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Sample records for juice called latex

  1. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (pnitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  2. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Landers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001. While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  3. Latex allergy in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Virtič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of natural rubber latex medical gloves in the last three decades has caused an increase in latex allergy. The majority of risk groups for allergy development include health care workers, workers in the rubber industry, atopic individuals and children with congenital malformations. Three types of pathological reactions can occur in people using latex medical gloves: irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and immediate hypersensitivity. The latex allergy is caused by constituent components of latex gloves and added powders; there are also numerous latex allergens involved in cross-reactivity between latex and fruits and vegetables, the so-called latex-fruit syndrome. The diagnosis is based on an accurate history of exposure, clinical presentation and confirmatory in vivo and in vitro tests. Prevention is the easiest, most effective and least expensive way to avoid latex allergy. Powder-free latex gloves with reduced levels of proteins and chemicals, and synthetic gloves for allergic workers must be provided in the work environment. There are already many health care institutions around the world where all latex products have been replaced by synthetic material products.

  4. Practical Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2014-01-01

    Accessible at 200+ pages to all who want to learn the practical usages of LaTeX Avoids technical subjects like font usage Friendly and easy to read, with many examples included Extra source materials include sample LaTeX files and suggestions for further reading

  5. Latex in the Hospital Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LATEX in the Hospital Environment Updated Fall 2015 This list provides a guide to some of the most common objects containing latex and offers some ... remover–Sepha Pharm) 1 LATEX in the Hospital Environment (continued) Frequently contains LATEX OR/Infection Control masks, ...

  6. Latex and friends

    CERN Document Server

    Dongen, M R C van

    2012-01-01

    LaTeX is a free, automated state-of-the-art typesetting system. This book teaches all the ins and outs of LaTeX which are needed to write an article, report, thesis, or book. The book teaches by example, giving many worked out examples showing input and output side by side. The book presents the most recent techniques for presenting data plots, complex graphics, and computer presentations, but does not require previous knowledge. However, it is also a reference for the more seasoned user, with pointers to modern techniques and packages. Recurring themes in the book are consistent and effective

  7. More math into Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2007-01-01

    For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr

  8. Latex medical gloves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves...... properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein...

  9. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  10. Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan

    2011-01-01

    to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental assistants...... in the cases in this study may not have occurred through direct skin contact but through the respiratory organs via latex proteins that are absorbed in glove powder and aerosolized...

  11. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  12. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000499.htm Latex allergies - for hospital patients To use the sharing features on this page, ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  13. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  14. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  15. Managing latex allergies at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Latex Allergy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  16. Latex Allergy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Athma Prasanna

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The usage of rubber and its products are not uncommon in various walks of life. A continuous exposure or contact may sensitize the human body, causing reactions from mild to fatal. Despite the availability of the literature, medical personnel are still unaware of the implications of the use of latex materials.

  17. Latex sensitisation in healthcare workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M B Y; Leow, Y H; Ng, V; Koh, D; Goh, C L

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiological data on latex sensitisation among Asian healthcare workers is lacking. The aim of the study is to determine the rate of latex sensitisation in our healthcare workers. We recruited 313 healthcare workers, of which 46.6% were operating theatre staff and 53.4% were non-operating theatre staff. Seventy-one administrative staff served as controls. All participants answered a self-administered questionnaire relating to latex exposure and glove-related symptoms. Latex sensitisation was determined by skin prick testing to latex and latex-specific IgE detection. The prevalence of latex sensitisation among healthcare workers was 9.6%, with no difference between operating theatre and nonoperating theatre staff. Glove-related symptoms were reported in 13.7% of all healthcare workers, of which 22.9% were sensitised to latex. Only 26.7% of latex-sensitised healthcare workers had glove-related symptoms while the rest were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were itch and hand eczema but the most important discriminating symptom was contact urticaria. Personal history of atopy was more common in sensitised healthcare workers (40.0%) compared to non-sensitised workers (31.8%). Only 1 out of 9 (11.2%) symptomatic latex-sensitised subjects had sought previous medical attention for the problem. Latex sensitisation among healthcare workers in Singapore should be considered a significant occupational health risk, as it is in the West. Increased screening and awareness of this problem is essential to identify those at risk.

  18. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600 bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  20. Decontamination of latex gloves; Decontamination de gants en latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P; Schipfer, P; Blachere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Initially the latex gloves used in controlled zones were processed after use as radioactive waste. In view of the continually increasing number used, however, the persons in charge of the SPRAR have considered the possibility of decontaminating the gloves and using them again after control. The recovery installations which have been developed were initially designed rather crudely and operated irregularly; they have been progressively improved as a result of the experience acquired; today they are more really an industrial concern, equipped with automatic machinery. In 1967 it has been possible with this set-up to recover 247000 pairs of gloves, representing nearly 70 per cent of the number treated. (author) [French] Initialement, les gants de latex utilises dans les zones controlees etaient conditionnes apres emploi comme dechets radioactifs. Mais, devant l'augmentation sans cesse croissante des quantites employees, les responsables du SPRAR ont envisage leur decontamination et leur recyclage apres controles. Les installations de recuperation mises au point, de conception artisanale et fonctionnant de maniere episodique au depart, se sont progressivement ameliorees au fur et a mesure de l'experience acquise; elles revetent aujourd'hui le caractere d'une exploitation industrielle equipee de machines automatiques. En 1967, ces nouvelles installations ont permis de recuperer 247000 paires de gants, ce qui represente pres de 70 pour cent des quantites traitees. (auteur)

  1. Latex Rubber Gloves as a Sampling Dosimeter Using a Novel Surrogate Sampling Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Gayatri; Lopez, Terry; Ries, Steve; Ross, John; Vega, Helen; Eastmond, David A; Krieger, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during harvesting of crops occurs primarily to the workers' hands. When harvesters wear latex rubber gloves for personal safety and hygiene harvesting reasons, gloves accumulate pesticide residues. Hence, characterization of the gloves' properties may be useful for pesticide exposure assessments. Controlled field studies were conducted using latex rubber gloves to define the factors that influence the transfer of pesticides to the glove and that would affect their use as a residue monitoring device. A novel sampling device called the Brinkman Contact Transfer Unit (BCTU) was constructed to study the glove characteristics and residue transfer and accumulation under controlled conditions on turf. The effectiveness of latex rubber gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated by measuring the transferable pesticide residues as a function of time. The validation of latex rubber gloves as a residue sampling dosimeter was performed by comparing pesticide transfer and dissipation from the gloves, with the turf transferable residues sampled using the validated California (CA) Roller, a standard measure of residue transfer. The observed correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient R(2)) between the two methods was .84 for malathion and .96 for fenpropathrin, indicating that the BCTU is a useful, reliable surrogate tool for studying available residue transfer to latex rubber gloves under experimental conditions. Perhaps more importantly, these data demonstrate that latex gloves worn by workers may be useful quantifiable matrices for measuring pesticide exposure.

  2. EDITORIALS Latex allergy: 'Plight, rights and fights'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anaphylaxis and life-threatening food allergies to cross-reacting fruit allergens such as kiwi, banana, tomato and chestnuts). Latex allergy is also encountered more frequently in children with spina bifida than in other hospitalised children.[7] Sensitisation is usually confirmed by commercial latex allergy skinprick testing or by ...

  3. Jackfruit anaphylaxis in a latex allergic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Several fruits have been reported to crossreact with latex antigen in latex allergy patients but little is known regarding tropical fruits in particular. Here we report the case of a 34-year old nurse who developed anaphylaxis following the ingestion of dried jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The patient had a history of chronic eczema on both hands resulting from a regular wear of latex gloves. She and her family also had a history of atopy (allergic rhinitis and/or atopic dermatitis). The results of skin prick tests were positive for jackfruit, latex glove, kiwi and papaya, but the test was negative for banana. While we are reporting the first case of jackfruit anaphylaxis, further research needs to be conducted to identify the mechanisms underlying it. In particular, in-vitro studies need to be designed to understand if the anaphylaxis we describe is due to a cross reactivity between latex and jackfruit or a coincidence of allergy to these 2 antigens.

  4. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  5. Transcript Profiling of Hevea brasiliensis during Latex Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Chao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The two clones show differences in latex regeneration and have a different duration of latex flow. The results showed that the expression levels of 38 genes were significantly higher in CATAS8-79 latex than in CATAS7-33-97 during latex regeneration, while 45 genes had a notably higher expression level in CATAS8-79 latex during latex flow. Together with the activation of the MEP pathway and jasmonate pathway in CATAS8-79 latex, HbPIP1;3, HbPIP1;4, HbSUT3, HbSus3, HbHMGS1-2, HbMK should contribute to the high latex regeneration ability. The up-regulation of ethylene signaling and Hb44KD and the down-regulation of latex coagulation-related genes in CATAS8-79 latex might contribute to its longer latex flow duration. This study provides some cues for revealing the regulation of latex metabolism in rubber trees.

  6. [Latex allergy in a population at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, M; Flores Sandoval, G; Orea Solano, M

    1999-01-01

    The allergy to latex is an illness whose prevalence has been increased in very significant form in the last years. To know the allergy incidence to latex in population of risk, as well as to identify the related sintomatology and the importance or paper that play the atopia antecedents and time of contact with latex for the development of the illness. We carry out a prospective, descriptive, experimental and traverse study in population of risk, in the service of Allergy and clinical Immunology of the Hospital Regional Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISSSTE. One hundred patients of both sexes were included, with age of 20 to 50 years, with the antecedent of being personal medical and paramedic and to have presented contact with latex material in a minimum period of one year. They were carried out clinical history with registration of sintomatology nasal, bronchial, cutaneous and associated to contact with latex. They were carried out cutaneous test for prick to latex with positive control with the help of histamine solution and negative control with solution of Evans and immediate reading of the same one. 22% of the patients in study, they presented positive skin test latex, with a time of exhibition 10 year-old average, 68% presented antecedent of atopy personal, family and, likewise the associate sintomatology was in a 33.3% dermatology, 54.5 nasal, nobody presented bronchial symptoms and a 9% asymptomatic was reported. We support that the immediate skin test latex for Prick is an important parameter of support diagnosis for allergy to type 1 latex.

  7. Allergy to latex in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Zapata, Álvaro L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A common and growing problem in hospitals is hypersensitivity to rubber latex antigens, since many products, including gloves, are manufactured from this material, with the consequent possibility of producing allergy in persons who use them. Objective: To find out if health workers at a fourth level clinic in Bogotá, Colombia, are allergic to rubber latex, in relation to the use of gloves. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic intentional-type sample in each one of four hospital units. A survey was applied to participants. Results: 16 of the 26 persons (61.5% with history of allergic processes manifested some kind of reaction when they had contact with latex gloves; the problem was more significant in the nursing personnel compared to physicians. Conclusions: The exposure to latex gloves may be generating the appearance of allergic occupational disease in health workers.

  8. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. State, Nigeria. .... Occupation. No of .... latex protein residue and act as a hapten or .... at Work Act, 1989 and the safety, Health and Welfare at.

  9. The evolution and use of a personal LaTeX metapackage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This document defines and describes esameta.sty and its variant esametaps.sty. They are personal LATEX packages that largely consist of calls of other packages. These 'metapackages' are selected to help the development of the author's complex book and paper projects-but some of his decisions migh...... be of more general relevance. The use of the LATEX system of 'literate programming' and the testing the compatibility of new commands and packages with the previously included parts of the metapackage should also be noticed....

  10. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul, E-mail: a.fikri-89@yahoo.com; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [Cluster for Polymer Composites (CPC), Science and Engineering Research Centre, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia,14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  11. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  12. [Prevention of adverse effects in latex allergic patients: organizing a latex safe operating theatre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonalumi, Sabrina; Barbonaglia, Patrizia; Bertocchi, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    In 2001 the General Health Direction of Region Lombardia approved (decree n. 22303) a guideline for the prevention of latex allergic reactions in patients and health care workers. This document provides general recommendations in order to standardize behaviors in regional health care facilities. The reason is due to a rise in the incident of reactions to latex products in the last 20 years. Nowadays the prevalence is higher in certain risk groups (subjected to frequent and repeated exposures) rather than the general population. The aim of the project was to organize a latex safe operating theatre in the Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena of Milan (Fondazione) and to standardize behaviors in order to prevent adverse effects in latex allergic patients. Thanks to the literature review and the creation of a multidisciplinar team, we produced a protocol. Therefore, we requested manufacturers the certification of the latex content of their products. Results and conclusion. When latex allergic patients need to undergone surgery in our hospital, a latex safe operating theatre is organized by personnel following a multidisciplinar protocol. No allergic reactions were experienced during surgical procedures after the creation of an environment as free as possible from latex contamination. The project will involve an emergency room, one room or more of a ward and of the outpatients department.

  13. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Sta.Ana-Relleve, L.P.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.O.; Pascual, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to irradiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated latices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI 60 Co irradiation facility at a dose rate of 2.57 kGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strengths which varied from 2-11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 o -377 o C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose was increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubbe latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 1000 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% , and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the INRL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL films were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry, TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization

  14. Anti-ulcer activity of Synadenium grantii latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. G. Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly known as leitosinha or janaúba. The diluted latex (18 drops/L of water is commonly used in the south of Brazil to treat gastric disturbances. This study evaluated phytochemical screening and toxicity using Artemia salina Leach of crude bark extract and also latex. The toxicity and the anti-ulcer activity of S. grantii latex were also tested in rats. Phytochemical results showed presence of tannins, terpenes, unsaponificable substances, coumarins and anthraquinones in the crude bark extract and terpenes in the latex. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of diterpene tigliane esters in the latex, identified as 12-deoxyphorbol-13-(2-metilpropionate and phorbol 12,13,20-triacetate. The toxicity results using A. salina presented CL50 26.58μg/mL and CL50 778.66μg/mL, for the latex and the crude bark extract respectively. The toxicological hepatic parameters of the diluted latex were not different to the control group (p<0.05. The eosinophils cells showed an increase in both the diluted and pure latex groups. The pure latex showed gastric protection of 90% (p<0.05 and the diluted latex showed 6% compared to the negative control. Therefore, our data indicate that S. grantii latex, under research conditions presented gastric protection. Pure latex showed more toxicity than the diluted latex.

  15. Experimental study on the drying of natural latex medical gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankrachang, Mano; Yongyingsakthavorn, Pisit; Tohsan, Atitaya; Nontakaew, Udomkiat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study latex film drying at 70 °C using a laboratory drying oven. Two different total solid content (TSC) latex compounds, which 45% TSC and 35% TSC were used. The undried latex films were prepared according to the common procedures used in latex gloves manufacturers, that is, by dry coagulant dipping process. The experimental results such as initial moisture content, the amount of moisture and drying time of latex films in each latex compound formula were determined. After that, the results were projected to calculate on the production capacity expand by 1 million piece/day of natural latex medical gloves. Finally, the rate of moisture entering the latex drying oven and the energy consumption of the drying oven were estimated. The results indicated that when the 35% TSC of latex compound was used. The initial moisture content of latex film was higher than 45% TSC of latex compound about 7%. The drying time of 35% TSC was longer than 45% TSC for 2.5 min and consume more energy about 10%. As a result, the 45% TSC latex compound was the better way to saving energy and managing humidity in the production line. Therefore, it was found to very useful to an approximate design length and size of actual of latex drying oven and the rate of moisture entering the oven as well.

  16. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed.

  17. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  18. Home Healthcare Workers: How to Prevent Latex Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help prevent allergic reactions for both home healthcare workers and their clients. LATEX EXPOSURE REACTIONS Three ... being used). • Inform your employer and your personal healthcare professionals that you have latex allergy. • Wear a ...

  19. Angiogenic activity of Synadenium umbellatum Pax latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Melo-Reis

    Full Text Available Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularly known as "cola-nota", is a medicinal plant that grows in tropical regions. Latex of this plant is used to treat various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, Hansen´s disease, tripanosomiases, leukemia and several malignant tumors. In the present study, the angiogenic activity of S. umbellatum latex was evaluated using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Results showed significant increase of the vascular net (p < 0.05 compared to the negative control (H2O. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained. In conclusion, our data indicate that S. umbellatum latex, under the conditions of this research, presented angiogenic effect.

  20. Radiation response of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Ana-Relleve, L.S.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.; Pascual, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Our earlier work has shown that the natural rubber latex (NRL) produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization. The cast films from NRL with 50% TSC exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25-32 MPa at 15 kGy, which is the vulcanization dose or Dv. In the manufacture of dipped NRL products, certain specifications such as %TSC, protein content and tensile properties, must be met to ensure an acceptable product. For radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) to be accepted as an alternative process, it must also meet the requirements. Thus, this paper presents additional data on the radiation response of local NRL at different total solids contents (TSC), leachable proteins from NRL films as a function of dose, and the thermal activities of irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL). Different formulations of NRL showed varying tolerances to nBA. Data showed that as %TSC increases, the maximum concentration of nBA that can be added without affecting the stability of the latex decreases. The Dv increases as the %TSC increases and the nBA content decreases. This difference in response may be attributed to a lower concentration of nBA in formulations with higher %TSC. These data indicate that the parameters in the radiation treatment will be dictated by the intended applications of INRL. The thermogravimetric data showed greater stability of INRL to thermal oxidation relative to the unirradiated NRL, which correlates directly with the tensile properties of the INRL. A radiation dose of 10 kGy increased the amount of proteins leached from cast latex films. The amount of extractable proteins did not increase significantly at higher doses. The SDS PAGE analysis of the extractable proteins from unirradiated latex film showed distinct bands. An additional band at 60 Kda appeared at 10 kGy. All these bands became diffuse at higher doses, indicating the radiolysis of the proteins

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  2. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production | Mazou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production. ... This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of latex, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and their industrial applications. Keywords: Plant latex, lipase, Transesterification, purification, biodiesel ...

  3. Thermodynamics of swelling of latex particles with two monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Kurja, J.; van Doremaele, G.H.J.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of 2 monomers between the latex particle, monomer droplet, and aq. phases of an emulsion polymer latex are measured at satn. swelling of the latex particle phase (corresponding to intervals I and II of an emulsion polymn.). The monomer (Me acrylate, Bu acrylate, styrene) and polymer

  4. Emotion with tears decreases allergic responses to latex in atopic eczema patients with latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-07-01

    Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  5. Exploiting epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) as a starting raw material for latex-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Qamarina, M.; Fatimah Rubaizah, M. R.; Nurul Suhaira, A.; Norhanifah, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) is a chemically modified natural rubber latex produced from epoxidation process that involves usage of organic peracids. Conversion of the ENRL into dry rubber products has been known to exhibit many beneficial properties, however limited published works were found on diversifiying the ENRL latex-based products applications. In this preliminary work, different source of raw materials and neutralization systems were investigated. The objective was to explore possibilities in producing distinctive ENRL. Findings have demonstrated that different source of raw materials and neutralization systems influenced the typical ENRL specifications, stability behavior and particle size distribution. Morphological observations performed on these ENRL systems appeared to agree with the ENRL characteristics achieved. Since experimenting these two main factors resulted in encouraging ENRL findings, detailed work shall be further scrutinized to search for an optimum condition in producing marketable ENRL specifically for latex-based products applications.

  6. Preparation of highly stabilised natural rubber latex for radiation vulcanisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatunge, S.S.; Nadarajah, M.; Kalyani, N.M.V.; Chandralal, H.N.K.K.; Devendra, R.

    1996-01-01

    There is a bright future for radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL) but there are problems in manufacturing it as the centrifuged latex to be used for radiation has to be kept for at least a month or sometimes even three to six months before adding the sensitisers and even then the latex sometimes coagulates on adding the sensitisers. This paper describes a process by which the latex can be stabilised by addition of an anionic soap before centrifuging so that it has a high mechanical stability and hence can be used even within one week of the manufacture of the centrifuged latex

  7. CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF JACK TREE LATEX AND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and on Saponification yielded fatty acids, Volatile as well as non-volatile. The unsaponifiable portion on repeated crystallisation provided a crystal- line, sharp melting compound which was identified as artostenone? from a. Latex (200 c.c.). ത്ത min- pe. Coagulum (A) Aqueous alcoholic solution (B). Acetone or ethyl acetate ...

  8. Application of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostics of occupational latex allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nowakowska-Świrta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over many years, allergy to natural rubber latex has been a major problem among health care workers (HCW. The diagnosis of occupational allergy requires methods of high diagnostic accuracy in view of certification implications (e.g., a sick worker quits a job. With the development of molecular methods, the frequency of application of recombinant allergens in the diagnostics of allergic diseases continues to increase. This paper reviews the applicability of laboratory tests which use recombinant allergens in the diagnostics of occupational allergy. The diagnosis of latex allergy is based on the presence of clinical symptoms linked with exposure to latex allergens, positive skin prick tests and detection of specific IgE antibodies to latex in serum. Moreover, in some cases specific challenge tests are conducted. The analysis of literature indicates that applying the panel of recombinant latex allergens in diagnostic tests, cross-reactivity can very likely be excluded and/or sensitization can be confirmed without the need for specific challenge tests, which in case of latex allergens carries a potential risk of generalized reactions. Med Pr 2015;66(1:85–97

  9. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Abad, Lucille V.; Sta, Lorna P.; Ana-Relleve; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito O.; Pascual, Cristina L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to radiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated lattices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao Island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI sup 60 Co irradiation facility at dose rate of 2.57 KGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strength which varied from 2 - 11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25 - 32 MPa at a radiation dose of 15 kGy. Higher tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 degree C - 377 degree C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubber latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 100 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the IRNL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL film were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry. TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex

  10. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I 50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I 50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4- 3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14 C-mevalonic acid. From the 3 H/ 14 C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  11. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  13. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  14. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  15. Cement-latex grouting mortar for cementing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kateev, I S; Golyshkina, L A; Gorbunova, I V; Kurochkin, B M; Vakula, Ya V

    1980-01-01

    The need for the development of cement-latex grouting mortar for the purpose of separating strata when reinforcing boreholes at deposits in the Tatar Associated SSR is evaluated. Results of studies of the physical and mechanical properties of cement-latex grouting mortar systems (mortar plus brick) are presented. Formulas for preparing cement-latex grouting mortor are evaluated and results of industrial tests of such mortars shown.

  16. Effect of Amphiphilic Alkyl Chain Length Upon Purified LATEX Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amira Amir Hassan; Amir Hashim Mohd Yatim

    2015-01-01

    Rubber particles in purified latex (PL) are stabilized by a film of protein and fatty acid soap (surfactant). Saturated straight-chain fatty acid soaps can assist an enhancement of latex stability. However, whether the alkyl chain length plays an important role in increasing the stability is still an issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of alkyl chain length of anionic surfactant on the stability of purified latex. The fatty acid soap of decanoate (9), laurate (11), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (12) and palmitate (15) were used. The numbers in parentheses indicating the number of carbon present in alkyl chain of the soap. The results showed that the impact of alkyl chain length on the stability of latex is in the order of laurate > decanoate > SDS > palmitate > purified latex accordingly. The alkyl chain length does giving a significant effect on latex stability after longer stirring time. The particle size of latex with the presence of surfactant is greater compare to a single particle itself due to extension of particles diameter. Thus suitable interaction of the nonpolar tail of surfactant with the hydrophobic regions of latex surface played a major role in maintaining a stable latex system. (author)

  17. Aspects of Degradability and Aging of Natural Rubber Latex Films Obtained by Induced Ionizing Radiation Processes of Latex Vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, D. F.

    2006-01-01

    This study refers to the degradability of NRLF, natural rubber latex films, obtained by ionizing radiation. Three types of NRLF were prepared: irradiated latex, irradiated latex with about 1% of soy lecithin and sulfur-vulcanized latex, by cold vulcanization process. The films were buried in vases of two different kinds of soil: common soil and common soil with earthworm humus. Fast aging tests in laboratory with exposition to ultraviolet rays were done in irradiated latex films and irradiated latex films with soy lecithin. The results obtained after ten months of tests with buried films agree with the results of the fast aging tests, showing singularities of each type of soil and each kind of latex process. It also shows how weather inclemency can induce the films degradation process. The sulfur-vulcanized films were weakly degraded when buried. The films with lecithin and buried in vase with only common soil showed the biggest mass loss, but the films with lecithin buried in vases with common earthworm humus and soil increased their weigh and dimensions due to fungi formation. The irradiated latex films are more degradable then the sulfur-vulcanized films. The irradiated latex film, unlike the sulfur vulcanized film, showed high fungi colonization when buried. We conclude that the irradiated latex films are more easily biodegradable than the sulfur vulcanized latex films. The biodegradability increases with the addition of small amounts of soy lecithin (∼1%). The mechanical resistance of the buried films decreased related to the non-buried ones, proving that the outdoor aging in soil and the presence of fungi in the films can modify the mechanical properties of the irradiated latex owing to the biodegradation

  18. Calle Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Importante arteria, que comunica el sector del puerto con la plaza. Las más imponentes construcciones se sucedían de un modo continuo, encaramándose a ambos lados de la empinada calle. Antes del gran incendio de 1936 grandes casonas de madera destacaban en calle Irarrázabal y en la esquina de ésta con calle Blanco, la más hermosa construcción pertenecía a don Alberto Oyarzún y la casa vecina hacia Blanco era de don Mateo Miserda, limitada por arriba con la casa de don Augusto Van Der Steldt y ésta era seguida de la casa de don David Barrientos provista de cuatro cúpulas en las esquinas y de un amplio corredor en el frontis. Todas estas construcciones de madera fueron destruidas en el gran incendio de 1936.

  19. Follow-up Study of Latex-allergic Health Care Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yagami

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: After avoiding latex products and following our educational suggestions, the patients' allergy symptoms had generally improved. This indicates that our countermeasures against latex allergy were largely successful.

  20. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  1. [Latex allergy in a paediatric hospital. Characteristics and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael; Norambuena, Ximena; Roizen, Gigia; Rodríguez, Jorge; Quezada, Arnoldo

    The prevalence of latex sensitisation varies according to the population studied. There are various risk factors that increase latex sensitisation, such as genetic risk, atopy, and multiple surgeries. To characterise patients referred to an Immunology Unit with suspected latex allergy, and to analyse their clinical features and risk factors. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on children suspected of latex allergy. Their medical records were reviewed in order to assess symptoms with contact or exposure to latex materials. Known risk factors to latex sensitisation, such as pathologies requiring repeated surgery (spina bifida, myelomeningocele, scoliosis and nephro-urological alterations), atopy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis) were investigated. A prick test and/or specific IgE to latex were also performed. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to find associations between symptoms triggered by exposure to latex with underlying diseases and other risk conditions. A total of 106 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 50 were evaluable. At diagnosis 96% of patients were older than five years. Most of the risk factors described were observable in these patients, such as multiple surgeries, neurological and nephro-urological malformations, surgery before one year-old, and repeated bladder catheterisation. After latex exposure, mucous cutaneous manifestations were the most common (52%), followed by respiratory symptoms (36%). All patients were sensitised and allergic to latex. Latex allergy is a significant problem in children with risk factors. The results shown in this study raise important challenges for preventive measures and awareness. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol bin Wan Zin; Norjanah binti Mohid

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental techniques and the results of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex carried out on several high ammonia latices available in the country. The efficiency of various sensitisers and stabilisers used were evaluated in terms of the gamma radiation dose required to produce the maximum tensile strengths. The extent of crosslinking of RVNRL sample films were estimated by equilibrium swelling ratio measurements. The stability of pre-irradiated and post-irradiated samples were monitored using viscosity measurements as the parameter

  3. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  4. Antimalarial Anthrone and Chromone from the Leaf Latex of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaf latex of Aloe debranan Chrstian is used for the treatment of several diseases including malaria. In an ongoing search for effective, safe and cheap antimalarial agents from plants, the leaf latex of A. debrana was tested for its in vivo antimalarial activity, in a 4-day suppressive assay ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of latex silver nanoparticles using Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Hussein Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents through rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0. The green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy than crude latex.

  6. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  7. High concentrations of natural rubber latex allergens in gloves used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL) are commonly used by healthcare workers because of their good qualities. However, allergic reactions to latex allergens are still commonly reported. Objective. To measure the concentrations of Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 allergens in gloves used by a ...

  8. Allergenicity of latex rubber products used in South African dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen latex examination gloves (powdered and non-powdered) and five dental rubber dams, representing 6 brands, from five dental academic institutions were analysed for latex allergens and total protein. Total protein content was determined using the BioRad DC protein assay kit and natural rubber allergen levels ...

  9. Rapid latex agglutination test for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a user-friendly latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis. The assay was obtained by coating colored latex beads with Brucella lipopolysaccharides and drying of the activated beads onto white agglutination cards. Individual cards were sealed in a

  10. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmoro, N. F.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1-5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30-60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  11. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmoro, N F; Abdullah, S; Rusop, M

    2013-01-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1–5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30–60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  12. Experimental investigation of the effect of latex solid/water ratio on latex modified co-matrix mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches were performed on latex modified concretes and associated properties, however; some vital factors were not given attention in previous works. This study focus on new factor which significantly affects the properties of latex modified cement paste, mortar or concrete. This factor is termed as ‘latex solid/water ratio’ which is defined herein as the ratio of weight of solid latex to weight of total water content of cement composite including the water in latex itself. The effect of this factor on some properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete were experimentally evaluated. Properties of cement paste include the produced calcium hydroxide and ettringite content during hydration process, while those of cement mortar take account of absorption and effect of temperature on compressive strength. Furthermore, the effect of this factor on the compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, water penetration depth and drying shrinkage of concrete were explored. Based on experimental evidences, and spite of using different cement contents, sources of latex, water–cement ratios and slump values, it can be generally concluded that the latex solid/water ratio is a dominant factor affecting different properties of latex modified mortars and concrete.

  13. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  14. The preparation of RVNRL using Malaysian-produced latexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, W.M. bin W.; Mohid, N. bte; Hasan, J. bin; Noor, W.K.A. bte W.M.; Jaafar, Zulkifli

    1993-01-01

    This research project was carried out using latexes supplied by three of the suppliers in Malaysia. From the results of studies carried out in search of the best sensitiser for RVNRL preparation, the use of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) as a sensitiser gave the most promising results. However, its use as a sensitiser is not universal to all latexes available in the country. The problem was overcome by using different formulations for different latexes. For the latex supplied by Golden Hope (Hytex), a combination of sensitisers i.e. n-BA plus 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) with a 10% potassium hydroxide solution as the stabilizer, was required. Latex supplied by MARDEC (Matex), seemed to need only n-BA as the sensitiser. However, a stabilizer was still required and the use of a 10% KOH solution was found to be suitable. A large range of stabilizers and sensitisers were applicable to Guthrie latex. The use of n-BA as the sensitiser and potassium laurylic acid as the stabilizer seemed the most favourable formulation. All the results are discussed in the form of a correlation between dose and the tensile properties of RVNRL vulcanizates, equilibrium swelling ratio and standing time of the latex formulation. (author)

  15. The Synthesis and Modification of Nanosized Clickable Latex Particles

    KAUST Repository

    Almahdali, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This research aims to add to the current knowledge available for miniemulsion polymerization reactions and to use this knowledge to synthesize multifunctional nanosized latex particles that have the potential to be used in catalysis. The physical properties of the latex can be adjusted to suit various environments due to the multiple functional groups present. For this research, styrene, pentafluorostyrene, azidomethyl styrene, pentafluorostyrene with azidomethyl styrene and pentafluorostyrene with styrene latexes were produced, and analyzed by dynamic light scattering. The latexes were synthesized using a miniemulsion polymerization technique found through this research. Potassium oleate and potassium 1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluorobutane-1-sulfonate were used as surfactants during the miniemulsion polymerization reaction to synthesize pentafluorostyrene with azidomethyl styrene latex. Transmission electron microscopy data and dynamic light scattering data have been collected to analyze the structure of this latex, and it has been synthesized using a number of conditions, differing in reaction time, surfactant amount and sonication methods. We have also improved the solubility of the latex through a copper(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne reaction, by clicking (polyethylene glycol)5000 onto the azide functional groups.

  16. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  17. Size effects of latex nanomaterials on lung inflammation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Shimada, Akinori

    2009-01-01

    Effects of nano-sized materials (nanomaterials) on sensitive population have not been well elucidated. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to (latex) nanomaterials on lung inflammation related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or allergen in mice, especially in terms of their size-dependency. In protocol 1, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received a single exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (250 μg/animal) with three sizes (25, 50, and 100 nm), LPS (75 μg/animal), or LPS plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 2, ICR male mice were divided into 8 experimental groups that intratracheally received repeated exposure to vehicle, latex nanomaterials (100 μg/animal), allergen (ovalbumin: OVA; 1 μg/animal), or allergen plus latex nanomaterials. In protocol 1, latex nanomaterials with all sizes exacerbated lung inflammation elicited by LPS, showing an overall trend of amplified lung expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, LPS plus nanomaterials, especially with size less than 50 nm, significantly elevated circulatory levels of fibrinogen, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant, and von Willebrand factor as compared with LPS alone. The enhancement tended overall to be greater with the smaller nanomaterials than with the larger ones. In protocol 2, latex nanomaterials with all sizes did not significantly enhance the pathophysiology of allergic asthma, characterized by eosinophilic lung inflammation and Igs production, although latex nanomaterials with less than 50 nm significantly induced/enhanced neutrophilic lung inflammation. These results suggest that latex nanomaterials differentially affect two types of (innate and adaptive immunity-dominant) lung inflammation

  18. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex with low energy accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Emdadul; Makuuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) with the recently installed electron beam (EB) pilot plant at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Takasaki, Japan has been discussed. The accelerating voltage and beam current of the plant are 250 kV and 10 mA respectively. The plant has a reaction vessel with the capacity of 18 liters latex to irradiate at a time. In order to obtain a suitable setting of experimental for RVNRL under EB of the plant the parameters such as irradiation time, defoamer concentration, volume of latex, beam current etc. are being optimized by varying the individual parameter at a constant set of the other variables. (author)

  19. Isolation and characterization of latex-specific promoters from Papaver somniferum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Michelle Jean

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacologically important alkaloids morphine and codeine are found in latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Latex is harbored in laticifers, a specialized vascular cell-type. Isolation and characterization of latex-specific genes may provide a useful tool to metabolically engineer increased alkaloid production. Previous research in the Nessler laboratory identified genes that exhibit latex-specific gene expression. Latex-specific genes were an 2-oxoglutarate-dioxygense (DIOX), ...

  20. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  1. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  3. Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Scriven, L E; Francis, Lorraine F

    2007-12-15

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development of composite coatings prepared from dispersions of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles (approximately 30 nm) or indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) and latex particles (polydisperse, D(v): approximately 300 nm). Cryo-SEM images of ATO/latex dispersions as-frozen show small clusters of ATO and individual latex particles homogeneously distribute in a frozen water matrix. In contrast, cryo-SEM images of ITO/latex dispersions as-frozen show ITO particles adsorb onto latex particle surfaces. Electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged ATO and negatively charged latex particles stabilizes the ATO/latex dispersion, whereas in ITO/latex dispersion, positively charged ITO particles are attracted onto surfaces of negatively charged latex particles. These results are consistent with calculations of interaction potentials from past research. Cryo-SEM images of frozen and fractured coatings reveal that both ceramic nanoparticles and latex become more concentrated as drying proceeds; larger latex particles consolidate with ceramic nanoparticles in the interstitial spaces. With more drying, compaction flattens the latex-latex particle contacts and shrinks the voids between them. Thus, ceramic nanoparticles are forced to pack closely in the interstitial spaces, forming an interconnected network. Finally, latex particles partially coalesce at their flattened contacts, thereby yielding a coherent coating. The research reveals how nanoparticles segregate and interconnect among latex particles during drying.

  4. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parameters and profitability of some rapid metabolic class clones of rubber ... of hormonal stimulation had no negative influence on the vegetative growth ..... yield (2597) was obtained with the control ..... metabolic energy of latex vessels as.

  5. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and physiological parameters and profitability of some rapid metabolic class clones of rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis ) in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire.

  6. The Synthesis and Modification of Nanosized Clickable Latex Particles

    KAUST Repository

    Almahdali, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to add to the current knowledge available for miniemulsion polymerization reactions and to use this knowledge to synthesize multifunctional nanosized latex particles that have the potential to be used in catalysis. The physical

  7. PS-HEMA latex fractionation by sedimentation and colloidal crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso André H.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A poly(styrene-co-hydroxyethylmethacrylate latex underwent sedimentation under gravity followed by an spontaneous and extensive colloidal crystallization. It was then fractionated in three visually distinguishable layers. Latex aliquots layers were sampled at different heigths and the particles were characterized by PCS, microelectrophoresis, infrared spectra and analytical electron microscopy. The major fraction was opalescent and contained the colloidal crystals settled in the bottom of the liquid. Two other latex fractions were obtained, which differed in their chemical compositions, particle sizes and topochemical features from the self-arraying particles. Macrocrystallization of the fractionated latex yielded high quality crystals with a low frequency of defects, which confirms that particle chemical homogeneity is an important factor for particle self-arraying.

  8. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  9. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  10. Assessment of adverse reactions to latex gloves use among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to latex is a common problem among nurses and other health care workers. ... There was significant association between family history and occurrence of ... These effects may vary in severity from skin problems to anaphylactic shock.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyacid-stabilized latexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengcheng; Armes, S P

    2012-09-18

    A series of novel polyacid macromonomers based on 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a two-step route. First, a range of well-defined PHPMA homopolymer precursors were synthesized by ATRP using a tertiary amine-functionalized initiator, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-2-bromoisobutyrylamide, and a CuCl/2, 2'-bipyridine (bpy) catalyst in alcoholic media at 50 °C. ATRP polymerizations were relatively slow and poorly controlled in pure isopropanol (IPA), especially when targeting higher degrees of polymerization (DP > 30). Improved control was achieved by addition of water: low polydispersity (M(w)/M(n) propyl methacrylate) (PSPMA) macromonomers by quaternizing the tertiary amine end-group with excess 4-vinylbenzyl chloride, followed by esterification of the pendent hydroxyl groups using excess succinic anhydride at 20 °C. These polyacid macromonomers were evaluated as reactive steric stabilizers for polystyrene latex synthesis under either aqueous emulsion polymerization or alcoholic dispersion polymerization conditions. Near-monodisperse polystyrene latexes were obtained via aqueous emulsion polymerization using 10 wt % PSPMA macromonomer (with respect to styrene monomer) with various initiators as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, disk centrifuge photosedimentometry and light scattering studies. PSPMA macromomer concentrations as low as 1.0 wt % also produced near-monodisperse latexes, suggesting that these PSPMA macromonomers are highly effective stabilizers. Alcoholic dispersion polymerization of styrene conducted in various ethanol/water mixtures with 10 wt % PSPMA(50) macromonomer produced relatively large near-monodisperse latexes. Increasing the water content in such formulations led to smaller latexes, as expected. Control experiments conducted with 10 wt % PSPMA(50) homopolymer produced relatively large polydisperse latexes via emulsion polymerization and only macroscopic precipitates via

  12. Radioactive iodine (125I) labeling of latex particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, G.C.; Ho, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The invention disclosed in this application is directed towards developing a radioiodination method which is applicable to the labeling of 2.02 micrometer (μm) and 0.37 micrometer (μm) diameter polyvinyltoluene latex particles that have been used as an immunoadsorbent. More particularly the overall method includes using an oxidation-reduction chemical reaction for tagging latex particles. Two methods are described. One, the hydrochloric acid method; and two, the nitric acid method

  13. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  14. Immune response modulation by curcumin in a latex allergy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Raghavan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a worldwide increase in allergy and asthma over the last few decades, particularly in industrially developed nations. This resulted in a renewed interest to understand the pathogenesis of allergy in recent years. The progress made in the pathogenesis of allergic disease has led to the exploration of novel alternative therapies, which include herbal medicines as well. Curcumin, present in turmeric, a frequently used spice in Asia has been shown to have anti-allergic and inflammatory potential. Methods We used a murine model of latex allergy to investigate the role of curcumin as an immunomodulator. BALB/c mice were exposed to latex allergens and developed latex allergy with a Th2 type of immune response. These animals were treated with curcumin and the immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated. Results Animals exposed to latex showed enhanced serum IgE, latex specific IgG1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophils and inflammation in the lungs. Intragastric treatment of latex-sensitized mice with curcumin demonstrated a diminished Th2 response with a concurrent reduction in lung inflammation. Eosinophilia in curcumin-treated mice was markedly reduced, co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and OX40L on antigen-presenting cells was decreased, and expression of MMP-9, OAT, and TSLP genes was also attenuated. Conclusion These results suggest that curcumin has potential therapeutic value for controlling allergic responses resulting from exposure to allergens.

  15. Drying of latex films and coatings: Reconsidering the fundamental mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast to previ......The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast...... to previous model studies, but in agreement with observations, simulations suggest that during the falling rate period of the drying process of a latex film, a porous skin of partly coalesced latex particles is indeed formed, which limits transport of water vapour from the receding air-liquid interphase...... to the surface of the film. The value of the effective diffusion coefficient of water vapour in the dry and partly coalesced layer (7 x 10(-7) m(2)/s at 19-24 degrees C), the adjustable parameter of the model for the falling rate period, was found to be independent of initial wet film thickness (89-1322 mu m...

  16. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  17. Troubleshooting for the observed problems in processing latex concentrate from natural resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afreen, S; Haque, K R; Huda, M K

    2013-01-01

    Natural latex has special importance in the rubber industry for manufacturing different types of goods like gloves, balloons, male contraceptive and similar thin walled articles. This natural latex is much more sensitive a liquid to handle since it can easily become contaminated and thereby coagulated which makes it unfavourable for centrifuge and getting concentrate from it. Some other related measures also are included in consideration during the processing of concentrate latex from the natural raw latex. The problems that are being faced in a concentrate latex processing plant can be categorized in different groups like, problems related to the latex property, mechanical problems, electrical problems, handling and storage problems, transformation problems, problems related to environmental issues, etc. Among them, the most common and vital problems frequently observed in a concentrate latex processing plant are discussed here with a view to finding the measures for solution which will help to maintain the latex property in any latex processing plant.

  18. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  19. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Sehgal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks.

  20. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  1. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  2. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  3. Antibacterial activity of the latex of Argemone ochroleuca Sweet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad A. Alamri; Mahmoud F. Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial effect of the crude latex of Argemone ochroleuca (A. ochroleuca) as antibacterial potential against a range of human pathogenic bacteria. This study was carried out at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to March 2010. Seventeen ml of fresh latex from A. ochroleuca Sweet was collected, and the antibacterial activity of crude and diluted latex were examined using one ml of standardized inoculum suspension, and using the agar diffusion method test against Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. All inoculated plates were incubated aerobically at 290C for 48 hours. The diameter of the zones of inhibition was measured to the nearest mm. The crude latex of A. ochroleuca exhibited a potent antibacterial effect on all bacterial strains examined. The zones of inhibition against the tested bacteria were found in the range of 9.30 - 40.3 mm along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration values 100 ul/ml. The observable inhibition on selected bacteria by latex of A. ochroleuca makes it a promising alternative as a potential source of natural antibacterial (Author).

  4. Respiratory and dermal symptoms in Thai nurses using latex products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supapvanich, C; Povey, A C; de Vocht, F

    2013-09-01

    Despite known health risks related to the use of powdered latex gloves (PLGs), they are still widely used in hospitals in developing countries due to the high cost of alternatives. To determine the prevalence of dermal and respiratory symptoms associated with latex glove use in nurses in Thailand and evaluate the influence of previously reported occupational risk factors in this population. A cross-sectional study in female nurses working in three Thai hospitals. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, occupational and personal history, use of latex products at work and dermal and respiratory symptoms attributed to occupational use of latex gloves. Of 899 nurses, 18% reported health effects attributed to the use of latex products. After adjustment for confounding, occupational risk factors associated with increased reporting of dermal symptoms included wearing more than 15 pairs of PLG per day (odds ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.32-3.34]), using chlorhexidine (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: [1.22-3.52]) and being an operating theatre nurse (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: [1.47-4.12]). Being a labour ward nurse (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: [1.26-9.85]) was the only factor associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms. Continuing use of PLGs in Thai nurses is associated with increased prevalence of dermal symptoms compared with data from developed countries. Measures to reduce such health effects are well established and should be considered. Additionally, replacement of chlorhexidine with an alternative detergent seems advisable.

  5. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  6. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  7. Latex-modified fiber-reinforced concrete bridge deck overlay : construction/interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Latex-modified concrete (LMC) is Portland cement concrete (PCC) with an admixture of latex. LMC is considered to be nearly impermeable to chlorides and is extensively used to construct bridge deck overlays. Unfortunately, some of these overlays have ...

  8. Studies on physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the irradiated latex modified mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassene, A.A.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three chapter; chapter(I): Introduction and literature review on:- Introduction to polymer. - Mechanism of polymer-cement co-matrix formation.-Sulphate attack. - Solidification /stabilization of heavy metal in cement mortar. chapter(II): Materials and experimental techniques that include: 1- Preparation of latex polymer films from different polymer latices of styrene butadine rubber latex (SBR), poly (styrene-acrylic ester) latex (SAE) and vinylacetate /versatic -ester copolymer latex (C2A). The effect of γ-irradiation dose on the physico - chemical and mechanical properties of different latex polymer films was studied.2- Preparation of latex polymer-modified cement mortar with different ratios of cement: latex polymer and different curing method.3- Solidification /stabilization (S/S) of electroplating heavy metal precipitate in latex polymer- modified mortar with different cement /electroplating heavy metal sludge ratio. chapter(III) results and discussion

  9. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  10. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  11. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  12. IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO LATEX GLOVES IN A DENTAL STUDENT. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana Stoeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of dental student with immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction to latex gloves. Symptoms appeared during the second year of regularly using of latex gloves. The student was with no history of allergies and no previous exposure to latex products.

  13. Properties and Characterization of Kenaf-Filled Natural Rubber Latex Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fikri Abdul Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf powder was incorporated with natural rubber latex (NRL compound and foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF by using a well known technique called the Dunlop method. Different loadings of kenaf powder were added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The mechanical properties, density, compression, thermal, and micro-structural characterization of control NRLF and kenaf incorporated NRLF were studied. Increasing content of kenaf reduced the tensile strength, elongation at break, and compressive strength of a NRLF. Modulus at 100% elongation and density of the NRLF increased with an increase in filler loading. Higher kenaf loading indicated higher elasticity of kenaf-filled NRLF, but the recovery percentage of kenaf-filled NRLF decreased with increasing kenaf loading. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA result, an increase in the amount of kenaf loading from 1 to 7 phr increased the thermal stability of kenaf-filled NRLF. Morphological and micro-structural characterization performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that kenaf powder filled up the micro-sized pores in the open cell structure of kenaf-filled NRLF.

  14. Urea and ammonia excretion into gastric juice in regularly dialyzed patients and patients after renal transplantation. I. Dialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, I; Marecková, O; Růzicková, J; Bláha, J; Straková, M; Reneltová, I; Jirka, J; Kocandrle, V; Zvolánková, K

    1978-01-01

    In regularly dialyzed patients in basal gastric juice and after stimulation with pentagastrin the volume of titrable acidity, urea and ammonia were assessed. It was revealed that in relation to the plasma urea concentration in basal juice the mean urea and ammonia concentration is roughly half and in stimulation juice roughly one third. The urea concentration in gastric juice is negatively correlated to the ammonia concentration. Urea excretion into the stomach depends on the plasma urea level and on the secretory gastric activity. The decisive factor of gastric secretion is probably parietal cell secretion. From the results ensues that gastric juice of dialyzed patients contains a quantitatively significant amount of urea and ammonia. Ammonia due to its neutralizing action distorts the examination of gastric acidity assessed by titration. The findings call for a revision of hitherto known data concerning gastric secretion of uraemic patients.

  15. Call Forecasting for Inbound Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vinje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of inbound call center customer service, the ability to forecast calls is a key element and advantage. By forecasting the correct number of calls a company can predict staffing needs, meet service level requirements, improve customer satisfaction, and benefit from many other optimizations. This project will show how elementary statistics can be used to predict calls for a specific company, forecast the rate at which calls are increasing/decreasing, and determine if the calls may stop at some point.

  16. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  17. Polybutadiene latex particle size distribution analysis utilizing a disk centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Albers, J.G.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polybutadiene (I) latexes prepd. by emulsifier-free emulsion polymn. and having particle diam. 50-300 nm for both unimodal and bimodal particles size distributions were analyzed by the line-start (LIST) method in a Brookhaven disk centrifuge photosedimentometer. A special spin fluid was designed to

  18. Marine bacterial prodigiosin as dye for rubber latex, polymethyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prodigiosin is known for its immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antimalarial, algicidal and anticancer activities. Here, we reported the evaluation of prodigiosin pigment as a dyeing agent in rubber latex, paper and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) so that it can be considered as an alternative to synthetic pigments.

  19. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accomodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components : emulsification unit ( height : 650 mm, diameter 500 mm ), mixing unit ( height : 1900mm, diameter 1200 mm ) and vulcanization reactor ( height : 1800 mm, diameter 1300 mm ). The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one-in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process comparedto the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR Latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized, and depend on many factors such as irradiation dose, sensitizer content, dry rubber content and storage time.

  20. Oil-Acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, E.M.S.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  1. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  2. The construction and commissioning of MINT's latex irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali Hamzah; Muhd Khairi Muhd Said; Muhd Ariff Hamzah; Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Taiman Kadni

    1996-01-01

    The construction and installation of MINT's automatic continuous latex irradiator is described. MINT cooperated with NUKEM to design the plant. Construction was done by local building consultants and local contractor. The installation of the plant includes local fabrication components and imported components. The plant is automatically controlled by a computer system. Features of plant is described

  3. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accommodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components: emulsification unit, mixing unit and vulcanization reactor. The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process compared to the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized. (author)

  4. Study of glucoamylase immobilization in butadiene nitrile latex membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts have been undetaken to immobilize glucoamylaze by means of butadiene nitrile latex in the presence of a chemical initiator and 60 Co γ-radiation. The activity, stability of conjugates in the membrane and permeability of oxygen in these membranes were determined. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Properties of Euphorbiacharacias Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pintus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity and the antioxidant properties of extracts of Euphorbia characias latex, a Mediterranean shrub. We performed a new extraction method involving the use of the trichloroacetic acid. The extract showed high antioxidant activity, was rich in total polyphenolic and flavonoid content and exhibited substantial inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.

  6. LaTeX - Know what you are missing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Maier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief introduction to \\LaTeX\\ and related tools. The aim is to give an overview, to demonstrate the flexibility and versatility of the software, and to assist the reader taking first steps using it. The article links to a number of valuable resources for further information.

  7. Latex allergy in an infant with acquired hydrocephalus | Ehiozw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 3 month old male infant with acquired hydrocephalus undergoing ventriculo-peritoneal shunt insertion who developed wheals and suffered a respiratory arrest following contact with latex gloves. The need for anaesthetists to effectively diagnose and properly manage this rare clinical entity is ...

  8. Natural rubber latex: determination and interpretation of flow curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Lourenço Corrêa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs consumers become more demanding, the importance grows of guaranteeing the quality of products. The employment of reliable testing techniques that assure the origin and characteristics of the inputs used by industry is a key factor in this respect. In the rubber processing industry, the most commonly used characterization tests include determination of the total solids and dry rubber content, mechanical stability, odor, color and presence of volatile compounds, among others. For the most part, these tests are sufficient for the latex transformation industry. However, in situations where there is a need to know the behavior of latex in reaction to the mechanical forces of machines (mixers, pumps, etc., other tests must be used. Rheological tests to determine viscoelastic data by means of plotting flow curves combined with the application of theoretical models can provide important details for characterization of different types of latex. This article presents the protocol employed by the Rheology and Image Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ for the rheological study of Brazilian latex. The samples analyzed came from the state of São Paulo.

  9. Partial swelling of latex particles by two monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noel, E.F.J.; Maxwell, I.A.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The swelling of polymeric latex particles with solvent and monomer is of great importance for the emulsion polymn. process in regard to compn. drift and rate of polymn. For the monomer combination, Me acrylate-vinyl acetate, both satn. and partial swelling were detd. exptl. Theories for satn.

  10. Ten years incidence of natural rubber latex sensitization and symptoms in a prospective cohort of health care workers using non-powdered latex gloves 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Bochdanovits, Letizia; Capuzzo, Chiara; Cerchi, Roberto; Rui, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    To assess the incidence of sensitization and gloves-related symptoms in 10-year follow-up in a group of health care workers (9,660 person-years) using non-powdered latex gloves from 2000 to 2009 and to examine related factors. We studied 2,053 health care workers in Trieste Hospitals by means of skin prick test for latex extract, patch tests and medical examinations. We report the incidence of latex sensitization among workers using non-powdered latex gloves. The incidence of latex sensitization, rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis were 1.0; 0.12; 0.21; 0.72; 2.39 and 2.50 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Respiratory symptoms and urticaria were positively related with latex sensitization (OR = 8.0; 95 % CL 1.27-48.6), with common allergic respiratory symptoms (OR = 4.19; 95 % CL 1.04-16.8) and with familial atopy (OR = 4.47; 95 % CL 1.1-17.9). The incidence of latex sensitization and latex-related symptoms were very low but subjects with allergic symptoms related to common allergens are at higher risk. The use of non-latex gloves is suggested for them.

  11. Alergia látex-fruta Latex-fruit allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Andréia MARIN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O látex está sendo considerado o alergênico do ano 2000, tendo em vista que inúmeros indivíduos, principalmente profissionais da área de saúde e pacientes submetidos a várias intervenções diagnósticas e terapêuticas, estão freqüentemente expostos aos alérgenos do látex, presentes em produtos de borracha natural. As manifestações clínicas conseqüentes às reações alérgicas de hipersensibilidade imediata vão desde rinite, urticária, conjuntivite, angioedema, asma, até anafilaxia. Estudos recentes estão demonstrando que pacientes alérgicos ao látex desenvolvem concomitantemente sensibilização a certos alimentos de origem vegetal, especialmente frutas como papaia, figo, banana, abacate, kiwi, pêssego, abacaxi, melão e castanha, acreditando-se numa provável ocorrência de reações cruzadas entre os alérgenos do látex e destas frutas. Faz-se, então, uma revisão sobre a alergia ao látex, em particular sobre os grupos de risco, incluindo a presença de reatividade cruzada entre o látex e as frutas.The latex is being considered the allergenic agent of the year 2000, taking into account that several individuals, mainly health care professionals, and patients who had undergone many diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, are frequently exposed to latex allergens, which are present in natural rubber latex products. The clinical manifestations, derived from allergic reactions of immediate hypersensitivity vary from since rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, to anaphylaxis. Recent researches are demonstrating that patients allergic to latex develop concomitantly sensitization to certain vegetable foods, especially fruits like papaya, fig, banana, avocado, kiwi, peach, pineapple, melon and chestnut, and a probable occurrence of cross reaction between allergens of latex and of these fruits is believed. A review is made about latex allergy, in particular about risk groups, including the presence of

  12. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  13. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  16. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  17. Application of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soebianto, Y.S.; Wiwik Sofiarti; Razzak, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The center has carried out R and D of Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) technology and introduced it to the industries since the inauguration and operation of the latex pilot plant in 1983. After years of experiences and the environmental consideration, n-butylacrylate (n-BA) has replaced CCI, as the sensitizer. Until now the introduction program shows that radiation vulcanized latex is more suitable for home industries than large industries. The obstacle of the program is the marketing of the dipped products. In spite of these problems, the introduction of this technology to the people in some undeveloped area of Java has supported the national program to improve their living standard. The problems of nitrosamine and protein allergic have turn up RVNRL to be the substitute of sulfur vulcanized latex in the future. The cooperation with a national condom manufacturer (PT Mitra Banjaran) has applied RVNRL for condom production in the large scale. Soft condoms with less probability of pinhole are obtained, but the technical problem is stickiness after pilling. Supply to a baby teat and a rubber thread manufacturer offers great advantages by not using any chemicals. In spite of the advantages, the problem of latex viscosity for dipping and the low modulus of elasticity of the threads arise. Through those input CAIR-BATAN is conducting the research and development in improving the crosslinking among the rubber particles that are supposed to be the reason of the stickiness and low modulus of elasticity. This effort is expected to be able to broaden the application of RVNRL, and it will be achieved only by the involvement of rubber chemist, rubber technologist, and radiation chemist

  18. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  19. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites

  20. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopy test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.

  1. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  2. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  3. LOL2 and LOL5 loci control latex production by laticifer cells in Euphorbia lathyris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanque, Lourdes; Balaguer, Begoña; Marti, Cristina; Orozco, Marianela; Vera, Pablo

    2018-06-07

    Laticifers are specialized plant cells capable of indefinite elongation that ramify extensively and are responsible for latex biosynthesis and accumulation. However, the mechanisms underlying laticifer cell differentiation, growth and production of latex remain largely unknown. In a search for mutants showing enhanced accumulation of latex we identified two LOT OF LATEX (LOL) loci in Euphorbia lathyris. lol2 and lol5 mutants show enhanced production of latex contained within laticifer cells. The recessive lol2 mutant carries increased biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and therefore establishes a genetic link between jasmonic acid (JA) signaling and latex production in laticifers. Instead, heightened production of latex in lol5 plants obeys to enhanced proliferation of laticifer cells. Phylogenetic analysis of laticifer-expressed genes in E. lathyris and in two other latex-bearing species, Euphorbia corallioides and Euphorbia palustris, allowed the identification of canonical JA responsive elements present in the gene promoter regions of laticifer marker genes. Moreover, we identified that the hormone JA functions not as a morphogen for laticifer differentiation but as a trigger for the fill out of laticifers with latex and the associated triterpenoids. The identification of LOL loci represents a further step towards the understanding of mechanisms controlling latex production in laticifer cells. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Osmotic de-swelling and swelling of latex dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet-Gonnet, Cecile

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis reports the comparison of, on the one hand, direct measurements of de-swelling resistance of latex dispersions obtained by osmotic pressure with, on the other hand, predictions made by models of electrostatic interactions. This resistance is explained in the case of sulphate-stabilised polystyrene particles (direct repulsion between charged particles), and in the case of copolymer (ps-pba) particles covered by an amphiphilic polymer (interactions between surface macromolecules and polymers). The study of de-swelling and swelling cycles highlights the existence of thresholds beyond which the concentrated dispersion has some cohesion. This irreversibility can be modelled by a Van der Waals attraction. The role of hydrophobic forces in latex destabilisation is studied [fr

  5. Extractable protein of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soebianto, Y.S.; Upul, R.M.; Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2000-01-01

    A new method to reduce the protein level in the latex products by irradiation is reported. Water soluble protein (WSP) solution (10%) was added into radiation vulcanized NR latex (RVNRL) as much as 3 phr in three different processes: added to RVNRL, added to re-centrifuged RVNRL, and added to RVNRL followed by centrifugation. The protein content was determined by enhanced BCA method, and identified by SDS-PAGE analysis. Addition of WSP followed by centrifugation reduces EP up to the minimum protein detection, and shortens the leaching time to 20-30 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirms the reduction of soluble protein in the serum phase, and disappearance of protein bands in the rubber extract. Protein-WSP interaction produces water soluble complex, and removed by centrifugation. The molecular weight of WSP dictates the efficiency of protein removal. (author)

  6. [Anaphylactic reaction to latex during spinal anesthesia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Narumi; Kitamura, Rie; Wakamori, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kumi; Konishi, Keisuke

    2008-05-01

    A 46-year-old man, with a history of atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, underwent surgery for an inguinal hernia. Forty-three minutes subsequent to spinal anesthesia, the patient complained suddenly of dyspnea with wheezing. Blood pressure decreased and skin eruption was observed on his chest. Postoperative laboratory tests revealed high IgE concentration, and a skin test confirmed an allergy to latex. The patient's allergic reaction was easily overlooked because of his history of bronchial asthma and the possibility that the hypotension was caused by the high spinal anesthesia. Latex allergy should be considered in any suspicious case presenting with these symptoms during surgery. After recovery, a skin test should be used to confirm the allergy to avoid repeated allergic episodes.

  7. Extractable protein content of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma'zam Md Said; Wan Manshol Wan Zin

    1996-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions on extractable protein content of coagulant dipped radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex films have been investigated. Drying of wet-gel of radiation vulcanized latex films even at a relatively low temperature of 70 degree C resulted in increases of extractable protein content of the films. The extractable protein content is dependent upon both the temperature and time of drying of wet-gel deposit. Wet-gel leaching of film alone is not adequate to reduce the extractable protein content of films to low levels. Combination of wet-gel leaching, post-leaching, a dip in corn starch slurry, followed by drying at a low temperature of 70 degree C reduces the extractable protein content of films to very low levels

  8. Extractable protein of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soebianto, Y.S. [Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BATAN, Jakarta (Indonesia); Upul, R.M. [Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Ratmalana (Sri Lanka); Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    A new method to reduce the protein level in the latex products by irradiation is reported. Water soluble protein (WSP) solution (10%) was added into radiation vulcanized NR latex (RVNRL) as much as 3 phr in three different processes: added to RVNRL, added to re-centrifuged RVNRL, and added to RVNRL followed by centrifugation. The protein content was determined by enhanced BCA method, and identified by SDS-PAGE analysis. Addition of WSP followed by centrifugation reduces EP up to the minimum protein detection, and shortens the leaching time to 20-30 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirms the reduction of soluble protein in the serum phase, and disappearance of protein bands in the rubber extract. Protein-WSP interaction produces water soluble complex, and removed by centrifugation. The molecular weight of WSP dictates the efficiency of protein removal. (author)

  9. A latex metabolite benefits plant fitness under root herbivore attack

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, M.; Epping, J.; Gronover, C.S.; Fricke, J.; Aziz, Z.; Brillatz, T.; Swyers, M.; Köllner, T.G.; Vogel, H.; Hammerbacher, A.; Triebwasser-Freese, D.; Robert, C.A.M.; Verhoeven, K.; Preite, V.; Gershenzon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major n...

  10. The entry of free radicals into polystyrene latex particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.E.; Trau, M.; Gilbert, R.C.; Napper, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the processes governing the kinetics of emulsion polymerization has both scientific and technical interest. One component of this process that is poorly understood at present is that of free radical entry into latex particles. Measurements were made of the entry rate coefficient as a function of temperature for free radicals entering polystyrene latex particles in seeded emulsion polymerizations initiated by γ-rays. The activation energy for entry was found to be less than 24 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , consistent with entry being controlled by a physical (e.g. diffusional) rather than a chemical process. Measurement of the entry rate coefficient as a function of the γ-ray dose rate suggested that the factors that determine the entry rate when the primary free radicals are uncharged are similar to those that determine the entry rate for charged free radicals derived from chemical initiation by peroxydisulfate. This result was consistent with measurements of the entry rate coefficient of charged free radicals derived from peroxydisulfate; these data were found to be virtually independent of both the extent of the latex surface coverage by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The data refute several proposals given in the literature for the rate-determining step for entry, being inconsistent with control by collision of free radicals with the latex particles, surfactant desorption, and an electrostatic barrier arising from the colloidal nature of the entering free radical. The origin of the activation energy for entry remains obscure

  11. Radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL) market and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Najib Mohamad Zakey; Chai Chee Keong

    2000-01-01

    RVNRL has the required properties and proven useful for the manufacturing of examination gloves, balloons and finger cots at industrial scale. To date only RVNRL finger cots are available in the market. Problems and challenges for the market of other products are identified. Further success in the on going research activities will be the reference for more applications of RVNRL in the relevant industry to produce natural rubber latex products of more competitive values

  12. Minimizing surgical skin incision scars with a latex surgical glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Ryoo, Suk-Tae; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The current trend in minimally invasive surgery is to make a small surgical incision. However, the excessive tensile stress applied by the retractors to the skin surrounding the incision often results in a long wound healing time and extensive scarring. To minimize these types of wound problems, the authors evaluated a simple and cost-effective method to minimize surgical incision scars based on the use of a latex surgical glove. The tunnel-shaped part of a powder-free latex surgical glove was applied to the incision and the dissection plane. It was fixed to the full layer of the dissection plane with sutures. The glove on the skin surface then was sealed with Ioban (3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA) to prevent movement. The operation proceeded as usual, with the retractor running through the tunnel of the latex glove. It was possible to complete the operation without any disturbance of the visual field by the surgical glove, and the glove was neither torn nor separated by the retractors. The retractors caused traction and friction during the operation, but the extent of damage to the postoperative skin incision margin was remarkably less than when the operation was performed without a glove. This simple and cost-effective method is based on the use of a latex surgical glove to protect the surgical skin incision site and improve the appearance of the postoperative scar. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. The criteria and the design of MINT's latex irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali Hamzah; Muhd Khairi Muhd Said; Muhd Ariff Hamzah; Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Wan Abd Hadi Wan Abu Bakar; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1996-01-01

    The demand for RVNRL is continually on the upsurge and the present irradiation technique at the present SINAGAMA plant is not sufficient and practical to meet the demand. A number of conceptual designs were evolved to design according to the requirements of cost-effective and highly efficient plant. The number of options are described. In 1994 MINT work with NUKEM to build an automatic continuous latex irradiation plant

  14. The polymerization of aniline in polystyrene latex particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blinova, Natalia V.; Reynaud, S.; Roby, F.; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 15/16 (2010), s. 1598-1602 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686; GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * polystyrene latex * polyaniline-polystyrene composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  15. Progress in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Vulcanization dose defined as the radiation dose at which cross-linked natural rubber in latex has the maximum tensile strength can be reduced by adding carbon tetrachloride as a reaction accelerator. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex was selected as one of regional projects of IAEA in 1989 and a pilot plant was built in Jakarta. The products from it were evaluated during 1983-1985, followed by IAEA decision to support the continued R and D study at Takasaki, JAERI. Various factors to improve the properties of the products have been studied. Several advantages of the process over conventional method, such as absence of N-nitrosoamines, low cytotoxicity, decomposability in the environment, transparency and softness, were confirmed. The technology has been transferred toward commercial application in Thailand, and pilot plants being set up in Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Moreover, the process was found to be effective in reducing protein remaining in natural rubber latex products and the initial investment and irradiation cost was found to be greatly reduced by employing low energy electron accelerator. This paper reviews such progress. (S. Ohno)

  16. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  17. Extractable proteins from field radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Duclerc F. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br; Pinto Martins, Carlos Felipe [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Collantes, Hugo D.C. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lugao, Ademar B. [Chemical and Environmental Centre, Nuclear Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242-CEP Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The type I allergy associated with the use of natural rubber latex (NRL) products is caused by the NRL proteins leached by the sweat or other body fluids. Makuuchi's group proposed for the first time the proteins removal by the addition of water-soluble polymers (WSP) on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) that is a promising process under development in many countries. In this study, Brazilian field natural rubber was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co gamma source to reduce the content of WSP in the final product. WSP was used as additive to improve the extraction of protein. After irradiation the RVNRL was centrifuged to extract the WSP and proteins. The analytical methodology for protein content was based on the modified Lowry method according to ASTM D5712. Protein determination was carried out in serum of latex and in the extracts of the gloves. The concentration of extractable water-soluble proteins in serum of irradiated field NRL (NRL1), not irradiated one (NRL2); of twice centrifuged sample with polymer additive NRL (NRL3) and of the glove manufactured (NRLG) are compared with commercial glove (CG). The irradiation process increases the extractable water-soluble proteins, EP, as reported in the literature. In this study the use of polymeric additive on the bi-centrifugation process to remove protein was successful and the EP of the glove obtained in NRL3 was at around 40% of the commercial glove.

  18. Identification and characterization of Euphorbia nivulia latex proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Mahajan, Raghunath T

    2014-03-01

    The protein profile of latex of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. is established. Three new proteins viz., Nivulian-I, II and III have been purified to homogeneity from the latex. The relative molecular masses of Nivulian-I, II and III are 31,486.985, 43,670.846 and 52,803.470 Da respectively. Nivulian-I is a simple type of protein while Nivulian-II and III are glycoproteins. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptides of these proteins match with Tubulin alpha-1 chain of Eleusine indica, Maturase K of Banksia quercifolia and hypothetical protein of Zea mays respectively. Tryptic digestion profile of Nivulian-I, II and III, infer the exclusive nature of latex origin proteins and may be new and are additive molecules in the dictionaries of phytoproteins or botany. This is the first of its kind, regarding characterization and validation of Nivulian-I, II and III with respect to peptide sequencing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of protection by latex gloves during orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, G M; Zentner, A; Balan, R; Sergl, H G

    2000-01-01

    The wearing of gloves during orthodontic or dental treatment is generally indicated for reasons of hygiene and protection against infection. This study was aimed at determining the extent and localization of perforations caused by the various orthodontic treatment techniques and interrupting the infection barrier. The impermeability was tested by means of a water retention test according to European standard EN 455, Part 1, performed on 1600 Centramed (Centramed, Koblenz), Tekmedic and SafeEx non-sterile disposable latex gloves (both by Safe Med, Switzerland) and Safe Gan latex gloves with an additional acrylate coating (also by Safe Med). The perforation rate in unused gloves was between 0.5% and 7.5%, rising on average to 11% with increasing use. 36% of the total number of lesions resulted from handling removable appliances, and 57% from handling fixed appliances, especially when replacing arch wires and elastics. Most lesions were in the thumb, index finger and palm region. Only 18% of the defects were noticed by the dentists themselves. The gloves worn by beginners in their first year of postgraduate orthodontic training had about twice as many defects as those worn by qualified orthodontists. When patients with an increased risk of infection are to be treated, additional hand disinfection measures should be taken and 2 pairs of gloves worn in view of the relatively unreliable protection offered by commercially available latex gloves.

  20. Extractable protein of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soebianto, Y.S.; Ratnayake, U.M.; Makuuchi, Keizo; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Protein remained in the latex products are reported to cause serious allergy. A new method to reduce the protein level in the latex products by irradiation is reported. Water soluble protein (WSP) solution (10%) was added into radiation vulcanized NR latex (RVNRL) in three different processes. The amount of WSP was 3 phr. It was only added to RVNRL (standard), added to re-centrifuged RVNRL (pre-centrifugation), and added to RVNRL followed by centrifugation (post-centrifugation). The protein content was determined by enhanced BCA method, and identified by SDS-PAGE. Extractable protein (EP) from the rubber has been reduced up to the minimum protein detection by combining WSP addition and centrifugation. Short leaching time (20-30 min.) can be achieved after the combine treatment, and SDS-PAGE confirms the reduction of soluble protein in the serum phase, and disappearance of protein bands in the rubber extract. Protein-WSP interaction produces water soluble complex, and removed by centrifugation. The efficiency of protein removal by WSP depends on its molecular weight of WSP which relates to its water solubility. (author)

  1. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex using irradiation n-butyl acrylate aqueous emulsion as sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thien; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii

    2000-01-01

    Natural rubber latex was vulcanized by gamma radiation with n-butyl acrylate aqueous emulsion irradiated at dose of 1.5 kGy as sensitizer. The total solid content of latex increases on the irradiation dose. The viscosity of latex on the standing time was investigated and became stable after one month of storage. The gel content of latex films increasing with irradiation dose and attained more than 94% at dose of 10 kGy. Tensile strength of films reached the values of 31MPa; 30 Mpa and 25 Mpa at vulcanization doses of 20 kGy, 15 kGy and 8 kGy for the concentrations of sensitizer 7 phr, 9 phr and 13 phr respectively. Elongation at break decreases as increasing dose. Tear strength of rubber films was from 30-40 N/mm. The tackiness of latex films decreases and smell of vulcanized latex is almost negligible. (author)

  2. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  3. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  4. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  5. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin M. Shivkar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation.

  6. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  7. Latex agglutination test (LAT) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Gopal Shankar

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of latex agglutination test in the rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever was studied and the result compared with that of blood culture. This study included 80 children suffering from typhoid fever, among which 40 were confirmed by blood culture isolation and 40 had possible typhoid fever based on high Widal's titre (a four-fold rise in the titre of antibody to typhi "O" and "H" antigen was considered as a positive Widal's test result). Eighty children, 40 with febrile illness confirmed to be other than typhoid and 40 normal healthy children were used as negative controls. The various groups were: (i) Study group ie, group I had 40 children confirmed by culture isolation of Salmonella typhi(confirmed typhoid cases). (ii) Control groups ie, (a) group II with 40 febrile controls selected from paediatrics ward where cause other than S typhi has been established, (b) group III with 40 afebrile healthy controls that were siblings of the children admitted in paediatric ward for any reason with no history of fever and TAB vaccination in the last one year, and (c) group IV with 40 children with high Widal's titre in paired sera sample. Widal's test with paired sera with a one week interval between collections were done in all 40 patients. Latex aggtutination test which could detect 900 ng/ml of antigen as observed in checker board titration, was positive in all 40 children from group I who had positive blood culture and in 30 children from group IV who had culture negative and had high Widal's titre positive. Latex agglutination test was positive in 4 children in group II and none in group III. Using blood culture positive cases as true positive and children in groups II and III as true negative, the test had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96%. Latex agglutination test was found to be significantly sensitive (100%) and specific (96%) and could detect 75% more cases in group IV (possible typhoid cases). Thus latex agglutination test can be used for rapid

  8. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  9. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  10. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  12. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  13. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to which...

  15. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  16. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  17. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Huber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg. decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha, and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  18. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  19. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  20. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    OpenAIRE

    H Nabavizade; R Amin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descr...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of a simple and rapid latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Pastoor, Rob; Smits, Henk L.; Hatta, Mochammad

    2007-01-01

    A latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated on samples collected from patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, where the disease is endemic. The latex assay is very easy to use, gives a rapid result and may be used as a

  2. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  3. Isotactic polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites prepared by latex technology: Electrical conductivity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Miltner, H.E.; Lu, K.; Loos, J.; Van Mele, B.; Koning, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Several series of nanocomposites were prepared using a latex-based process, the main step of which consisted of mixing an aqueous suspension of exfoliated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a polymer latex. In the present work, a systematic study on the electrical properties of fully amorphous (polystyrene

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Nie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF. It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  5. NR based curred latex material reclaimed with 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide in truck tyre tread compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is observed that reclamation of natural rubber latex based rubber using 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide as reclaiming agent is an optional methodology for recycling of waste latex rubber (WLR). For progressive replacement of virgin natural rubber by the reclaim, two alternatives curing system

  6. Thermodynamics of swelling of latex particles with two monomers: a sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Noel, E.F.J.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    A sensitivity anal. is performed to det. at what conditions the simplified model for swelling of latex particles by two monomers or two solvents is valid. This model proposes that, inter alia, the fractions of two monomers in the latex particles and in the monomer droplets are equal. The model is a

  7. Towards anti-corrosion coatings from surfactant-free latexes based on maleic anhydride containing polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W.J.; Ming, W.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the film formation of surfactant-free, artificial latexes based on copolymers containing maleic anhydride. Different metallic substrates, such as aluminum, steel and magnesium alloys, were coated with three different latexes. A commercial polyester based coating was used as a

  8. Residual monomer reduction in polymer latex products by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.; Meuldijk, J.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of residual monomer from a latex product with supercritical carbon dioxide ((sc)CO2) in a column was studied. Operating conditions were chosen at 35¿°C and 100 bar. For reducing the residual styrene level in a polystyrene latex from 104 ppm to 100¿ppm and from 104 ppm to 10¿ppm, a

  9. Elements of the LaTeX system for the development of large publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This document presents gives a quick overview over the LATEX system from the viewpoint of the production of books and complex papers. Thereby it provides the starting point for the author's selection of a set of LATEX packages and the development of related commands....

  10. Comparative evaluation of Type 1 latex hypersensitivity in patients with chronic urticaria, rubber factory workers and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Akyol, Aynur; Uzar, Hatice; Tulek, Necla; Boyvat, Ayse; Gurgey, Erbak

    2003-01-01

    Latex hypersensitivity manifests itself most commonly with contact urticaria. In this study, we investigated the frequency of latex hypersensitivity as a possible aetiological factor in patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and compared latex hypersensitivity of CU patients (n = 50) with that of

  11. A Reappraisal of Online Mathematics Teaching Using LaTeX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon Costello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematics language LaTeX is often seen outside of academic circles as a legacy technology that is awkward to use. MathML - a verbose language designed for data-exchange, and to be written and understood by machines - is sometimes by contrast seen as something that will aid online mathematics and lack of browser support for it bemoaned. However LaTeX can already do many of the things that MathML might promise. LaTeX is here proposed as a language from which small fragments, with concise syntax, can be used by people to easily create and share mathematical expressions online. The capability to embed fragments of LaTeX code in online discussions is described here and its impact on a group of educators and learners evaluated. Here LaTeX is posited as a useful tool for facilitating asynchronous, online, collaborative learning of mathematics.

  12. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  13. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  14. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food. The lemon oil and lemon essence (derived from lemons) content may be adjusted in accordance with... juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration...

  15. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  16. Thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica L. latex: action of cysteine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Rajesh, R; Nanda, B L; Dharmappa, K K; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-05-04

    To validate the scientific basis of plant latex to stop bleeding on fresh cuts. Cysteine protease(s) from Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae) plant latex was assessed for pro-coagulant and thrombin like activities. A waxy material from the latex of Asclepias curassavica latex was removed by freezing and thawing. The resulted latex enzyme fraction was assayed for proteolytic activity using denatured casein as substrate. Its coagulant activity and thrombin like activity were determined using citrated plasma and pure fibrinogen, respectively. Inhibition studies were performed using specific protease inhibitors to know the type of protease. The latex enzyme fraction exhibited strong proteolytic activity when compared to trypsin and exerted pro-coagulant action by reducing plasma clotting time from 195 to 58 s whereas trypsin reduced clotting time marginally from 195 to 155 s. The pro-coagulant activity of this enzyme fraction was exerted by selectively hydrolyzing A alpha and B beta subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot when pure fibrinogen was used as substrate as assessed by fibrinogen-agarose plate method and fibrinogen polymerization assay. Trypsin failed to induce any fibrin clot under similar conditions. The electrophoretic pattern of latex enzyme fraction-induced fibrin clot was very much similar to that of thrombin-induced fibrin clot and mimic thrombin like action. The proteolytic activity including thrombin like activity of Asclepias curassavica latex enzyme fraction was completely inhibited by iodoaceticacid (IAA). Cysteine proteases from Asclepias curassavica latex exhibited strong pro-coagulant action and were found to be specific in its action (Thrombin like). This could be the basis for the use of plant latex in pharmacological applications that justify their use as folk medicine.

  17. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Call Center Capacity Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    in order to relate the results to the service levels used in call centers. Furthermore, the generic nature of the approximation is demonstrated by applying it to a system incorporating a dynamic priority scheme. In the last paper Optimization of overflow policies in call centers, overflows between agent......The main topics of the thesis are theoretical and applied queueing theory within a call center setting. Call centers have in recent years become the main means of communication between customers and companies, and between citizens and public institutions. The extensively computerized infrastructure...... in modern call centers allows for a high level of customization, but also induces complicated operational processes. The size of the industry together with the complex and labor intensive nature of large call centers motivates the research carried out to understand the underlying processes. The customizable...

  19. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  20. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  1. Cost evaluation of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Cost of radiation vulcanized NR latex was evaluated. The plant would be built in an existing dipping factory in an industrial area in a Southeast Asian country. One thousands dry tons of NR latex are vulcanized with a low energy electron accelerator. The electron accelerator is a self-shielding low energy type. The maximum accelerating voltage is 300 kV and the output power is 10 kW. The total construction cost of the plant is $400,000 including electron accelerator and other equipments. Costs of raw materials and utilities are $1.165 and $0.023 per one kg of product, respectively. The fixed costs of the plant consist of labor costs, labor overhead, maintenance, plant overhead, depreciation, and bank interest. It is $0.190/kg of product. The company overhead for operation including company management, R and D and insurance is $0.044/kg of product. Thus, the total production cost is estimated to be $1.422/kg of product. (author)

  2. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  3. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  4. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  5. Molluscicidal effect of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns latex on Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni host snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns is an easily cultivated shrub, with occurrence in the tropical regions of the American and African continents. Chemical studies have revealed that the latex of this plant is rich in terpene compounds, which are highly toxic to snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Basommatophora: Planorbidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and molluscicidal activity of the latex produced by E. umbellata, as well as the safety of its application in aquatic environments. The concentration of latex that killed 90% of the exposed snails after 24 h exposure (LC90 was 3.69 mg/L. Toxicity bioassays using Danio rerio (zebrafish revealed that these animals were less susceptible to latex than planorbids. However, it is important to perform other toxicity tests to ensure the feasibility of using latex to control populations of mollusks that contribute to schistosomiasis transmission. A phytochemical screening performed with the E. umbellata latex identified the triterpenoid and coumarin class. Further studies are warranted to isolate, identify, and test the active compounds of E. umbellata latex in B. glabrata.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated polyacrylate latex emulsified with novel surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuifeng; Xu, Tingting; Bao, Zhongbin; Chen, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The fluorinated polyacrylate latex were successfully prepared with semi- continuous seeded emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) which was initiated with potassium persulfate (KPS) initiator and emulsified with the novel mixed surfactants of sodium lauryl glutamate (SLG) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (OP-10). The structure of the resultant latex was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The particle size of the latex was measured by Zetatrac dynamic light scattering detector. The film of latex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle (CA). The optimum conditions of preparing the novel fluorinated polyacrylate latex are optimized and the results are as follows: the amount of emulsifiers is 4.0%; mass ratio of SLG to OP-10 is 1:1, the amount of the initiator is 0.6%. The mass ratio of MMA to BA is 1:1 and the amount of HFMA is 7.0%. In this case, the conversion is high and the polymerization stability is good. In addition, the water resistance and thermal properties of the latex films were improved significantly in comparison with the film of the latex prepared without the fluorinated monomer.

  7. Plant latex: a promising antifungal agent for post harvest disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, G; Wadhavan, Rashmi; Singh, Sneha; Shukla, Abhilasha; Dhananjaya, K; Ravikumar, K R; Mallesha, H

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from plant latex are potential source of antifungic against post harvest pathogens. Latex from a total of seven plant species was investigated for its phytochemical and antifungal properties. Six fungi namely Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, F. solani, P. digitatum and R. arrhizus were isolated from infected fruits and vegetables and tested against various solvent extracts of latex. Analysis of latex extracts with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antifungal assay revealed the potential inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extracts against the postharvest fungal isolates. Various degree of sensitivity was observed irrespective of plant species studied with A. terreus and P. digitatum as the most susceptible ones. F. solani and A. fumigatus were moderately sensitive to the latex extracts tested. Among the plants, latex of Thevetia peruviana (75.2%) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (64.8%) were having potential antifungal activity against the isolates followed by Manilkara zapota (51.1%). In conclusion, use of plant latex makes interest to control postharvest fungal diseases and is fitting well with the concept of safety for human health and environment.

  8. Antioxidant and sensitizer effect on the stability of natural rubber latex vulcanized by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavel, V.

    1993-01-01

    The natural rubber latex was vulcanized by gamma rays and electrons beam, in the presence and absence of sensitizer at room temperature. The sensitizers were the following; n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) / t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-B H) / KOH, C Cl 4 / potassium laurate and n-BA / KOH. The studied antioxidants, Irganox 1520, Vulcanox SP and Vulcanox BKF, were added to the latex after irradiation. Among the studied antioxidants in function of tensile strength (TS) after the aging of rubber plates, the Irganox was the best efficient on the gamma vulcanization in the presence of n-BA/t-B H/KOH, because only 0,20 p hr is enough to obtain the greatest increase of TS, that was 34%, 12 MPa to 16 MPa. The formulating method of latex with the sensitizer constituted the 3,0 p hr of n-BA/ 0,1 p hr of t-B H and 0,2 p hr of KOH, was evaluated respecting the TS of rubber plates. The electrons beam vulcanization produces the greatest reversible perturbance in the colloidal stability of latex after irradiation caused by radiolytic species absorption that promotes the increase of particle size. The antioxidant also contributes to reversible destabilization of gamma irradiated latex, because it is also adsorbed by particles surface. The relation between the latex viscosity and the TS of respective rubber plates is reverse, showing the latex stability affects the quality of rubber goods. (author)

  9. Aggregation and charging of sulfate and amidine latex particles in the presence of oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Cao, Tianchi; Szilagyi, Istvan; Borkovec, Michal; Trefalt, Gregor

    2018-08-15

    Electrophoretic mobility and time resolved light scattering are used to measure the effect on charging and aggregation of amidine and sulfate latex particles of different oxyanions namely, phosphate, arsenate, sulfate, and selenate. In the case of negatively charged sulfate latex particles oxyanions represent the coions, while they represent counterions in the case of the positively charged amidine latex. Repulsive interaction between the sulfate latex surface and the coions results in weak ion specific effects on the charging and aggregation. On the other hand the interaction of oxyanions with the amidine latex surface is highly specific. The monovalent dihydrogen phosphate ion strongly adsorbs to the positively charged surface and reverses the charge of the particle. This charge reversal leads also to the restabilization of the amidine latex suspension at the intermediate phosphate concentrations. In the case of dihydrogen arsenate the adsorption to amidine latex surface is weaker and no charge reversal and restabilization occurs. Similar differences are seen between the sulfate and selenate analogues, where selenate adsorbs more strongly to the surface as compared to the sulfate ion and invokes charge reversal. The present results indicate that ion specificity is much more pronounced in the case of counterions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of irradiated natural rubber latex-styrene copolymer for electrical gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Made Sumarti Kardha

    2010-01-01

    Research on irradiated natural rubber latex-styrene copolymer to prepare electrical glove have been done. Vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) was done by mixing 2 phr (per hundred of rubber) of normal butyl acrylate (n-BA) emulsion then irradiated with ã-ray "6"0Co at the dose of 30 kGy producing irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL). Natural rubber latex-styrene copolymers (SC) were prepared by mixing NRL and styrene monomer at styrene concentrations of 50 phr, 75 phr, 100 phr, 500 phr and irradiated at the doses of 15 kGy, 30 kGy and 45 kGy, then characterized their latex and film properties to obtain optimum SC of SC50. This optimum SC, SC50 then mixed with IRNL at the weight ratio of 0/100, 30/70, 50/50, 70/30 and 100/0, to produce irradiated natural rubber latex-styrene copolymer. The properties of copolymer rubber films made by dipping process i.e., % conversion, total solid content, latex viscosity, tensile strength, modulus 300 %, elongation at break, electrical resistance and dielectric constant were then characterized. Characterization result showed that (INRL-SC50) with 50/50 ratio irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy, have % conversion of 80.93 %, electrical resistivity of 1.73 x 10"1"4 Ohm cm and dielectric constant of 2.76 which fulfill the requirement as material for electrical gloves. (author)

  11. Solid state NMR and LVSEM studies on the hardening of latex modified tile mortar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottstegge, J.; Arnold, M.; Herschke, L.; Glasser, G.; Wilhelm, M.; Spiess, H.W.; Hergeth, W.D.

    2005-01-01

    Construction mortars contain a broad variety of both inorganic and organic additives beside the cement powder. Here we present a study of tile mortar systems based on portland cement, quartz, methyl cellulose and different latex additives. As known, the methyl cellulose stabilizes the freshly prepared cement paste, the latex additive enhances final hydrophobicity, flexibility and adhesion. Measurements were performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) to probe the influence of the latex additives on the hydration, hardening and the final tile mortar properties. While solid state NMR enables monitoring of the bulk composition, scanning electron microscopy affords visualization of particles and textures with respect to their shape and the distribution of the different phases. Within the alkaline cement paste, the poly(vinyl acetate) (VAc)-based latex dispersions stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were found to be relatively stable against hydrolysis. The influence of the combined organic additives methyl cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol) and latexes stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) on the final silicate structure of the cement hydration products is small. But even small amounts of additives result in an increased ratio of ettringite to monosulfate within the final hydrated tile mortar as monitored by 27 Al NMR. The latex was found to be adsorbed to the inorganic surfaces, acting as glue to the inorganic components. For similar latex water interfaces built up by poly(vinyl alcohol), a variation in the latex polymer composition results in modified organic textures. In addition to the networks of the inorganic cement and of the latex, there is a weak network build up by thin polymer fibers, most probably originating from poly(vinyl alcohol). Besides the weak network, polymer fibers form well-ordered textures covering inorganic crystals such as portlandite

  12. Comparing the level of dexterity offered by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jo; Bennett, Allan

    2006-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of latex allergy has been concurrent with the increasing use of latex gloves by laboratory and healthcare workers. In recent years nitrile gloves have been used to replace latex gloves to prevent latex allergy. Nitrile gloves offer a comparable level of protection against chemical and biological agents and are more puncture resistant. However, if manual dexterity is compromised by nitrile gloves to a greater degree than latex then this may increase the risk of sharps injuries. The Purdue pegboard test, which measures both gross and fine finger dexterity, was used to test the dexterity levels of two glove types used at HPA CEPR; Kimberly-Clark SafeSkin nitrile and latex laboratory gloves. There was a statistically significant 8.6% increase in fine finger dexterity provided by latex compared with nitrile SafeSkin laboratory gloves but no difference in gross dexterity between the glove types. There was no significant relationship between glove dexterity and age or gender. The selection of glove size was influenced by the digit length of participants. Moreover, those with longer, thinner fingers appeared to have an advantage when using nitrile SafeSkin gloves. The level of dexterity provided by latex and nitrile SafeSkin gloves for tasks on a gross dexterity level are comparable and health workers will benefit from the non-allergenic properties of nitrile. For tasks requiring fine finger dexterity nitrile SafeSkin gloves may impede dexterity. Despite this, the degree of restriction appears to have a negligible impact on safety in this study when compared with the risk of latex sensitization and subsequent allergy. In addition to glove material, working practices must also take into account glove size, fit, grip and thickness, as these factors can all influence dexterity.

  13. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting

  14. Glove powder's carrying capacity for latex protein: analysis using the ASTM ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, D; Horton, K; Hickey, V; Daddona, J; Kostyal, D

    2003-01-01

    Glove donning powders carry latex proteins and disperse them into the workplace environment. We have used the ASTM D6499 ELISA to quantify the amount of latex antigen bound to and carried by glove powders. We could differentiate between a small amount of protein actually bound to the powders and a larger amount carried by the powder. Enhanced binding of a major allergen, Hev b 5, to the starch powders was demonstrated by Western blot. The D6499 ELISA is able to measure total latex antigen, soluble and powder bound, simultaneously without the need to centrifuge the samples.

  15. Binding kinetics of magnetic nanoparticles on latex beads and yeast cells studied by magnetorelaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberbeck, Dietmar; Bergemann, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz

    2005-01-01

    The ion exchange mediated binding of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to modified latex spheres and yeast cells was quantified using magnetorelaxometry. By fitting subsequently recorded relaxation curves, the kinetics of the binding reactions was extracted. The signal of MNP with weak ion exchanger groups bound to latex and yeast cells scales linearly with the concentration of latex beads or yeast cells whereas that of MNP with strong ion exchanger groups is proportional to the square root of concentration. The binding of the latter leads to a much stronger aggregation of yeast cells than the former MNP

  16. Study on irradiation condition in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Wang Chunlei; Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays irradiation dose rates on RVNRL preparation was studied using Malaysian latex added with O.2 phr of KOH and 5 phr n-BA. The results showed, to ensure the tensile strength of the latex film meet the requirement, when applying vulcanisation doses, Dv of 20 kGy 20 and 15 kGy, irradiation dose rates should not be greater than 0. 49 kGy/hr and 1. 6 kGy/hr respectively. Its was found that within the storage time of 20 days there was no change in the physical properties of the latex films

  17. Optical response of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Liu Xiaohan; Yin Haiwei; Zi Jian

    2010-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, characterization and simulation of a structure consisting of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres. This structure shows interesting optical response: over flat metallic surfaces a series of reflection minima appear in reflection spectra. Numerical simulations revealed that the structure can support two types of surface modes: surface plasmon-polaritons bound at the metallic surface and guided modes confined to the array of latex spheres, or their hybrids. Both experimental and theoretical results indicated that these surface modes show well-defined band structures due to the introduced periodicity by the monolayer array of latex spheres.

  18. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  19. Validation for radiation sterilization of surgical latex glove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Degui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal radiation mode for sterilization of surgical latex gloves. Methods: The dose distribution in the product loads inside radiation container was measured in different radiation mode. Results: Data of dose distribution in the product load in different radiation mode were obtained. Conclusion: At pre-set height of source working position and within pre-determined dwelling time of each irradiation container staying at the irradiation position, the delivered dose can meet the customers requirement by the radiation mode that, in the half cycle of radiation process, turns the horizontal middle layers of the product to the upper or lower layers, and the upper and lower layers to the middle layers

  20. A New Prenylated Xanthone from Latex of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Na

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new prenylated xanthone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3,7-dimethyloct-2,6-dienyl xanthone (3-O-methylcowaxanthone (1, together with four known xanthones, cowaxanthone (2, 7-O-methylgarcinone (3, α-mangostin (4 and γ-mangostin (5 were isolated from the latex of Garcinia cowa. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, including 1D and 2D NMR and HREIMS. The cytotoxic activitiy of 1 against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480, was evaluated, but it was inactive (IC 50>40μM.

  1. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey aimed to evaluate knowledge and safe usage of jungle juice on patients in ... patterns and safety measures employed during use of jungle juice among ... Regarding the specific antidote for severe local anesthetic toxicity and its ...

  2. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  3. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  4. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  5. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  7. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  8. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  9. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  10. Assessing call centers’ success:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Baraka

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a model to evaluate the performance of call centers based on the Delone and McLean Information Systems success model. A number of indicators are identified to track the call center’s performance. Mapping of the proposed indicators to the six dimensions of the D&M model is presented. A Weighted Call Center Performance Index is proposed to assess the call center performance; the index is used to analyze the effect of the identified indicators. Policy-Weighted approach was used to assume the weights with an analysis of different weights for each dimension. The analysis of the different weights cases gave priority to the User satisfaction and net Benefits dimension as the two outcomes from the system. For the input dimensions, higher priority was given to the system quality and the service quality dimension. Call centers decision makers can use the tool to tune the different weights in order to reach the objectives set by the organization. Multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to provide a linear formula for the User Satisfaction dimension and the Net Benefits dimension in order to be able to forecast the values for these two dimensions as function of the other dimensions

  11. Maillard Reaction in Natural Rubber Latex: Characterization and Physical Properties of Solid Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction in Natural Rubber (NR latex was investigated by treating fresh NR latex with glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2 in amounts of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol/kg of latex. Protein cross-linking in fresh NR latex and solid NR was confirmed by using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that degree of protein cross-linking in NR increased with increasing C5H8O2 concentration. Physical properties of untreated and treated NR substances in terms of gel content, initial Wallace plasticity (P0, plasticity retention index (PRI, Mooney viscosity, and tensile strength were carefully explored. Results clearly showed that the Maillard cross-linking of proteins had remarkable effect on bulk NR properties, that is, solvent resistance, hardness, resistance to oxidation, rheological behavior, and resistance to stretching out.

  12. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  13. Proceedings of the international symposium on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1990-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Radiation Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was held from 26 to 28 July 1989 at Tokyo and Takasaki. In these proceedings, thirty six papers presented at the Symposium are compiled. Main topics are commercial application of RVNRL, characterization of NR latex and vulcanization, properties of radiation vulcanized NR latex, development of sensitizers, mechanism of RVNRL, RVNRL with electron beams, and new Co-60 irradiator for RVNRL. Absence of nitrosamines and low cytotoxicity of radiation vulcanized NR latex are recognized as the remarkable advantages of RVNRL. The radiation vulcanization process for the production of protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination was presented as the first commercial success in RVNRL. It was reported that various kinds of rubber articles for medical uses have being developed in West Germany. A sensitizer system consisting of n-butyl acrylate and t-butyl hydroperoxide was found to reduce the vulcanization dose to 8 kGy. (author)

  14. Latex glove sensitivity amongst diagnostic imaging healthcare personnel: a self-reporting investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, Jan; Brennan, Patrick C.; Bowden, Julie Anne

    2003-01-01

    The use of latex gloves has risen dramatically among healthcare workers resulting in an increase in the number of workers experiencing reactions to gloves. Little evidence of reactions among Irish healthcare workers is available. The current, self-reporting study investigated the prevalence to latex gloves amongst four professional groups within three Diagnostic Imaging Departments. Prevalence is similar to that demonstrated elsewhere with 18.3% of individuals expressing latex associated symptoms. Symptoms included itching and redness of hands, dry cracked skin, soreness of eyes and upper respiratory tract complaints. These results indicate that latex hypersensitivity is a real problem amongst Irish healthcare workers. This preliminary work provides the basis of a much larger controlled study currently being planned

  15. Effect of gamma radiation dose and sensitizer on the physical properties of irradiated natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komgrit, R.; Thawat, C.; B, Tripob; Wirach, T.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The vulcanization of natural rubber latex can be induced by gamma radiation, which enhances cross-linking within the rubber matrix. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation dose and sensitizers on the physical properties of irradiated natural rubber. Three sensitizers n-butyl acrylate (n-B A), tetrachloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ) and trichloromethane (CHCl 3 ) were mixed with natural rubber latex before irradiation with gamma ray dose varied from 14 to 22 kGy. Results showed that the mixture of three sensitizers with specific ratios effectively induced the cross-linking of natural rubber latex. The cross-linking ratio and improved physical properties increased with increasing gamma dose. Therefore, the mixture ratios of n-B A, C 2 Cl 4 and CHCl 3 have shown to be a critical parameter in the vulcanization of natural rubber latex by gamma radiation

  16. A LaTeX graphics routine for drawing Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.J.S.

    1990-01-01

    FEYNMAN is a LaTeX macropackage which allows the user to construct a versatile range of Feynman diagrams within the text of a document. Diagrams of publication quality may be drawn with relative ease and rapidity. (orig.)

  17. Polylactide/Montmorillonite Hybrid Latex as a Barrier Coating for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bandera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a paper coating for the potential application in food packaging based on polylactide and montmorillonite. It is applied to the paper in the form of a stable, water-based latex with a solid content of 25–28 wt %. The latex is prepared from a commercially available polylactide, surfactants, montmorillonite, a plasticizer, chloroform (to be removed later and water by an emulsion/solvent evaporation procedure. This coating formulation is applied to the paper substrate by bar-coating, followed by hot-pressing at 150 °C. The coated papers achieved up to an 85% improvement in water vapor transmission rates when compared to the pristine papers. The coating latex is prepared from inexpensive materials and can be used for a solvent-free coating process. In addition, the ingredients of the latex are non-toxic; thus, the coated papers can be safely used for food packaging.

  18. Formation of Defect-Free Latex Films on Porous Fiber Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Mysona, Joshua A.; Chance, Ronald R.; Koros, William J.

    2011-01-01

    a defect-free lumen-side barrier layer can be created. Film experiments examined the effect of drying rate, latex age, substrate porosity (porous vs nonporous), and substrate hydrophobicity/ hydrophilicity. Film studies show that in ideal conditions

  19. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) using low energy electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroza Akhtar; Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam induced vulcanization of natural rubber latex has been studied using low energy Electron Beam (EB) accelerators of 300, 250 and 175 keV ne latex was irradiated in a special type stainless steel reaction reactor with a stirrer at the bottom of the reactor. From the results it was found that 300 and 250 keV accelerators could effectively vulcanize NRL. But accelerator of 175 keV is too low energy to vulcanize the latex. At the same time a drum type irradiator where thin layer of NRL was irradiated by accelerator, was used for vulcanization of NRL. This type of irradiator also showed good physical properties of vulcanized latex. The effects of beam current and stirrer speed on vulcanization were studied

  20. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    Proteomic technologies provide an excellent means for analysis of body fluids for cataloging protein constituents and identifying biomarkers for early detection of cancers. The biomarkers currently available for pancreatic cancer, such as CA19-9, lack adequate sensitivity and specificity...... contributing to late diagnosis of this deadly disease. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive characterization of the "pancreatic juice proteome" in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic juice was first fractionated by 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequently analyzed by liquid...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  1. Effect of heterogeneous distribution of crosslink density on physical properties of radiation vulcanized NR (Natural Rubber) latex film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii; Miura, H.; Murakami, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thus a study has been carried out to investigate the effect of particle to particle variation in crosslink density on physical properties of radiation vulcanized NR latex film. NR latex was irradiated in small bottle by γ rays without vulcanization accelerator to provide latex rubber particles having homogeneous distribution of crosslink density. The doses were 30, 50, 100, 250, 300, 400, 500 and 600 kGy. Weight swelling ratio, gel fraction, tensile strength and elongation at break of the latex film from the mixed latex were measured. The vulcanization dose of this latex was 250 kGy. Then the two different latexes were mixed in a such way to adjust the average dose of 250 kGy to prepare a latex consisting of rubber particles having heterogeneous distribution of crosslink density. Tensile strength of the latex film was depressed by mixing. The reduction increased with increasing the decrease of gel fraction by mixing. However the reduction was not serious when the dose difference of two latexes was less than 200 kGy

  2. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nabavizade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.

  3. Latex allergy and occupational asthma in health care workers: adverse outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Amr, Sania; Bollinger, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy has been estimated to be 5-18% in health care workers, and latex exposure has been one of the leading causes of occupational asthma in the last several years. We present the cases of two nurses who developed sensitivity to NRL, both with dermatologic symptoms and respiratory symptoms that included asthma. They were referred to the University of Maryland for evaluation of their allergies, then for occupational and environmental consults. The...

  4. Preparation of composites of national rubber latex (NRL) - portland cement mould. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Taher, N.H.; El-Nahas, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare some polymeric mould using national rubber latex (NRL) - portland cement composites based on a delayed- action mechanism. Factors affecting the preparation process such as concentration, mixing percentage, additives and their effect on what is regarded as a delayed action coacervant combination was studied. Composites of national latex (NRL) - portland cement would were prepared as two separate parts. The stabilized natural rubber latex (NRL) 100 parts with hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) 2 parts as stabilizer and a delayed - action coacervant (sodium meta silicate as a delaying agent) 5 parts on one hand and the dry blend of cement 65 parts soluble in 65 parts of water as a paste on the other hand were mixed thoroughly on site. (HEC) was added to the rubber latex to prevent the coagulation of the rubber latex with the electrolyte (sodium meta silicate) present in the rubber mixture. Two kinds of stabilization occurred in the rubber part, namely steric stabilization and the stabilization against electrolyte. The effect of delayed - action coacervant (sodium meta silicate) on the initial setting time of rubber - cement mould showed that the molding process did not occur at sodium meta silicate concentration less than 2.66 parts per 100 parts of rubber latex (phr), and the optimum concentration used was 5% parts of rubber latex. It was observed that addition of a delaying agent (Sodium meta silicate) to the rubber part enhanced the delaying mechanism in the time needed for the molding process, while the addition of the delaying agent to the cement part did not have any effect on retardation of the molding process. Chemical coacervants function mainly by reducing the ζ potential which is associated with the electrical double layer surrounding the latex particle. This reduction may brought about in at least three distinct ways which take place in the system studied. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Preparation of composites of national rubber latex (NRL) - portland cement mould. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessouki, A M; Taher, N H; El-Nahas, H H [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Athority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare some polymeric mould using national rubber latex (NRL) - portland cement composites based on a delayed- action mechanism. Factors affecting the preparation process such as concentration, mixing percentage, additives and their effect on what is regarded as a delayed action coacervant combination was studied. Composites of national latex (NRL) - portland cement would were prepared as two separate parts. The stabilized natural rubber latex (NRL) 100 parts with hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) 2 parts as stabilizer and a delayed - action coacervant (sodium meta silicate as a delaying agent) 5 parts on one hand and the dry blend of cement 65 parts soluble in 65 parts of water as a paste on the other hand were mixed thoroughly on site. (HEC) was added to the rubber latex to prevent the coagulation of the rubber latex with the electrolyte (sodium meta silicate) present in the rubber mixture. Two kinds of stabilization occurred in the rubber part, namely steric stabilization and the stabilization against electrolyte. The effect of delayed - action coacervant (sodium meta silicate) on the initial setting time of rubber - cement mould showed that the molding process did not occur at sodium meta silicate concentration less than 2.66 parts per 100 parts of rubber latex (phr), and the optimum concentration used was 5% parts of rubber latex. It was observed that addition of a delaying agent (Sodium meta silicate) to the rubber part enhanced the delaying mechanism in the time needed for the molding process, while the addition of the delaying agent to the cement part did not have any effect on retardation of the molding process. Chemical coacervants function mainly by reducing the {zeta} potential which is associated with the electrical double layer surrounding the latex particle. This reduction may brought about in at least three distinct ways which take place in the system studied. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Test trial radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex in Jakarta Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Kulatunge, S.S.; Chandralal, H.N.K.K.; Kalyani, N.M.V.; Seneviratne, J.; Wellage, S.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) can be used to make large quantities of specially stabilized latex. It is possible to obtain RVNRL films of tensile strength over 25 MPa. The films could be either coagulant dipped or cast. It is very important to determine the correct radiation dose which gives the maximum tensile strength. Cross linking density or prevulcanized relax modulus (PRM) at 100% is a reliable property to control the prevulcanization

  7. Care and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    -centred care through the use of tactile resources and embodied orientations while they attend to the phone call. Experienced nurses Thus perform multiactivity by distributing attention towards both the patient and the phone, and the analysis shows that their concrete ways of doing so depend on the complex...... they are telephoned during interactions with patients are not universal. Indeed different strategies have evolved in other hospital departments. Not only does this thesis contribute insights into the way nurses manage phone calls during interactions with patients, but by subscribing to a growing body of embodied...... of human interaction....

  8. Soybean oil in water-borne coatings and latex film formation study by AC impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiratumnukul, Nantana

    Conventional coalescing agents such as butyl cellosolve, butyl carbitol, and TexanolRTM are widely use in the latex coatings industry to facilitate film formation at ambient temperature. Coalescent aids are composed of solvents with low evaporation rates. After water evaporates, coalescent aids would help soften polymer molecules and form continuous films, then gradually evaporates from the film. Coalescent aids, therefore, are considered as volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are of environmental concern. The main purpose of this research project was to prepare a fatty acid glycol ester from soybean oil and glycol (polyols). The soybean oil glycol ester can be used as a coalescent aid in latex paint formulation. The soybean oil glycol ester not only lowered the minimum film formation temperature of latex polymers and continuous film formed at ambient temperature, but also after it has facilitated film formation, does not substantially evaporate, but becomes part of the film. Soybean oil glycol esters, therefore, can reduce the VOC levels and facilitate film formation of latex paints. In the second part of this research AC-Impedance was used to investigate the efficiency of soybean oil coalescent aid in latex film formation relative to the conventional ones. The coating resistance showed that the efficiency of film formation was increased as a function of dry time. The coating resistance also exhibited the effect of soybean oil ester in latex film formation in the same fashion as a conventional coalescent aid, TexanolRTM.

  9. Use of micrometric latex beads to improve the porosity of hydroxyapatite obtained by chemical coprecipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webler, G. D.; Rodrigues, W. C.; Silva, A. E. S.; Silva, A. O. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; Degenhardt, M. F. S.; Oliveira, C. L. P.; Otubo, L.; Barros Filho, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite is one of the most important biomaterials whose application mainly extends to implants and drug delivery. This work will discuss the changes in the pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite when there are latex beads present during the synthesis. These changes were monitored using different techniques: small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetrical analysis, N2 adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Latex beads and hydroxyapatite form a single nanocomposite with well-distinguished inorganic and organic phases. Latex bead removal in the temperature range of 300-600 °C did not modify the original crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. However, the latex beads favored an increase in the adsorption capacity of mesopores at temperatures higher than their glassy transition (Tg). The main result of this research work consists on the increase of surface area and pore size distribution obtained after the removal of latex beads template. Latex beads have been used in a different approach changing the porosity of hydroxyapatite scaffolds not only introducing new routes for cell integration but also broadening the pore size distribution which can result in a more high efficiency for drug release in living cells.

  10. Preparation of novel film-forming armoured latexes using silica nanoparticles as a pickering emulsion stabiliser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Hana; Peake, Simon J; Davey, Tim; Cameron, Neil R; Tabor, Rico F

    2018-05-15

    Film-forming polymer latex particles of diameter acrylate (BA) as co-monomers, potassium persulphate (KPS) as an initiator and a commercially available colloidal nano-silica (Ludox®-TM40). It was found that pH control before polymerisation using methacrylic acid (MAA) facilitated the formation of armoured latexes, and mechanistic features of this process are discussed. An alternative, more robust protocol was developed whereby addition of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) to control wettability resulted in latexes completely armoured in colloidal nano-silica. The latexes were characterised using SEM, cryo-TEM and AFM imaging techniques. The mechanism behind the adsorption was investigated through surface pressure and contact angle measurements to understand the factors that influence this irreversible adsorption. Results indicate that nanoparticle attachment (but intriguingly not latex size) is dependent on particle wettability, providing new insight into the formation of nanoparticle-armoured latexes, along with opportunities for further development of diversely functionalized inorganic/organic polymer composite particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodegradability and aging study of rubber films obtained by gamma radiation vulcanization processes of latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Carlos Felipe Pinto

    2005-01-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) is industrially crosslinked by the conventional process of vulcanization, which uses sulphur and heat. Otherwise, the network can also be done by the alternative process with ionizing radiation. In this work the crosslinking of NRL was studied by the comparison of the conventional vulcanization system and the ionizing radiation process of 60 C source. The products obtained, the irradiated latex, the irradiated latex with approximately 1% of soy lecithin and the sulphur vulcanized latex were tested by accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) and outdoor aging with compostage, tensile strength at break, swelling and gel fraction, fungi micro biota, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG and DSC). The results showed that the aging with microorganisms have a great influence in the physical properties of the samples. The thermal stability order observed showed that the sulphur vulcanized latex is more resistant, what is probably associated to a network more stable under the aging conditions. On the other hand, the irradiated latex showed intense biodegradation aspects, particularly with the presence of the soy lecithin. (author)

  12. Capacitance Regression Modelling Analysis on Latex from Selected Rubber Tree Clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, A D; Baharudin, R; Hashim, H; Khairuzzaman, N A; Mohd Sampian, A F; Abdullah, N E; Kamaru'zzaman, M; Sulaiman, M S

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacitance regression modelling performance of latex for various rubber tree clones, namely clone 2002, 2008, 2014 and 3001. Conventionally, the rubber tree clones identification are based on observation towards tree features such as shape of leaf, trunk, branching habit and pattern of seeds texture. The former method requires expert persons and very time-consuming. Currently, there is no sensing device based on electrical properties that can be employed to measure different clones from latex samples. Hence, with a hypothesis that the dielectric constant of each clone varies, this paper discusses the development of a capacitance sensor via Capacitance Comparison Bridge (known as capacitance sensor) to measure an output voltage of different latex samples. The proposed sensor is initially tested with 30ml of latex sample prior to gradually addition of dilution water. The output voltage and capacitance obtained from the test are recorded and analyzed using Simple Linear Regression (SLR) model. This work outcome infers that latex clone of 2002 has produced the highest and reliable linear regression line with determination coefficient of 91.24%. In addition, the study also found that the capacitive elements in latex samples deteriorate if it is diluted with higher volume of water. (paper)

  13. Enhanced protein adsorption and patterning on nanostructured latex-coated paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Helka; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Viitala, Tapani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Peltonen, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    Specific interactions of extracellular matrix proteins with cells and their adhesion to the substrate are important for cell growth. A nanopatterned latex-coated paper substrate previously shown to be an excellent substrate for cell adhesion and 2D growth was studied for directed immobilization of proteins. The nanostructured latex surface was formed by short-wavelength IR irradiation of a two-component latex coating consisting of a hydrophilic film-forming styrene butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer and hydrophobic polystyrene particles. The hydrophobic regions of the IR-treated latex coating showed strong adhesion of bovine serum albumin (cell repelling protein), fibronectin (cell adhesive protein) and streptavidin. Opposite to the IR-treated surface, fibronectin and streptavidin had a poor affinity toward the untreated pristine latex coating. Detailed characterization of the physicochemical surface properties of the latex-coated substrates revealed that the observed differences in protein affinity were mainly due to the presence or absence of the protein repelling polar and charged surface groups. The protein adsorption was assisted by hydrophobic (dehydration) interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  15. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  16. Partitioning a call graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; Byrka, J.; Cerav-Erbas, S.; Gvozdenovic, N.; Lorenz, M.; Pendavingh, R.A.; Reeves, C.; Röger, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to

  17. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  18. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  19. Call for Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2014-10-03

    Oct 3, 2014 ... 5.Submission process. 6.Eligibility criteria. 7.Selection Process. 8. Format and requirements. 9.Evaluation criteria. 10.Country clearance requirements. 11. .... It is envisaged that through this call a single consortium will undertake 6-8 projects within a total budget of up to ... principle qualify for IDRC's support.

  20. Too close to call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    a number of other frequent explanations and is found to be quite robust. When augmented with approval ratings for incumbent presidents, the explanatory power increases to 83 pct. and only incorrectly calls one of the last 15 US presidential elections. Applied to the 2012 election as a forecasting model...

  1. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  2. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  3. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yu; Cheng Wei; Wang Shaohua; Xiong Guangquan; Liao Li; Chen Xueling; Fan Gang; Pan Siyi

    2010-01-01

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  4. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the finished food. The grapefruit pulp, grapefruit oil, and grapefuit essence (components derived... paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Grapefruit juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat... sirup, dextrose, glucose sirup, and fructose. Sweeteners defined in part 168 of this chapter shall be as...

  6. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammar Achraf

    Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of natural pomegranate juice (POMj) rich in ... POMj rich in polyphe- nols seems to have a power anti-inflammatory effect and to be an effective treatment for patients who ... cellular transcription factors such as the nuclear factor NF-kB. (NF-kB), tumor ...

  7. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    1-hour intervals, the mass of the magnesium wire was determined on an analytical balance. A digital multimeter was used to measure the voltage every hour and the current every other hour. The pH of the juice, initially 3.85 at 20 °C, was 3.93 at the end of the experiment, as measured with a portable pH meter. This is a typical result. A comparison system (called "no clock" in Table 1) was set up merely by putting a 0.3317-g strip of magnesium in 400 mL of orange juice. With this system we can exemplify a "corrosion process" where the anode and the cathode are in the same place. There is consumption of magnesium and evolution of molecular hydrogen but no useful current can be obtained. The mass of this magnesium strip was measured at 1-hour intervals. Faraday's constant, which relates coulombs to moles of electrons, can be used to calculate the approximate current available to the clock in this system. The current will not be constant because the H+ concentration (related to pH) is changing and also because the surface area and composition of the magnesium electrode change with time. The change is not necessarily regular, because although the surface is being oxidized, it is not smooth. The actual available surface area will therefore be considerably greater than the geometric surface. The mass of magnesium oxidized in the clock reaction over the 4-hour period is approximately equal to the change in grams of magnesium while running the clock minus the mass of magnesium oxidized in orange juice without the clock. Using the data from Table 1, grams Mg oxidized to run clock = approx. (0.3317 - 0.3089) - (0.3317 - 0.3136) = 0.0047 g Mg The average current can then be calculated via Faraday's constant: This is a rather simplistic way to get the current, but it shows well the use of Faraday's constant. The Value of Computer Interfacing - Exploring the Physics of Current/Voltage Measurements A more instructive measure of voltage vs. time, which opens up the activity to

  9. Care and Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    on the enactment of care but also on patient safety. Nurses working in various hospital departments have developed different strategies for handling mobile phone calls when with a patient. Additional research into the ways nurses successfully or unsuccessfully enact care and ensure patient safety when they answer......In Danish hospitals, nurses have been equipped with a mobile work phone to improve their availability and efficiency. On the phones nurses receive internal and external phone conversations, patient calls, and alarms from electronic surveillance equipment. For safety reasons the phones cannot...... be switched off or silenced; they consequently ring during all activities and also during interactions with patients. A possible tension thus arises when nurses have to be both caring and sensitive towards the patient and simultaneously be efficient and available and answer their phone. The present paper...

  10. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  11. Latex Imaging by Environmental STEM: Application to the Study of the Surfactant Outcome in Hybrid Alkyd/Acrylate Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Faucheu , Jenny; Chazeau , Laurent; Gauthier , Catherine; Cavaille , Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea , Monika; Minari , Roque; Asua , Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Among other uses. latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase, However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this loca...

  12. The physicochemical quality and meat microstructure of post laying hen with addition of Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) latex extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Hertanto, B. S.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Swastike, W.; Cahyadi, M.; Rasid, S.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extract level of Biduri latex on the meat quality of laying hens. The materials of this research were Biduri latex and thigh meat from hens strain Lohman. The latex was tapped from a young tissue stem and centrifuged for its supernatant. Meats were smeared with latex, punctured and incubated for 30 minutes. Concentrations of latex were 0, 3, 6 and 9% from the weight of meat (w/w). The variables were water, dissolved protein, crude fat content, tenderness and microstructure of meat. The statistical analysis method using ANOVA and if there was a mean difference, Duncan test was used. Descriptive analysis was used for microstructures of meat by comparing its hydrolysis conditions. The study showed that fat had significant difference (P meat structure. The fat content increased with addition of 3% latex. The value of dissolved protein increased but tenderness decreased by addition extract of 6% latex. The addition of Biduri latex extract showed that hydrolysis in the microstructure of meat. The addition of 6% latex was the best meat quality.

  13. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  14. Ciprofloxacin release using natural rubber latex membranes as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Murbach, Heitor; Jaques Ogawa, Guilherme; Azevedo Borges, Felipe; Romeiro Miranda, Matheus Carlos; Lopes, Rute; Roberto de Barros, Natan; Guedes Mazalli, Alexandre Vinicius; Gonçalves da Silva, Rosângela; Ferreira Cinman, José Luiz; de Camargo Drago, Bruno; Donizetti Herculano, Rondinelli

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated, low cost, is of can stimulate natural angiogenesis and cellular adhesion, is a biocompatible, material and presents high mechanical resistance. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a synthetic antibiotic (fluoroquinolone) used in the treatment of infection at external fixation screws sites and remote infections, and this use is increasingly frequent in medical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a novel sustained delivery system for CIP based on NRL membranes and to study its delivery system behavior. CIP was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, according to results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that the membrane can release CIP for up to 59.08% in 312 hours and the mechanism is due to super case II (non-Fickian). The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with double exponential function X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows some interaction by hydrogen bound, which influences its mechanical behavior.

  15. Improving of Water Resistance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Using Latex-Bitumen Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Henri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that presence of water in a bituminous mix is a critical factor which can lead to premature failure of flexible pavements. This requires solutions one of which is to formulate an asphalt mix that has a high resistance to moisture and one way to do this is to mix latex with the asphalt mix. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of water on Marshall stability of asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC made with a latex-bitumen binder. Latex-bitumen was mixed with aggregate and four levels of latex content were investigated in this study, namely, 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% respectively by weight of asphalt. Wet procces was used in the blending of mixtures. The procedure used to obtain the optimum binder contents conformed to the Marshall procedure (SNI 06-2489-1991. Six Marshall specimens at optimum binder content were prepared for each binder mix investigated. Three of six specimens from each group were tested under Marshall standards. The remaining specimens were tested by immersion in a bath at 60°C for 24 hours. The Marshall index of retained stability was used to evaluate the effect of water on the Marshall stability of ACWC. The results indicated that the addition of up to 4% latex to ACWC mix increased the retained Marshall stability, whereas the addition of latex above 4% decreased the retained stability of the mixture. The addition of 4% CRM significantly improved the retained stability of the mixture and was the best latex – ACWC mix.

  16. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves.

  17. FERMILAB: Call for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Several hundred physicists attended a special Fermilab 'All Experimenter's Meeting' on November 20 to hear Director John Peoples call for new Tevatron Collider proposals for the years 2000-2005, when the new Main Injector will be complete. At the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the CDF and DO experiments are currently completing improvements for Run II to use the Tevatron when the Main Injector is complete later in this decade. New proposals would be aimed at a Collider Run III to follow these CDF and DO efforts

  18. To be called upon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    When Danish Muslims explain what made them decide to travel to the Middle East and take up arms in the wake of the Arab Spring, they say that they were called upon. Displayed on videos on social media, women and sometimes children begged them to come to their rescue. In light of some...... to the mass if it is no longer a causal phenomenon that expands from small to big, but rather a simultaneous multitude of one to one relations that are neither local nor global? How are the one and the many related in this specific setting? Furthermore, many of the videos display dead bodies. How can we...

  19. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  1. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  2. MEDICAL SERVICE - URGENT CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  3. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  4. Call for volunteers

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  5. Study of Antibacterial Activity and Bacteriology of Latex from Asclepias syriaca L

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, Steven; Mahlberg, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Whole and fractionated latex of Asclepias syriaca was tested for antimicrobial or growth-promoting activity with 16 genera and species of bacteria. Latex and extracted fractions (distilled water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, sulfuric acid, and ethyl ether) possessed no detectable antimicrobial activity. Comparison of growth curves of selected bacteria incubated with serum and rubber fractions, as well as controls, revealed no detectable inhibition of growth, except for a slight inhibitory response to autoclaved serum. Most bacteria were capable of utilizing latex for a substrate as indicated by the increased growth rate in the exponential phase. The stationary phase was entered simultaneously by both the treated cultures and the controls. Various bacteria cultured in a litmus latex mixture yielded populations which ranged from <104 organisms/ml for Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus to 1.1 × 1010 organisms/ml for Clostridium acetobutylicum. Whole latex, as well as the serum and rubber fractions, support the growth of various bacteria, but under field conditions there is no evidence for systemic infection of this type of cell by bacteria. PMID:4790590

  6. Latex allergy: new insights to explain different sensitization profiles in different risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, C; Tavares-Ratado, P; Tomás, M R; Taborda-Barata, L; Tomaz, C T

    2008-07-01

    Differences in latex allergen sensitization profiles have been described between children subjected to repetitive surgical interventions and health care workers (HCW). 'Major' allergens for patients with spina bifida are Hev b 1, 3 and 7, while for HCW, 'major' allergens are Hev b 2, 5, 6.01 and 13. The reason for these differential sensitization profiles is currently unknown. To investigate latex allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. Eighty-two samples of commonly used surgical gloves (41 glove brands) were used for analysis. Specific allergen levels of Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02 on both surfaces of the gloves were quantified using an enzyme immunometric assay, a FITkit (FIT Biotech, Tampere, Finland). Differences in allergen levels were observed between internal and external surfaces of all glove types. Concentrations of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were significantly higher on external surfaces, while internal surfaces had higher allergen levels of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02. Analysis of surgical and examination gloves, powdered and nonpowdered gloves also showed that the content of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 was significantly higher on internal surfaces while that of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 was higher on external surfaces. Our study showed different allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. These results may suggest a relationship between latex allergen localization and sensitization routes in different risk groups.

  7. Color Spectrum Properties of Pure and Non-Pure LATEX in Discriminating Rubber Clone Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman; Hadzli Hashim; Nina Korlina Madzhi; Noor Ezan Abdullah; Faridatul Aima Ismail; Ahmad Faiz Sampian; Azhana Fatnin Che Will

    2015-01-01

    A study of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex in discriminating rubber clone series has been presented in this paper. There were five types of clones from the same series being used as samples in this study named RRIM2002, RRIM2007, RRIM2008, RRIM2014, and RRIM3001. The main objective is to identify the significant color spectrum (RGB) from pure and non-pure latex that can discriminate rubber clone series. The significant information of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex is determined by using spectrometer and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Visible light spectrum (VIS) is used as a radiation light of the spectrometer to emit light to the surface of the latex sample. By using SPSS software, the further numerical analysis of color spectrum properties is being conducted. As the conclusion, blue color spectrum for non-pure is able to discriminate for all rubber clone series whereas only certain color spectrum can differentiate several clone series for pure latex. (author)

  8. Rubber/clay nanocomposites by combined latex compounding and melt mixing: A masterbatch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinghua; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by the masterbatch process. → Latex compounding method is efficient to improve the Ca-montmorillonite dispersion. → Exfoliated structure was obtained in the masterbatch by latex compounding method. → Intercalated and exfoliated structures were achieved in the vulcanizate. → The properties of vulcanizate are improved by the addition of Ca-montmorillonite. -- Abstract: Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) nanocomposites with well exfoliated Ca-MMT layers were prepared by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, a high Ca-MMT content masterbatch was co-coagulated by natural rubber (NR) latex and modified Ca-MMT aqueous suspension through latex compounding. The masterbatch was added in the system of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) by melt mixing subsequently. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) results showed that intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained by the masterbatch technique. The effects of modified Ca-MMT introduction into the rubber matrix, via the masterbatch technique, on the properties of the resulting composites were studied. It was found that the vulcanization was hindered by the incorporation of modified Ca-MMT, while mechanical performances, thermal stability and aging resistance were improved. The increasingly glass transition temperature and the storage modulus with the loading of modified Ca-MMT were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  9. Status RVNRL in German latex industry and its introduction to the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bez, W.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons to look for an alternative crosslinking system avoiding sulphur curing was the restrictive policy of the German Health Authorities concerning nitrosamines. It was concluded that radiation curing offers further advantages . By avoiding the accelerators, type IV allergy is excluded, cytotoxicity is minimised to a very low level, films have better clarity and when thoroughly leached higher electrical resistance. Treatment of waste give no SO sub 2 emissions by burning, no Zinc in the ashes and possibly better microbial degradation. A development was carried out to irradiate natural latex by electron beam with a Dynamitron equipment. It was found trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate to be a suitable sensitizer. Because of to high prices this development was interrupted. For future application trials and efforts to introduce RVNRL in the market gamma ray radiated natural latex either from Batan, Indonesia or MINT, Malaysia are used. Mainly dipped goods were produce, but radiated natural latex has shown good results in other processes. During discussions with customers it has proved necessary to establish specifications for RVNRL. A serious problem using natural latex for the production of medical devices is the type I allergy. Attempts are made to dip surgical gloves, leach them thoroughly and control extractable proteins were reduced to the very low level of 6.5 μg/g. Out of 18 patients sensitive to natural latex protein wearing gloves made from RVNRL only six have shown a positive response. That means RVNRL could help to solve the protein allergy problem. Further developments on this line are scheduled

  10. Labbtex: Toolbox para generación de informes en LATEX para Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Almazán Gárate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el software desarrollado por el Equipo H3lite dentro del Departamento de Ingeneniería Civil. Transportes de la Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid para la generación de informes enLATEX mediante el software Matlab® y la integración en sus rutinas, Labbtex.La librería Labbtex proporciona un marco flexible para mezclar texto y código Matlab® para la generación automática de documentos. Un rchivo fuente simple contiene el texto de documentación y el código Matlab, al correr la aplicación se genera un documento final LATEX que contiene el texto, gráficos y tablas indicados con el formato de un documento LATEX. El código Matlab genera un documento LATEX usando la sintaxis. Así, LATEX (para composición de texto de alta calidad y Matlab® (para cálculo matemático pueden usarse simultáneamente. Esto permite la generación de informes en tiempo real con un uso de recursos mínimo.

  11. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  12. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  13. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  14. Natural rubber latex: past, present and future in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugao, A.B.; Miranda, A.; Mindrisz, A.C.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Hevea braziliensis tree was the Amazonian region in South America, particularly the Brazilian jungle. The rubber expansion at the end of 9th century brought prosperity and determined the borders of Amazonian countries. In spite of that, the Brazilian government has failed in establishing a successful policy for improving the NR production in the jungle. However, rubber plantations were successfully introduced recently near marginal areas of the humid forest in the Amazon due to the absence of the fungus Microcyclos ulei. Both, extraction of wild rubber and plantation have a key role in the maintenance of the forest health. The market for dipping products is small but is growing very fast and is expected to follow this pattern as the sanitary conditions are improved by the health authority. The history of the Brazilian NR products industry is contemporary and is based on the policy of market protection and on the lack of investments due to extremely high interest rates. As a result, the industry was not competitive. It was concluded that, in order to cope with the future challenge, the industry is required to invest in very modern technologies to produce first class goods with international acceptance. Latin America would follow the world trend for nitrosamine and protein free products. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex could prove itself as a profitable solution and not only a quality solution. It was also concluded that both wild rubber and rubber plantations in Brazil have their future coupled with the future of a regional dipping industry. Moreover, the buildup of the dipping industry will be beneficial to the protection of the humid forest and the recovery of degraded areas

  15. Effect of irradiation and blanching on the quality of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, D.H.; Ham, S.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, B.K.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    The research was investigated to determine the effect of irradiation or blanching either alone or in combination on the shelf-life of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storages. The juices was made from fresh or blanced Spuriopinella bracycarpar and gamma irradiated at the doses (0.5 kGy to 5 kGy). Microbial growth, color change, vitamin C, and sensory evaluation were evaluated during storage at 4 and 25℃. Blanched juices had little effect on the inhibition of microbial growth compared to that of fresh juices. However, significant reduction of microbial counts was observed in the 0.5 kGy irradiation of both juices and inhibition efficiency was greatly increased when irradiated juices was stored at 4℃ rather than at room temperature. Fresh juices without irradiation were little different from the irradiated fresh juices until 20d storage on color change because the juices was rapidly browned immediately after getting the juices from extractor, but blanched juices showed more bright and clear color than that of fresh juices. However, irradiated blanched juices showed greatly reduced the L, a, and b value compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices during storage. The loss of vitamin C from non-irradiated fresh juices was increased during storage and the irradiated fresh juices had little effect on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated fresh juices. However, blanched juices showed less reduction of vitamin C than fresh juices and the irradiated blanched juices had little difference on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices, and both treatment showed less vitamin C loss at 4℃ storage. Fresh juces showed more strong grass flavor and biterness than blanched juices and irradiated fresh juices showed little difference on brightness, grass flavor, bitterness, freshness and acceptability, but irradiated blanched juices had better sensory evaluation on grass flavor, bitterness, freshness, and acceptability than non

  16. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  17. Blended call center with idling times during the call service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legros, Benjamin; Jouini, Oualid; Koole, Ger

    We consider a blended call center with calls arriving over time and an infinitely backlogged amount of outbound jobs. Inbound calls have a non-preemptive priority over outbound jobs. The inbound call service is characterized by three successive stages where the second one is a break; i.e., there is

  18. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  19. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  20. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  1. Radiation graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate on natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah, S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of radiation graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (NBA) on natural rubber (NR) latex has been studied. The rate of conversion increases with the increase of NBA in latex. An irradiation dose of about 12 kGy is needed to obtain 90% conversion with 40 phr of NBA in latex. Tensile strength, tear strength, and elongation at break of grafted NR are found to decrease with increasing degree of grafting. The physical strength of a vulcanizate prepared from a mixture of NR and ply-NBA was found to be better than that of NBA-NR graft copolymer vulcanizate. The graft copolymerization reaction takes place in the outer layer of NR particles, and because the secondary bonds between poly-NBA molecules may be weaker than those between NR molecules, the existence of a poly-NBA layer in NR particles will decrease its physical strength

  2. Effects of radio sensitizers in the vulcanization of natural rubber latex induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A. de; Canavel, V.; Araujo, S.C. de; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of C Cl 4 and n-butyl acrylate as a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of 60% DRC natural rubber latex with gamma rays, was studied relating tensile strength of vulcanized latex. The vulcanization dose is 200 kGy for natural rubber latex and it decreases to 40 kGy and to 9 kGy in the presence of C Cl 4 / potassium laureate and n-butyl acrylate / t-butyl hydroperoxide, respectively. The H 2 O 2 as a co-sensitizer does not change the efficiency of the combination of these sensitizers. The IV spectra show the formation of C=O after the irradiation as consequence of oxidation reactions. (author)

  3. Extractable proteins from electron beam (EB) irradiated natural rubber (NR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroza Akhtar; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1996-01-01

    The protein assay of natural rubber latex (NRL) vulcanized by low energy electron beam (EB, 300 keV, 30 mA) has been carried out using Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reagent. Extractable protein in irradiated latex film was determined by measuring the absorption of colored solution at 562 nm using UV spectrometer. The effect of various radiation doses on the extractable protein content of NRL was investigated. It was ,found that the quantities of extractable protein increases with radiation dose. When compared with ,gamma-ray irradiated samples the same trend was observed. Electron beam irradiated latex films are leached in 1% (ammonia water for various lengths of time. From the results it was established that within 2 hours of leaching in ammonia water most of the extractable protein (96%) were removed from rubber film

  4. Extraction and comparison of proteins from natural rubber latex by conventional and ionizing radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Campos, Vania E.; Lusvarghi, Fabio M.; Higa, Olga Z.

    1997-01-01

    Several proteins in natural rubber latex (NRL) have been assigned to be significant allergens. It is known that proteins submitted to ionizing radiation suffer denaturation and immunochemical modification resulting in low antigenic reactivity. The aim of this study was to extract and compare water extractable proteins from NRL films vulcanized by conventional and by ionizing radiation methods. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS--PAGE) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed a diffuse protein band of about 14 KDa, which we believe is rubber elongation factor (REF), in both eluates, but smaller in latex film vulcanized by ionizing radiation. REF has been suggested to be a major latex allergen. These data suggest that ionizing radiation vulcanization could be an useful method for the production of NRL goods with low antigenicity. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Trialed production of low protein irradiated natural rubber latex in factory scale by gamma irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utama, Marga; Herwinarni, S.; Halik, H.M.; Siswanto; Suharyanto; Syamsu, Y.; Handoko, B.

    2006-01-01

    Four tons fresh field natural rubber latex (FNRL) with total solid content 30% were added with 2 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber) normal butyl acrylate (nBA) then irradiated by gamma rays at 25 kGy. The irradiated FNRL was centrifuged, then the properties of irradiated centrifuged natural rubber latex (INRL) and its film were measured before and after storage for 5 months. It is found that the INRL is stable latex during storage in 5 months, with lowest protein, and free nitrosamine content. The tensile strength of INRL film was 24-27 MPa, and modulus 600% was 1,5-2,0 MPa, elongation at break was 900%, and hardness was 27-29 Shore A, while the extractable protein content less than 100 μg/g. (author)

  6. Development assessment of natural latex membranes: a new proposal for the treatment of amblyopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jaqueline Alves; Rosa, Suelia Rodrigues Fleury, E-mail: jackalvesribeiro@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Engenharia e Biomaterial (BioEngLab), Faculdade Gama, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Leite, Cicilia Raquel Maia; Vasconcelos, Claudio Lopes; Soares, Joao Maria [Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The ophthalmic dysfunction amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is characterized by decreased vision in one eye due to improper development in childhood. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize natural rubber membranes and to assess their utility as an eye film capable of altering the passage of light. The latex membranes were produced using the Van Gogh method and the deposition technique and were analyzed by physical and chemical methods to determine the properties of latex in natura and of natural rubber membranes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, analysis of water sorption and light crossing analysis. We report here a new approach to the treatment of patients with amblyopia using latex membranes. (author)

  7. Development assessment of natural latex membranes: a new proposal for the treatment of amblyopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Jaqueline Alves; Rosa, Suelia Rodrigues Fleury; Leite, Cicilia Raquel Maia; Vasconcelos, Claudio Lopes; Soares, Joao Maria

    2017-01-01

    The ophthalmic dysfunction amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, is characterized by decreased vision in one eye due to improper development in childhood. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize natural rubber membranes and to assess their utility as an eye film capable of altering the passage of light. The latex membranes were produced using the Van Gogh method and the deposition technique and were analyzed by physical and chemical methods to determine the properties of latex in natura and of natural rubber membranes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, analysis of water sorption and light crossing analysis. We report here a new approach to the treatment of patients with amblyopia using latex membranes. (author)

  8. Isolation rubber latex binary composites consisting of cotton and poly-N, N-dimethyl-N, N-diallilammony chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cornejo Tueros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the application of rubber from latex binary coagulating agent consisting of cotton - textile waste and polymeric quaternary ammonium salts. The influence on the process of extracting rubber from latex flow coagulating agent temsperatury and concentration of the dispersed phase.

  9. Production Of Hollow Toy Product From Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) By Using Casting And Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2013-01-01

    Hollow toy products are very synonym to the child from the age of months since it able to stimulating each of their sense such as sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Most of hollow toy products are made from natural rubber latex by using moulding and casting technique. The moulding and casting technique is a manufacturing process by pored liquid latex into a mould, which contain cavity of the desired shape. The mould made from plaster of Paris able to absorbs water from latex meanwhile the presence of calcium ions from plaster of Paris will tend to diffuse into latex thus promote formation of deposit on surface of cavity mould. To improve the quality and safety of hollow toy product made from latex, Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) has been identified to be used because it can fulfill the standard requirement for latex and also due to its special abilities such as lower modulus (soft latex products), nitrosamines free, low in nitrosatables, free from chemical accelerators induced allergies and better biodegradability. This paper identify the problem appears from the process of making hollow toy products from RVNRL by using moulding and casting technique. (author)

  10. Preliminary study of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) as secondary gelling agent in natural rubber (NR) latex foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhazariah, S.; Azura, A. R.; Azahari, B.; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) product is considerably cheaper and easier to produce as a natural polysaccharide, which was utilized in food and other product application. However, the application in latex is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the SRC produced from low industrial grade seaweed (LIGS) in the latex foam application. The FTIR spectra showed the SRC produced as kappa type carrageenan with lower sulfur content compared to native LIGS. NR latex foam is produced by using the Dunlop method with some modifications. The effect of SRC loading as a secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam is investigated. The density and morphology of the NR latex foam with the addition of the SRC are analyzed. NR latex foam density increased with SRC loading and peaked at 1.8 phr SRC. The addition of SRC has induced the bigger cell size compared to the cell size of the control NR latex foam, as shown in the optical micrograph. It can be concluded that SRC LIGS could be acted as secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam.

  11. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  12. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  13. STUDY ON THE ACCEPTABILITY OF YOGHURT WITH CARROT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana LEAHU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the results of a study regarding the evaluation of the sensory characteristics and consumers’ acceptance of unsweetened yoghurt with carrot juice. The yoghurts were obtained considering three carrot juice levels (10%, 20% and 30%, respectively and two starter cultures. Carrot yoghurt was prepared in the laboratory by adding carrot juice to milk and inoculated with a 3% yoghurt culture. The effects of the carrot juice on the sensory quality and consumers’ aceptance of the yoghurt samples were determined. The data obtained on various parameters were statistically analyzed.

  14. Hierarchically structured self-supported latex films for flexible and semi-transparent electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Törngren, Björn; Rosqvist, Emil; Pesonen, Markus; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent self-supported latex films were fabricated by a peel-off process. • Various template substrates were used for creating e.g. hierarchically structured latex films. • Ultra-thin and semi-transparent conductive gold electrodes were evaporated on the latex films.Electrochemical experiments were carried out to verify the applicability of the electrodes. - Abstract: Different length scale alterations in topography, surface texture, and symmetry are known to evoke diverse cell behavior, including adhesion, orientation, motility, cytoskeletal condensation, and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this work, self-supported latex films with well-defined isotropic/anisotropic surface features and hierarchical morphologies were fabricated by a peel-off process from different template surfaces. In addition, the latex films were used as substrates for evaporated ultrathin gold films with nominal thicknesses of 10 and 20 nm. Optical properties and topography of the samples were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. The latex films showed high-level transmittance of visible light, enabling the fabrication of semi-transparent gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out for a number of days to investigate the long-term stability of the electrodes. The effect of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and HS(CH_2)_1_1OH (MuOH) thiolation and protein (human serum albumin, HSA) adsorption on the impedance and capacitance was studied. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were carried out to determine active medicinal components, i.e., caffeic acid with interesting biological activities and poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. The results show that the fabrication procedure presented in this study enables the formation of platforms with hierarchical morphologies for multimodal (optical and

  15. Hierarchically structured self-supported latex films for flexible and semi-transparent electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: anni.maattanen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Törngren, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.torngren@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Rosqvist, Emil, E-mail: emil.rosqvist@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Pesonen, Markus, E-mail: markus.pesonen@abo.fi [Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko, E-mail: jouko.peltonen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent self-supported latex films were fabricated by a peel-off process. • Various template substrates were used for creating e.g. hierarchically structured latex films. • Ultra-thin and semi-transparent conductive gold electrodes were evaporated on the latex films.Electrochemical experiments were carried out to verify the applicability of the electrodes. - Abstract: Different length scale alterations in topography, surface texture, and symmetry are known to evoke diverse cell behavior, including adhesion, orientation, motility, cytoskeletal condensation, and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this work, self-supported latex films with well-defined isotropic/anisotropic surface features and hierarchical morphologies were fabricated by a peel-off process from different template surfaces. In addition, the latex films were used as substrates for evaporated ultrathin gold films with nominal thicknesses of 10 and 20 nm. Optical properties and topography of the samples were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. The latex films showed high-level transmittance of visible light, enabling the fabrication of semi-transparent gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out for a number of days to investigate the long-term stability of the electrodes. The effect of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and HS(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}OH (MuOH) thiolation and protein (human serum albumin, HSA) adsorption on the impedance and capacitance was studied. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were carried out to determine active medicinal components, i.e., caffeic acid with interesting biological activities and poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. The results show that the fabrication procedure presented in this study enables the formation of platforms with hierarchical morphologies for multimodal

  16. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals from corn cob with dispersion agent polyvinyl pyrrolidone in natural rubber latex film after aging treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, H.; Ridha, M.; Halimatuddahliana; Taslim; Iriany

    2018-02-01

    This study about the resistance of natural rubber latex films using nanocrystals cellulose filler from corn cob waste by aging treatment. Corn cob used as organic filler composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Each component has a potential for reuse, such as cellulose. Cellulose from corn cob has potential application as a filler prepared by hydrolysis process using a strong acid. The producing of natural rubber latex films through coagulant dowsing process. This research started with the pre-vulcanization process of natural rubber latex at 70 °C and followed by process of vulcanization at 110 °C for 20 minutes. Natural rubber latex films that have been produced continued with the aging treatment at 70 °C for 168 hours. The mechanical properties of natural rubber latex films after aging treatment are the tensile strength, elongation at break, M100 and M300 have performed.

  17. Effect of rootstock on the scion of Hevea brasiliensis through metabolic analysis of latex samples by 1H NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of rootstock on grafting through metabolomic analysis of latex (Hevea brasiliensis samples was verified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and multivariate data analysis. Sixteen metabolites present in the latex cytosol were characterized by NMR. PCA analysis showed that the latex samples of the RR and GR groups can be differentiated. The GR group samples present a metabolic profile similar to the RR group samples, while the RG group is in an intermediate position between RR and GG groups. Sucrose and formate contributed greatly to the separation obtained by PCA, presenting a good correlation between the results. 1H NMR was an efficient technique to differentiate latex samples from different types of rootstocks and grafting and in the future could be used to predict rubber production by latex analysis.

  18. Mechanism of n-butyl acrylate sensitization action in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, S.; Chaudhari, C.V.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Majali, A.B.; Das, T.N.

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the role of n-butyl acrylate (nBA) in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, pulse radiolysis technique has been utilized to study the reactions of the transient species produced by reaction of OH . , e- aq and H . atoms with nBA in aqueous solutions. The results show that transients produced by reaction of e- aq with nBA alone are capable of propagating the polymerization reaction and enhance the vulcanization process. These results have been further confirmed by studying the effect of electron scavengers on the vulcanization behaviour of natural rubber latex in presence of nBA. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex using 250 keV electron beam machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.; Lugao, A. E-mail: ablugao@net.ipen.br

    2003-08-01

    The sensitized radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has been carried out with 250 keV electrons. Latex was irradiated over a range of the beam current from 5 to 20 mA in the presence of sensitizers like the n-butyl acrylate (n-BA). The vulcanization dose decreases with increasing beam current condition. The rate of vulcanization (R{sub vul}) depends on the beam current (I) as given by the equation R{sub vul}=kI{sup 0.6}.

  20. Anticancer activity of flavonol and flavan-3-ol rich extracts from Croton celtidifolius latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Fernanda; Parisotto, Eduardo Benedetti; Zanette, Vanilde Citadini; Günther, Tania Mara Fischer; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Gris, Eliana Fortes; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Pich, Claus Tröger; Mattivi, Fulvio; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-06-01

    Croton celtidifolius Baill (Euphorbiaceae) is a tree found in the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil, where it is commonly known as "Sangue-de-Dragão". Its red latex is used traditionally for treating ulcers, diabetes and cancer. To evaluate antitumor activities of Croton celtififolius latex in vitro and in vivo. Phytochemical analyses were conducted using HPLC-DAD-MS. Cytotoxic, nuclease and pro-apoptotic properties were determined using the tetrazolium salt assay (MTT), plasmid DNA damage assay and ethidium bromide (EB)/acridine orange methods, respectively, and antitumor activity was determined in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) mouse model. Phytochemical studies indicated a high phenol content of flavonols (45.67 ± 0.24 and 18.01 ± 0.23 mg/mL of myricetin and quercetin, respectively) and flavan-3-ols (114.12 ± 1.84 and 1527.41 ± 16.42 mg/L of epicatechin and epigallocatechin, respectively) in latex. These compounds reduced MCF-7 and EAC cell viability in the MTT assay (IC50 = 169.0 ± 1.8 and 187.0 ± 2.2 μg/mL, respectively). Latex compounds caused significant DNA fragmentation and increased the number of apoptotic cells (negative control (NC), 12%; latex, 41%) as indicated by differential staining in the EB/acridine orange assay. The in vivo latex treatment at 3.12 mg/kg/day reduced the body weight by 7.57 ± 2.04 g and increased median survival time to 17.5 days when compared to the NC group (13.0 days). In addition, the highest latex concentration inhibited tumor growth by 56%. These results agree with ethno-pharmacological reports showing cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of C. celtidifolius latex. The mechanism of antitumor action may be related to direct DNA fragmentation that reduces survival and induces apoptosis.

  1. Trial Production of Surgical Gloves from Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex on Factory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Trial production of surgical gloves from irradiated natural rubber latex at the PT. Laxindo Utama Serang Banten glove factory has been carried out. The variation of heating temperature and leaching time during processing were evaluated. The physical and mechanical properties and the protein allergen respond of surgical gloves using ELISA method were measured. The results showed that the physical and mechanical of surgical gloves such as tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break arefound to meet the requirements of the ISO or SNI standard for surgical gloves. While the allergic response through clinical tested latex-sensitive protein allergen known as ELISA test is found to be negative.

  2. Radiation Vulcanization of Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL): A Potential Material for Nuclear Power Plant Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Keong, C.C.; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2011-01-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has great potential for the production of nuclear power plant gloves due to its low ash and mineral content. And this is in-line with the role played by Malaysian Nuclear Agency as Technical Supporting Organization for Nuclear Power Program. This paper discussed the evaluation done to determine ash content in RVNRL and SVNRL films. Both samples were prepared using casting technique and the properties were compared. Films prepared from raw latex without any vulcanizing agent were regarded as a control. (author)

  3. Gamma irradiator design concepts for radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.S.; Muralidharan, P.; Apte, M.G.; Kalurkar, A.R.; Shah, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex (NRL) is a new and yet unproven technology and one which involves undefined problems of consumer acceptance and high degree of radiation risk. Therefore, the designer should take care that the initial capital cost of the plant is as low as possible to keep the unit processing cost low during the initial lean period of the product requirement by the market. Three irradiators to process natural rubber latex have been designed as per capacity requirement of the user. Their salient features are described. (author). 2 tabs., 24 figs

  4. Low field NMR study of the latex derived from Brosimum parinarioides - Moraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguez, Eduardo; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2009-01-01

    Brosimum parinarioides is a tree found in the Amazonia forest and its latex (Leite de Amapa) is often used like food and by the popular medicine in the treatment of tuberculosis and asthma. Being swallowed in nature, its necessary determinate the stability degree of this latex in the storage conditions in which is used in Amazonia. The analyses of T 2 data showed that the limit of stability is not longer than six month in the storage conditions used by the population of Amazonia. The Low field NMR proved to be an efficient method for this kind of study. (author)

  5. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Analysis of Aqueous Extractable Protein in Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) And Sulphur Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (SVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Mohd Noor Wadi Mat Lazim; Syuhada Ramli; Keong, C.C.; Khairul Hisyam Mohd Yusof; Muhammad Saiful Omar; Najib Mohd Zakey; Hafizuddin Maseri; Noor Hasni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation do not only produces Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) that can be used for the production of nitrosamines free products, moreover, RVNRL also able to exclude type IV allergy that caused by high protein content in the products. Leaching water from production of finger coat from RVNRL and Sulphur Pre vulcanized Natural rubber Latex (SVNRL) has been collected. Extractable protein content from water samples measured according to the test protocol ASTM D5712-2010. Water from leaching process of finger coat made from RVNRL showed a higher protein content than SVNRL. This explains why RVNRL based products contain very low protein content and thus reduce the risk of Type IV allergy. (author)

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of AloeAndongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice,aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice,aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Plant materials derived from the Aloe plant are used as cosmetic ingredients, including Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract. These ingredients function primarily as skin-conditioning agents and are included in cosmetics only at low concentrations. The Aloe leaf consists of the pericyclic cells, found just below the plant's skin, and the inner central area of the leaf, i.e., the gel, which is used for cosmetic products. The pericyclic cells produce a bitter, yellow latex containing a number of anthraquinones, phototoxic compounds that are also gastrointestinal irritants responsible for cathartic effects. The gel contains polysaccharides, which can be acetylated, partially acetylated, or not acetylated. An industry established limit for anthraquinones in aloe-derived material for nonmedicinal use is 50 ppm or lower. Aloe-derived ingredients are used in a wide variety of cosmetic product types at concentrations of raw material that are 0.1% or less, although can be as high as 20%. The concentration of Aloe in the raw material also may vary from 100% to a low of 0.0005%. Oral administration of various anthraquinone components results in a rise in their blood concentrations, wide systemic distribution, accumulation in the liver and kidneys, and excretion in urine and feces; polysaccharide components are distributed systemically and metabolized into smaller molecules. aloe-derived material has fungicidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities, and has been effective in wound healing and infection treatment in animals. Aloe barbadensis (also known as Aloe vera)-derived ingredients were not toxic

  8. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago.

  9. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  10. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development. Key words: Pomegranate juice, SDS-PAGE, fatty acid, vitamin.

  11. Vitamin C stability in pineapple, guava and baobab juices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASAMBA

    associated with many health benefits such as promoting health cell ... such as juices are processed to ensure availability even when they are not in ... as fruit juices to extend the shelf life. The use of .... results show that vitamin C was highly retained in freezing .... College of Agriculture for providing funding for the work.

  12. Antifungal effects of sisal leaf juice on Lasiodiplodia theobromae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the nine varieties, the inhibition effects of hybrid 76416 and Agave americana were the best with absolute inhibition of all the leaf juice treatments against the mycelial growth, followed by Agave Amaniensis, Agave virdis, Agave angustifolia and Hybrid 11648. The inhibitory effect of some fresh juices would be cut ...

  13. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  14. Quality of physalis (Physalis pubescenss L.) juice packaged in glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of our study was to prepare a new processed pasteurized Physalis juice and to study the effects of storage and packaging on its nutritional properties. The pulp was yellowish or orange with a yield of 64%. The fresh juice had a light sweet and acidic taste (pH 3.5). The titratable acidity was 1.43%, polyphenols ...

  15. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  16. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  17. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  18. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  19. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  20. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of a 48-kDa protease (AMP48) from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritapetawee, J; Thammasirirak, S; Samosornsuk, W

    2012-01-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) is a latex producing plant. Plant latex is produced from secretory cells and contains many intergradients. It also has been used in folk medicine. This study aimed to purify and characterize the biological activities of a protease from jackfruit latex. A protease was isolated and purified from crude latex of a jackfruit tree by acid precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The proteolytic activities of protein were tested using gelatin- and casein-zymography. The molecular weight and isoelectric point (pl) of protein were analysed by SDS/12.5% PAGE and 2D-PAGE, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of protein was analysed by broth microdilution method. In addition, the antibacterial activity of protein against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was observed and measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The purified protein contained protease activity by digesting gelatin- and casein-substrates. The protease was designated as antimicrobial protease-48 kDa or AMP48 due to its molecular mass on SDS-PAGE was approximately 48 kDa. The isoelectric point (pl) of AMP48 was approximately 4.2. In addition, AMP48 contained antimicrobial activities by it could inhibit the growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolated Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 2.2 mg/ml and Minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) 8.8 mg/ml. AFM image also supported the antimicrobial activities of AMP48 by the treated bacterial morphology and size were altered from normal.

  2. Reduction of residual monomer in latex products by enhanced polymerization and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmere, M.F.; Schilt, van M.A.; Cleven, M.H.W.; Herk, van A.M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The redn. of Me methacrylate (MMA) in a PMMA latex was chosen as a representative model system. Pulsed electron beam expts. were performed to study the effect of supercrit. carbon dioxide (scCO2) on the monomer concn. inside the polymer particles during the polymn. reaction. The partitioning

  3. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  4. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  5. The effect of emulsifier on the stability of irradiated LA-TZ latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Made Sumarti K; Utama, Marga; Puspitasari, Tita

    1998-01-01

    The effect of six kinds of stabilizer on the stability of the concentrated LA-TZ latex which contains n-BA have been studied. The six stabilizers are: 1. Naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate, 2. Sodium dialkyl sulfosuccinate, 3. Triethanol amine lauryl sulfate, 4. Sodium polyoxyethylene alkyl phenol ether sulfate, 5. Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (Neopelex FS), and 6. Ammonium laurat. The concentrations of the stabilizers are in the range of 0,1 to 0,3% and of the n-BA is 5phr (per hundred rubber). The field natural rubber latex was stabilized by Tetramethyl tiuram disulfide - Zine oxide (TMTD-ZnO) and ammonium gas, and was concentrated by centrifuge. The obtain concentrated LA-TZ latex was added by the n-BA and was kept with various storage time i.e. o, 2, 4, 6, 18, and 24 hours. It was found that the stable latex was irradiated by 15 kGy dose and the physical properties was tested, then the maximum tensile strength of 223,3 kg/cm 2 was found on Neopelex FS concentrate at 0,1%. (authors)

  6. Enhancing Student Writing and Computer Programming with LATEX and MATLAB in Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Eric; Melvin, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Written communication and computer programming are foundational components of an undergraduate degree in the mathematical sciences. All lower-division mathematics courses at our institution are paired with computer-based writing, coding, and problem-solving activities. In multivariable calculus we utilize MATLAB and LATEX to have students explore…

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Gold Loading of Polystyrene-Poly(pyridyl methacrylate) Core-Shell Latex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    In this research, novel 3-(2-pyridyl)propyl methacrylate and 3-(3-pyridyloxy)propyl methacrylate monomers were synthesized and emulsion polymerized on colloidal polystyrene seeds, resulting in core–shell latex systems. The cores and the core–shell particles were characterized by static light

  8. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keong, C C; Zin, W M Wan; Ibrahim, P; Ibrahim, S, E-mail: chai@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  9. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex with low energy accelerator-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Md. Emdadul; Makuuchi, Keizo; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) was radiation vulcanized under a low energy electron accelerator. Accelerating voltage and maximum beam current of this accelerator are 250 kV and 10 mA respectively. Irradiation was carried out in a reaction vessel with constant stirring. The capacity of the vessel is 18 liters. Radiation vulcanization accelerators (RVA) were normal butyl acrylate (n-BA) and nonane-diol-diacrylate (NDDA). NDDA has no bad smell like that of n-BA. 20 minutes irradiation time is enough to vulcanize 14 liters of latex when 5 phr RVA (both types) are used. Maximum of {approx}30 MPa tensile strength was obtained with 5 phr NDD-A. However the remained NDDA is difficult to remove due to high molecular weight. Water-extractable proteins content was determined in dipped films for various leaching conditions without and with additive (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA). Water extractable proteins content is reduced to {<=} 41 by adding 5 phr PVA and leaching for 8 hours. The tackiness of the dipped films is reduced to 0.1 from 9 gf by mixing 6 phr PVA with the irradiated latex. Hand gloves (surgical and examination) were successfully produced from the irradiated latex. (author)

  10. Latex paint as a delivery vehicle for diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Fauck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    gas-phase concentration at steady state(y). For both, DEP and DnBP, the y0 obtained was lower than the respective saturation vapor pressure (Ps). Furthermore, for both phthalates in latex paint, the material/air partition coefficient (C0/y0) was close in value to the octanol/air partition coefficient...

  11. Marketing techniques and cost calculations of radiation vulcanised natural rubber latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Chai Chee Keong; Najib Mohammed Zakey; Hafizuddin Maseri

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how RVNRL is promoted to the latex based industries locally and abroad. RVNRL promotion requires patience and very challenging. This is a fact since the product is new to the market. Cost is important in deciding its market and potential usage. The elements that contribute to the cost is described in this paper. (Author)

  12. The effects of temperature and pH bacterial degradation of latex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to integrate the activities of paint deterioration of microbial communities (microcosms) on the basis of environmental factors. The effect of temperature and pH on bacterial degradation of latex paint under humid condition by bacterial isolates was studied. Results obtained revealed that paint ...

  13. THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF HEVAMINE, AN ENZYME WITH LYSOZYME CHITINASE ACTIVITY FROM HEVEA-BRASILIENSIS LATEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JEKEL, PA; HARTMANN, JBH; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex, has been determined predominantly with conventional non-automatic methods. The positions of three disulfide bridges have been determined. The sequence has about 60% identity with that of a

  14. Lipid transfer protein from Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b 12), a cross-reactive latex protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beezhold, Donald H.; Hickey, Vicky L.; Kostyal, David A.; Puhl, Henry; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Sussman, Gordon L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latex-allergic individuals experience clinical cross-reactivity to a large number of fruits and vegetables. Much of the cross-reactivity can be attributed to Hev b 6, but evidence indicates that additional cross-reactive allergens may be present. A common pan-allergen, which has not

  15. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propansulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  16. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Vermeer, A.W.P.; Norde, W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  17. Costs and return analysis in rubber latex production in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the costs and return analysis in rubber latex production in Edo Sate, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method was adopted to select 96 smallholder rubber framers for the study. The first stage was a purposive sampling of two LGAs and then simple random sampling of 6 villages each from the two LGA.

  18. Latex allergy: assessment of knowledge, appropriate use of gloves and prevention practice among hospital healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Niaimi, F; Chiang, Y Z; Chiang, Y N; Williams, J

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare workers and patients are often exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL) through contact with gloves and various healthcare products, which can potentially cause allergic reactions, with varying degrees of severity. In 2008, the Royal College of Physicians published their first evidence-based guidance on occupational health interventions for latex allergy, which emphasized the importance of healthcare workers having knowledge of latex allergy. This study aimed to survey the knowledge of healthcare workers (n = 156) about latex gloves and NRL allergy, routine prevention practice and the appropriate use of gloves in patient care. Healthcare workers in a large teaching hospital were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. We found that only 1% of healthcare workers were able to correctly match the appropriate gloves to the specifically designed procedure. More than half (n = 74.53%) were unable to recognize the presentation of type 1 allergy to NRL. Of the 156 participants, 131 (84%) considered that they would benefit from training about NRL allergy and the use of different types of gloves in clinical care. This survey indicates the importance of education regarding appropriate use of gloves and prevention of NRL allergy among healthcare workers, and dermatologists should play an important role in facilitating this. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Formation of Defect-Free Latex Films on Porous Fiber Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2011-09-28

    We present here the creation of a defect-free polyvinylidene chloride barrier layer on the lumen-side of a hollow fiber sorbent. Hollow fiber sorbents have previously been shown to be promising materials for enabling low-cost CO 2 capture, provided a defect-free lumen-side barrier layer can be created. Film experiments examined the effect of drying rate, latex age, substrate porosity (porous vs nonporous), and substrate hydrophobicity/ hydrophilicity. Film studies show that in ideal conditions (i.e., slow drying, fresh latex, and smooth nonporous substrate), a defect-free film can be formed, whereas the other permutations of the variables investigated led to defective films. These results were extended to hollow fiber sorbents, and despite using fresh latex and relatively slow drying conditions, a defective lumen-side layer resulted. XRD and DSC indicate that polyvinylidene chloride latex develops crystallinity over time, thereby inhibiting proper film formation as confirmed by SEM and gas permeation. This and other key additional challenges associated with the porous hollow fiber substrate vs the nonporous flat substrate were overcome. By employing a toluene-vapor saturated drying gas (a swelling solvent for polyvinylidene chloride) a defect-free lumen-side barrier layer was created, as investigated by gas and water vapor permeation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Evaluation of latex-protein complexes by immnunoagglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain a reagent based on latex particles for ruling out acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women by immunoagglutination (IA). Latex-protein complexes (LPC) were previously synthesized coupling the recombinant protein of Toxoplasma gondii P22Ag and the homogenate of the parasite to latex particles with different size, chemical functionality and charge density. LPC were tested in IA assays against a panel of 72 pregnant women serum samples. Results were analysed through receiver operating characteristic curves, determining area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively). It was observed that the antigenicity of proteins was not affected during sensitization by either physical adsorption or covalent coupling. The best results in the sense of maximizing discrimination of low avidity sera from chronic ones were observed for the IA test based on latex particles with carboxyl functionality and the recombinant P22Ag, obtaining an AUC of 0·94, a sensitivity of 100% and a NPV of 100%. In this way, the proposed test could be useful for the toxoplasmosis diagnosis in pregnant women, with the advantages of being cheap, rapid and easy to be implemented.

  1. Latex particle template lift-up guided gold wire-networks via evaporation lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chew, Basil; Wang, Zhihong; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a hybrid methodology that combines a two dimensional (2D) monolayer of latex particles (with a pitch size down to 1 μm) prepared by horizontal dry deposition, lift-up of a 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography to fabricate metal micro- and nano wire-networks. This journal is

  2. Dynamics of ballistically injected latex particles in living human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Duits, Michael H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of ballistically injected latex particles (BIP) inside endothelial cells, using video particle tracking to measure the mean squared displacement (MSD) as a function of lag time. The MSD shows a plateau at short times and a linear behavior at longer times, indicating that the

  3. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Lustosa Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous. Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL. Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%, ethyl acetate (56%, and aqueous (72% fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  4. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keong, C C; Zin, W M Wan; Ibrahim, P; Ibrahim, S

    2010-01-01

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  5. [Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in sera of patients in the latex agglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volina, E G; Sarukhanova, L E; Iashina, N V; Prokopov, N I; Shkarlat, P E; Barysheva, I V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed diagnostic test based on the determination of genus-specific antibodies to leptospires in the latex agglutination test, are presented. This test makes it possible to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies of any serogroup. The advantages of the developed test have been determined.

  6. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhabib, K.; Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the

  7. [Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation.

  8. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  9. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-01-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices

  10. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  11. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  13. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  14. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  15. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  16. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  17. 6'7'-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79

  18. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  19. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  20. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  1. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  2. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  3. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  4. Stability of unpasteurized and refrigerated orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of orange juice obtained from a small extractor and stored in a polyethylene bottle was assessed under isothermal and non-isothermal storage conditions at 4, 8 and 12ºC for 72 hours. pH, titratable acidity and Brix did not alter significantly during the 72 hours storage. Microbiological analysis showed high initial count for moulds and yeasts that increased in the juice stored for 72h under the non-isothermal conditions with temperature abuse (12��C/4h. Date of the sensory evaluation showed a small reduction in product acceptance in this condition. The juice, in the recommended validity period (48h, presented losses of less than 20% of the initial ascorbic acid content regardless of the treatment. However, after this time, the degradation became accentuated reaching, at 72h storage, retentions of 72 to 85%.Desenvolvimento microbiano, ação enzimática e reações químicas influenciam a qualidade de suco de laranja natural não-pasteurizado, podendo comprometer características sensoriais e provocar perdas nutricionais. A estabilidade do suco, obtido em extrator de pequeno porte e acondicionado em embalagem de polietileno, foi avaliada em condições isotérmicas e não-isotérmicas de armazenamento em temperaturas entre 4 e 12ºC por 72h. Valores de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do armazenamento em todas as condições. Resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram alta contagem inicial de bolores e leveduras, que aumentaram no suco armazenado por 72h na condição não isotérmica onde houve abuso de temperatura (12ºC por 4h. Os testes sensoriais mostraram uma pequena redução na aceitação do produto nessa mesma condição. Constatou-se que o suco, no período preconizado como prazo de validade (48h, apresentou perdas inferiores a 20% do teor inicial de ácido ascórbico, independentemente do tratamento. A partir deste momento, a degradação se

  5. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  7. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  8. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  9. First record of the behavior of latex drainage by Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae in laticiferous flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Koschnitzke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behavior of the bee Trigona spinipes, to avoid the latex, when piercing the base of the tubular corolla of the flowers of Mandevilla guanabarica in order to steal the nectar.

  10. Biodegradability and aging study of rubber films obtained by gamma radiation vulcanization processes of latex; Estudo da biodegradabilidade e envelhecimento de filmes de borracha obtidos por processos de vulcanizacao do latex por radiacao induzida de fonte gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos Felipe Pinto

    2005-07-01

    The natural rubber latex (NRL) is industrially crosslinked by the conventional process of vulcanization, which uses sulphur and heat. Otherwise, the network can also be done by the alternative process with ionizing radiation. In this work the crosslinking of NRL was studied by the comparison of the conventional vulcanization system and the ionizing radiation process of {sup 60}C source. The products obtained, the irradiated latex, the irradiated latex with approximately 1% of soy lecithin and the sulphur vulcanized latex were tested by accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) and outdoor aging with compostage, tensile strength at break, swelling and gel fraction, fungi micro biota, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG and DSC). The results showed that the aging with microorganisms have a great influence in the physical properties of the samples. The thermal stability order observed showed that the sulphur vulcanized latex is more resistant, what is probably associated to a network more stable under the aging conditions. On the other hand, the irradiated latex showed intense biodegradation aspects, particularly with the presence of the soy lecithin. (author)

  11. Prevalence of manufacturing defects in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Swuailem, Abdullah S

    2014-07-01

    To assess the defect rates in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 796 latex examination gloves were collected from 5 governmental hospitals and 5 private dental practices between April 2012 and May 2012. The gloves were assessed for presence of defects visually (VT) and using water inflation test (WIT). One and 2 sample t-tests were used to assess significant differences in defect rates among each latex brand, and between governmental hospitals and private dental practices. Defects in latex gloves were more likely to be identified using WIT compared with VT (20.2% versus 4.3%, p=0.000). Using WIT, examined latex gloves had a defect rate approximately 8 times the acceptable quality level of 2.5% (20.2%, p=0.000). Using WIT, gloves used in private dental practices had significantly higher defect rates compared with governmental dental clinics (25.6% versus 14.6%, p=0.006). Most latex examination gloves used in the sampled governmental dental clinics and private dental practices in Riyadh had significantly higher preexisting defect rates than acceptable standard levels.

  12. Frequent IgE sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg in children with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Angel; Solera, Eva; Alentado, Noemi; Oliver, Fernando; Pamies, Rafael; Caballero, Luis; Nieto, Antonio; Dalmau, Jaime

    2008-03-01

    Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) undergo frequent operations, so they are at risk for sensitizing to latex. There have been isolated reports of sensitization to food in these children. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg with skin prick tests (SPT) and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 14 children with SBS. Data were collected about the number of operations with latex devices, serum total IgE, and history of feeding with milk formula. Ten children were sensitized to latex (specific IgE median: 6.7 kU/l, range: 0.5-33). Compared with those non-sensitized, sensitized children had significantly (p range: 0.5-21.1 kU/l), and five to egg (specific IgE median: 0.68, range: 0.58-2.17 kU/l). Except for some isolated days with cow's milk formula, the children had been initially fed with a diet without intact cow's milk proteins. Sensitization to latex, cow's milk, and egg is very frequent in children with SBS. They should be treated in a latex-free environment since the very early stages of the disease, and should be routinely studied regarding food sensitization, as this might contribute as an added factor in the chronic diarrhea of these patients.

  13. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  14. Radiation-induced grafting polymerization of MMA onto polybutadiene rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Wang Maolin; Qiao Jinliang; Wei Genshuan

    2005-01-01

    The grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto polybutadiene rubber latex by the direct radiation method was carried out. The effects of monomer concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate of gamma rays on the grafting yield were investigated. The graft copolymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. TEM photographs revealed that the core-shell structures of latex particles are formed at low MMA content, and with the increasing of MMA content, the semi-IPN-like structure with core-shell could be developed due to the high gel fraction of polybutadiene (PBD) seed particles. In addition, infrared analysis confirmed that MMA could be grafted onto PBD molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. The interfacial adhesion between PBD rubber (core) and PMMA (shell) phases could be enhanced with the increase of MMA concentration

  15. EVALUATION OF CYTOTOXIC, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES FROM THE LATEX OF IPOMEA STAPHYLINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanthi Narra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Ipomoea staphylina has been used in diverse traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and illness of human beings. The crude latex extract obtained from the stem of Ipomea staphylina was evaluated for cytotoxic, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays such as Colony Formation method and Enzyme based methods that determined cell viability with a colorimetric method were performed to evaluate the medicinal properties of Ipomea staphylina. Similarly Microbiological Antibiotic Assay to determine the antimicrobial properties and wound healing properties were tested by determining the potent anti-inflammatory molecules that inhibited COX and LOX enzymes. Results showed that the latex crude extract of Ipomea staphylina showed potent Antimicrobial and Antiinflamatory properties, but the viability of the cells were unaffected.

  16. Tensile properties of latex paint films with TiO2 pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric W. S.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Young, Christina T.; Learner, Thomas J. S.; Hackney, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    The tensile properties of latex paint films containing TiO2 pigment were studied with respect to temperature, strain-rate and moisture content. The purpose of performing these experiments was to assist museums in defining safe conditions for modern paintings held in collections. The glass transition temperature of latex paint binders is in close proximity to ambient temperature, resulting in high strain-rate dependence in typical exposure environments. Time dependence of modulus and failure strain is discussed in the context of time-temperature superposition, which was used to extend the experimental time scale. Nonlinear viscoelastic material models are also presented, which incorporate a Prony series with the Ogden or Neo-Hookean hyperelastic function for different TiO2 concentrations.

  17. n-BA/KOH/t-BHP behaviour in the natural rubber latex vulcanization by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A. de.

    1994-01-01

    Natural rubber latex was vulcanized in the absence and in the presence of sensitizer (S), with gamma ray from 60 Co source, panoramic type, at the dose rate range of 1,20-1,33 kGy/h. The components of used S were n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), the KOH as stabilizer and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) as co-S. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency and the behaviour of each component of S in the irradiated latex crosslinking by tensile strength (T b ), volume fraction and permanent set. In the absence of S occur straight crosslinking between macromolecular adjacent radicals. IN the presence of S, the n-BA participates in the crosslinking through acrylic bridges between macromolecules. (author)

  18. The effect of proteins on the aging properties of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins on the aging properties of NRL films was investigated. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the rubber proteins in NRL (Sri-Lanka) indicated a total of 18 proteins. A sharp decrease in tensile strength was observed after aging when NRL films were leached in 1% NH 4 OH. However, when these films were soaked in ethanol prior to leaching, the aging properties approximated those of the unleashed samples. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins present in the NH 3 extracts of leached RVNRL films showed a high concentration of the protein herein. This protein was not found in the NH 3 extracts of ethanol soaked films. NRL proteins were shown to decelerate the aging process of Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) films. Among the proteins, herein exhibited good anti-aging properties. The hydrolyzates from NR proteins also enhanced considerably the aging properties of RVNRL. (auth.). 8 refs.; 40 figs.; 30 tabs

  19. texreg: Conversion of Statistical Model Output in R to LATEX and HTML Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Leifeld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent task in applied statistics is the (mostly manual preparation of model output for inclusion in LATEX, Microsoft Word, or HTML documents usually with more than one model presented in a single table along with several goodness-of-fit statistics. However, statistical models in R have diverse object structures and summary methods, which makes this process cumbersome. This article first develops a set of guidelines for converting statistical model output to LATEX and HTML tables, then assesses to what extent existing packages meet these requirements, and finally presents the texreg package as a solution that meets all of the criteria set out in the beginning. After providing various usage examples, a blueprint for writing custom model extensions is proposed.

  20. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves.

  1. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  2. The role of proteins on the thermal oxidative aging of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Rosa, A. de la; Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Hevea latex proteins on the aging properties of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was investigated. Unpurified RVNRL films exhibited better aging properties than the purified RVNRL films. A sharp decrease in tensile strength was observed after aging when RVNRL films were leached in 1% NH sub 4 OH. However, when these films were soaked in ethanol prior to leaching, the aging properties approximated those of the unleached samples. Kjeldahl and FT-IR analyses of the leached and unleached RVNRL films indicated a higher protein content for both the unleached and ethanol-soaked films than for leached films. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins present in the NH, extracts of leached RVNRL films showed a high concentration of hevein. This protein was not found in the ATH, extracts of ethanol soaked films. Hevein was shown to improve the aging properties of RVNRL

  3. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  4. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  5. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  6. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  7. comparative in vitro antioxidant properties of water juice from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUICE FROM SELECTED AFRICAN FRUITS CONSUMED IN ... from African star apple (Chrysophyllumafricanum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were significantly (p<0.05) higher .... the formula as given by Chinaka and colleagues, and.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Juice Beverages Available in Dar es

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBZERO/BETAONE/VDOWN

    against 15 commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Reference ... contaminants. MATERIALS AND METHODS .... to both raw materials and ready-to-use juices. [27]. ... in place the Hazard Analysis Critical Control.

  9. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  10. Development and Analysis of Quality Parameters of an Innovative Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca FARCAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the functional products represent a sustainable trend in food industry due to the beneficial effects that they have on the human body as well as due to the increased interest of people for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to develop and optimize a pumpkin and apple functional juice, respectively to accomplish the quality control in terms of its physicochemical and sensorial properties. The highest levels of vitamin C occurred in pumpkin and implicitly in the juice obtained in the 1:1 ratio, which also presented the highest antioxidant activity. The nitrates content was at very low level in all the analysed sample, with values between 24.7-41.2 mg/kg for apple and pumpkin, respectively between 28.41-30.94 mg/kg for juices. Also, the consumers were impressed by sensorial and nutritional properties of the new product, positively appreciating both variants of juice.

  11. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  12. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  13. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Inflation Test of Latex Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bustos

    Full Text Available Abstract Experiments and modeling aimed at assessing the mechanical response of latex balloons in the inflation test are presented. To this end, the hyperelastic Yeoh material model is firstly characterized via tensile test and, then, used to numerically simulate via finite elements the stress-strain evolution during the inflation test. The numerical pressure-displacement curves are validated with those obtained experimentally. Moreover, this analysis is extended to a biomedical problem of an eyeball under glaucoma conditions.

  14. Study on grafting of monomer onto natural rubber latex by radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tan Man; Le Hai; Tran Thi Tam; Le Huu Tu, Pham Thi Sam; Dao Minh Phuong; Ha Thuc Huy

    2004-01-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has been extensively developed through programmers assisted by the IAEA and UNDP under RCA in Asia and Pacific Region. R-D has been done in most of the Member States with technical assistance from Japan's Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Establishment. Radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) has many advantages over the conventional sulfur vulcanized latex, such as absence of nitrosamine and low cytotoxicity. Radiation crosslinking is a room temperature process, itself an important cost advantage, it is easily controlled and desired extend of crosslinking is easily achieved by controlling the dose (irradiation time). Disadvantages of RVNRL to be improved are poor physical properties of film such as low tensile strength and tear strength. The research groups of Japan, Thailand and Indonesia concentrated on the improvement of physical properties of RVNRL using radiation grafted PMMA as additive [2]. F. Sundardi and W. Sofiarti have reported that tensile strength and hardness increased by radiation grafting of styrene onto NR [5]. Ono et al have reported the grafting of MMA onto NR by gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy for producing thermoplastic elastomers [4]. The objective of this project is to report the results of studies of radiation graft-copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or styrene (St) onto natural rubber latex in order to improve their physico-mechanical properties and evaluation of grafted material using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering through FNCA Project. The grafting degree of MMA and St onto NR increased with the increase of irradiation dose and monomer concentration. The alteration of grafted products structure was determined by IR method. Tensile strength, Shore A hardness, 100% modulus of grafted products increased with the increase of monomer concentration and irradiation dose while elongation at break decreased. The grafted products were characterized by Transmission Electron

  15. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Inflation Test of Latex Balloons

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos, Claudio; Herrera, Claudio García; Celentano, Diego; Chen, Daming; Cruchaga, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experiments and modeling aimed at assessing the mechanical response of latex balloons in the inflation test are presented. To this end, the hyperelastic Yeoh material model is firstly characterized via tensile test and, then, used to numerically simulate via finite elements the stress-strain evolution during the inflation test. The numerical pressure-displacement curves are validated with those obtained experimentally. Moreover, this analysis is extended to a biomedical problem of an...

  16. The influence of temperature and reaction time in the degradation of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zaleha Isa; Rosiyah Yahya; Aziz Hassan; Mohd Tahir

    2007-01-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR /LENR) should be considered as a new material instead of a new type of rubber though they have the same configuration as the rubber used. In this work, thermal degradation of natural rubber latex was carried out to obtain LNR/LENR by varying the reaction time at different temperatures. The degraded polymers were characterized structurally using FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and the average molecular weights were determined by membrane-osmometry and viscometry. (author)

  17. Study on preparation of new antioxidants for radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex product. Antioxidant from keratin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Van Toan; Vo Tan Thien; Le Hai

    2000-01-01

    The thermo-oxidative aging resistance of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) products should be adequately by using suitable antioxidants or new kind of effective antioxidant. This work presents the results of preparation of natural antioxidant from hair keratin. Characteristics and effectiveness of resultant antioxidant are also presented. The results obtained indicates that antioxidant made from hair keratin is safe and effective for rubber products from RVNRL. (author)

  18. Comparison of the effect of using latex and nitrile gloves hand dexterity among Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Allahyari

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Considering that there was no significant difference in the score of both fine finger and gross hand dexterity while using nitrile gloves as compared to the control condition (without gloves, means that use of nitrile gloves has no adverse effect on hand dexterity therefore, using nitrile gloves is recommended as a alternative for the latex gloves, considering the additional advantage of no allergic reaction in this gloves.

  19. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  1. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  3. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  4. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  5. Expression of VEGF and collagen using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Alonso Domingos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the VEGF expression and collagen deposition using a latex biomembrane as bladder replacement in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2 x 2 cm was sewn to the bladder of rabbits with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate sutures in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were killed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. Sections of 5µm were cut and stained with picrosirius-red in order to estimate the amount of extracellular matrix in the graft. To confirm the presence of VEGF in tissues, protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. A progressive reduction in the amount of collagen occurred in the graft area and was negatively and linearly correlated with time (p < 0.001. VEGF expression was higher in grafted areas when compared to controls at 15 and 45 days after surgery and decreased with time (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane as a matrix for partial bladder replacement in rabbits promotes temporary collagen deposition and stimulates the angiogenic process.

  6. Cytotoxicity Comparison of the Nanoparticles Deposited on Latex Rubber Bands between the Original and Stretched State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the biocompatibility of nanoparticles in dental materials is essential for their safe usage in the oral cavity. In this study, we investigated whether nanoparticles deposited on orthodontic latex rubber bands are involved in the induction of cytotoxicity. A method of stretching to three times (“3L” the length of the latex rubber bands was employed to detach the particles using the original length (“L” for comparison. The cytotoxicity tests were performed on extracts with mouse fibroblasts (L929 and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ion chromatography, elemental analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS were performed to detect the harmful components in the extracts from rubber bands. There was a significant decrease in the cell viability in the “L” samples compared with the “3L” samples (P<0.05 in the L929 and HGF cells. This was due to the Ni single crystal nanoparticles (~50nm from the inner surface of “L” samples that were detached in the “3L” samples as well as the Zn ion (~9 ppm detected in the extract. This study revealed that the Ni nanoparticles, as well as Zn ions, were involved in the induction of cytotoxicity from the latex rubber bands.

  7. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  8. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram [University of Pune, Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry (India); Dhaygude, Mayur [National Chemical Laboratory, Polymer Science and Engineering Division (India); Kodam, Kisan, E-mail: kodam@chem.unipune.ac.in [University of Pune, Division of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2012-05-15

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S{sup -2}) ions.

  9. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram; Dhaygude, Mayur; Kodam, Kisan

    2012-05-01

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S-2) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S-2) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S-2) ions.

  10. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram; Dhaygude, Mayur; Kodam, Kisan

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S −2 ) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S −2 ) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S −2 ) ions.

  11. Safety Evaluation Test on Human for Radiation Pre vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Chai, Chee Keong; Sofian Ibrahim; Saadiah Sulaiman; Sharifah Ismail

    2010-01-01

    This paper discussed about clinical test conducted to determine safety evaluations on human for latex examination gloves and latex films made from Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL). Two types of test were being adopted which are i) Modified Draize-95 test and ii) Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals. Modified Draize-95 test was conducted on 200 non-sensitized human subjects and Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals was conducted on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizer presents in natural rubber product. It was found that Modified Draize-95 test has prove that there is no clinical evidence on the presence of residual chemical additives at the level that may induce Type IV allergy in the un sensitized general user population in the RVNRL gloves. Meanwhile Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals has proved that the patch test conducted using the test article on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizers present in natural rubber products, thiuram, carbamates or thiazoles produced a negative response, meeting the pre requirement for the claim of reduced reaction-inducing potential. (author)

  12. Hierarchically structured self-supported latex films for flexible and semi-transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Törngren, Björn; Rosqvist, Emil; Pesonen, Markus; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-02-01

    Different length scale alterations in topography, surface texture, and symmetry are known to evoke diverse cell behavior, including adhesion, orientation, motility, cytoskeletal condensation, and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this work, self-supported latex films with well-defined isotropic/anisotropic surface features and hierarchical morphologies were fabricated by a peel-off process from different template surfaces. In addition, the latex films were used as substrates for evaporated ultrathin gold films with nominal thicknesses of 10 and 20 nm. Optical properties and topography of the samples were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. The latex films showed high-level transmittance of visible light, enabling the fabrication of semi-transparent gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out for a number of days to investigate the long-term stability of the electrodes. The effect of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and HS(CH2)11OH (MuOH) thiolation and protein (human serum albumin, HSA) adsorption on the impedance and capacitance was studied. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were carried out to determine active medicinal components, i.e., caffeic acid with interesting biological activities and poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. The results show that the fabrication procedure presented in this study enables the formation of platforms with hierarchical morphologies for multimodal (optical and electrical) real-time monitoring of length-scale-dependent biomaterial-surface interactions.

  13. Evaluation of force degradation characteristics of orthodontic latex elastics in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Zhou, Gang; Tan, Xianfeng; Dong, Yaojun

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of force degradation of latex elastics in clinical applications and in vitro studies. Samples of 3/16-inch latex elastics were investigated, and 12 students between the ages of 12 and 15 years were selected for the intermaxillary and intramaxillary tractions. The elastics in the control groups were set in artificial saliva and dry room conditions and were stretched 20 mm. The repeated-measure two-way analysis of variance and nonlinear regression analysis were used to identify statistical significance. Overall, there were statistically significant differences between the different methods and observation intervals. At 24- and 48-hour time intervals, the force decreased during in vivo testing and in artificial saliva (P .05). In intermaxillary traction the percentage of initial force remaining after 48 hours was 61%. In intramaxillary traction and in artificial saliva the percentage of initial force remaining was 71%, and in room conditions 86% of initial force remained. Force degradation of latex elastics was different according to their environmental conditions. There was significantly more force degradation in intermaxillary traction than in intramaxillary traction. The dry room condition caused the least force loss. There were some differences among groups in the different times to start wearing elastics in intermaxillary traction but no significant differences in intramaxillary traction.

  14. Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss Müll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the development of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J, their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention of C. sylvestris bioactive secondary metabolites (diterpenes and phenolic compounds. The membranes were developed mixing hydroethanolic solutions of C. sylvestris derivatives with latex and drying them in a desiccator. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability and mechanical resistance assays, demonstrating that all membranes were permeable, resistant and homogeneous in surfaces. The permeation and retention assays demonstrated dermal penetration of phenolic compounds for ethanolic extract membrane and of casearin-like clerodane diterpenes for all membranes, indicating that these membranes have great potential for therapeutical application as a topical system for C. sylvestris components releasing.

  15. Clonal stability of latex yield in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.O. Omokhafe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Hevea brasiliensis clones were evaluated for clonal stability of latex yield. A randomized complete block design was used with four replicates, two locations, seven years and three periods per year. Stability analysis was based on clone x year and clone x year x location interactions. Five stability parameters viz environmental variance, shukla's stability variance, regression of clonal latex yield on environmental index, variance due to regression and variance due to deviation from regression were applied. There was significant clone x environment effect at the two levels of interaction. Among the eleven clones, C 162 was outstanding for clonal stability and it can serve as donor parent for stability alleles. Three clones (C 76, C 150 and C 154 were also stable. The four stable clones (C 76, C 150, C 154 and C 162 are suitable for broad-spectrum recommendation for latex yield. Five clones (C 83, C 143, C 163, C 202 and RRIM 600 will require environment-specific recommendation because of their unstable phenotype. The stability feature of two clones (C 145 and C 159 was not clear and this will be investigated in subsequent studies.

  16. Antimalarial Activity of the Chemical Constituents of the Leaf Latex of Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert and Sebsebe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Tekleab; Bisrat, Daniel; Yeshak, Mariamawit Yonathan; Asres, Kaleab

    2016-10-28

    Malaria is one of the three major global public health threats due to a wide spread resistance of the parasites to the standard antimalarial drugs. Considering this growing problem, the ethnomedicinal approach in the search for new antimalarial drugs from plant sources has proven to be more effective and inexpensive. The leaves of Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert and Sebsebe, an endemic Ethiopian plant, are locally used for the treatment of malaria and other infectious diseases. Application of the leaf latex of A. pulcherrima on preparative silica gel TLC led to the isolation of two C -glycosylated anthrones, identified as nataloin ( 1 ) and 7-hydroxyaloin ( 2 ) by spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, ¹H- and 13 C-NMR, HR-ESIMS). Both the latex and isolated compounds displayed antimalarial activity in a dose-independent manner using a four-day suppressive test, with the highest percent suppression of 56.2% achieved at 200 mg/kg/day for 2 . The results indicate that both the leaf latex of A. pulcherrima and its two major constituents are endowed with antiplasmodial activities, which support the traditional use of the leaves of the plant for the treatment of malaria.

  17. Content of Asthmagen Natural Rubber Latex Allergens in Commercial Disposable Gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, C; Garrido, M V; Krach, L H; Harth, V

    The use of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in many occupations may lead to latex sensitization, allergic asthma, and skin reactions. Due to their good properties and environmental safety NRL gloves are still being used in the healthcare setting, but also in the food industry, by hairdressers, cleaners, etc. The aim of our study was to assess the protein and NRL allergen content in commercial gloves by different methods, including a new assay. Twenty commercially available NRL gloves were analyzed. Protein extraction was performed according to the international standard ASTM D-5712. Total protein content was measured with a modified Lowry method, NRL content with the CAP Inhibition Assay, the Beezhold ELISA Inhibition Assay, and an innovative ELISA with IgY-antibodies extracted from eggs of NRL-immunized hens (IgY Inhibition Assay). We found a high protein content in a range of 215.0-1304.7 μg/g in 8 out of the 20 NRL gloves. Seven of the 20 gloves were powdered, four of them with a high protein content. In gloves with high protein content, the immunological tests detected congruently high levels of NRL allergen. We conclude that a high percentage of commercially available NRL gloves still represent a risk for NRL allergy, including asthma. The modified Lowry Method allows to infer on the latex allergen content.

  18. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  19. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-08-07

    To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  20. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  2. House Calls in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  3. SMB chromatography applied to the separation/purification of fructose from cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.S. Azevedo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving-bed (SMB technology has been successfully used in separations in petrochemical, food and fine chemical industries. This work is intended to show a potencial economic alternative for the industrial processing of the cashew apple juice. The cashew tree is a native tropical plant abundant in Northeastern Brazil, whose commercial value relies mainly on the processing of its nut. The penduncle of the fruit is called the cashew apple. Despite its high nutrition value, around 90% of the crop spoils on the soil. Simulation and experimental results are presented for SMB separation of fructose from glucose, both present (~40 kg/m³ in the aqueous phase of comercial cashew apple juice. Kinetic and equilibrium data for fructose and glucose on packed columns using cation-exchange resins are reported. Experimental results for SMB operation indicate close to 90% purity in each product (fructose-rich extract and glucose-rich raffinate. Simulated unit performance and internal profiles agree well with experimental values. To increase the added-value and versatility of the products, either a step of isomerization of the raffinate or diverse SMB fluid-solid flowrate ratios may be applied. By this way, a wide range of products may be obtained, from nearly pure fructose to 42%, 55% and 90% solutions, which are the standard high fructose syrup concentrations. If solids content is conveniently raised to the usual HFCS (high fructose corn syrup comercial standards, these products may be used as food additives, thus confirming a potentially attractive use of cashew apple juice.

  4. Prevalence and clinical impact of sensitization to latex and fruits in dentistry students at the University of Antioquia, and its relationship with allergy to fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echenique Manrique, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of sensitization to latex and to five tropical fruits (banana, avocado, kiwi, pineapple and passion fruit in dentistry students. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study of 128 dentistry students at University of Antioquia in Medellín, Colombia. Information was collected by means of a questionnaire and skin prick tests with latex and fruits were done. Results: All students reported having had contact with latex. Nine of them informed at least one episode of adverse reaction to contact with latex without proof of sensitization to it. Five reported at least one reaction with one of the fruits, but skin prick tests were negative. Four of the 14 students who reported gastrointestinal symptoms were sensitized to latex or to one of the tested fruits. Overall, latex sensitization rate was 3.1%. Conclusion: This percentage of sensitization to latex is lower than that in other studies; this may be due to the expression of immune mechanisms other than IgE mediation. We failed to demonstrate a higher sensitization rate to latex as students advanced in their career. The association between gastrointestinal symptoms and sensitization to both fruit and latex is to be emphasized.

  5. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  6. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  7. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  10. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  11. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  12. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  13. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  14. Integrating heterogeneous healthcare call centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, K M; Reed, W C; Salter, K

    1998-01-01

    In a relatively short period, OHS has absorbed multiple call centers supporting different LOBs from various acquisitions, functioning with diverse standards, processes, and technologies. However, customer and employee satisfaction is predicated on OHS's ability to thoroughly integrate these heterogeneous call centers. The integration was initiated and has successfully progressed through a balanced program of focused leadership and a defined strategy which includes site consolidation, sound performance management philosophies, and enabling technology. Benefits have already been achieved with even more substantive ones to occur as the integration continues to evolve.

  15. Assessment of the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of Synadenium umbellatum Pax latex by micronucleus test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Melo-Reis

    Full Text Available Synadenium umbellatum Pax, popularly known as "cola-nota", is a medicinal plant that grows in tropical regions. The latex of this plant is used against various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, leprosy, tripanosomiasis, leukemia, and several malignant tumors. The mutagenic, antimutagenic, and cytotoxic effects of the latex of this plant were investigated by measuring the frequency of micronuclei in mice bone marrow cells. To evaluate mutagenicity, the animals were treated with four doses of latex (10, 30, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. To study the antimutagenic activity, the animals were simultaneously treated with latex and mitomycin C (4 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio. Our results showed a significant increase of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE compared to the negative control group (p 0.05 was detected at the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Under our experimental conditions, the results obtained indicate strong mutagenic and cytotoxic activity of S. umbellatum latex except the dose of 10 mg/kg and moderate antimutagenic effect at lower doses.

  16. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA. Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  17. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  18. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assay of anti-HBs antibodies using a recombinant antigen and latex particle counting: comparison with five commercial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, L M; Cornu, C; Masson, P L; Robert, A R; Becheanu, D; Lamy, M E; Cambiaso, C L

    1991-05-01

    An assay of anti-HBs antibodies based on agglutination of latex particles coated with recombinant HBs-antigen was compared with Abbott radioimmunoassay (Abbott-RIA), which uses a human plasma-derived antigen. The population examined consisted of 76 Abbott-RIA anti-HBs-negative prevaccinated subjects and 1044 serum samples anti-HBs found positive by Abbott-RIA, including 283 samples of subjects vaccinated either with a human plasma-derived vaccine (group A; n = 180) or with a recombinant vaccine (group B; n = 103). Correlation coefficients between the two techniques were respectively r = 0.89 for the whole population (n = 1044), r = 0.98 in group A and r = 0.74 in group B. Anti-HBs titres were higher with latex than with RIA in group B as shown by the regression slopes: latex = 508 + 1.11 RIA in group A and latex = -1138 + 3.97 RIA in group B, suggesting that some vaccinated subjects from group B produced antibodies against epitopes proper to the recombinant antigen. In the prevaccinated population and in group A, the latex results were compared with those of radioimmunoassays (Abbott, Sorin) and enzyme immunoassays (Behring, Roche, Pasteur). Only the Roche-EIA detected anti-HBs in the prevaccinated subjects. The correlation between the various immunoassays was r greater than 0.96 only for values higher than 100 IU/l.

  20. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  1. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  2. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  3. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  4. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  5. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  6. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-08-30

    Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  7. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  8. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice

    1999-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ( 60 Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  9. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pyogurt. PMID:28078255

  10. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  11. Applying of dietary fiber from sugar beet for diffusion juice purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Loseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilot study examined the effects of dietary fiber and filtroperlit on the efficiency of juice purification. The rational consumption of combined sorbent is determined, sorbent contact time with juice and temperature is defined.

  12. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste ( P antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  13. Calling to Nursing: Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Christie

    The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life. Antecedents to the concept are personal introspection and cognitive awareness. Positive consequences to the concept are improved work meaningfulness, work engagement, career commitment, personal well-being, and satisfaction. Negative consequences of having a calling might include willingness to sacrifice well-being for work and problems with work-life balance. Following the concept analysis, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, interdisciplinary work, research opportunities, and practice implications are discussed.

  14. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  15. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  16. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Susanne M.; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vege...

  17. Analyzing Households’ Fruit Juice Consumption and Purchasing Tendency: A Case Study From Isparta

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Mevlut; Akpinar, Goksel; Dagistan, Erdal; Yilmaz, Hilal; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    The investments of fruit juice industry had been begun in 1969 in Turkey and accelerated since 1983 in modern sense. 37 fruit juice firms are officially registered as trademark. The fruit juice consumption per head was increased in the beginning of 1970s by about 13 fold augmentation, however, this value is still considerably lower than the developed countries. Relatively high fresh fruit consumption is caused lower fruit juice consumption in Turkey. However, an increasing in the domestic dem...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of novel fluoroalkyl-terminated hyperbranched polyurethane latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Weijia; Hao, Lifen; Wang, Sha; Pei, Mengmeng; Wang, Xuechuan

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) emulsions are widely used in various fields and the demand for them is ever-increasing over the years. However, the hydrophilic chain extender inevitably bonded into the PU backbone can affect the water tolerance of PU. Thus, it is of great importance to improve PU water resistance effectively. Herein, novel fluoroalkyl-terminated hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPUF) latex was accordingly synthesized by graft reaction of perfluorohexyl ethyl alcohol and hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU), which was previously obtained from interaction between hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymer and PU prepolymer manufactured via the acetone process, as well as using neutralization, adding water, and high-speed stirring operations. We characterized the resultants and investigated its surface properties by IR, NMR, TEM, XRD, TGA, DSC, FE-SEM, AFM, XPS, and contact angle measurements, etc. IR and NMR tests confirmed that the fluorinated fragments had been grafted onto the tail end of HBPU. TEM, XRD, DSC, and FE-SEM results all accounted for the fact that there were multi-crystals in PU, HBPU and HBPUF. TGA results showed that thermal stabilities of the PU, HBPU, and HBPUF latex films were enhanced in turn. XPS and AFM analyses demonstrated that the fluorine-containing segments from the HBPUF terminals were prone to migrate and enrich on the film-air surface of the HBPUF latex film, which made water contact angle and water absorption of the HBPUF film be as 113.9° and 11.1%, respectively, compared to those of the PU film (77.8° and 136.2%). This research indicates that water resistance of the PU film can be efficiently enhanced by fluorinated polyurethane with novel fluoroalkyl-terminated hyperbranched structure.

  19. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntanoo, K., E-mail: thip-kk@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Promkotra, S., E-mail: sarunya@kku.ac.th [Department of Geotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Kaewkannetra, P., E-mail: paknar@kku.ac.th [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand)

    2015-03-30

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (T{sub m}) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.

  20. Copolymer natural latex in concrete: Dynamic evaluation through energy dissipation of polymer modified concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayani, Sih Wuri; Suratman, Rochim; Imran, Iswandi; Mardiyati

    2018-05-01

    Portland cement concrete have been used in construction due to its strength and ecomical value. But it has some limitations, such low flexural strength, low tensile strength, low chemical resistant and etc. Due to its limitations in flexural and tensile strength, Portland cement concrete more susceptible by seismic force. There are some methods for improving its limitations. Polymer addition into concrete mixture could be one of solution for improving the flexural and tensile strength, in aiming to get erthquake resistant properties. Also, the eartquake resistant could be achieved by improving energy dissipation capacity. In this research, the earthquake resistant evalution was approached from dynamic evaluation through energy dissipation capacity, after polymer addition as concrete additives. The polymers were natural latex (Indonesian naural resource) grafted with styrene and methacrylate, forming copolymer - natural latex methacrylate (KOLAM) and copolymer - natural latex styrene (KOLAS). They were added into concrete mixture resulting polymer modified concrete. The composition of polymer are 1%, 5% and 10% weight/weight of cement. The higher capacity of energy dissipation will give more capability in either absorbing or dissipating energy, and it was predicted would give better earthquake resistant.. The use of KOLAM gave better performance than KOLAS in energy dissipation capacity. It gave about 46% for addition of 1% w/w compared to Portland cement concrete. But for addition 5% w/w and 10% w/w, they gave about 7% and 5% higher energy dissipation capacity. The KOLAM addition into concrete mixture would reduce the maximum impact load with maximumabout 35% impact load reducing after 1% w/w addition. The higher concentration of KOLAM in concrete mixture, lower reducing of impact load, they were about 4% and 3% for KOLAM 5% and 10%. For KOLAS addition in any compositions, there were no positive trend either in energy dissipation capacity or impact load properties

  1. Isolation of natural inhibitors of papain obtained from Carica papaya latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to natural papain inhibitor from papaya latex. Fresh latex from green fruits of Carica papaya was collected and immediately transported in ice bath to the lab, from which three fractions with inhibitor effect of esterase papain activity were isolated by latex dialysis, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography in SP-Sephadex C-25. The isolated fractions, identified as inhibitors I and II, showed a negative reaction with ninhydrin; however, the fraction identified as P-III showed positive reaction with ninhydrin. Kinetics data showed non-competitive inhibition (inhibitor I and uncompetitive (inhibitors II and P-III.Este trabalho apresenta novos dados sobre inibidores naturais de papaína. O látex fresco de frutos verdes de Carica papaya foi coletado pela manhã em plantações da região de Araraquara, SP, Brasil e imediatamente transportado ao laboratório em banho de gelo. Três frações com efeito inibitório da atividade esterásica da papaína foram isoladas a partir do látex fresco, através de diálise, filtração em Sephadex G-25 e cromatografia em SP-Sephadex C-25. As frações isoladas identificadas como inibidores I e II, mostraram reação negativa à ninidrina; entretanto, a fração identificada como P-III mostrou reação positiva. Dados cinéticos revelaram inibição não-competitiva (inibidor I e incompetitiva (inibidores II e P-III.

  2. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  3. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  4. Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Adler, B B; Harrison, M D; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to determine D values of acid-adapted and unadapted cells of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice. Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, S. enterica serotype Saphra, two strains of E. coli O157:H7, and two strains of L. monocytogenes were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1% glucose for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Decimal reduction times (D values) of cells suspended in unpasteurized cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice were determined. Acid-adapted cells of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes, had increased thermal tolerance compared with cells that were not acid-adapted. There was no correlation between soluble solids content of the two types of juice and thermal resistance. Growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe juice, watermelon juice, or other acidic milieu, either in preharvest or postharvest environments, may result in cross protection to heat. The pasteurization conditions necessary to achieve elimination of pathogens from these juices would consequently have to be more severe if cells are habituated to acidic environments. Insights from this study provide guidance to developing pasteurization processes to eliminate Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

  5. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF RESISTANCE TO OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF NATURAL RUBBER THROUGH LATEX DEGRADATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A fully characterised natural rubber latex was subjected to mechanical degradation by stirring at intervals. The resistance to oxidative degradation of the different samples were studied by measuring the Plasticity retention indices (PRI).The results show that there is an enhancement of the PRI from 57% for the undegraded rubber to 79% for the one-hour degraded sample. Further degradation resulted in decrease of PRI as time of degradation increased. Therefore, the one-hour degraded sample is a special rubber with high oxidation resistance which is of great importance in engineering.

  7. Posters y trípticos (Brochures) en LATEX con Beamer y Leaflet

    OpenAIRE

    Borbón, Alexánder

    2013-01-01

    Resumen. En este artículo se muestra la manera en que se puede realizar posters y trípticos (panfletos o brochures) con LATEX. Para realizar los posters se utiliza la clase beamer que usualmente se utiliza para hacer presentaciones, se utiliza el paquete beamerposter para poder utilizarla para posters. Los trípticos se realizan de dos formas, la primera utilizando la clase beamer con el paquete geometry y la segunda utilizando la clase leaflet que es una clase especializada para hacer este ti...

  8. The influence of radiolytic sensitizers in natural rubber latex vulcanization induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.M.L.; Souza, A. de

    1991-01-01

    This work made on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex process by gamma rays from 60 Co source and electron beam of 1.5 MeV, 25 m A by Dynamitron, instead of classic process using sulfur. The experiment was carried out to study the influence of sensitizers (C Cl 4 and n-butyl acrylate) and was reported the vulcanization dose for each sensitizers, related to maximum tensile strength. The results show the possibility to introduce the volatile sensitizer (n-butyl acrylate) instead of C Cl 4 (toxic) in industry applications. (author)

  9. Surgical gloves fabrication using natural rubber latex vulcanized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Hugo David Chirinos.

    1995-01-01

    Surgical gloves were manufactured by immersion coagulant method from vulcanized natural rubber latex by gamma rays at dose of 10 kGy in the air, at room temperature, using the following sensitizer vulcanization An-B 3 phr/KOH 0.2 phr. The influence of the parameter in the thickness of the surgical gloves manufacture, studied through fractional factorial designs technic, can be resumed by empirical linear correlation: y = 0.213 + 0.025 [Ca Cl 2 ] + 0.019 t. (author). 49 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  10. Effect of Antioxidants on Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada Ramli; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the effects of different antioxidants used in Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)) films between 0 to 10 weeks monitoring. Antioxidants used for the RVNRL formulation were Aquanox LP, Irganox and Wingstay L. Color difference evaluation by using Chroma Meter CR-400 found that RVNRL film with Irganox was the most stained yellowish after 8 weeks monitoring. Tensile strength for RVNRL with Aquanox found achieved the optimum strength between 25.4 to 27.13 mPa. The scanner electron microscopic (SEM) indicated more Aquanox molecules to penetrate and interact with the rubber molecule, thus becoming more effective inhibitor against its oxidative ageing. (author)

  11. Cytotoxicity of latex and pharmacobotanical study of leaves and stem of Euphorbia umbellata (Janaúba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia E.C. Luz

    Full Text Available AbstractIn southern Brazil, the bottled latex of Synadenium grantii Hook f., Euphorbiaceae, is popularly used as a treatment of all types of cancer. Similarly, Synadenium umbellatum Pax. is used in the central western region of Brazil for the same purpose and in the same manner of use. Both plants are popularly known as janaúba or leitosinha. The objectives of this study were to use pharmacobotanical analysis to verify whether these two species, which are considered to be distinct, are actually the same to determine anatomical markers; to assist in the identification and differentiation of other Euphorbia; and to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the latex in relation to HeLa and HRT-18 cells. Leaves and stems of the species were collected in Goiânia and Ponta Grossa and were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy techniques. The latex was also collected and analyzed in relation to its cytotoxic effect by employing MTT and NR techniques. The pharmacobotanical study of the specimens in both localities showed that they were the same species, namely Euphorbia umbellata (Pax Bruyns, which is the scientific nomenclature accepted and confirmed by an expert taxonomist who specializes in Euphorbia. The pharmacobotanical characteristics highlighted in this study can assist in the identification of the taxon and contribute to the control of the quality of this plant drug. The evaluation of the latex in relation to HRT-18 cells demonstrated action after 48 h of experiment. In contrast, in relation to HeLa cells its induced cytotoxicity in all times and a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values (72 h observed were 252.58 ± 18.51 µg/ml and 263.42 ± 15.92 µg/ml to MTT experiment and 250.18 ± 19.48 µg/ml and 430.56 ± 19.71 µg/ml to NR experiment for the HeLa and HRT-18 cells, respectively.

  12. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  13. Quantitative Fate of Chlorogenic Acid during Enzymatic Browning of Potato Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO3 (S control). To study the

  14. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  15. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of...\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012...

  16. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  17. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    OpenAIRE

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  18. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... standards in order to encourage uniformity and consistency in commercial practices.'' AMS is committed to... Grapefruit Juice. The petitioner requested the removal of the maximum limit for ``free and suspended pulp... concentrate, grapefruit juice, and frozen concentrated grapefruit juice establish limits for maximum free and...

  20. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.