.结果显示,橘汁的添加量是影响风味的主要因素,复配稳定剂较单一稳定剂的效果好.橘子豆奶饮料的最佳配方为:原料大豆35%(大豆:水=1:12),橘子10%、白糖7%、柠檬酸0.1%、苹果酸0.05%、单甘酯0.05%、黄原胶0.04%、羧甲基纤维素(CMC)0.2%.最佳杀菌工艺为杀菌温度80℃、杀菌时间25min.

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  6. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  7. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-08-01

    Vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus have been identified as necessary ingredients for the manufacture of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products with quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation time (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of ham over a 90-d storage period, compare residual nitrate and nitrite content, and determine if differences exist in sensory properties of finished products. Four ham treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b*, and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) for combined TRTs and C revealed little change over time while the C had less (P 0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory panel intensity ratings for ham and vegetable aroma, and flavor, color, and firmness showed that a high concentration (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor. Treatment combinations with a low concentration (0.20%) of VJP were comparable to the C for all sensory attributes.

  8. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  9. Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2012-01-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  10. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B

    2016-01-01

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  11. Slepton Flavor Physics at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Thomas, S; Dine, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Thomas, Scott

    2001-01-01

    If low energy supersymmetry is realized in nature it is possible that a first generation linear collider will only have access to some of the superpartners with electroweak quantum numbers. Among these, sleptons can provide sensitive probes for lepton flavor violation through potentially dramatic lepton violating signals. Theoretical proposals to understand the absence of low energy quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents are surveyed and many are found to predict observable slepton flavor violating signals at linear colliders. The observation or absence of such sflavor violation will thus provide important indirect clues to very high energy physics. Previous analyses of slepton flavor oscillations are also extended to include the effects of finite width and mass differences.

  12. Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ∼78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(∗)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices.

  13. Pilot Study of the Tart Cherry Juice for the Treatment of Insomnia and Investigation of Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Jack N; Finley, John W; Karki, Namrata; Liu, Ann G; Prudente, Alfredo; Tipton, Russell; Yu, Ying; Greenway, Frank L

    2017-03-27

    Insomnia is common in the elderly and is associated with chronic disease, but use of hypnotics increases the incidence of falls. Montmorency tart cherry juice has improved insomnia by self-report questionnaire. Is insomnia confirmed by polysomnography and is tryptophan availability a potential mechanism for treating insomnia? A placebo-controlled balanced crossover study with subjects older than 50 years and insomnia were randomized to placebo (2 weeks) or cherry juice (2 weeks) (240 mL 2 times/d) separated by a 2-week washout. Sleep was evaluated by polysomnography and 5 validated questionnaires. Serum indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio, and prostaglandin E2 were measured. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were stimulated with interferon-gamma, and the ability of cherry juice procyanidin to inhibit IDO which degrades tryptophan and stimulates inflammation was measured. The content of procyanidin B-2 and other major anthocyanins in cherry juice were determined. Eleven subjects were randomized; 3 with sleep apnea were excluded and referred. The 8 completers with insomnia increased sleep time by 84 minutes on polysomnography (P = 0.0182) and sleep efficiency increased on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03). Other questionnaires showed no significant differences. The serum kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio decreased, as did the level of prostaglandin E2 (both P juice procyanidin B-2 dose-dependently inhibited IDO. Cherry juice increased sleep time and sleep efficiency. Cherry juice procyanidin B-2 inhibited IDO, increased tryptophan availability, reduced inflammation, and may be partially responsible for improvement in insomnia.

  14. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  15. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  16. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  17. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  18. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  19. Neutrino Mass Matrix with Approximate Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Riazuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Phenomenological implications of neutrino oscillations implied by recent experimental data on pattern of neutrino mass matrix are disscussed. It is shown that it is possible to have a neutrino mass matrix which shows approximate flavor symmetry; the neutrino mass differences arise from flavor violation in off-diagonal Yukawa couplings. Two modest extensions of the standard model, which can embed the resulting neutrino mass matix have also been discussed.

  20. Collective flavor transitions of supernova neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, Guenter; Esteban-Pretel, Andreu; Pastor, Sergio; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2009-01-01

    We give a very brief overview of collective effects in neutrino oscillations in core collapse supernovae where refractive effects of neutrinos on themselves can considerably modify flavor oscillations, with possible repercussions for future supernova neutrino detection. We discuss synchronized and bipolar oscillations, the role of energy and angular neutrino modes, as well as three-flavor effects. We close with a short summary and some open questions.