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Sample records for juice blend results

  1. Evolution of antioxidant capacity of blend juice made from beetroot, carrot and celery during refrigerated storage

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    Alina G. PROFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable juice is a valuable source of antioxidants because it contains a significant amount of bioactive compounds and it can be a convenient way of consumption. The antioxidant capacity of vegetables depends on a wide range of compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, aminoacids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and pigments. The levels of individual antioxidants in food do not reflect their total antioxidant capacity, which could also depend on their synergism. The aim of this study is to compare the changes occurred on antioxidant capacity of vegetables juice during refrigerated storage after two different preservation processes: pasteurization and fermentation. A blend of juice obtained from beetroot, carrot and celery has been stored at temperature of 4ºC for two weeks. During this period of time antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been quantified. Our results have shown that fermented juice is an important source of antioxidant compounds with a good stability during storage.

  2. Human norovirus surrogate reduction in milk and juice blends by high pressure homogenization.

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    Horm, Katie Marie; Harte, Federico Miguel; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2012-11-01

    Novel processing technologies such as high pressure homogenization (HPH) for the inactivation of foodborne viruses in fluids that retain nutritional attributes are in high demand. The objectives of this research were (i) to determine the effects of HPH alone or with an emulsifier (lecithin) on human norovirus surrogates-murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9)-in skim milk and orange juice, and (ii) to determine HPH effects on FCV-F9 and MNV-1 in orange and pomegranate juice blends. Experiments were conducted in duplicate at 0, 100, 200, 250, and 300 MPa for milk, FCV-F9 was reduced by ≥4 and ∼1.3 log PFU/ml at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively, and ≥4- and ∼1-log PFU/ml reductions were obtained in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. In orange juice or milk combined with lecithin, FCV-F9 was reduced to nondetectable levels at 300 MPa, and by 1.77 and 0.78 log PFU/ml at 250 MPa. MNV-1 in milk was reduced by ∼1.3 log PFU/ml only at 300 MPa, and by ∼0.8 and ∼0.4 log PFU/ml in orange juice at 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. MNV-1 in milk or orange juice containing lecithin at 300 MPa showed 1.32- and 2.5-log PFU/ml reductions, respectively. In the pomegranate-orange juice blend, FCV-F9 was completely reduced, and MNV-1 was reduced by 1.04 and 1.78 log PFU/ml at 250 and 300 MPa, respectively. These results show that HPH has potential for commercial use to inactivate foodborne virus surrogates in juices.

  3. Varietal blends as a way of optimizing and preserving the anthocyanin content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices.

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    Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-07-23

    Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage.

  4. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

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    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  5. Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92

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    Carolina Saori Ishii Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL, with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage.

  6. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

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    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices on the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells and spores.

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    Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2015-05-04

    The present study examined the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores after inoculation into apple, pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices (10, 20, 40 and 80%, v/v). Also, the effect of sporulation medium was tested using mineral [Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA) and Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA)] and non-mineral containing media [potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA)]. The juice samples were inoculated separately with approximately 10(5)CFU/mL cells or spores from different sporulation media and then incubated at 37°C for 336 h. The number of cells decreased significantly with increasing pomegranate juice concentration in the blend juices and storage time (ppomegranate juices, respectively while the cell counts attained approximately 7.17 log CFU/mL in apple juice after 336 h. On the other hand, the cell growth was inhibited for a certain time, and then the numbers started to increase after 72 and 144 h in 10% and 20% blend juices, respectively. After 336 h, total population among spores produced on PDA, BATA, BAA and MEA indicated 1.49, 1.65, 1.67, and 1.28 log reductions in pomegranate juice; and 1.51, 1.38, 1.40 and 1.16 log reductions in 80% blend juice, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 10%, 20% and 40% blend juices varied depending on the sporulation media used. The results obtained in this study suggested that pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices could inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores.

  8. Studies on Manufacturing Process of Pumpkin and Tomato Yellow Juice Blend%南瓜番茄黄色复合汁制作工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 王奇; 杨爱丽

    2012-01-01

    为了获得南瓜汁和番茄汁为主要成分的黄色复合果蔬汁制作工艺,以南瓜、番茄、菠萝和苹果为原料,经提汁后进行复合,采用正交实验,确定了4种果蔬汁复合的最优配比,同时对最优配方的复合果蔬汁的稳定性进行了研究.结果表明:由50%南瓜汁、25%番茄汁、5%菠萝汁和3%苹果汁复合时,并且添加蔗糖10%,柠檬酸0.2%,口感最好;当南瓜番茄复合果蔬汁中加入0.02%黄原胶和0.06%果胶,均质后,产品均匀稳定.以南瓜汁和番茄汁为主要原料,配以少量的菠萝汁和苹果汁,按一定配比进行复合,添加一定量的黄原胶和果胶,均质后,可得到口感较好,易为消费者接受的黄色复合果蔬汁.%The aim was to obtain the manufacturing process of pumpkin and tomato yellow juice blend. The preparation process of the mixed juice of pumpkin juice blended with tomato juice,pineapple juice and apple juice was studied. The orthogonal test was used to optimize the mixing ratio of pumpkin,tomato,pineapple and apple juice while the contents of the main vegetable and fruit nutritional substances were analyzed. The stability of the mixed vegetable and fruit juice was also studied. The results showed that when the mixing ratio of pumpkin,tomato,pineapple,and apple juice was 50%:25%:5%:3%(v/v),sucrose for 10% and citric acid for 0.2%,which could be accepted by consumers easily addition of 0.02 % xanthan gum and 0.06 % pectin in the pumpkin and tomato juice blend,the pumpkin juice blend suspending stability was well. When pumpkin juice blended with tomato juice,pineapple juice and apple juice as a good mixed ratios,xanthan gum and pectin were added,yellow juice blend was observed,which could be easily accepted by consumers.

  9. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

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    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  10. Measurement of thermal characteristics of spray-dried milk and juice blend.

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    Afifi, Hanan S; Abu Shelaibi, A A; Laleye, L C; Ismail, I A

    2009-01-01

    Blended concentrated grape/peach (G/P) juice 60% total soluble solids (TSS) with condensed whole cow milk 40% TSS (1.5:8.5) was spray dried using a pilot-scale spray drier FT 80 at feeding pressure 7,000 Pa, at chamber temperature 180 degrees C and at chamber pressure -110 Pa. The glass transition state of blended G/P juice-milk powder, three pure sugars (glucose, sucrose and lactose) and casein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetry showed that G/P juice-milk powder is a glassy material. The glass transition temperature of blended G/P juice-milk powder at 0.248 water activity was 42 degrees C, compared with commercial full milk powder (control) of 29 degrees C at 0.334 at water activity (a(w)).

  11. Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.

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    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-10-15

    In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia.

  12. Rapid differentiation of commercial juices and blends by using sugar profiles obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

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    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-03-18

    A method for the determination of sugars in several fruit juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV-vis detection has been developed. Under optimal conditions, commercial fruit juices and nectars from several fruits were analyzed, and the sugar and cyclamate contents were quantified in less than 6 min. A study for the detection of blends of high-value juices (orange and pineapple) with cheaper alternatives was also developed. For this purpose, different chemometric techniques, based on sugar content ratios, were applied. Linear discriminant analysis showed that fruit juices can be distinguished according to the fruit type, juice blends also being differentiated. Multiple linear regression models were also constructed to predict the adulteration of orange and pineapple juices with grape juice. This simple and reliable methodology provides a rapid analysis of fruit juices of economic importance, which is relevant for quality control purposes in food industries and regulatory agencies.

  13. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage

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    Tzu-Ying Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v and wheatgrass juice (WGJ were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus, was inoculated at 20% (v/v, and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  14. Evaluation of Mangosteen juice blend on biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects: a pilot, dose finding study

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    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to reduce inflammation in overweight and obese individuals may be valuable in preventing the progression to metabolic syndrome with associated risks for heart disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple dosages of a proprietary Mangosteen Juice blend on indicators of inflammation and antioxidant levels in obese patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a pre-study 2 week washout period. The study included four groups including placebo and three difference doses of the test product, XanGo Juice™: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily. The primary outcome measure of this study was high-sensitivity (HS-CRP. Secondary outcome measures included other biochemical indicators of inflammation, anthropomorphic measures and a safety evaluation. Results One hundred twenty two (122 persons were screened for the study, 44 were randomized and 40 completed the study. HS-CRP measurements dropped after 8 weeks treatment compared to baseline in all 3 dose groups and increased in the placebo group. The changes from baseline were not significant but the comparison of change from baseline was significant for the 18 oz group when compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Other markers of inflammation (inflammatory cytokines and a marker for lipid peroxidation (F2 isoprostane did not show any significant differences when compared with placebo. There was a trend towards a decrease in BMI in the juice groups. There were no side effects reported in any of the groups and none of the laboratory or EKG safety assessments indicated clinically significant changes for any subject. Conclusion In this pilot, dose-finding study, a proprietary mangosteen juice blend (XanGo Juice™ reduced CRP levels (increased change from baseline compared to placebo for those taking the highest dose of 18 oz per day. Further studies with a

  15. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

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    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  16. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

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    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.

  17. Preparation of polyvinylidene fluoride/cellulose acetate blend membrane with polyethylene glycol additive for apple juice clarification

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    Fitri, Shatila Jihadiyah; Widiastuti, Nurul

    2017-03-01

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)/Cellulose Acetate (CA) blend membrane with polyethylene (PEG) addition of casting solution were synthesised to determine its morphology. This purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of PEG addition to membrane performance and its application to the clarification of apple juice. The membranes were prepared from polymer blends of CA and PVDF, dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as solvent, and PEG as additive. Phase inversion was used to prepare membranes by mixing the polymer blends, solvent and additive to be reacted at temperature 60 °C for 24 hours. The variation of PEG weight percentage were 0, 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The addition of PEG increased porosity and fluxes, but decreased membrane rejection. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were applied to evaluate the morphology of membranes, which investigated increasing of pore size, pore distribution, and surface roughness. Apple juice clarification by membrane with 1% PEG was obtained 95,1% clearer than the pure sample.

  18. Spray-drying of passion fruit juice using lactose-maltodextrin blends as the support material

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    Ruiz Cabrera Miguel Angel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 ºC, and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa. The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (pO objectivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da efectividade das misturas en diferentes níveis de lactose-maltodextrina (8:5, 10:5, 12:5 % w/v durante a pulverização do sumo de maracujá. A secagem foi feita em um atomizador de laboratório de pulverização (modelo Pulvis GB 22 com 2 entradas de temperatura de ar (180 e 190 ºC, e 2 compressores de pressão de ar (0.10 e 0.20 MPa. O índice da mistura, higroscopicidade e retenção de vitamina C foram avaliados no pó obtido. As curvas de superfície de resposta (p<0.05 mostram que os valores mais baixos do índice da mistura e higroscopicidade foram alcançados no intervalo de temperatura de 188-190 ºC e com uma concentração de 12:5 % w/v de lactosemaltodextrina; o melhor nível de retenção de vitamina C ocorreu a 180 ºC e 0.2 MPa.

  19. Storage stability of phenolic compounds in powdered BRS Violeta grape juice microencapsulated with protein and maltodextrin blends.

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    Moser, Poliana; Telis, Vânia Regina Nicoletti; de Andrade Neves, Nathália; García-Romero, Esteban; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2017-01-01

    The stabilities of the phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour parameters of microencapsulated powdered BRS Violeta red grape juice were evaluated throughout storage at 5, 25 and 35°C for up to 150days. Different soy protein (S) or whey protein (W) blends with maltodextrin (M) were used as carrier agents, added at diverse concentrations and proportions. The treatment combining S and M with the highest carrier agent concentration (1SM) preserved almost all the anthocyanins. Except for 1SM, the proportion of p-coumaroylated anthocyanins increased during storage, and the flavonol content of the 1SM powder decreased after 150days. The hydroxycinnamate content decreased for all treatments, independent of storage temperature, and flavan-3-ols were lost at 35°C. The time and temperature did not influence the antioxidant activity of the powder or the colour of the reconstituted grape juice after 150days.

  20. Combined effect of selected non-thermal technologies on Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inactivation in an apple and cranberry juice blend and on product shelf life.

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    Palgan, I; Caminiti, I M; Muñoz, A; Noci, F; Whyte, P; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G

    2011-11-15

    The combination of novel, non-thermal technologies for preservation purposes is a recent trend in food processing research. In the present study, non-thermal hurdles such as ultraviolet light (UV) (5.3 J/cm²), high intensity light pulses (HILP) (3.3 J/cm²), pulsed electric fields (PEF) (34 kV/cm, 18 Hz, 93 μs) or manothermosonication (MTS) (4bar, 43 °C, 750 W, 20 kHz) were examined. The objective was to establish the potential of these technologies, applied individually or in paired sequences, to inactivate Escherichia coli and Pichia fermentans inoculated in a fresh blend of apple and cranberry juice. The shelf-life evaluation of selected non-thermally treated samples was conducted over 35 days and compared to pasteurised samples and untreated juices. All treatments applied individually significantly reduced (1.8-6.0 log cfu/ml) microbial counts compared to the untreated sample (p<0.01). Furthermore, UV treatment produced significantly greater inactivation (p<0.05) for E. coli compared to P. fermentans. Combinations of non-thermal hurdles consisting of UV or HILP followed by either PEF or MTS resulted in comparable reductions for both microorganisms (p ≥ 0.05) to those observed in thermally pasteurised samples (approx. 6 log cfu/ml). Thermally pasteurised samples had a shelf life exceeding 35 days, while that of UV+PEF and HILP+PEF-treated samples was 14 and 21 days, respectively. These results indicate that combinations of these non-thermal technologies could successfully reduce levels of E. coli and P. fermentans in apple and cranberry juice, although optimisation is required in order to further extend shelf life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

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    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  2. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

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    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  3. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset Review and... the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China... apple juice concentrate from the PRC. See Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

  4. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  5. 77 FR 73021 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...'Alauro, Office of Policy, Bilateral Agreements Unit, Import Administration, International Trade... International Trade Administration Lemon Juice From Argentina: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  6. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  7. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds after non-thermal processing of an exotic fruit juice blend sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buniowska, Magdalena; Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Frigola, Ana; Esteve, Maria J

    2017-04-15

    A comparative study of the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in a fruit juice-Stevia rebaudiana mixture processed by pulsed electric fields (PEF), high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and ultrasound (USN) technology at two equivalent energy inputs (32-256kJ/kg) was made using an in vitro model. Ascorbic acid was not detected following intestinal digestion, while HVED, PEF and USN treatments increased total carotenoid bioaccessibility. HVED at an energy input of 32kJ/kg improved bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (34.2%), anthocyanins (31.0%) and antioxidant capacity (35.8%, 29.1%, 31.9%, for TEAC, ORAC and DPPH assay, respectively) compared to untreated sample. This was also observed for PEF treated samples at an energy input of 256kJ/kg (37.0%, 15.6%, 29.4%, 26.5%, 23.5% for phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity using TEAC, ORAC and DPPH method, respectively). Consequently, pulsed electric technologies (HVED and PEF) show good prospects for enhanced bioaccessibility of compounds with putative health benefit.

  8. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS TO CFD MODELS FOR BLENDING IN A TANK USING DUAL OPPOSING JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.

    2011-08-07

    Research has been completed in a pilot scale, eight foot diameter tank to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets. The jets re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. Different jet diameters and different horizontal and vertical orientations of the jets were investigated. In all, eighty five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of several miles of two inch diameter, serpentine, vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, 1.3 million gallon, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Two types of tests were performed. One type of test used a tracer fluid, which was homogeneously blended into solution. Data were statistically evaluated to determine blending times for solutions of different density and viscosity, and the blending times were successfully compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The other type of test blended solutions of different viscosity. For example, in one test a half tank of water was added to a half tank of a more viscous, concentrated salt solution. In this case, the fluid mechanics of the blending process was noted to significantly change due to stratification of fluids. CFD models for stratification were not investigated. This paper is the fourth in a series of papers resulting from this research (Leishear, et.al. [1- 4]), and this paper documents final test results, statistical analysis of the data, a comparison of experimental results to CFD models, and scale-up of the results to a full scale tank.

  9. Effect of concord grape juice on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Gail L; Wasilewski, Amy; Haller, Michele; Pandya, Kishan; Bennett, John; He, Hua; Hoffmire, Claire; Berry, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering a flavonoid-rich adjunctive treatment (Concord grape juice) for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV); to evaluate the usefulness of existing measures for assessing CINV frequency and severity, quality of life, control over life events, and psychological state; to identify any actual or potential adverse events associated with frequent grape juice intake; and to provide preliminary data concerning the effect of Concord grape juice on CINV, quality of life, perceived control over life events, and psychological state. Double-blind, randomized clinical trial. A cancer center in an academic health science center in the northeastern United States. 77 adult patients with cancer receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents. Participants drank 4 oz. of grape juice or placebo prior to meals for one week following each of four chemotherapy treatment cycles. They recorded frequency, duration, and distress of nausea, vomiting, and retching daily, beginning the evening of chemotherapy administration and continuing for seven days. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations methodology to model differences between groups over time. Nausea and vomiting frequency, duration, and distress; quality of life; control over decision making; and psychological state. Nausea and vomiting frequency, duration, and distress were lower for experimental group members, although a high attrition rate (50%) resulted in insufficient power to detect statistically significant differences over time. Greater levels of anxiety, depression, and hostility at baseline were related to nausea and vomiting, quality of life, and perceived control over decision making. The effect of grape juice flavonoids on CINV should be investigated further with a larger sample to determine whether preliminary findings are supported. Alterations to the study protocol will be necessary to decrease attrition. Flavonoid

  10. Blending vertical and web results: A case study using video intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Lefortier; P. Serdyukov; F. Romanenko; M. de Rijke

    2014-01-01

    Modern search engines aggregate results from specialized verticals into the Web search results. We study a setting where vertical and Web results are blended into a single result list, a setting that has not been studied before. We focus on video intent and present a detailed observational study of

  11. Blending vertical and web results: A case study using video intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefortier, D.; Serdyukov, P.; Romanenko, F.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Modern search engines aggregate results from specialized verticals into the Web search results. We study a setting where vertical and Web results are blended into a single result list, a setting that has not been studied before. We focus on video intent and present a detailed observational study of

  12. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  13. Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Valerie B; Rawal, Shristi; Park, Jeeha; Brand, Mark H; Sharafi, Mastaneh; Bolling, Bradley W

    2016-12-01

    Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from 'Viking' aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal

  14. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of... shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's...

  15. Fruit Juice.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Homogenization, Stabilizer and Amylase Treatment on Viscosity of Passion. Fruit Juice. ... viscosity during storage of sweetened, pasteurized passion fruit juice were investigated. .... minutes after which the temperature was.

  16. 正交优化茉莉柚汁调配工艺研究%Blending Process Study of the Jasmine Grapefruit Juice by Orthogonal Experimental

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓芳; 周强; 刘蒙佳

    2014-01-01

    Jasmine guanxi pomelo processing technology was discussed based on guanxi pomelo and jasmine as the main raw material and sensory score. Orthogonal experimental was designed on single factors. The results showed that the optimum formula was jasmine juice content of 25%, sugar content of 16%, citric acid content of 0.2%, sodium citrate content of 0.03%,and glucose syrup content of 3%. The product tasted best with the flavor of grapefruit and jasmine, and slightly bitterness.%以琯溪蜜柚及茉莉花为主要原料,以测感官评分为测定指标,研究了茉莉汁琯溪蜜柚的加工工艺。在单因素基础上设计正交试验。研究结果表明茉莉汁的添加量为25%,蔗糖的添加量为16%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸钠的添加量为0.03%,果葡糖浆的添加量为3%。研制成的产品柚子风味浓郁略带茉香、酸甜适中、略带苦味。

  17. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF FRUIT JUICES ON GRAPE MUST FOR NATURAL BEVERAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chiusano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer attention for products with healthy properties is increased in time, and fruit juices, for their ease of consumption, can satisfy this demand providing them bioactive compounds.The grape juice has numerous health benefits demonstrated by several studies such as, among other, the antioxidant activities and the positive functions of their phenolic compounds. This workis aimed at blending grape and others fruits in a new fruit juice made only with natural ingredients of local production. The grape juice (cv Barbera has substituted water and its percentagewas fixed (70%. It was mixed with apple (cv Golden delicious, pear (cv Williams and peach (cv Red Haven juices to obtain 25 different prototypes. In each of these at least two fruit juices werepresent and added in a percentage variable from 0 to 25%, with a step of 5%. The objectives of this study were to check the feasibility of the mixing process and the evaluation of the samplesoverall pleasantness. Other sensory aspects of samples were also evaluated by consumers with a JAR (just-aboutright structured scale. The results didn’t reveal particular technological problems regarding the blending process. The Brix mean value of the samples was about 15.3, with a significant reductioncompared to that of the grape juice (about 19. The pH mean value of the samples (3.44 was significantly higher than that of the grape juice (3.36. The titrable acidity and the antioxidant capacitymean value of the samples was, namely, 6.22 g L-1 and 535.18 mg L-1. The penalty analysis of the liking test pointed out the importance of the persistence in mouth. The overall pleasantnesswas significantly (p≤0,01 positively correlated with the °Brix/acid ratio (r=0.54 and samples with the highest percentage of pear juice were generally preferred.

  18. A blended design in acute care training: similar learning results, less training costs compared with a traditional format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Storm, Diana J; Teeuwen, Irene C; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2014-09-01

    Introduction There is a demand for more attractive and efficient training programmes in postgraduate health care training. This retrospective study aims to show the effectiveness of a blended versus traditional face-to-face training design. For nurses in postgraduate Acute and Intensive Care training, the effectiveness of a blended course design was compared with a traditional design. Methods In a first pilot study 57 students took a traditional course (2-h lecture and 2-h workshop) and 46 students took a blended course (2-h lecture and 2-h online self-study material). Test results were compared for both groups. After positive results in the pilot study, the design was replicated for the complete programme in Acute and Intensive Care. Now 16 students followed the traditional programme (11 days face-to-face education) and 31 students did the blended programme (7 days face-to-face and 40 h online self-study). An evaluation was done after the pilot and course costs were calculated. Results Results show that the traditional and blended groups were similar regarding the main characteristics and did not differ in learning results for both the pilot and the complete programme. Student evaluations of both designs were positive; however, the blended group were more confident that they had achieved the learning objectives. Training costs were reduced substantially. Conclusion The blended training design offers an effective and attractive training solution, leading to a significant reduction in costs.

  19. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  20. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity.

  1. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  2. [Comparing the results of the serological detection of Salmonella antibodies in blood serum and meat juice from different muscles from slaughter pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Juliane Annette; Blaha, Thomas; Beyerbach, Martin; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Meemken, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The German Salmonella Monitoring Programme started by the QS-System in 2002 (Blaha, 2004) is mandatory due to the so-called "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" since 2007 (Anonym, 2007). The Regulation does not clearly prescribe the specific muscle which is to be taken as source of the meat juice. Thus, at different slaughter plants meat samples are also taken from different muscles and several scientific papers describe various muscles as source of the meat juice, too. The objective of this study was to compare the serological results of meat juices from three different locations (diaphragm pillar, neck, belly muscle) to each other and to those of the blood serum from exactly the same animals. All samples were simultaneously tested for Salmonella antibodies by two serological tests (Salmo-type Pig Screen, LDL, Germany; HerdChek Swine Salmonella, IDEXX, Germany). Comparisons were carried out between the various sample kinds per animal and between the two test systems. The analysis of all results of the meat juices revealed in both test systems a clear decline of the OD% values from the diaphragm pillar to the neck to the belly muscle. The average OD% values of all samples were higher when measured by the HerdChek ELISA (IDEXX, Germany) than by the Salmotype ELISA (LDL, Germany), especially in blood serum. Since the results of the meat juice samples gained from the diaphragm pillar were in both test systems by far the closest to the results of the corresponding serum blood samples, it is recommended to amend the "Salmonella Regulation for Pigs" by prescribing meat from the diaphragm pillar as the only muscle for gaining meat juice.

  3. Effect of Liberibacter infection (huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth; McCollum, Greg; Manthey, John; Narciso, Jan; Irey, Mike

    2010-05-01

    Some anecdotal reports suggest that infection of citrus trees with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the suspected causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB) disease, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how Las infection affects juice quality with respect to cultivar, maturity, or processing method. Hamlin, Midsweet, and Valencia oranges were harvested over 2 y from trees that tested negative (Las-) or positive (Las+) for Las from different groves and included normal looking (nonsymptomatic) and symptomatic fruit (small, green, and lopsided) from Las+ trees. In the 1st year, fruit were manually juiced, while in the 2nd year, a commercial process was used. Juice from Las+ trees was compared to juice from Las- trees in difference-from-control tests, and by descriptive analysis. Results showed large variability due to tree, harvest date, and cultivar. Juice from Hamlin Las+ trees tended to be more bitter and sour than its Las- counterpart. In contrast, hand processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to have some off-flavor and bitterness compared to control, but the following year, commercially processed Valencia juice from Las+ trees was perceived to be only slightly more sour than juice from Las- trees for the April harvest, and to be sweeter for the June harvest. When juice from individual replicates was pooled to be more representative of a commercial situation, there was no difference between Las+ and Las- juice in Valencia. Trained panel differences were noted for juice from Hamlin Las+ fruit, especially for symptomatic fruit. Assumptions that juice made from oranges harvested from Huanglongbing (from infection with Liberibacter sp.) affected trees is off-flavored appeared to be generally more true for Hamlin juice than for Midsweet or Valencia, especially for Hamlin juice made from symptomatic fruit. For Midsweet and Valencia, flavor differences between juice made from fruit harvested from diseased or

  4. Advertising and Product Confusion: A Case Study of Grapefruit Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Behr, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Demand relationships for two closely related products -- grapefruit juice and grapefruit-juice cocktail -- were estimated from grocery-store scanner data to analyze the contention that consumer confusion exists between the two products. Results suggest confusion may exist, with grapefruit-juice advertising not only increasing the demand for grapefruit juice but also for grapefruit-juice cocktail.

  5. Research of Blended Fermented Greengage and Tomato Juice Drink%梅茄汁乳酸菌饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马震雷; 余芳; 徐永才

    2013-01-01

    以青梅、番茄为原料,添加有益健康的菊粉,进行复合乳酸菌发酵,采用4因素3水平正交试验,并通过综合平衡法修正,确定试验最佳工艺为:青梅汁和番茄汁配比2.5∶1,果汁总含量40%,菊粉5%,蔗糖7%,CMC-Na 0.1%,乳酸菌接种量5%,保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶植物性乳杆菌=1∶1∶3,45℃发酵6h,4℃冷藏20h.产品呈明黄,色彩鲜艳,口感酸甜爽口,无明显分层沉淀,具有青梅及发酵制品特有的香味.%With greengage and tomato as the main raw materials, a new drink was prepared by adding healthful inulin and then fermentation with compound lactic acid bacteria. The best formula is determined by orthogonal experiment of 4 factor 3 level, and integrated balance method. The optimum process conditions were: the ratio of greengage juice to tomato juice 2.5:1,40% juice, 5% inulin, 7% sugar, 0.1% CMC-Na, 5% citric acid bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus(Lb)-Streptococcus thermophilus(St)-Lactobacillus plantarum(Lp) ratio 1:1:3, fermentation temperature 45 ℃, fermentation time 6 h, refrigerated storage temperature and time of 4 ℃ and 20 h. The color of the product was bright yellow and clear with sweet and sour and refreshing taste. It had no obvious hierarchical precipitation but had distinctive flavor of greengage and fermentation products.

  6. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  7. Continuous ohmic heating of commercially processed apple juice using five sequential electric fields results in rapid inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Ryang, J H; Lee, B S; Kim, C T; Rhee, M S

    2017-04-04

    Spores of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, a spoilage bacterium, cause problems for the apple juice industry because they are resistant to thermal treatment. Here, we examined the sporicidal effect of an ohmic heating (OH) system with five sequential electric fields and compared it with that of conventional heating. Apple juice product (50kg) inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores were subjected to OH (electric field strength=26.7V/cm; frequency=25kHz) at 85-100°C for 30-90s. The effect of conventional heating was also examined under these conditions. OH treatment at 100°C for 30s resulted in total inactivation of the inoculum, with no recovery of viable cells (initial population=4.8-4.9logCFU/ml), whereas 3.6-4.9logCFU/ml of the spores survived conventional heating. OH did not alter the quality (°Brix, color, and pH) of commercial apple juice (p>0.05). These results suggest that the OH system is superior to conventional heating for rapid sterilization (30s) of apple juice to assure microbiological quality in the absence of chemical additives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. 75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    .... Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura (Fischer) and Sucocitrico Cutrale, S.A. (Cutrale). In Cutrale's.... Comercio, Industria, e Agricultura for the Preliminary Results in the 08-09 Antidumping Duty Administrative... Results--Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria and Agricultura.'' 2. Test of Comparison Market Sales Prices...

  9. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... results, Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura (Fischer) filed a lawsuit with the United... calculation. On November 23, 2010, the CIT affirmed the remand results.\\3\\ \\2\\ See Fischer S.A. Comercio... S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1353, 1357 (Ct. Int'l...

  10. Replacing 100% fruit juice with whole fruit results in a trade off of nutrient in the diets of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of replacing 100% fruit juice (FJ) with whole fruit (WF) on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets is unclear. The objective of this study was to model the effect of replacing FJ with WF in children's diets. Data from children 2-18 years of age (n=6,090) participating in the Na...

  11. Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

    2010-01-27

    More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons.

  12. A preliminary result of three-dimensional microarray technology to gene analysis with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimens and pancreatic juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishigami Masatoshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of gene expression and gene mutation may add information to be different from ordinary pathological tissue diagnosis. Since samples obtained endoscopically are very small, it is desired that more sensitive technology is developed for gene analysis. We investigated whether gene expression and gene mutation analysis by newly developed ultra-sensitive three-dimensional (3D microarray is possible using small amount samples from endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA specimens and pancreatic juices. Methods Small amount samples from 17 EUS-FNA specimens and 16 pancreatic juices were obtained. After nucleic acid extraction, the samples were amplified with labeling and analyzed by the 3D microarray. Results The analyzable rate with the microarray was 46% (6/13 in EUS-FNA specimens of RNAlater® storage, and RNA degradations were observed in all the samples of frozen storage. In pancreatic juices, the analyzable rate was 67% (4/6 in frozen storage samples and 20% (2/10 in RNAlater® storage. EUS-FNA specimens were classified into cancer and non-cancer by gene expression analysis and K-ras codon 12 mutations were also detected using the 3D microarray. Conclusions Gene analysis from small amount samples obtained endoscopically was possible by newly developed 3D microarray technology. High quality RNA from EUS-FNA samples were obtained and remained in good condition only using RNA stabilizer. In contrast, high quality RNA from pancreatic juice samples were obtained only in frozen storage without RNA stabilizer.

  13. Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

    2014-06-01

    The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice.

  14. Vitis vinifera juice ameliorates depression-like behavior in mice by modulating biogenic amine neurotransmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantageous effects of Vitis vinifera juice on depressive model mice were examined utilizing a blend of behavioral evaluations and biogenic amine neurotransmitter estimations. During the behavioral evaluations, immobility time on the forced swimming test and tail suspension test were measured in unstressed and immobilization-induced stressed mice. V. vinifera juice (4 mL/kg and 8 mL/kg and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in immobility time of both unstressed and stressed mice when compared with their respective saline-treated control groups in both paradigms. Neurotransmitters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector. V. vinifera juice raised the levels of both serotonin (p<0.001 and noradrenalin (p<0.001 in brain tissue. These outcomes give significant mechanistic insights into the protective effect of V. vinifera juice against depressive disorders. Our results showed that V. vinifera juice could relieve depressive manifestations in the rodent model of depression.

  15. Learning results of GP trainers in a blended learning course on EBM: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Pas, Ellen; Wieringa-de Waard, Margreet; de Ruijter, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke

    2015-06-12

    General practitioners (GPs) experience barriers to the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) related to a negative attitude and to insufficient knowledge and skills. We therefore designed a blended learning intervention to develop the competence of GP trainers in EBM. This study investigated the effectiveness of this intervention in increasing the trainers' EBM competencies (i.e. knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour). In total 129 GP trainers participated in the blended learning course on EBM consisting of four 3-h face-to-face meetings and an intensive preparatory e-course before each meeting over a 12-month period. The primary outcomes were changes in knowledge and skills (Fresno test), changes in attitude (McColl test) and intentions to change behaviour. Secondary outcomes were changes in self-rated knowledge, skills and attitude, and the relation between personal characteristics and changes in knowledge, skills and attitude. Data were collected before the start of the intervention (T0), at the end of the last day of the intervention (T1) and four months after the end of the intervention (T2). The mean changes in scores on the Fresno test were ∆T1-T0 = 40.8 (SD ±36.7, p blended learning course on EBM for GP trainers induces an increase in knowledge and skills that, although decreased, remains after four months. Attitude and behaviour towards EBM show no differences before and after the intervention, although GPs' intention to use EBM more often in their practice is present.

  16. COMPOSITION OF THE CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF WHITE VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the study of mechanical composition of grapes and biochemical characteristics of white wine grapes for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. Thus, the yield of studied grapes ranged from 7.5 to 13.2 t / ha: highest yielding varieties and hybrids of Pervenets Magaracha and Tsitronnyy Magaracha, and the lowest - Chardonnay and Pinot blanc. At an average weight of clusters of varieties were divided into three groups - large clusters (230-243 g in varieties Pervenets Magaracha and Tsitronnyy Magaracha, medium (181-184 g - the varieties Chardonnay and Pinot blanc, small (112-116 g - the varieties Bianca and Viorica. By weight of the 100 berries were divided into four groups - Bianca and Viorica (I, Pervenets Magaracha (II, Chardonnay (III, Pinot blanc and Tsitronnyy Magaracha (IV. Weight of 100 seeds from the largest varieties Pinot blanc and Bianca, and the lowest - in the varieties of Tsitronnyy Magaracha and Chardonnay. The solids content in the juices of these varieties ranged from 19.4 to 21.8%, which corresponded to branded products and higher of commodity varieties. Mass concentration of sugars ranged from 18.4 to 21.3 g / 100 cm3. Titratable acid content in the juice was varied from 0.65 to 0.78 g / 100 cm3. Sugar-acid ratio, defined as the ratio of concentration of sugars and titratable acids ranged from 23.6 to 30. The recommended values for this indicator were within 22-30. According to the results of the tasting, we rated "excellent" the juices from the varieties of Tsitronnyy Magaracha, Viorica (19 points and Bianca (17 points; "good" marks were given to the juices from Pinot blanc, Chardonnay, Pervenets Magaracha: this means that we can get juices of excellent quality from the grape varieties under study with the title of ampelographic variety; in addition, the juice of the grape of varieties Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Bianca, Pervenets Magaracha due to their potassium content will

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of naringin and neohesperidin as a detector of grapefruit juice in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, R L

    1988-01-01

    Naringin/neohesperidin ratios can be used to differentiate orange juice which may contain added grapefruit juice from orange juice which may include juices from other naringin-containing cultivars. The naringin/neohesperidin ratios in juice vary from 14 to 83 in grapefruit (C. grandis) and from 1.3 to 2.5 in sour orange (C. aurantium) cultivars; the ratio is always less than 1 for the K-Early tangelo. Concentrations of both naringin and neohesperidin can be determined in orange juice by using a single liquid chromatographic isocratic reverse-phase system with a C-18 column. The detection limit for both compounds is 1 ppm with a linear working range to 500 ppm. Concentration relative standard deviations range from 0.47 to 1.06% for naringin and from 0.4 to 1.27% for neohesperidin. Naringin and neohesperidin recoveries ranged from 93 to 102% at concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm. Naringin values from blind duplicate samples of orange/grapefruit juice blends could be duplicated to +/- 3%.

  18. Young Coconut Juice Supplementation Results in Greater Bone Mass and Bone Formation Indices in Ovariectomized Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Yuko; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Young coconut juice (Cocos nucifera Linn.) (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with menopause by women in Southeast Asia. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of YCJ on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Female 10-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following 4 groups: Baseline, Sham, Ovx, and Ovx + YCJ (n = 10 rats per group). Rats in the Baseline group were sacrificed immediately, and those in the other groups were subjected to either sham operation (Sham) or bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx and Ovx + YCJ). The Ovx + YCJ rats were administered 5×-concentrated YCJ at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight per day. Six weeks after surgery, the rats were sacrificed, and indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. The bone mineral density of the left femur was significantly higher in the Ovx + YCJ group compared with the Ovx group. In addition, the Ovx + YCJ group showed significantly higher measurements for bone formation rate compared with the Ovx group. These findings suggest that YCJ supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and thus represents a possible intervention to slow the bone loss observed following menopause.

  19. Is story-based blended learning a promising avenue for skin and sexual health education? Results from the PAEDIMED project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Deimling, Erika; Wulfhorst, Britta; Adler, Frederic; Diepgen, Thomas L; Linder, Dennis; Blenk, Holger; Stosiek, Nikolaus; Reinmann, Gabi

    2010-03-01

    The PAEDIMED study group developed a learning and teaching scenario for school health education in the area of skin and sexual health in Italy, Romania and Germany, combining web-based and traditional learning ("blended learning"). A questionnaire-based needs assessment and context analysis were conducted, based on which an education scenario was designed. Particular emphasis was put on emotional and motivational aspects, using narrative components in the didactic concept. The design process occupied a central role in the project (design-based research). Evaluation was both formative and summative. Continuous feedback was obtained from relevant stakeholders. Following a prototypical implementation, the scenario was evaluated using questionnaires. The results revealed a high level of acceptance of the education scenario as well as an increase in students' knowledge concerning skin and sexual health. Evaluation also suggested that health education is highly influenced by cultural background and habits as well as diverse contextual and personal conditions.

  20. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  1. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  2. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  3. The effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on fatty acid profiles and lipid peroxidation of active handball players: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Snjezana; Arsic, Aleksandra; Glibetic, Marija; Cikiriz, Nikola; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Vucic, Vesna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice consumption on plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles of 32 active male and female handball players was examined. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted during the preparatory training in a closed campus, where 18 players (8 males, 10 females) consumed 100 mL of chokeberry juice, while 14 players (7 males, 7 females) consumed placebo. Lipid status, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and percentages of fatty acids were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Consumption of chokeberry juice induced decreases of C18:1n-9 and C18:3n-3 in men, but no changes in female players. However, placebo-controlled groups had reduced proportions of mono- (C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs: C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3, and C22:4n-6) in males, as well as n-6 PUFAs and total PUFAs in females after consumption. These results indicate that chokeberry juice had a weak impact on attenuating the effect of intensive training in active handball players.

  4. Effects of a tart cherry juice beverage on the sleep of older adults with insomnia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Carr, Michelle; Gorman, Colin; Perlis, Michael L

    2010-06-01

    This study ascertained whether a proprietary tart cherry juice blend (CherryPharm, Inc., Geneva, NY, USA) associated with anecdotal reports of sleep enhancement improves subjective reports of insomnia compared to a placebo beverage. The pilot study used a randomized, double-blind, crossover design where each participant received both treatment and placebo for 2 weeks with an intervening 2-week washout period. Sleep continuity (sleep onset, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency) was assessed by 2-week mean values from daily sleep diaries and disease severity by the Insomnia Severity Index in a cohort of 15 older adults with chronic insomnia who were otherwise healthy. The tart cherry juice beverage was associated with statistically significant pre- to post-treatment improvements on all sleep variables. When compared to placebo, the study beverage produced significant reductions in insomnia severity (minutes awake after sleep onset); no such improvements were observed for sleep latency, total sleep time, or sleep efficiency compared to placebo. Effect sizes were moderate and in some cases negligible. The results of this pilot study suggest that CherryPharm, a tart cherry juice blend, has modest beneficial effects on sleep in older adults with insomnia with effect sizes equal to or exceeding those observed in studies of valerian and in some, but not all, studies of melatonin, the two most studied natural products for insomnia. These effects, however, were considerably less than those for evidence-based treatments of insomnia: hypnotic agents and cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia.

  5. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  6. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  7. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  8. Gastroprotective and Anti-ulcer activity of Aloe vera juice, Papaya fruit juice and Aloe vera and Papaya fruit combined juice in Ethanol induced Ulcerated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinathan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disease. Even though a wide range of drugs are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and have side effects. These factors have attracted researchers to investigate the natural products which have more efficacy, less side effects and less expensive for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. In the present study the anti ulcer activity of (1 Aloe vera juice, (2 papaya fruit juice (3 Aloe vera and papaya fruit combined juice were investigated in the ethanol induced ulcerated rats. The administration of plant juices decreased the offensive factors like ulcer index and acid secretion and also reduced the amount of protein and carbohydrates in the stomach fluid. Further, plant juices increased the defensive factors like activity of oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Activities of alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxide were higher in the diseased condition and same were reduced after the treatment with plant juices. Content of haemoglobin and RBC and WBC counts were brought back to normalcy after the treatment with plant juices. The efficacy of plant juices was comparable with the reference drug- Ranitidine. The results of the present study reveal that the plant juices are having efficiency in the gastroprotective activity. It is recommended that the above said plant juices can be further studied for their anti ulcer efficacy in human subjects.

  9. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  10. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  11. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  12. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  13. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  14. Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen giver en grundlæggende introduktion til begrebet blended learning og sætter fokus på didaktiske spørgsmål som: Hvad er blended learning? Hvilke forskellige former ser vi i dag i danske uddannelser? Hvorfor udbydes uddannelser i stigende grad i et blended learning format? Hvilke didaktiske...... principper kan man som underviser tage i brug, når man skal designe et blended learning forløb? Hvad er den grundlæggende didaktiske forskel på tilstedeværelsesundervisning og netbaseret undervisning? Og hvilke kritiske perspektiver er det vigtigt at have med, når en uddannelsesinstitution beslutter sig...... for at re-designe traditionel tilstedeværelsesundervisning til blended learning?...

  15. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  16. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.

    2005-01-01

    -40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were......-Mann-Whitney-U-test, which is claimed to be optimal for the evaluation of the results of studies with a cross-over design, a significant difference was found for the number of CD8 + -T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells corresponding to either a decrease during treatment with verum or an increase in the number......BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following...

  17. Change of juice color during raspberry processing in fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A change of anthocyanins under different conditions of enzymatic treatments, clarification and concentration was determined. A pectin preparation Klerzyme®120, manufactured by DSM, France, specific for "sour fruits" with pH below 3.2, was used for maceration and depectinization. Experiments were carried out by a laboratory hydraulic press. Raw raspberry juice was clarified either by membranes separation processes or by traditional treatments using gelatin and bentonite. For microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes, membrane cut-off should not be below 30,000 g/mol to prevent any color loss. Experiments with membrane separations processes were carried out with five different membranes. A raw depectinized raspberry juice was clarified by cross-flow microfiltration and ultrafiltration using ceramic tubular membranes and hollow fiber polymeric membranes of a molecular weight cut-off of 300, 50 and 30 kg /mol or with a mean pore size of 0.2 urn in the case of microfiltration. Fruit juice concentrations were carried out by a laboratory equipment for vacuum evaporation. Extraction yield by a laboratory hydraulic press was the same in case of single-stage maceration and two-stage maceration. However, due to a lower viscosity, it was observed that single-stage process provides raspberry juice with more color and high efficiency of extraction. It was noticed that thermal breaks of raspberry pulp provide juice containing more total anthocyanins. The clarification using gelatin and bentonite removed about 50% total anthocyanins, while a clarification by a cross-flow ultrafiltration using Carbosep M9, M8 and M7 membranes achieved the highest level of color loss. Total color loss after concentration was 70%. The best results in color protection were observed by a microfiltration through Kerasep membrane, due to its relatively large pores (0.2μm. .

  18. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  19. Chemical Composition of Selected Beetroot Juices in Relation to Beetroot Production System and Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KAZIMIERCZAK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market offer of vegetable juices in Europe is growing, and the vegetable species and processing technologies used become more diversified resulting in a large range of juice types. At the same time consumers look for natural and safe products with pro-health properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of selected juices based on beetroots coming from different agricultural systems and processed according to different technologies. Research material consisted of conventional and organic juices marketed in Poland, in that pure pressed juices, fermented juice and juices from concentrate, pure and combined with apple or lemon juice. The concentration of vitamin C, organic acids, total and reducing sugars, phenolic acids, flavonoids and betalains has been determined in the juices. All beetroot juices were abundant in betalains, with higher concentrations of these compounds found in pure beetroot juices when compared to juices combined with apple or lemon. Highest concentration of betanin-3-O-glucoside was found in pure conventional juice from concentrate, while highest betanidin content was found in pure organic fermented juice. Highest vitamin C contents were found in pressed organic juices combined with apple and lemon. All juices were abundant in polyphenols, mainly phenolic acids, with highest concentrations of these antioxidants found in conventional pure pressed juice. The study shows that beetroot juices, independently on the beetroot processing technology and agricultural production system, are very valuable products due to the presence of numerous bioactive compounds, especially betalains, in their composition. Therefore beetroot juice consumption should be promoted among consumers.

  20. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  1. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.

  2. [Grapefruit juice and drugs: a hazardous combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohezic-Le Devehat, F; Marigny, K; Doucet, M; Javaudin, L

    2002-01-01

    A single glass of grapefruit juice can improve the oral bioavailability of a drug thus either increasing its efficacy or enhancing its adverse effects particularly if the therapeutic index is narrow. Grapefruit juice acts by inhibiting presystemic drug metabolism mediated by CYP P450 3A4 in the small bowel and this interaction would appear to be more relevant if the CYP 3A4 content is high and the drug has a strong first pass degradation. Intestinal P-glycoprotein may also be affected by grapefruit juice. The compounds responsible for this food-drug interaction have not as yet been identified but this phenomenon could result from a complex synergy between flavonoids (naringin, naringenin), furanocoumarins (6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamottin) and sesquiterpen (nootkatone). In our study, we report the mechanisms of action of grapefruit juice and the interactions between grapefruit juice and 42 drugs; to date, only 12 drugs showed no interaction. Taking these results into consideration, patients should be educated about grapefruit juice intake with medication.

  3. Grapefruit Juice and Statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan W; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the validity of current medical advice to avoid grapefruit juice consumption while taking 3 widely used statins. A daily glass of grapefruit juice increases blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by about 260% if taken at the same time (about 90% if taken 12 hours apart), and atorvastatin by about 80% (whenever taken). Simvastatin 40 mg, lovastatin 40 mg, and atorvastatin 10 mg daily reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in a 60-year-old man with an LDL cholesterol of 4.8 mmol/L by 37%, reducing ischemic heart disease risk by 61%. When simvastatin or lovastatin are taken at the same time as grapefruit juice, the estimated reduction in LDL cholesterol is 48%, and in heart disease is 70%. If the juice is taken 12 hours before these statins, the reductions are, respectively, 43% and 66%, and for atorvastatin, 42% and 66%. The increased rhabdomyolysis risk from grapefruit juice consumption due to the increased effective statin dose is minimal compared with the greater effect in preventing heart disease. Grapefruit juice should not be contraindicated in people taking statins.

  4. Wavelet and Blend maps for texture synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jin-Lian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available blending is now a popular technology for large realtime texture synthesis .Nevertheless, creating blend map during rendering is time and computation consuming work. In this paper, we exploited a method to create a kind of blend tile which can be tile together seamlessly. Note that blend map is in fact a kind of image, which is Markov Random Field, contains multiresolution signals, while wavelet is a powerful way to process multiresolution signals, we use wavelet to process the traditional blend tile. After our processing steps, the result blend tile become smooth and suitable for tiling, with no important features lost. Using this kind blend tile, many computation resources for computing blend map during texture synthesizing is saved. The experimental results shows that our method may successfully process many traditional blend tiles.

  5. Performance of Blended Learning in University Teaching:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reiss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning as a combination of classroom teaching and e-learning has become a widely represented standard in employee and management development of companies. The exploratory survey “Blended Learning@University” conducted in 2008 investigated the integration of blended learning in higher education. The results of the survey show that the majority of participating academic teachers use blended learning in single courses, but not as a program of study and thus do not exploit the core performance potential of blended learning. According to the study, the main driver of blended learning performance is its embeddedness in higher education. Integrated blended programs of study deliver the best results. In blended learning, learning infrastructure (in terms of software, culture, skills, funding, content providing, etc. does not play the role of a performance driver but serves as an enabler for blended learning.

  6. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity. (1) Pineapple juice is the juice, intended for direct consumption...

  7. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the...

  8. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by...

  9. Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossallam, Shereen F

    2010-04-01

    Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.

  10. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  11. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  12. STABILITY OF BLEND OF CARROT, PINEAPPLE AND SOYMILK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    Keywords: A. danielli extract, Stability, Juice extraction, Preservation, Blending. INTRODUCTION ... Problems associated with microbial spoilage, lipid oxidation and browning in foods may have ... Materials and Method. Carrot ... Data were analysed with Statistical Analyses System (SAS) package (Version. 8.2 of SAS ...

  13. Flash Profile for rapid descriptive analysis in sensory characterization of passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Flash Profile is a descriptive analysis method derived from Free-Choice Profile, in which each taster chooses and uses his/her own words to evaluate the product while comparing several attributes. Four passion fruit juices were analyzed, two juices were produced with concentrated juice, one with pulp and one with reconstituted juice; all juices had different levels of sugar, some had gum and dyes. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties (color, titratable acidity and solid content as well as sensory analysis like Flash profile and affective test. In physicochemical characterization and in Flash Profile, the juice A (pulp had higher solid content and consistence, the juice B (concentrated juice was the least acidic and presented the lowest value of soluble solids and presented strong aroma and flavor of passion-fruit, the juice C (reconstituted juice was pale yellow and showed artificial flavor and the juice D (concentrated juice was the most acidic, consistent with the natural flavor. In the acceptance test, all the juices scored 5-6, indicating that panelists tasters neither liked nor disliked. Flash Profile proved to be an easy and rapid technique showing a good correlation between panelists and the attributes and confirmed the results of physicochemical characterization.

  14. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  15. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  16. Removal of phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices using ultrafiltration and laccase-ultrafiltration combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Neslihan; Acar, Jale

    2004-06-01

    Phenolic compounds of fruit juices are responsible for haze and sediment formation as well as for color, bitterness and astringency. The influence of ultrafiltration (UF) and laccase-UF combination was investigated on phenolic contents of pomegranate juices and on filtration output. Laccase-treated and then ultrafiltered pomegranate juices have shown a rapid increase in their color, when compared to only ultrafiltered (control) samples. Kinetic parameters of laccase were also determined. During the oxidation period, the changes occurring in pomegranate juices were estimated from phenolic contents, color and anthocyanin measurements. Results have shown that laccase oxidation produced a significant decrease in phenolic content of pomegranate juices while juice color the increased. However, in recent literatures, the possibility to remove polyphenols in apple juices was reported. We decided in this study that laccase treatment can not be applied due to the loss of natural red color and unwanted dark brownish color formation in pomegranate juice.

  17. Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO. Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn′t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones. Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.

  18. Pancreatic Juice Culture in Acute Pancreatitis and Other Pancreatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Kikuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively evaluated the results of pancreatic juice cultures of patients with acute pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorders. Methods Twenty patients who underwent pancreatic juice culture were studied. Nine had acute pancreatitis due to alcohol (n=5, idiopathic causes (n=2, drugs (n=1, or gallstones (n=1, and remaining 11 had other pancreatic disorders such as an intraductal papillary mucin-producing neoplasm (n=3 and main pancreatic duct dilatation with a stricture due to a tumorous lesion suspected of pancreatic cancer (n=7 or chronic pancreatitis (n=1 without symptoms. Nasopancreatic drainage tubes were placed for pancreatic duct drainage in acute pancreatitis and for pancreatic juice cytology in other disorders. Pancreatic juice was obtained through the drainage tube and cultured. Results Pancreatic juice cultures were positive in all patients with acute pancreatitis for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus species, and others. Six among 11 patients (54.5% with other disorders showed positive results for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus salivarius, and others. The rate of positive pancreatic juice cultures was significantly higher in acute pancreatitis (p=0.038. Seven of the 9 patients with acute pancreatitis were classified as having severe acute pancreatitis, and all survived treatment. Conclusions Pancreatic juice culture was highly positive in acute pancreatitis. Further study is needed to confirm the relationship between orally indigenous bacteria identified in the pancreatic juice and acute pancreatitis.

  19. Effect of Preparation and Storage Conditions on Physical and Chemical Properties of Puree, Puree Juices and Cloudy Juices Obtained from Pumpkin with Added Japanese Quince and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NAWIRSKA-OLSZAŃSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence it seems recommendable to blend pumpkin with other fruits. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety ‘Karowita’. The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical properties of pumpkin samples based on different storage conditions. Pumpkin puree, puree juice and cloudy juices containing Japanese quince and strawberries were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties initially and after three months storage at temperatures of 4 °C and 30 °C. Cloudy juices were prepared with pectolytic preparation. The extract dry matter in all the samples was at a similar level. Puree and puree juice had considerably higher viscosity than cloudy juices. The highest quantities of bioactive compounds were detected in slightly processed samples (puree, puree juice and cloudy juices stored at 4 °C. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in puree and puree juice after storage. However, in the remaining samples, there was observed a decrease in the content of the compounds. A considerable decrease in carotenoids took place in samples subjected to pressing, where the amount of assayed carotenoids in puree was 5.24 mg/100 g fresh matter (FM, 4.15 mg/100 g FM in puree juice, and 0.18-0.47 mg/100 g FM in cloudy juices. The pressing also caused a significant decrease in colour parameters. Three months of storage showed markedly decreased contents of carotenoids and vitamin C.

  20. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  1. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lemon juice and vinegar product in reduced NaCl roast beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in reduced sodium roast beef by a blend of buffered lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) during abusive exponential cooling was evaluated. Roast beef containing salt (NaCl; 1, 1.5, or 2%, wt/wt), blend of sodium pyro-...

  2. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  3. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    as powder blends there is no natural unit or amount to define a sample from the blend, and partly that current technology does not provide a method of universally collecting small representative samples from large static powder beds. In the thesis a number of methods to assess (in)homogeneity are presented...... of internal factors to the blend e.g. the particle size distribution. The relation between particle size distribution and the variation in drug content in blend and tablet samples is discussed. A central problem is to develop acceptance criteria for blends and tablet batches to decide whether the blend...... blend or batch. In the thesis it is shown how to link sampling result and acceptance criteria to the actual quality (homogeneity) of the blend or tablet batch. Also it is discussed how the assurance related to a specific acceptance criteria can be obtained from the corresponding OC-curve. Further...

  4. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained...

  5. Avaliação sensorial e estabilidade físico-química de um blend de laranja e cenoura Sensorial evaluation and physical-chemical stability of a blend of orange and carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanise Guilherme Branco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi elaborado um blend de suco de laranja e cenoura com diferentes teores de cenoura (5 e 25% e concentrado a diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis (15 e 30 °Brix. Foram realizadas análises físicas e químicas das matérias-primas e do blend com maior preferência sensorial, com a finalidade de caracterizar o produto e, principalmente, verificar as alterações do ácido ascórbico e dos carotenóides totais após o processo de concentração dos blends. Também foi investigada a estabilidade física e química do blend durante sessenta dias. O teste de ordenação-preferência mostrou que a formulação do blend com 5% de cenoura e 15 °Brix de concentração foi a preferida pelos julgadores. O processo de concentração e o armazenamento, pelo período de 60 dias, acarretou na redução significativa dos conteúdos de ácido ascórbico e carotenóides totais.In this work a "blend" of orange and carrot juice with different proportions of carrot (5 and 25% and concentrated to different degrees of soluble solids (15 and 30 °Brix was developed. Physical and chemical analyses of the raw material and most sensorial preference "blend" were carried out with the main aim of characterizing the product. Special attention was paid to observe changes in the proportion of ascorbic acid and total carotenoides after the concentration juice process. The physical and chemical stability of the blend was also investigated during a period of sixty days. In the sensorial analysis the ordering preference test was applied. The results showed that the formulation with the most sensorial preference was that with 5% of carrot and concentration up to 15 °Brix. The concentration process and the storage, for the period of 60 days, caused a significant reduction of the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotene.

  6. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%.

  7. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  8. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  9. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  10. Study on combustion characteristics of blended coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yonghua; Wang Chunbo; Chen Hongwei [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2007-02-15

    Power plants in China have to burn blended coal instead of one specific coal for a variety of reasons. So it is of great necessity to investigate the combustion of blended coals. Using a test rig with a capacity of 640 MJ/h with an absolute milling system and flue gas online analysis system, characteristics such as burnout, slag, and pollution of some blended coals were investigated. The ratio of coke and slag as a method of distinguishing coal slagging characteristic was introduced. The results show that the blending of coal has some effect on NOx but there is no obvious rule. SOx emission can be reduced by blending low sulfur coal.

  11. Introducing blended e-learning course design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyamfi, Samuel Adu; Ryberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the face of diminishing education budgets in higher education, blended learning has been found to be a viable and effective approach to deliver high-quality, up-to-date, on-demand solutions to developing cross-curricular skills of undergraduates. However, research has also shown that blended...... learning solutions do not often live up to the potential of the approach or fail to produce the intended results because the students are not always equipped to handle the technical, psychological and organisational challenges of blended learning approaches. This project surveyed seventy-five first year...... the students’ e-readiness for an implementation of a blend-ed course design....

  12. Introducing blended e-learning course design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyamfi, Samuel Adu; Ryberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the face of diminishing education budgets in higher education, blended learning has been found to be a viable and effective approach to deliver high-quality, up-to-date, on-demand solutions to developing cross-curricular skills of undergraduates. However, research has also shown that blended...... learning solutions do not often live up to the potential of the approach or fail to produce the intended results because the students are not always equipped to handle the technical, psychological and organisational challenges of blended learning approaches. This project surveyed seventy-five first year...... the students’ e-readiness for an implementation of a blend-ed course design....

  13. Leguminose green juice as an efficient nutrient for l(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained.

  14. Uses of miscanthus press juice within a green biorefinery platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses some uses of nutrient-rich juice mechanically extracted from freshly harvested Miscanthus x giganteus (MxG) as part of a green biorefinery system. The juice was used for culturing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria. MxG juice was further used as substrate for fermentation to produce lactic acid using Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum. The results show that MxG juice was a highly nutritious source for the cultivation of bacteria. Higher concentrations of MxG juice used as culture media, resulted in higher cell growth both aerobically and anaerobically. The highest ethanol yield of 70% theoretical and concentration of 0.75g/100ml were obtained from S. cerevisiae cultivated with 90% (v/v) MxG juice media and used for miscanthus solid fraction fermentation. 11.91g/L of lactic acid was also successfully produced from MxG juice through SSF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gel chromatography coupled with post-column derivation to quickly identify orange juice adulteration%凝胶色谱分离-柱后染色法快速鉴别橙汁掺假

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛灿杰; 陈小珍; 张慧; 王展华; 马千里; 徐生坚

    2015-01-01

    Gel chromatography (GFC) coupled with post-column derivation was first used to detect the soluble protein in different regions of the orange juice.The protein fingerprint of orange juice has been established.Results showed that the fingerprint has four main characteristic peaks,the molecular weight was 7.5 × 104 Da and 0.5 × 104 Da-1.0 × 104Da.The protein fingerprint of other fruit juice and blending fruit are different from pure orange juice.The method has fewdisturbances and provides the references for orange juice adulteration identification and juice quality evaluation.%采用凝胶色谱(GFC)分离柱后复合考马斯亮蓝染色法,研究了不同地区橙汁中的可溶性蛋白质,建立了橙汁蛋白质按分子量分布的特征指纹图谱.结果表明:橙汁中可溶性蛋白质的凝胶过滤色谱指纹图谱具有4个主要特征峰,分子质量位于7.5×104Da及0.5×104~1.0×104Da.其他果汁及勾兑假果汁的蛋白质图谱不同于纯正橙汁的特征峰图谱,可用于橙汁掺假快速鉴别.该方法干扰少,检测快速,可用于浓缩还原橙汁掺假鉴别.

  16. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  17. Morphology Evolution of Polycarbonate-Polystyrene Blends During Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;

    2001-01-01

    The morphology evolution of polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, re-melt blending in a twin-screw extruder and tri-melt blending in an injection-moulding machine, was investigated using......-empirical model. The results show that the formation of co-continuous morphology strongly depends on blend composition and melt blending method, whereas the model prediction for phase inversion deviates from the experimental values. Further, we found that the initial mechanism of morphology evolution involves...

  18. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Walton, Gemma E; Tzortzis, George; Vulevic, Jelena; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Gibson, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS) were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice). Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose) in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  19. Use of Moringa oleífera Lamarck leaf extract as sugarcane juice clarifier: effects on clarifed juice and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Gravatim Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on the sedimentation of impurities in the treatment of sugarcane juice and the effects on sugar quality and on the clarified juice. The experimental design used was a 4x2 factorial arrangement with four replications. The main treatments performed included the extracted original sugarcane juice, the synthetic polyelectrolyte (Flomex 9076, the leaf extract, and a control. The secondary treatments consisted of the sugarcane varieties RB92579 and RB867515. The clarification process used was simple defecation, in which the flocculating agents and the juice, limed and heated, were poured simultaneously into a decanter. The microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics of the extracted and clarified juices were evaluated. The clarified juice was concentrated up to 60° Brix (syrup and subjected to boiling in a pilot pan using seeds to perform the graining: The sugar was recovered by centrifugation and analyzed for microbiological and chemico-technological characteristics. It was concluded that the use of the Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves extract resulted in a better quality of clarified juice and sugar.

  20. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's... Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the New...

  1. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by...

  2. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  3. Clarification Effects of Chitosan on Apple Fruit Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-fei; LI He-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is a good flocculant. The paper deals with the clarification of apple juice by means of chitosan. The results showed that the transmittance was over 97% and soluble solid content was stable basically, under the technological condition of chitosan of 0.5 - 1.2 g L-1 , temperature of 45 - 55℃ and pH 4.5. After the orthogonal trial, the optimum technological conditions of apple juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.3 g L-1 chitosan, 45℃C and pH 4.5. The research of the apple juice clarification with chitosan made a basis of the application of chitosan and provided the theoretical basis for the clarification of apple juice with chitosan.

  4. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  5. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  6. Development of a SBSE-TD method coupled to GC-MS and chemometrics for the differentiation of variety and processing conditions in peach juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Balcells, Mercè; Eras, Jordi; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2018-01-15

    Peach juices of distinct varieties, namely yellow- and red-fleshed, and commercial and freshly blended were analyzed. The method used was based on Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) involving a polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bar with thermal desorption (TD), followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The resulting analytical data included 41 compounds belonging to several chemical classes, such as aldehydes, alcohols, lactones, terpenoids, fatty aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons. Furthermore, chemometric data treatment using unsupervised analysis (PCA) proved useful to classify peach juices on the basis of variety. Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis (SLDA) showed that a reduced number of variables (14 compounds), including lactones (6-pentyl-α-pyrone, γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone, and δ-dodecalactone), fatty acids (hexadecanoic acid), fatty aldehydes (tetracosanal and octacosanal), hydrocarbons (C23, C26, C27, C29, and C33), and alcohols (phytol and α-tocopherol), were necessary to classify the juice samples according to variety and processing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Enzymatic Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Sugar Palm Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsad P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in fruit and vegetable juices production has increased significantly all over the world due to their benefit value, quality of production and increasing of consumer awareness and preference for healthy food. The production of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata fruit juice with exotic characteristics has the potential to be explored based on the new technologies and methods in juices industry. In beverage industry, enzyme is an essential tool for quality improvement and cost saving by increasing the yield of the fruit juice. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of different enzymatic treatment on sugar palm fruit juice processing. Sugar palm fruit purees were treated individually and in combination using two types of commercial enzymes: Novozymes Cellulase and Pectinex Ultra SP-L at a concentration of 0.05% (w/w and incubated at 45°C for 60 min. The results showed that there are significant (p<0.05 reduction on proximate content such as crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate for the enzymes treated juices as compared to the untreated juice. The enzyme treatment also significantly (p<0.05 reduced the juice viscosity and ascorbic acid content, promoted juice clarification and increased L value, yield, TSS and sugar content. In conclusion, the quality of sugar palm fruit juice can be improved by using the combination treatment of pectinase and cellulase enzymes.

  8. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  9. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  11. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  12. Composition of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dana A

    2012-01-01

    A database of 793 commercial pomegranate juices was analyzed to produce a profile for authentication of pure pomegranate juice. The database consisted of data from a mix of authentic and adulterated samples. Statistical tools were used to reduce the database to a stable sample set of 477 presumably authentic samples. The profile obtained (mean, SD at 16 Brix) are as follows: fructose (g/100 g) 6.83, 0.50; glucose (g/100 g) 6.66, 0.44; sucrose (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; sorbitol (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.01; acidity (g/100 g as citric acid) 1.25, 0.32; citric acid (g/100 g) 1.19, 0.30; malic acid (g/100 g) 0.065, 0.034; tartaric acid (g/100 g) 0.00, 0.00; isocitric acid (mg/kg) 63, 21; potassium (mg/kg) 2320, 400; proline (mg/kg) 7, 5; formol value [milliequivalents/100 g] 1.00, 0.24; 13C/12C ratio [o/oo Pee Dee belemnite]-26.4, 0.8. The profile samples had a consistent anthocyanin pattern consisting of four major peaks corresponding to delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Minor peaks corresponding to pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside were also generally present. No maltose, D-malic acid, or tartaric acid were detected in any of the samples. The profile obtained corresponds closely with previously published data.

  13. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... (Cpermeate/Cfeed) of the aroma compounds. At 45°C the most volatile and hydrophobic aroma compounds obtained the highest concentration factors: 12.1–9.3 (black currant juice) and 17.2–12.8 (model solution). With black currant juice a volume reduction of 13.7% (vol.%) at 45°C, 400L/h, resulted in an aroma...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  15. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  16. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  17. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; ...

  18. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  19. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation.

  20. Chemical and sensory analysis of commercial tomato juices present on the Italian and Spanish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Valli, Enrico; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-02-06

    A quantitative descriptive analysis was developed to characterize the sensory quality of a set of 12 organic and conventional tomato juices sold in Spanish and Italian markets. The volatile compounds of tomato juices were also studied. Twelve sensory descriptors, selected by a trained panel, evaluated the sensory profile of the samples. Some tomato juices were characterized by dominant positive notes typical of tomatoes (tomato paste, vegetable notes), whereas others by negative sensory attributes (off-flavors, high intensity of acidity, and sweetness). The volatile pattern of the samples, studied by SPME/GC-MS, was correlated with the sensory results: basically, organic tomato juices were characterized by vegetable notes and higher volatile compounds than conventional samples, regardless of their geographical origin. Conventional tomato juices were grouped in a closer cluster, whereas organic tomato juices were more diversified. Moreover, "defective" samples showed higher amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  1. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry juice treated with gas phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Putnik, Predrag; Vukušić, Tomislava; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to cold atmospheric gas phase plasma and changes in hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins were monitored. Plasma treatments were carried out under different treatment times and juice volumes under constant gas flow (0.75dm(3)min(-1)). The results were compared against control (untreated) and pasteurized chokeberry juice (80°C/2min). During pasteurization, the most unstable were hydroxycinnamic acids with losses of up to 59%, while flavonols and anthocyanins increased by 5% and 9%, respectively. On the contrary, plasma treated chokeberry juice showed higher concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and 23% loss of anthocyanins in comparison to untreated juice. In order to obtain the optimal cold plasma treatment parameters principal component and sensitivity analysis were used. Such parameters can be potentially used for pasteurization in terms of phenolic stability of chokeberry juice. Optimal treatment was at 4.1min and sample volume of 3cm(3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  3. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  4. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P fruit juice.

  5. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following......-40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were...

  6. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  7. Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Susan S; Talcott, Stephen T; Chin, Sherry T; Mallak, Anne C; Lounds-Singleton, Angela; Pettit-Moore, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    The mango, Mangifera indica L., is a fruit with high levels of phytochemicals, suggesting that it might have chemopreventative properties. In this study, whole mango juice and juice extracts were screened for antioxidant and anticancer activity. Antioxidant activity of the mango juice and juice extracts was measured by 3 standard in vitro methods. The results of the 3 methods were in general agreement, although different radicals were measured in each. Anticancer activity was measured by examining the effect on cell cycle kinetics and the ability to inhibit chemically induced neoplastic transformation of mammalian cell lines. Incubation of HL-60 cells with whole mango juice and mango juice fractions resulted in an inhibition of the cell cycle in the G(0)/G(1) phase. A fraction of the eluted mango juice with low peroxyl radical scavenging ability was most effective in arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase. Whole mango juice was effective in reducing the number of transformed foci in the neoplastic transformation assay in a dose-dependent manner. These techniques provide valuable screening tools for health benefits derived from mango phytochemicals.

  8. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  9. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  10. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    the average carbohydrate levels in the employed fruit juices. None of the fruit juices were found to affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells or hepatic glutathione S-transferase. Hepatic quinone reductase activity, on the other hand, was significantly increased by grape-fruit juice....../kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...

  11. A comparative study between spiral-filter press and belt press implemented in a cloudy apple juice production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, advantages and disadvantages of the innovative, low-oxygen spiral-filter press system were studied in comparison with the belt press, commonly applied in small and medium size enterprises for the production of cloudy apple juice. On the basis of equivalent throughput, a higher juice yield could be achieved with spiral-filter press. Also a more turbid juice with a higher content of suspended solids could be produced. The avoidance of enzymatic browning during juice extraction led to an attractive yellowish juice with an elevated phenolic content. Moreover, it was found that juice produced with spiral-filter press demonstrates a higher retention of phenolic compounds during the downstream processing steps and storage. The results demonstrates the advantage of the use of a spiral-filter press in comparison with belt press in the production of a high quality cloudy apple juice rich in phenolic compounds, without the use of oxidation inhibiting additives.

  12. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.

  13. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Sinnott, Robert A

    2017-07-14

    Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression. CpG sites with low P-values (P juice-specific low P-value epigenetic signatures were largely independent. Genes near the fruit-specific epigenetic signature were enriched among pathways associated with antigen presentation and chromosome or telomere maintenance, while the juice-specific epigenetic signature was enriched for proinflammatory pathways. IPA and eFORGE analyses implicate fruit and juice-specific epigenetic signatures in the modulation of macrophage (fruit) and B or T cell (juice) activities. These data suggest a role for epigenetic regulation in fruit and juice-specific health benefits and demonstrate independent associations with distinct immune functions and cell types, suggesting that these groups may not confer the same health benefits. Identification of such differences between foods is the first step toward personalized nutrition and ultimately the improvement of human health and longevity.

  14. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  15. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  16. Orange and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations of the OATP2B1 substrate aliskiren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapaninen, Tuija; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of orange juice and apple juice on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren. METHODS In a randomized crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of orange juice, apple juice or water three times daily for 5 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 150-mg dose of aliskiren. Plasma aliskiren concentrations were measured up to 72 h, its excretion into urine up to 12 h and plasma renin activity up to 24 h. RESULTS Orange and apple juice reduced aliskiren peak plasma concentrations by 80% (95% CI 63%, 89%, P juice correlated with aliskiren AUC during the water phase (r = 0.98, P juice and apple juice phases, respectively, than during the water phase (P juice and apple juice greatly reduce the plasma concentrations and renin-inhibiting effect of aliskiren, probably by inhibiting its OATP2B1-mediated influx in the small intestine. Concomitant intake of aliskiren with orange or apple juice is best avoided. PMID:21204914

  17. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  18. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  19. THE EFFECT OF BLENDING SEQUENCE ON PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF NYLON 6/ABS/SMA BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation process-dependent phase morphology of blends composed of nylon 6 and acryionitrile-butadienestyrene(ABS)over a composition range of 30-70 wt% using a styrene-maleic anhydride(SMA)copolymer as the compatibilizing agent with a constant content(5phr)was investigated.The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM)observation revealed that compared with the binary blends of nylon 6 and ABS,the existence of SMA caused a composition shift of phase inversion to a higher weight fraction of nylon 6 when ABS was blended with the preblended nylon 6/SMA blend,while the co-continuous structures could be observed over a considerably narrower composition range when nylon 6 was blended with the pre-blended ABS/SMA blend.An examination through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)tests confirmed the results obtained with SEM.It is found that near the phase inversion region a remarkable change in the dynamic storage modulus(G')and the loss tangent(tanδ)appears.Moreover,the influence of blending sequence on the size of dispersed particles has been probed for uncompatibilized and compatibilized blends of nylon 6 and ABS over a wide range of compositions below or beyond the phase inversion points.For the blends of ABS dispersed in a nylon 6 matrix,little discernible effects of blending sequence on particle size could be observed.Furthermore,there exists a significant difference in morphologies of the blends prepared by nylon 6 particles dispersing in a ABS matrix in cases of different blending sequences used.Some possible factors responsible for the above asymmetric behaviors have been proposed.

  20. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    sensory analyses that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  1. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  2. Computer-aided approach for design of tailor-made blended products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    library developed specifically for this methodology. Thirdly, a mixture/blend design algorithm is applied to obtain the mixtures/blends (gasoline blend in this case) that match the set of constraints (design targets). The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the composition...... related to the design of blended gasoline with different types of blending agents. The objective of this study is to identify blended gasoline products that match the traditional gasoline attributes and identify suitable blending agents for gasoline....

  3. Det globale marked for juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Den internationale handel med juice har været i kraftig vækst, omend der siden finanskrisens start har været en mere jævn udvikling. Væksten kan især tilskrives Kina, som har haft en meget stor stigning i både produktion og eksport, og som i dag er centrum for international afsætning af juice. Især...... inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  4. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brett J West; C Jarakae Jensen; Johannes Westendorf

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI(R) Juice,as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. Citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity.

  5. Structure and Property of Silk Fibroin / Cellulose Blend Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; XING Tie-ling

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin/cellulose blend films were prepared using N-methylmorpholine -N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent. The effects of different proportions and solid contents on properties of blend films were discussed. The mechanical properties showed that the blend films had preferable moisture permeability and a high strength. The structures of the blend films were investigated by infrared spectrum and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of cellulose and amido groups of fibroin.

  6. THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE ACETATE/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hailin; CHEN Jinming; HUANG Yong; SHEN Jiarui

    1997-01-01

    The thermal behavior of thermotropic hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate (HECA)/polyethylene (PE) blends has been studied by DSC. It is found that the blends of HECA and PE are immiscible but the crystallization of PE is affected by HECA chains in the blends with more than 50% HECA, which results in the subordinate crystallization of PE and the formation of imperfect structures in the PE crystals. The imperfection of PE crystals in the blends can be eliminated after annealing at 393K.

  7. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is

  8. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is po

  9. MEMPELAJARI KARAKTERISTIK SARI BUAH DARI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn. YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI FERMENTASI [Characteristic of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Juice Produced by Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne P Kusuma3

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the methods to get noni juice. In this research, noni is fermented in hanged system and submerged system for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The result showed the longer fermentation increased pH, alcohol content, turbidity, viscosity, microbial content, and decrease ascorbic acid and acid content, soluble solid content, color and flavor acceptance. Differennt system fermentation affected percent yield, soluble solid content, turbidity of juice, panels opinion to color significantly. Noni juice of submerged system has higher percent yield, higher soluble solid content, turbidity, but provided lighter color than noni juice of hanged system. Juice of submerged system is better than hanged system. Juice from three weeks fermentation indicated changes of metabolism activity which is shown by some characteristic changes. Fruit juice made by submerged fermentation system had more diverse compounds than fruit juice without fermentation.

  10. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mian-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P P P P Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests.

  11. Relations between blended learning possibilities and teachers' approaches to blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenalt, Maria Hvid; Nielsen, Tobias Alsted; Bager-Elsborg, Anna

    Higher Education has embraced blended learning as a way of enhancing quality in teaching and helping students to learn. This presentation addresses relations between blended learning possiblities presented to teachers in a teacher training project and teachers’ approaches to blended learning. We...... suggest that in order to identify the level of impact of integrating technologies in teaching and learning, we need to understand the factors influencing approaches to design of courses for blended contexts. Participants in the teacher training project come from the Department of Law at Aarhus University......: • Optain locally-embedded knowledge about blended learning • Develop opportunities for law students to receive (more) feedback • Comply with strategic aims The results so far suggest that teachers provide a disciplinary perspective on the key dimensions of blended learning, which influences...

  12. Inhibitory effect of fruit juices on the doxorubicin metabolizing activity of carbonyl reductase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Nagai, Katsutoshi; Kaneshiro, Shingo; Taketomi, Ayako; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Konishi, Hiroki; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2017-03-09

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, is effective for breast cancer and childhood lymphoma. Chronic cardiotoxicity has been known as a critical adverse effect of doxorubicin and is attributed to its metabolite doxorubicinol produced by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, SDR21C1). Some flavonoids have been reported to act as inhibitors for CBR1, therefore, commercially available juices containing flavonoids are likely to be applicable as a prophylactic treatment against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppression doxorubicinol production. In the study, fruit juices containing flavonoids were investigated on inhibitory effects for CBR1. Recombinant CBR1 protein was subjected to in vitro enzymatic assays with/without juices. An apple juice and a grapefruit juice were selected in the present study as candidates capable of inhibiting CBR1. The enzymatic assays revealed that both juices potently inhibit the CBR1-mediated metabolic conversion of doxorubicin to doxorubicinol in concertation-dependent manners. The concentrations required for obtaining 50% inhibition (IC50) were 0.0012% (v/v) and 0.0014% (v/v) for apple and grapefruit juices, respectively. Additionally, it is worth noting that these juices showed inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 even at very low concentrations (0.0001% (v/v)). An apple juice and a grape fruit juice showed strong inhibitory effects on doxorubicin metabolism by CBR1 in vitro. These results suggest that the intake of flavonoid-containing juices can be promising measure for the protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity, enabling patients to keep higher adherence with routine use in light of safety, economic performance and stable supply to market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Study on combustion characteristics of blended coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yonghua; WANG Chunbo; CHEN Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Power plants in China have to burn blended coal instead of one specific coal for a variety of reasons.So it is of great necessity to investigate the combustion of blended coals.Using a test rig with a capacity of 640 MJ/h with an absolute milling system and flue gas online analysis system,characteristics such as burnout,slag,and pollution of some blended coals were investigated.The ratio of coke and slag as a method of distinguishing coal slagging characteristic was introduced.The results show that the blending of coal has some effect on NOx but there is no obvious rule.SOx emission can be reduced by blending low sulfur coal.

  14. Compatibilizing Bulk Polymer Blends by using Organoclays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Mayu; Araki, Tohru; Ade, Harald; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Fischer,Robert; Sokolov, Jonathan C.; Rafailovich, Miriam H.

    2006-03-28

    We have studied the morphology of blends of PS/PMMA,PC/SAN24, and PMMA/EVA and compared the morphologies with and withoutmodified organoclay Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 6A clays. In each case wefound a large reduction in domains size and the localization of the clayplatelets along the interfaces of the components. The increasedmiscibility was accompanied in some cases, with the reduction of thesystem from multiple values of the glass transition temperatures to one.In addition, the modulus of all the systems increased significantly. Amodel was proposed where it was proposed that in-situ grafts were formingon the clay surfaces during blending and the grafts then had to belocalized at the interfaces. This blending mechanism reflects thecomposition of the blend and is fairly nonspecific. As a result, this maybe a promising technology for use in processing recycled blends where thecomposition is often uncertain and price is of generalconcern.

  15. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  16. Grape juice concentrate (G8000™) modulates apoptosis but not oxidative stress following rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Landman, Gilles; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Campanholo, Vanessa Maria De Lima Pazine; Gollucke, Andrea Pittelli Boiago; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if grape juice concentrate is able to protect against experimental colon carcinogenesis. For this purpose, a total of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into seven groups: G1: SHAM animals receiving only saline; G2: animals receiving 15 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM); G3: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G4: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G5: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G6: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G7: animals receiving only 2% grape juice concentrate. The group that received 2% grape juice concentrate before induction with AOM showed the decreased expression of Bcl-2 compared to those animals that were induced by AOM (positive control). Regarding Bax, animals that received grape juice at 2% decreased Bax immunoexpression when compared to AOM group. Furthermore, animals that intake grape juice at 1% after induced by AOM decreased Bax immunoexpression as well. 8-OHdGLI did not show significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) among groups. In summary, our results demonstrate that grape juice is able to modulate rat colon carcinogenesis as a result of induction of apoptosis.

  17. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  18. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  19. THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT AND DETERIORATIVE ENZYMES FROM SOURSOP AND CASHEW APPLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CRISTINA RABELO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the thermostability of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT and ascorbate peroxidase - APX and deteriorative (guaiacol peroxidase - G-POD, polyphenoloxidase - PPO, pectin-methylesterase - PME and polygalacturonase - PG enzymes from soursop and cashew apple juices. Juices were prepared homogenizing ripe fruit pulps and submitting to different thermal treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95°C for different time period (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min then enzymatic activities were evaluated. The treatments at 55°C for soursop juice and at 75°C for cashew apple juice presented the best results, considering the low residual activities for deteriorative enzymes and the retained activity of SOD. Our results suggest appropriate technological condition to thermal processing from soursop and cashew apple juice whereby ensuring quality beyond their functionality.

  20. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  1. Effect of processing parameters on fouling resistances during microfiltration of red plum and watermelon juices: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Himan; Alemi, Azam; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the total (R t ), reversible (R rev ), irreversible (R irr ), and cake (R c ) resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice (as a juice with colloid particles) and red plum juice (as a juice without colloid particles). Results showed that the total resistance decreased by about 45% when the feed velocity was increased during clarification of red plum juice due to change in cake resistance. Also, increasing the feed temperature from 20 to 30°C decreased the total fouling resistance by about 9% due to decreases in the irreversible and reversible fouling resistances. Also, mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane (which is hydrophilic) had a lower cake resistance compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (which is hydrophobic). Examination of the microfiltration of watermelon juice showed that R t decreased by about 54% when the feed temperature was increased from 20 to 50°C, partially due to the reduction of reversible fouling resistance by 78%. Also, increasing transmembrane pressures from 0.5 to 2.5 bars greatly increased total fouling resistance. The feed velocity had a different effect on fouling resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice compared to red plum juice: in contrast with red plum juice, increasing the feed velocity for watermelon juice increased cake resistance.

  2. Inhibition of clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by buffered vinegar and lemon juice concentrate during chilling.....of ground turkey road containing minimal ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey roast containing minimal ingredients (salt and sugar), by buffered vinegar (MoStatin V) and a blend (buffered) of lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) was evaluated. Ground turkey roast was formulat...

  3. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  4. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40-80 g/day for males and more than 20-40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  5. Detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Concord and Niagara grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, G J; Karthik, A; Inglis, D; Sears, M; Ker, K

    2008-08-01

    2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) is the compound responsible for the off-flavor known as ladybug taint, which occurs when Harmnonia axyridis beetles become incorporated with the grapes during juice processing. It is also an important grape-derived component of juice flavor in some varieties. The main objective of this study was to determine the orthonasal (ON) and retronasal (RN) detection thresholds for IPMP in juice. The ASTM E679 ascending forced choice method of limits was used to determine detection thresholds for 26 individuals in Concord and Niagara juices. Group best estimate thresholds (BETs) averaged 0.93 ng/L and were 50% and 21% higher in Concord than in Niagara juices for ON and RN evaluation, respectively. Group BETs for IPMP (ng/L) for Concord were ON: 1.11; RN: 1.02 and for Niagara were ON: 0.74; RN: 0.84. Variation in individual detection thresholds was observed, although familiarity with ladybug taint was not associated with individual threshold values. We conclude that humans are very sensitive to IPMP in juice, and that detection thresholds are more strongly influenced by grape variety than evaluation mode. These results may assist juice producers in establishing tolerance levels for IPMP in juice affected by ladybug taint or derived from grapes of suboptimal ripeness.

  6. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity analysis. Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed using the SAS program. The concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity of the grape juices treated with microwave heating and ultrasonication increased significantly with increasing treatment time notably at 5 min treatment. It can be noted that all the bioactive contents and % radical scavenging activity were higher in noncold stabilized grape juice than in cold stabilized juices. However, blanching whole grapes for longer period of time before processing resulted in the decrease of all bioactive compounds and % radical scavenging activity both in non-cold stabilized and cold stabilized juice especially at 5 min blanching period. It was also showed that 1 min blanching is more effective in increasing the bioactive compounds of the grape juice as compared to other treatment time.

  7. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05).

  8. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  9. Effects of cranberry juice on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D; Anderson, Gail D

    2009-07-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the beta-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics.

  10. Effects of Cranberry Juice on Pharmacokinetics of β-Lactam Antibiotics following Oral Administration▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Andrew, Marilee A.; Wang, Joanne; Salinger, David H.; Vicini, Paolo; Grady, Richard W.; Phillips, Brian; Shen, Danny D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2009-01-01

    Cranberry juice consumption is often recommended along with low-dose oral antibiotics for prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Because multiple membrane transporters are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of β-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between cranberry juice and the β-lactams amoxicillin (amoxicilline) and cefaclor. The amoxicillin-cranberry juice interaction was investigated in 18 healthy women who received on four separate occasions a single oral test dose of amoxicillin at 500 mg and 2 g with or without cranberry juice cocktail (8 oz) according to a crossover design. A parallel cefaclor-cranberry juice interaction study was also conducted in which 500 mg cefaclor was administered with or without cranberry juice cocktail (12 oz). Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and nonlinear mixed-effects compartmental modeling. We conclude that the concurrent use of cranberry juice has no significant effect on the extent of oral absorption or the renal clearance of amoxicillin and cefaclor. However, delays in the absorption of amoxicillin and cefaclor were observed. These results suggest that the use of cranberry juice at usual quantities as prophylaxis for UTI is not likely to alter the pharmacokinetics of these two oral antibiotics. PMID:19398645

  11. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students. A randomized controlled trial addressed the effect of repeated testing on achievement as measured by the students' pre- and post-training score (nine multiple-choice items). Basic numeracy and statistical literacy were assessed at baseline. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics (histograms, box plots, scatter plots, and summary of descriptive measures), bootstrapped confidence intervals, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and effect sizes (Cohen's d, r) based on adjusted means and standard deviations. All of the 114 students enrolled in the course consented to take part in the study and were assigned to either the intervention or control group (both: n = 57) by balanced randomization. Five participants dropped out due to non-compliance (control: 4, intervention: 1). Both groups profited considerably from the program in general (Cohen's d for overall pre vs. post scores: 2.61). Repeated testing yielded an additional positive effect: while the covariate (baseline score) exhibits no relation to the post-intervention score, F(1, 106) = 2.88, p > .05, there was a significant effect of the intervention (repeated tests scenario) on learning achievement, F(1106) = 12.72, p blended learning approach can be improved significantly by implementing a test-enhanced learning design, namely repeated testing. As

  12. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  13. Diagnostic value of meat juice in early detection of classical swine fever infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of meat juice for early detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), meat juice and serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different strains of CSFV were compared for virus load. From all samples, viral RNA was extracted by automated procedure...... before real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed. Viral RNA was detected in meat juice, but at a lower level than in corresponding serum. Sensitivity was calculated to 91% and specificity to 97%. Disagreements between meat juice and serum results were found when...... samples originated from pigs infected with low virulence CSFV strains and/or when samples were collected within the first days after infection. In conclusion, while not the first choice for sample material for CSFV diagnosis, meat juice may constitute a useful alternative for herd-based studies or when...

  14. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Socorro Cruz-Cansino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5 min were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5 min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%. After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5 min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  15. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v and 0.45 g/g for sweet sorghum in 80 h and 6.5% w/v and 0.37 g/g for sugarcane molasses in 60 h, respectively. The findings on the physical properties of sweet sorghum juice revealed that it has better physical properties compared to sugarcane molasses, resulting to enhanced performance of sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production

  17. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  18. Eugenol-loaded antimicrobial nanoemulsion preserves fruit juice against, microbial spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vijayalakshmi; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-02-01

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated using sesame oil, non-ionic surfactant (Tween20/Tween80) and water by ultrasound cavitation method. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for process parameters such as surfactant type, surfactant concentration and emulsification time to obtain lower droplet diameter with greater stability. Increase in surfactant concentration and emulsification time resulted in nanoemulsion with minimized droplet diameter. Tween80 was more effective in reducing droplet size when compared to that of Tween20. Selected formulation with optimized process parameter (with oil-surfactant mixing ratio of 1:3 v/v and Tween80 as surfactant) was used for delivery of eugenol. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion was formulated with droplet diameter of 13 nm and was stable for more than 1 month. Sesame oil blended eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion demonstrated lower droplet size and higher stability than only-eugenol (without sesame oil) nanoemulsion. Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion S3E3 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Inactivation kinetics of S. aureus showed time and concentration killing of bacteria upon treatment with S3E3 nanoemulsion. Fluorescence microscopy results demonstrated that S3E3 nanoemulsion treatment resulted in alteration of membrane permeability. In situ assessment of S3E3 in orange juice exhibited a significant reduction in the native bacteria population.

  19. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  1. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice obtained...

  2. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  3. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); Sarojini, B. K. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore –574 199 (India); Somashekhar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006 (India); Sangappa, Y., E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  4. A Better Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  5. Improvement of biodiesel methanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Datta Bharadwaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to improve the performance of biodiesel–methanol blends in a VCR engine by using optimized engine parameters. For optimization of the engine, operational parameters such as compression ratio, fuel blend, and load are taken as factors, whereas performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (Bth and brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC, Nitric oxides (NOx and smoke are taken as responses. Experimentation is carried out as per the design of experiments of the response surface methodology. Optimization of engine operational parameters is carried out using Derringers Desirability approach. From the results obtained it is inferred that the VCR engine has maximum performance and minimum emissions at 18 compression ratio, 5% fuel blend and at 9.03 kg of load. At this optimized operating conditions of the engine the responses such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and smoke are found to be 31.95%, 0.37 kg/kW h, 0.036%, 5 ppm, 531.23 ppm and 15.35% respectively. It is finally observed from the mathematical models and experimental data that biodiesel methanol blends have maximum efficiency and minimum emissions at optimized engine parameters.

  6. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    control treatment, in peach and mango juices respectively. The most sensitive microorganism to nisin was A. acidoterrestris and the least sensitive was L. monocytogenes. Still, a reduction of up to 90% of viable cells was observed in peach and mango juices inoculated with L. monocytogenes. These results indicate that the use of nisin could be an alternative in fruit juice processing.

  7. Um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para análise de um sistema de produção e distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja A model based on linear programming and goal programming to analyze a frozen concentrated orange juice production and distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Munhoz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para apoiar decisões no processo de mistura e na distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Explora-se a importância das decisões do processo de mistura para a análise da logística de distribuição do suco de laranja, além das decisões de transporte e armazenagem. O modelo utiliza conceitos conhecidos da literatura de problemas de mistura e planejamento da produção com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos, e foi resolvido por meio da linguagem de modelagem GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System. Um estudo de caso foi realizado numa empresa de suco de laranja localizada no interior do estado de São Paulo, e os resultados preliminares obtidos são promissores.This work proposes a model based on linear programming and goal programming to support decisions in the blending process and distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice. This study explores the importance of blending decisions for the logistic analysis of the orange juice distribution, besides transportation and storage decisions. The model utilizes well-known concepts from the literature of blending problems and multistage, multiproduct and multiperiod production planning problems, and it was solved using the GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System programming language. A case study was developed in an orange juice industry located in São Paulo State, and the preliminary results are promising.

  8. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  9. Blended Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    University College Lillebaelt has decided that 30 percent of all educational elements must be generated as blended learning by the end of the year 2015 as part of a modernization addressing following educational needs: 1. Blended learning can help match the expectations of the future students who...... have grown up in digitized homes and schools. 2. Blended learning helps individualization and differentiation. The students can organize their own learning paths – decide for themselves where and when to study, which paths to follow and in what tempo. 3. Blended learning helps provide resources...... learning. 4. Blended learning can contribute to supporting and improving efficiency of educational efforts. This can for instance be done through programmes for several classes by using video conferencing, allocating traditional face to face teaching to synchronous and asynchronous study activities produce...

  10. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Du, Bao-Lei; Cui, Zheng-Wei; Xu, Li-Ping; Li, Chun-Yang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on microbiological quality, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and volatile profile of mulberry juice. High hydrostatic pressure processing at 500 MPa for 10 min reduced the total viable count from 4.38 log cfu/ml to nondetectable level and completely inactivated yeasts and molds in raw mulberry juice, ensuring the microbiological safety as thermal processing at 85 ℃ for 15 min. High hydrostatic pressure processing maintained significantly (p juice than thermal processing. The main volatile compounds of mulberry juice were aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. High hydrostatic pressure processing enhanced the volatile compound concentrations of mulberry juice while thermal processing reduced them in comparison with the control. These results suggested that high hydrostatic pressure processing could be an alternative to conventional thermal processing for production of high-quality mulberry juice.

  11. Efficacy of phytic acid as an inhibitor of enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunjian; Dou, Siqi; Wu, Shengjun

    2012-11-15

    Browning decreases the commercial value of apple juice, and therefore colour preservation during processing and storage is the main objective of manufacturers. In this study, the efficacy of phytic acid as a browning inhibitor for use on apple juice was investigated. Browning of apple juice treated with phytic acid was monitored during processing and storage. 0.1 mM Phytic acid inhibited the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from the apple juice by 99.2%. Consequently, the apple juice treated with phytic acid had significantly lower browning formation during processing and after 6 months of storage at room temperature compared with the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that this is a promising way to inhibit browning in apple juice.

  12. Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Keong Yeap, Swee; Beh, Boon Keen; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-06-20

    Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines. Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Electrostatic contributions in the increased compatibility of polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Elisângela M; Jannuzzi, Sergio A V; Galembeck, Fernando

    2011-12-20

    Successful blending of different polymers to make a structural or functional material requires overcoming limitations due to immiscibility and/or incompatibility that arise from large polymer-polymer interfacial tensions. In the case of latex blends, the combination of capillary adhesion during the blended dispersion drying stage with electrostatic adhesion in the final product is an effective strategy to avoid these limitations, which has been extended to a number of polymer blends and composites. This work shows that adhesion of polymer domains in blends made with natural rubber and synthetic latexes is enhanced by electrostatic adhesion that is in turn enhanced by ion migration, according to the results from scanning electric potential microscopy. The additional attractive force between domains improves blend stability and mechanical properties, broadening the possibilities and scope of latex blends, in consonance with the "green chemistry" paradigm. This novel approach based on electrostatic adhesion can be easily extended to multicomponent systems, including nonpolymers.

  14. BLENDED LEARNING COURSE FOR FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira V. Kotkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian and foreign scientists’ views on the essence of blended learning are analyzed in the article. The author's definition of a blended learning course is presented. The process of such course designing is described according to target, motivational, substantive, operational and diagnostic components. Both the structure of the blended learning course implementation as well as students’ educational-cognitive activity distribution between classroom learning and distance course are shown. The problems for students, teachers, and educational institutions of blended courses effective implementation are summarized. Students’ academic performance of three years study is analyzed. The results of students’ questioning to determine their perception of blended learning course are described according to the following categories: the effectiveness of blended course, evaluation objectivity, motivation to study, the use of plagiarism in studies, understanding of blended learning course.

  15. Mercury reduction by coal blending : effects of boiler configuration and blending on mercury speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Generating Station, Nanticoke, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation has explored the potential of reducing mercury emissions through fuel blending on full-scale operating units at its 8 x 500 MW Nanticoke coal-fired generating station. This presentation addressed the issue of unit configuration on mercury speciation. It outlined full scale testing of mercury emissions in 2004 and the potential for mercury control suggested by the test data. Mercury emissions were measured for the firing of various eastern US bituminous and western US sub-bituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blends. Three blends of up to 84 per cent sub-bituminous coal were tested. Two methods of coal blending, selective bunkering and silo or field blending were also tested. Mercury emissions under boiler configurations with and without selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and over-fire air were compared. This paper included the results from semi-continuous monitoring (SCM) data collected during the test period. A high mercury oxidation was observed over chlorine concentration ranges of 0.3 to 0.1 per cent. It was noted that feeding dedicated fuels to mills, rather than yard blends of bituminous PRB, results in higher levels of mercury capture, particularly at higher than 16:84 blend. A consistently high level of oxidation was noted across the SCR demonstrated for all blends tested. It was noted that Over Fire Air (OFA) advanced combustion technology systems appeared to increase mercury oxidation. tabs., figs.

  16. Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Grapefruit Juice and Some Drugs Don't Mix Share Tweet ... a similar way to grapefruit juice. How Grapefruit Juice Can Interfere With Medications With most drugs that ...

  17. Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to anthocyanins.

  18. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  19. Effects of Dense Phase-CO2 Treatments on Microflora, Enzymes and Browning of Chinese Winter Jujube Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese winter jujube juice was treated with Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide (DPCD to inactivate microorganisms, Polyphenoloxidase (PPO activity, Peroxidase (POD activity and control browing. The effect of varying pressures (5 to 30 MPa and different treatment time (0 to 50 min on the amount of natural microorganisms, PPO activity, POD activity and browning degree were measured. After experiment, the inactivation of natural microorganisms, PPO activity and POD activity exposed to DPCD were significantly increased with increasing pressure. Treated jujube juice had lower browning degree than untreated jujube juice. The experimental results showed that the DPCD treatment can be regarded as a good pretreatment means for winter jujube juice processing.

  20. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilsky, Danielle K; Maleta, Kenneth; Castleman, Tony; Manary, Mark J

    2009-04-01

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; they are energy-dense, lipid-based pastes with added powdered micronutrients. In this randomized clinical effectiveness trial, the recovery rates were compared among children with moderate wasting who received either milk/peanut FS, soy/peanut FS, or CSB. Children received isoenergetic quantities of food, 314 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1), for up to 8 wk with biweekly follow-up. The primary outcome was recovery, defined as having a WHZ > -2. Time-event analysis was used to compare the recovery rate. A total of 1362 children were enrolled in the study. Children receiving soy/peanut FS had a similar recovery rate to those receiving milk/peanut FS and children in either FS group were more likely to recover than those receiving CSB (80% in both FS groups vs. 72% in the CSB group; P foods to CSB for moderately wasted Malawian children.

  1. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality.

  3. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  4. Analysis of organic acids in fruit juices by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: an enhanced tool for authenticity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, Stefan; Cole, Shannon

    2011-03-23

    Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruit juices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruit juices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ∼1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described.

  5. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  7. Performance evaluation of gamma irradiated SiR-EPDM blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepalaxmi, R., E-mail: deepalaxmivaithi@gmail.com; Rajini, V.

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effects of gamma irradiation on SiR-EPDM blend are examined. • Cross-linking reaction is dominant in blends C, D and E, due to higher EPDM content. • The tensile strength and hardness of blend E is improved by gamma irradiation. • The blend C and EPDM rich blends (D, E) are found to have superior performance. • Among C, D and E, suitable blend can be selected for a particular NPP application. - Abstract: Cable insulation materials (CIM) should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in nuclear power plants (NPP). The CIM will be exposed to gamma irradiation at the installed locations. In order to forecast long-term performance of CIM, the short time accelerated testing was carried out. Due to its good mechanical strength, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is widely used as CIM. Silicone rubber (SiR) is used in high temperature environments, due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of these two polymers may result in the improvement in their specific properties. This paper analyses the effects of gamma irradiation on the five different compositions (90-10; 70-30; 50-50; 30-70; 10-90) of SiR-EPDM blends. The blends were exposed to four different doses (25 Mrad, 100 Mrad, 200 Mrad and 250 Mrad) of gamma irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like volume resistivity (VRY), surface resistivity (SRY), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), hardness (H) of the virgin and gamma irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simultaneous occurrence of cross-linking and chain scission is found to be the mechanism for ageing in SiR-EPDM blends. The electrical parameters such as volume resistivity and surface resistivity of all the blends are found to improve for all doses of gamma irradiation. To validate the influence of cross-linking reaction of the Si

  8. MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie over het ontwerpen van leeractiviteiten (learning design) tijdens de zesde live sessie van de MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen. Met gebruikmaking van presentatiematerialen van Diana Laurillard, Grainne Conole, Helen Beetham, Jos Fransen, Pieter Swager, Helen Keegan, Corinne Weisgerber.

  9. MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie over het ontwerpen van leeractiviteiten (learning design) tijdens de zesde live sessie van de MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen. Met gebruikmaking van presentatiematerialen van Diana Laurillard, Grainne Conole, Helen Beetham, Jos Fransen, Pieter Swager, Helen Keegan, Corinne Weisgerber.

  10. Microbial inactivation and physicochemical properties of ultrasound processed pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Çiğdem Uysal; Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Özcan, Gülçin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound treatment at various amplitudes (50, 75, and 100%) and times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min) on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (a surrogate for E. coli O157:H7) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2366 levels and physicochemical characteristics (monomeric anthocyanins, color values, total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids) were determined in pomegranate juice. More than a 5-log inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 and a 1.36-log inactivation of S. cerevisiae ATCC 2366 were achieved after 30 min of ultrasound treatment at 100% amplitude. The log-linear and Weibull models were successfully used to estimate the microbial inactivation as a function of ultrasound treatment time (R(2) > 0.97). No significant changes were observed in total phenolics, pH, and soluble solids of the treated juice (P > 0.05). The ultrasound treatment for up to 30 min resulted in more than 92 and 89% anthocyanin retention at 75 and 100% amplitude, respectively. The redness (a*) of the juice did not change significantly after the ultrasound treatment at amplitudes of 75 and 100% for up to 24 and 12 min, respectively. No significant changes in L* and b* values were observed after ultrasound treatment at all amplitudes and after up to 30 min of treatment for 50 and 75% amplitudes. Small differences in juice color were noted based on total color difference scores.

  11. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  12. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  13. Identification of insulin in the human pancreatic juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H; Sato, K; Murozono, S

    1986-12-01

    In this study, we purified insulin-like substance (ILS) in the human pancreatic juice by the combined use of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amino acid sequence of ILS in the N-terminal region is the same as that of human insulin. The influence of the enzymes present in the pancreatic juice on the RIA procedure, was examined. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase showed steep influences on radioactivity. The addition of enzyme inhibitors could not reduce pseudo-activity, but the elimination of enzymes in the pancreatic juice by ultrafiltration with the Mole-Cut (Millipore, Japan) resulted in a lowering of the pseudo-insulin activity. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B coupled with anti-porcine insulin was used to capture ILS. ILS was eluted by 1 M acetic acid from the affinity column monitoring pH and the insulin activity by RIA. The amino acid sequences of two components of ILS in amino terminal region were Phe-Val and Gly-Ile-Val. This indicates that ILS obtained from human pancreatic juice was the insulin derived from endocrine secretion of pancreas.

  14. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  15. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  16. Chicken Juice Enhances Surface Attachment and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L.; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J.; Cross, Kathryn L.; Betts, Roy P.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain. PMID:25192991

  17. Protective Effects of near nile Juice Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating liver protection mechanism of bear bile juice (Fel Ursiby inducing liver toxicity through CCl4 in mice and evaluated histological and serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, CCl4 treated control group, and orally administered bear bile juice experiment group. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as histological findings, and Total protein, Albumin, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin SGOT, SGPT, and ALP contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. For gross examination and histological findings, CCl4 treated control group showed destroyed lobular structure, increased fibrosis, as well as hepatic cirrhosis. For the group treated with bear bile juice, the lobular structure suffered less damage, and showed lower level of fibrosis and liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. 2. For serum analysis, Total protein and Albumin were significantly increased in the bear bile juice experiment group than the control group. Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin didn't show significant differences between the two groups. SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were significantly decreased in the normal and bear bile juice experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : Taken together, bear bile juice can be effectively used for recovering the liver functions and further researches must be conducted to verify the efficacies of bear bile juice.

  18. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  19. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  20. Identification and characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor from aronia juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozuka, Miyuki [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Human Science, Hokkaido Bunkyo University, Eniwa 061-1449 (Japan); Yamane, Takuya, E-mail: t-yamane@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshihisa [Center for Research and Development Bioresources, Research Organization for University-Community Collaborations, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Nakagaki, Takenori [Institute of Food Sciences, Nakagaki Consulting Engineer Co., Ltd, Nishi-ku, Sakai 593-8328 (Japan); Ohkubo, Iwao [Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Nutrition, Tenshi College, Higashi-ku, Sapporo 065-0013 (Japan); Ariga, Hiroyoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-09-25

    Aronia berries have many potential effects on health, including an antioxidant effect, effect for antimutagenesis, hepatoprotection and cardioprotection, an antidiabetic effect and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. In this study, we found that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) (EC 3.4.14.5). DPP IV is a peptidase that cleaves the N-terminal region of incretins such as glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Inactivation of incretins by DPP IV induces reduction of insulin secretion. Furthermore, we identified that cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside as the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice. DPP IV was inhibited more strongly by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside than by cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The results suggest that DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside present in aronia juice. The antidiabetic effect of aronia juice may be mediated through DPP IV inhibition by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. - Highlights: • DPP IV activity is inhibited by aronia juice. • DPP IV inhibitor is cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside in aronia juice. • DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside more than cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside.

  1. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine.

  2. Gastric juice for the diagnosis of H pylori infection in patients on proton pump inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed Yakoob; Shahid Rasool; Zaigham Abbas; Wasim Jafri; Shahab Abid; Muhammad Islam; Zubair Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To determine the efficacy of gastric juice polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Hpylon infection in comparison with histology and gastric antral biopsy PCR in patients on a proton pump inhibitor(PPI).METHODS:Eighty-five consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled.Gastric biopsies for histology,PCR and gastric juice were collected at endoscopy for PCR of the H pylori urease C gene (ure C).Sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value (PPV),negative predictive value (NPV),accuracy,positive and negative likelihood ratio for PCR of gastric juice for the H pylori ure C gene was compared to histology and gastric antral biopsy H pylori ure C PCR in patients with and without PPI.RESULTS:Gastric juice PCR was positive in 66 (78%)patients.Histology showed H pylori associated gastritis in 57 (67%).Gastric biopsy PCR was positive in 72 (85%).In patients not taking PPI,the sensitivity,specificity,PPV,NPV,accuracy and positive and negative likelihood ratio for gastric juice PCR were 89%,72%,91%,67%,90%,85%,3.1 and 0.1 respectively.In patients on PPI these values were 86%,100%%,100%,29%,86%,9.5 and 1.4,respectively.CONCLUSION:Gastric juice PCR for the diagnosis of H pylori infection has increased sensitivity compared to histology with PPI.The use of gastric juice PCR is recommended to confirm H pylori status in patients taking PPIs.

  3. Chicken juice enhances surface attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ≥5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain.

  4. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of storage in juice with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate on the subsequent survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Jo, Seong-Chun; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sun-Min; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-04-30

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about 1.4 g/l was added to juices to obtain calcium supplemented juices. Juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and then were stored at 7 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, or 4 days. The acid resistance of cells stored in juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate was determined by incubating in SGF for 90 or 240 min at 37 degrees C. Cells stored in apple juice for 4 days, carrot juice for 2 days, and orange juice for 4 days with pulp only had greater acid resistance, while all cells stored in tomato juice with pulp had greater acid resistance than cells stored in juice without pulp. The D-values of cells stored in supplemented apple and orange juices with calcium lactate declined 1.7-3.5 fold, whereas D-values of cells stored in supplemented tomato juice decreased by about 1.4-fold when compared to cells stored in juice without calcium lactate after exposure in SGF. These results indicate that storing E. coli O157:H7 in juices with pulp had little or no effect on the acid resistance of cells during subsequent exposure in SGF. Calcium lactate supplemented into juices could dramatically decrease the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in SGF, possibly reducing the risk of foodborne illness by juice products.

  6. Clementine juice has the potential for drug interactions - In vitro comparison with grapefruit and mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theile, Dirk; Hohmann, Nicolas; Kiemel, Dominik; Gattuso, Giuseppe; Barreca, Davide; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schwenger, Vedat; Weiss, Johanna

    2017-01-15

    Adverse drug interactions due to grapefruit juice are well known prompting warnings even in drug labels. Similar issues have not been reported for clementines and available data is scarce, despite of genetic descent. We observed substantially increased tacrolimus trough concentrations in a renal transplant patient consuming high clementine amounts and, thus, scrutinised the effects of clementine juice on drug metabolism and drug transporters in vitro and compared it to the effects of mandarin and grapefruit juice. All citrus juices profoundly induced several drug transporters and drug metabolising enzymes, whereas the effects of grapefruit juice were most pronounced (e.g. 156-fold and 34-fold induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA by grapefruit juice and clementine juice, respectively). However, the juices also inhibited e.g. CYP3A4, raising the question which effect prevails in vivo. Using an enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrated that at least in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition prevails for both grapefruit and clementine juice, whereas for CYP1A2 induction appears to predominate. Thus, inhibition of CYP3A4 is presumably the underlying reason for the observed increase in the concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate tacrolimus in the patient. Taken together, our data indicate that clementine juice as well as grapefruit juice and to a lesser extent also mandarin juice can induce several important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters, but also inhibit some of these proteins. Our data indicate that clementine juice similar to grapefruit juice bears the potential for profound interactions with drugs potentially leading to adverse drug effects e.g. through over-exposure to CYP3A4 substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  8. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  9. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  10. SCATTERING FUNCTION OF POLYMER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-ping Ke; Mei-li Guo; De-lu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    For a system of flexible polymer molecules, the concepts of two concentrations, namely the segmental and the molecular concentrations, have been proposed in this paper. The former is equivalent to the volume fraction. The latter can be defined as the number of the gravity centers of macromolecules in a unit volume. The two concentrations should be correlated with each other by the conformational function of the polymer chain and should be discussed in different thermodynamic equations. On the basis of these concepts it has been proved that the Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing should be the result of the mixing "ideal gases of the gravity centers of macromolecules". The general correlation between the free energy of mixing and the scattering function (structural factor) of polymer blends has been studied based on the general fluctuation theory. When the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing is adopted, the de Gennes scattering function of a polymer blend can be derived.

  11. The contribution of JUICE-PRIDE to Jovian system ephemerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, Dominic; Gurvits, Leonid; Lainey, Valery; Cimo, Giuseppe; Bocanegra-Bahamon, Tatiana; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.; Gastaldello, Niccolò

    2016-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission will perform detailed measurements of the properties of the Galilean moons, with a nominal mission duration of 4 years (2030-2033). Using both radio tracking data, and (Earth- and JUICE-based) optical astrometry, the dynamics of these moons can be derived to unprecedented accuracy. This will provide key input to the creation of ephemerides and the determination of physical properties of the Jovian system. We perform a general analysis of the Galilean moon dynamics that could be observable from JUICE data. Moreover, we specifically analyze the contribution to the ephemerides of VLBI data, obtained with the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) experiment.We perform a sensitivity analysis of the influence on the dynamics of the Galilean system for a wide array of undertainties in gravitational, tidal and rotational characteristics, and analyze the capabilities of the nominal (unperturbed) dynamical model to absorb the influence of these perturbations. Our results indicate that this nominal model can mostly absorb the influence of current uncertainties of the Galilean system's characteristics. A key exception is the dissipation in Io, which will likely be observable in the JUICE tracking data.The VLBI data from PRIDE will provide measurements of the motion of the moons perpendicular to their orbital planes. We perform a covariance analysis of the ephemeris generation for a broad range of mission and system characteristics, providing key input for the further development of the PRIDE observational planning and ground segment development.The results of the covariance analysis show that the VLBI data are crucially important for constraining the out-of-plane dynamics of Ganymede and Callisto. Also, the VLBI data make the ephemerides less dependent on the error in the orbit determination of the JUICE spacecraft itself. Furthermore, we find that optical astrometry data of

  12. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Raúl; Cuenca, Eduardo; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; García-Fernández, Pablo; Serra-Paya, Noemí; Estevan, María Carmen Lozano; Herreros, Pablo Veiga; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

    2017-01-06

    Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine.

  13. Effects of meat juice on biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Feng, Jinsong; Ma, Lina; de la Fuente Núñez, César; Gölz, Greta; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-07-17

    Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, vastly harboured by raw meat as their common food reservoir. Both microbes are prevalent in meat processing environments in the form of biofilms that contribute to cross-contamination and foodborne infection. This study applied raw meat juice (chicken juice and pork juice) as a minimally processed food model to study its effects on bacterial biofilm formation. Meat juice was collected during the freeze-thaw process of raw meat and sterilized by filtration. In 96-well polystyrene plates and glass chambers, supplementation of over 25% meat juice (v/v) in laboratory media led to an increase in biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. During the initial attachment stage of biofilm development, more bacterial cells were present on surfaces treated with meat juice residues compared to control surfaces. Meat juice particulates on abiotic surfaces facilitated biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella under both static and flow conditions, with the latter being assessed using a microfluidic platform. Further, the deficiency in biofilm formation of selected Campylobacter and Salmonella mutant strains was restored in the presence of meat juice particulates. These results suggested that meat juice residues on the abiotic surfaces might act as a surface conditioner to support initial attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. This study sheds light on a possible survival mechanism of Campylobacter and Salmonella in meat processing environments, and indicates that thorough cleaning of meat residues during meat production and handling is critical to reduce the bacterial load of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Domínguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO, which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  16. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  17. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  18. Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50 ± 2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage.

  19. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  20. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange...

  1. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorg

  2. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and label...

  3. Effect of Blending Ratio on the Properties of Ramie/Polyester Blended Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the blending ratio on the properties of Ramie/Polyester blended yarns are discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the elongation of the yarn with the polyester content more than 40% is better than that of others. There is a lowest tenacity of the yarn corresponding to the blending ratio of 50/50 or so. The other properties of the yarn, such as the evenness and hairiness, will be improved with the increasing of the polyester content.

  4. Blending effects on coal burnout and NO emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arias; R. Backreedy; A. Arenillas; J.M. Jones; F. Rubiera; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the combustion behaviour of individual coals of different rank and their blends was evaluated. The study was focused on burnout and NO emissions during blend combustion. Preliminary combustion tests of the coals and their blends were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Some characteristic temperatures were obtained to evaluate the combustibility of the samples. These temperatures indicate an improvement in the combustibility of the less reactive coal when it is blended. An entrained flow reactor (EFR) was employed to study the behaviour of the samples at high heating rates and short residence times. Burnout and NO emissions were measured during EFR combustion tests. In some blends the results can be predicted from the weighted average of the values of the individual coals. However, other blends show an increase, from the averaged values, in burnout and especially in NO emissions. 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The methodology has...... been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  6. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  7. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  8. Quality of pasteurised pineapple juice in the context of the Beninese marketing system

    OpenAIRE

    Hounhouigan, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a result of the interdisciplinary project Co-Innovation for Quality in African Food Chains (CoQA). The objective of the research was to improve the quality of pasteurised pineapple juice taking the characteristics of the Beninese pineapple marketing system into account. The specific objectives were to: (i) evaluate the adaptation of Beninese pineapple marketing system to the introduction of the pasteurised pineapple juice business; (ii) assess the extent to which pineapples with...

  9. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Maria Cecília Oliveira; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Souza Filho,Men de Sá Moreira de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    2003-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensoria...

  10. Blended Learning Environments and Suggesstions for Blended Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda DAĞ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies in blended learning field, which has gained importance by being reinterpreted with the effect of the developments in information and communication technologies, has been increasing recently. There have been many diverse approaches in these studies on the point of defining blended learning and on the point of which components of blended learning environments need blending and how they are blended. The aim of this study is to examine national and international studies in blended learning in higher education and to make suggestions about necessary components for designing an effective blended learning environment. Within this framework the studies on blended learning, which were accessible online, were examined from the perspectives of research methods that were used, preferred e-learning environments and/or e-learning methods, preferred face to face learning/teaching strategies and the methods used in the evaluation of blended learning. In the light of the findings it is seen that blended learning should be regarded as a teaching design approach in order to create effectively blended learning environments and it is hoped that the suggestions made will be lodestar in forming blended learning models for diverse learning fields.

  11. Supporting School Leaders in Blended Learning with Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Lauren; Gibson, Theresa; Mangum, Nancy; Wolf, Mary Ann; Kellogg, Shaun; Branon, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a mixed-methods case-study design evaluation of the Leadership in Blended Learning (LBL) program. The LBL program uses blended approaches, including face-to-face and online, to prepare school leaders to implement blended learning initiatives in their schools. This evaluation found that the program designers effectively…

  12. 新鲜果蔬汁稳定性比较%Stability Comparison of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Juices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张銮; 王卫; 金春

    2012-01-01

    The stability and the stable time of fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, pineapple juice and orange juice were analyzed in this paper. Color, flavor, aroma, acid value, clarity of FVJ were determined to assess the stability of FVJ. Results indicated that the color of FVJ changed great- ly after 30 min, especially the watermelon juice, orange juice and cucumber juice; the flavor and aroma of FVJ declined gradually after 10 min; the cucumber juice, pineapple juice, carrot juice, orange juice and to- mato juice were smelling after 3 h; the watermelon juice was smelling after 1 h; the clarity of FVJ decreased continuously after 10 min; the last surface images showed that there were visible deterioration phenomena for FVJ after 7 h. Based on those results, the fresh watermelon juice, cucumber juice, tomato juice, carrot juice, cucumber juice or watermelon juice should be consumed within 30 min after its preparation so as to maintain its natural flavor and aroma.%探讨了新鲜番茄汁、西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、橘子汁、菠萝汁及胡萝卜汁的稳定性及稳定时间.通过分析各种果蔬汁的色泽、滋味、香气、酸值、澄清度在放置期间的变化.实验发现:各种果蔬汁在制备30min后其色泽有较大变化,尤其是西瓜汁、桔子汁及黄瓜汁;在制备10min后各种果蔬汁的滋味、香气持续下降,放置3h后,黄瓜汁、菠萝汁、胡萝卜汁、桔子汁及番茄汁出现异味,放置1h后西瓜汁出现异味;放置10min后,各种果蔬汁的澄清度随时间增加持续下降;果蔬汁放置后期的实验显示,7h后出现肉眼可见变质现象.实验表明,新鲜西瓜汁、黄瓜汁、番茄汁、胡萝卜汁、黄瓜汁及西瓜汁应在制作后30rain内饮用,以最大程度保留其风味和滋味,而不宜1h后饮用.

  13. AKRO/SF: Blend System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blend was the system used by the NMFS Alaska Regional Office to monitor groundfish catch from 1991 until 2002. The Blend system combined data from industry...

  14. Control panels of meat juice samples for a Salmonella enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    In the Danish pig production system, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies in meat juice is used for Salmonella surveillance. Quality control (QC) of this ELISA was previously based on repeated testing of control serum samples. The purpose of the study...... reported here was to collect, characterize, and implement a panel of meat juice pools for supplemental internal QC. Muscle samples for extraction of meat juice were collected from slaughter pigs of 5 herds infected with Salmonella spp. and from 4 herds without Salmonella infection. A QC panel with 39 pools...... of meat juice, yielding ELISA optical density (OD) values covering the full range of expected OD values, was prepared and tested repeatedly to determine mean and SD OD values. Each pool was tested twice on each microtitration plate, and the results were used to determine limits for validity of future...

  15. Improving the antioxidant functionality of Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) fruit juice by underwater shockwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraya, Eisuke; Nakada, Shina; Touyama, Akiko; Itoh, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma, and hence, yuzu juice is used in a number of Japanese foods. We herein evaluated the functional compounds of yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its functionality. Employing the shockwave pretreatment at an increased discharge and energy of 3.5kV and 4.9kJ, respectively, resulted in an increase in the flavanone glycoside content and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC value of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata increased approximately 1.7 times upon underwater shockwave pretreatment. The treatment method proposed herein exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of functional and antioxidant chemicals in yuzu fruits, and was comparable with traditional squeezing methods. The high applicability and reliability of this technique for improving the antioxidant functionality of yuzu fruit juice was demonstrated, confirming the potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes.

  16. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume.

  17. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scientificstudies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ. Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ. The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p. was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p

  18. Effect of activated charcoal on patulin, fumaric acid and some other properties of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakal, C; Nas, S

    2002-02-01

    In this study, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/l amounts of activated charcoal (AC) were added into apple juice with a patulin content of 62.3 ppb obtained from a well-established manufacturing company. Apple juice samples were then mixed for 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Considerable reduction in the patulin and HMF values was found while there is a dramatic improvement in the colour and clearness of apple juice. However, AC did not cause a significant decrease in the fumaric acid level of apple juice. The best result was obtained at 3.0 g/l AC mixed for 5 min. In addition, a negligible reduction in brix and pH values of samples was observed.

  19. MicroRNA Expression Analyses in Preoperative Pancreatic Juice Samples of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Sadakari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Cytological assessment of pancreatic juice is commonly used to diagnose pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; however, the sensitivity of cytological assessment has been reported to be low. MicroRNAs are small RNAs regulating various cellular processes and have recently been identified as possible markers of malignant diseases including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Objective The purposes of this study were to prove the existence of microRNAs in pancreatic juice and to determine whether specific microRNAs in pancreatic juice could be used for detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of resected specimens (no. 13 and pancreatic juice samples collected using preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (no. 21 were quantified and their expression levels were then compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. Results Relative expression levels of microRNA-21 in tissue and pancreatic juice samples were significantly higher in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma than those in chronic pancreatitis (P=0.009 and P=0.021, respectively. The same results were obtained in the expression levels of microRNA-155 in tissue and pancreatic juice between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis (P=0.014 and P=0.021, respectively. Expression levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-155 did not correlate with the preoperative cytological results of pancreatic juice. Conclusion MicroRNA-21 and microRNA-155 in pancreatic juice have the potential of becoming biomarkers for diagnosing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Polymer Blends. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    PBI/ ULTEM NEAT RESIN MOLDING EVALUATIONS 18 2.1.3 85/15 PBI/ ULTEM COMPOSITE EVALUATIONS 22 2.1.4 FIRST GENERATION SUMMARY 26 2.2 IMPROVED PBI/"BEST...PBI 37 2.2.4 85/15 eCPBI-2/ ULTEM NEAT RESIN EVALUATIONS 42 2.2.5 SECOND GENERATION SUMMARY 45 2.3 IMPROVED PBI/6F POLYIMIDE BLENDS: THIRD GENERATION...PYROMELLITIC DIANHYDRIDE 100 A1.2 REVIEW AND RISK ANALYSIS 105 iv FIGURES FIGURE PAGE # I HIGH PERFORMANCE POLYMER BLENDS PLAN 6 2 PBI/ ULTEM SEPARATION

  1. Game innovation through conceptual blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    In  this  paper  I  wish  to  apply implications of  the  Conceptual  Blending  Theory  to  computer  games.  I  will  analyze  chosen  examples  and  discuss  them  as  a  result  of  video  game  innovation  made  possible  through  "conceptual  blending."  Conceptual  blending  links  at  least......  integration  network  consisting  of  at  least  two  input  spaces,  a  generic  space  and  a  blended  space  as  well  as  its  governing  principles  consisting  of  composition,  completion,  and  elaboration.  With  the  help  of  these  instruments  I  analyze computer  games like  Tuper  Tario  Tros.......,  Hell.  The  purpose  of  my  approach  is  not  so  much  to  validate  the  ideas  of  conceptual  blending  theory  through  another  field  of  examples  (computer  games)  but  to  name  and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the  help of a given method....

  2. Game innovation through conceptual blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    In  this  paper  I  wish  to  apply implications of  the  Conceptual  Blending  Theory  to  computer  games.  I  will  analyze  chosen  examples  and  discuss  them  as  a  result  of  video  game  innovation  made  possible  through  "conceptual  blending."  Conceptual  blending  links  at  least.......,  Hell.  The  purpose  of  my  approach  is  not  so  much  to  validate  the  ideas  of  conceptual  blending  theory  through  another  field  of  examples  (computer  games)  but  to  name  and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the  help of a given method.......  integration  network  consisting  of  at  least  two  input  spaces,  a  generic  space  and  a  blended  space  as  well  as  its  governing  principles  consisting  of  composition,  completion,  and  elaboration.  With  the  help  of  these  instruments  I  analyze computer  games like  Tuper  Tario  Tros...

  3. Effects of thermal processing and pulp filtration on physical, chemical and sensory properties of winter melon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John A; Duan, Yongping; Bai, Jinhe

    2017-01-01

    Winter melon (Benincasa hispida) is a widely consumed crop in Asia, and believed to impart special benefits to human health. The nutritional composition and sensory properties of four juice types, resulting from a combination of pulp levels (low/high pulp, LP/HP) and thermal processing (with/without boiling, B/NB), LPNB, HPNB, LPB and HPB, were compared. The juices had low sugars (juice were significantly lower than in HP juice. The phenolic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were detected at 10-45 mg L(-1) levels, and the antioxidant activity ranged from 36 to 49 mg gallic acid L(-1) . C6 and C9 aldehydes were mainly found in HP juice, and boiling induced the accumulation of sulfur compounds and C5 aldehydes. The LPNB juice showed the highest acceptability in the sensory panel. The frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) reconstituted with LPNB was preferable to regular FCOJ for 31% of panelists and not different for 20% of panelists. The low sugar/low acid LPNB juice with 'fresh' flavor could be developed to replace water for reconstituting FCOJ with enhanced nutritional value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Topographic and radiographic profile assessment of dental erosion. Part II: effect of citrus fruit juices on human dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A; Yang, Jie; Kuroda, Shuntaro

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to monitor changes in the topography, morphology, and radiographic profiles of human permanent teeth that had been exposed to citrus fruit juices. The effect of long-term exposure was monitored for a prolonged duration of 20 weeks according to set criteria. Topographic and morphologic changes were observed at weekly intervals following challenge by test fluids (orange, lemon, and grapefruit juices) and compared with control fluids (acetic acid and water). The qualitative changes in the specimens' topography and the morphology of citrus fruit juices and control fluids are described as a function of time, in specific details. The digitized radiographic images obtained at four-week intervals were analyzed and the changes were assessed. The results indicated that orange juice specimens demonstrated the mildest changes, while lemon juice specimens displayed the most severe damage to the coronal segments of the teeth. This damage manifested as loss of cusp height, cervical enamel, and coronal radius, as well as reduction of enamel cap height. Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression.

  6. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and least-squares support vector machine to determine quality change of tomato juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Yi-bin YING

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy combined with least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was investigated to study the quality change of tomato juice during the storage. A total of 100 tomato juice samples were used. The spectrum of each tomato juice was collected twice: the first measurement was taken when the tomato juice was fresh and had not undergone any changes, and the second measurement was taken after a month. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to examine a potential capability of separating juice before and after the storage. The soluble solid content (SSC) and pH of the juice samples were determined. The results show that changes in certain compounds between tomato juice before and after the storage period were obvious. An excellent precision was achieved by LS-SVM model compared with discriminant partial least-squares (DPLS), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) models, with 100% of a total accuracy. It can be found that N1R spectroscopy coupled with LS-SVM, DPLS, SIMCA, and DA can be used to control the quality change of tomato juice during the storage.

  7. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  8. Sustainability as Sales Argument in the Fruit Juice Industry? An Analysis of On-Product Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Klink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Purpose/Value – The objective of this paper is to determine (1 the extent to which sustainability serves as a sales argument and (2 which areas of sustainability are communicated in the fruit juice industry. This seems promising against the background that there are several ethical challenges the fruit juice chain is increasingly confronted with and consumers demand for sustainable products is also rising. Design/Methodology – A market investigation at the Point-of Sale (POS was conducted in July 2013. On-product communication of all fruit juice products (‘not from concentrate (NFC’ fruit juices, ’reconstituted (RECON’ fruit juices, fruit nectars and smoothies from five retailers (two full-range retailers, two discounters, one organic supermarket was analyzed. The data was evaluated using content analysis. Results/Findings – Overall, 562 fruit juices were examined. Results reveal that nearly one quarter of the products has labels signaling sustainable aspects. However, most of those products were found in the organic food retailer and are organic juices. Only a small number of products consider other areas of sustainability, such as social concerns or regional production. Discussion/Conclusion – Communicating sustainability aspects of fruit juice production via on-package labels is scarce in conventional retail stores. In view of the ethical challenges present in the fruit juice chain and discussed in the paper, the increasing demand of consumers for sustainable products and the high competition in the sector, communicating different sustainability aspects can be an opportunity for fruit juice producers and retailers to differentiate their products on the highly saturated fruit juice market.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  9. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part II: volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles in the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Zhu, Danping; Sng, Jingting; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2012-09-15

    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.

  10. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.

  11. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Shashi Kishor; Wan, Zifan; Colonna, William; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality-based comparison of cold plasma treatment with thermal pasteurization treatment of white grape juice was done. HVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in a 7.4 log10 CFU mL(-1) reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any significant (P > 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. An increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed, but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, but they were found to be comparable to those resulting from thermal pasteurization. An increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments. HVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found to be comparable to thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Combined pressure-temperature effects on carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility in tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rockendra; Kopec, Rachel E; Schwartz, Steven J; Balasubramaniam, V M

    2011-07-27

    This study highlights the changes in lycopene and β-carotene retention in tomato juice subjected to combined pressure-temperature (P-T) treatments ((high-pressure processing (HPP; 500-700 MPa, 30 °C), pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 500-700 MPa, 100 °C), and thermal processing (TP; 0.1 MPa, 100 °C)) for up to 10 min. Processing treatments utilized raw (untreated) and hot break (∼93 °C, 60 s) tomato juice as controls. Changes in bioaccessibility of these carotenoids as a result of processing were also studied. Microscopy was applied to better understand processing-induced microscopic changes. TP did not alter the lycopene content of the tomato juice. HPP and PATP treatments resulted in up to 12% increases in lycopene extractability. all-trans-β-Carotene showed significant degradation (p temperature, and time. Its retention in processed samples varied between 60 and 95% of levels originally present in the control. Regardless of the processing conditions used, lycopene appeared in the form of micelles (lycopene crystals in HPP and PATP processed juice than in thermally processed juice. However, lycopene crystals did appear to be enveloped regardless of the processing conditions used. The processed juice (HPP, PATP, TP) showed significantly higher (p lycopene extractability. However, the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was not significantly different among the treatments (TP, PATP, HPP) investigated.

  14. [NIR spectroscopy based on least square support vector machines for quality prediction of tomato juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Wang, Hui-jun; Xu, Hui-rong; Wang, Jian-ping; Ying, Yi-bin

    2009-04-01

    The application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method based on statistics study theory to the analysis with near infrared (NIR) spectra of tomato juice was introduced in the present paper. In this method, LS-SVM was used for establishing model of spectral analysis, and was applied to predict the sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) in tomato juice samples. NIR transmission spectra of tomato juice were measured in the spectral range of 800-2,500 nm using InGaAs detector. The radial basis function (RBF) was adopted as a kernel function of LS-SVM. Sixty seven tomato juice samples were used as calibration set, and thirty three samples were used as validation set. The results of the method for sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) prediction were: a high correlation coefficient of 0.9903 and 0.9675, and a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0056 degree Brix and 0.0245, respectively. And compared to PLS and PCR methods, the performance of the LSSVM method was better. The results indicated that it was possible to built statistic models to quantify some common components in tomato juice using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure, and LS-SVM could be a rapid and accurate method for juice components determination based on NIR spectra.

  15. Damage initiated self-healing in ionomer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Penco, Maurizio; Spagnoli, Gloria; Peroni, Isabella; Ramorino, Giorgio; Sartore, Luciana; Bignotti, Fabio; Landro, Luca Di

    2012-07-01

    The development and understanding of self-healing mechanisms have been investigated in blends of ionomers (Poly(ethyelene-co-methacrylic acid), sodium & zinc ions) (EMNa & EMZn) containing both elastomers (Epoxidized natural rubbers (ENR) and cis-1,4-Polyisoprene (PISP)) and crystalline component (Poly(vinly alcohol-co-ethylene) [PVAcE]) as secondary phases. All the blends were prepared by melt-blending and self-healing behavior was studied in ballistic puncture tests. Self-healing behavior of each material was evaluated by observing the impact zones under a stereo-optical microscope and the micrographic results were further supported by the fluid flow test in the punctured zones. Interestingly, ENR50 blends of sodium ion containing ionomers exhibited complete self-repairing behavior while zinc ion containing ionomer showed limited mending but EMNa/ENR25 and EMNa/PISP blends did not show any self-healing behavior following the damage. On the other hand, a composition dependent healing behavior was observed in the EMNa/PVAcE blends where healing was observed up to 30wt% PVAcE containing blends. The chemical structure studied by FTIR analysis showed that both ion content of ionomer and functionality of ENR have significant influence on the self-repairing behavior of blends. TEM analysis revealed that self-healing occurs in the blends when the dispersed phase has a dimension of 100 to 400 nm.

  16. PHA-rubber blends: synthesis, characterization and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rachana; Shah, Dishma; Patel, K C; Trivedi, Ujjval

    2008-07-01

    Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) and different rubbers; namely natural rubber, nitrile rubber and butadiene rubber were blended at room temperature using solution blending technique. Blends constituted 5%, 10% and 15% of mcl-PHA in different rubbers. Thermogravimetric analysis of mcl-PHA showed the melting temperature of the polymer around 50 degrees C. Thermal properties of the synthesized blend were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry which confirmed effective blending between the polymers. Blending of mcl-PHA with natural rubber led to the synthesis of a different polymer having the melting point of 90 degrees C. Degradation studies of the blends were carried out using a soil isolate, Pseudomonas sp. 202 for 30 days. Extracellular protein concentration as well as OD660 due to the growth of Pseudomonas sp. 202 was studied. The degradation of blended plastic material, as evidenced by % weight loss after degradation and increase in the growth of organism correlated with the amount of mcl-PHA present in the sample. Growth of Pseudomonas sp. 202 resulted in 14.63%, 16.12% and 3.84% weight loss of PHA:rubber blends (natural, nitrile and butadiene rubber). Scanning electron microscopic studies after 30 days of incubation further confirmed biodegradation of the films.

  17. Silk fibroin and sodium alginate blend: Miscibility and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini de Moraes, Mariana; Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Weska, Raquel Farias; Beppu, Marisa Masumi, E-mail: beppu@feq.unicamp.br

    2014-07-01

    Films of silk fibroin (SF) and sodium alginate (SA) blends were prepared by solution casting technique. The miscibility of SF and SA in those blends was evaluated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SF/SA 25/75 wt.% blends underwent microscopic phase separation, resulting in globular structures composed mainly of SF. X-ray diffraction indicated the amorphous nature of these blends, even after a treatment with ethanol that turned them insoluble in water. Thermal analyses of blends showed the peaks of degradation of pristine SF and SA shifted to intermediate temperatures. Water vapor permeability, swelling capacity and tensile strength of SF films could be enhanced by blending with SA. Cell viability remained between 90 and 100%, as indicated by in vitro cytotoxicity test. The SF/SA blend with self-assembled SF globules can be used to modulate structural and mechanical properties of the final material and may be used in designing high performance wound dressing. - Highlights: • Blend films of fibroin and alginate were prepared with microscopic phase separation; • Self-assembled globular microdomains were mainly composed by fibroin; • It was possible to obtain a film with better mechanical and physical properties; • Blend films of fibroin and alginate represent a novel material in biomaterials field.

  18. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  19. Salad Leaf Juices Enhance Salmonella Growth, Colonization of Fresh Produce, and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkidis, Giannis; Haigh, Richard; Allcock, Natalie; Jordan, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    behavior of Salmonella in the actual salad bag. We show that juices released from the cut ends of the salad leaves enabled the Salmonella cells to grow in water, even when it was refrigerated. Salad juice exposure also helped the Salmonella cells to attach to the salad leaves so strongly that washing could not remove them. Collectively, the results presented in this report show that exposure to even traces of salad leaf juice may contribute to the persistence of Salmonella on salad leaves as well as priming it for establishing an infection in the consumer. PMID:27864173

  20. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  1. Dynamical modelling of the Galilean moons for the JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Lainey, V.; Gurvits, L. I.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Radio tracking and astrometric data obtained by the JUICE mission, using the PRIDE, 3GM and JANUS instruments, will allow the dynamics of the Galilean moons to be measured to unprecedented accuracy. As a result, the dynamical models used for creating ephemerides from these data will most likely require the inclusion of various heretofore neglected physical effects. To determine which effects will need to be included, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the influence on the dynamics of the system for a wide array of gravitational, tidal and rotational characteristics of the system. We estimate the dynamics of the Galilean moons with a given perturbation turned off, using ideal three-dimensional measurements of the satellites' positions generated with these perturbations turned on. In doing so, we assess the capabilities of the nominal dynamical model to absorb the influence of this perturbations. We analyze the dynamical behaviour over a period of five years, and limit our analysis to effects that may be observable from JUICE radio tracking and optical astrometry data. Our simulations comprise a short-period (5 years) sensitivity analysis of the dynamics of the moons, and not a simulation of the tracking data inversion for JUICE. Our analysis indicates that the nominal dynamical model of the Galilean satellites can very efficiently absorb the influence of the current uncertainties in most of the physical parameters of the Jovian system, to a level where these uncertainties will not be influential for JUICE-derived ephemerides. An important exception is the influence of tidal dissipation: the k2 / Q of Io will be clearly observable by JUICE tracking data, which will be strongly correlated with the weaker effect of Jupiter's k2 / Q . The dissipation inside Europa may also be weakly constrained by JUICE tracking data. Without improvements in the Jovian gravity field from the Juno mission, the estimation of Jupiter zonal gravity field coefficients at degrees 2, 3 and 5

  2. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  3. for a cottage cashew juice factory.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities under the small-scale enterprise scheme to adopt this technology. Introduction ... export earnings in Nigeria which increased to N743 ... areas and further increase in world .... Cost, Returns and Probability of the juice Extraction Factory.

  4. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  5. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  6. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... in retailing and also in the FCOJ (Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice) supply. These changes are threatening and also bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has two objectives.

  7. Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Pomegranate juice's valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the effect of frozen storage at -25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components, measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu assay by means of a UV-vis spectrophotometer, decreased by 29% after 20 days of frozen storage. Antioxidant activity, measured based on the radical scavenging properties of the juice using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, decreased by 50% after 20 days of frozen storage. Pomegranate juice has 5 major anthocyanins, including Cyanidin 3-glucoside, Cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, Delphinidin 3-glucoside, Pelargonidin 3-glucoside and Pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside are 5 major anthocyanins of pomegranate juice. They were measured using the LC-MS method and results showed that Pelargonidin 3,5- diglucoside had the greatest decrease. Also, the LC-MS method showed that ellagic acid decreased by 15%.

  8. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  9. Explorative study of apple juice fluorescence in relation to antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Lemańska, Katarzyna; Khmelinskii, Igor; Sikorska, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    Total fluorescence spectra (excitation-emission matrices, EEM) were recorded for a series of commercial apple juices, including clear and cloudy juices produced from concentrate, cloudy juices that were not from concentrate, and freshly squeezed juices. An exploratory study of the spectra with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed three groups of fluorophores with different emission properties, and these properties were characterized by excitation/emission maxima at 270/315nm, (310, 370)/455nm, and 430/(550, 680)nm, respectively. A regression analysis of the total fluorescence spectra arranged into three-way arrays using N-way partial least squares regression methods (NPLS1 and NPLS2) and an analysis of the unfolded spectra by partial least squares methods (PLS1 and PLS2) revealed quantitative relations between the fluorescence and antioxidant properties of juices. The best models for the total phenolic contents and total antioxidant capacities were obtained by applying the NPLS1 method to the EEM. The model parameters were as follows: R(2)CV=0.802, RPD=2.3 for the total phenolic content and R(2)CV=0.808 and RPD=2.3 for the total antioxidant capacity. These results show the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy for screening apple juices for their antioxidant properties.

  10. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers of oxida......Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers...... of oxidative status. Design: This was a crossover study with 3 doses of juice (750, 1000, and 1500 mL) consumed for 1 wk by 4 women and 1 man corresponding to an intake of 4.8, 6.4, and 9.6 mg quercetin/d. Results: Urinary excretion of quercetin increased significantly with dose and with time. The fraction...... excreted in urine was 0.29-0.47%. Plasma quercetin did not change with juice inter vention, Plasma ascorbate increased during intervention because of the ascorbate in the juice. Total plasma malondialdehyde decreased with time during the 1500-mL juice intervention, indicating reduced lipid oxidation...

  12. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  13. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit and vegetable intervention for fourth grade students. Methods At six of the 10 sessions, students (n = 671 selected a fruit-juice or vegetable recipe to prepare at home before the next session. Students returned parent-signed notes reporting their child's goal attainment. Baseline and post consumption were assessed with up to four days of dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting post consumption from the number of fruit-juice or vegetable recipe preparation goals attained, controlling for baseline consumption. Results In general, girls and Hispanic students achieved the most recipe preparation goals. For students with highest baseline fruit-juice consumption, post fruit-juice consumption was higher by about 1.0 serving for those achieving 2 or 3 fruit-juice recipe preparation goals. Post vegetable consumption was highest for students reporting the highest baseline vegetable consumption and who achieved two or three vegetable recipe preparation goals. In general, recipe goal setting was a useful procedure primarily for those with high baseline consumption. Conclusion This is one of the first reports demonstrating that home recipe preparation was correlated with dietary change among children.

  14. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanie Devi Deenanath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1 and fructose (57.06 gL−1. Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1, Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL, and total protein (1.78 gL−1. The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm, copper (2.18 ppm, magnesium (4.32 ppm, iron (1.32 ppm, sodium (5.44 ppm, and manganese (1.24 ppm. With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production.

  15. Phenolic compounds in juice of “Isabel” grape treated with abscisic acid for color improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Lilian Yukari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isabel grape is the main cultivar used to produce juice in Brazil, which has rusticity and high productivity, but it is deficient in anthocyanins, a pigment responsible for the color. Thus, an alternative is the application of abscisic acid (S-ABA, which is responsible to promote the synthesis of anthocyanins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the phenolic compounds composition in “Isabel” grape juice treated with S-ABA, by HPLC-DAD–ESI-MS/MS technique. The results showed the increasing in total anthocyanin concentration in juices, with S-ABA treatments, as well as the proportion of B-ring tri-substituted anthocyanidins. Regarding total flavonols, differences were only significant in juices obtained in 2012 season. S-ABA treatments did not significantly affect the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavan-3-ols, resveratrol and antioxidant capacity of juices. Juice from “Isabel” grapes treated with S-ABA provides an enhancement of total anthocyanin concentration, mainly when grapes are treated before or at the onset of véraison.

  16. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  17. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of South African Cashew Apple Juice as a Biofuel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160

  18. Lactic acid production from date juice using lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 in batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaavessina Mujtahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was employed as a fermentative organism to convert sugars from date juice into lactic acid. Both glucose and fructose in date juice were fermented directly without any pretreatment. The influences of supplementation of yeast extract and date juice concentration on some fermentation parameters, such as: cell growth rate, sugar conversion, productivity and yield, were investigated using this bacterium in batch fermentation. The results showed that by adding yeast extract about 20g/l in a date juice medium, the maximum specific growth rate of bacteria (μm enhanced from 0.1229 to 0.1819 g/l. Meanwhile, increasing date juice concentration from 86.6942 to 158.9181 and 229.5367 g/l enhanced the μm from 0.1819 to 0.2107 and 0.1916 g/l, respectively. It indicated that the optimum value for μm is 0.2107 g/l in this concentration range. In the date juice concentration of 158.9181 g/l, the optimum lactic acid can be produced is 117.8301 g/l with yield of 92.685% for 48 h.

  19. Present knowledge of the bacterial microflora in the extreme environment of sugar thick juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justé, Annelies; Lievens, Bart; Frans, Ingeborg; Klingeberg, Michael; Michiels, Chris W; Willems, Kris A

    2008-09-01

    The diversity of the bacterial population in sugar thick juice, an intermediate product in the production of beet sugar, which exhibits an extreme, osmophilic environment with a water activity value (a(w)) less than 0.86, was assessed with both culture-dependent and -independent 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based analyses. In comparison with previous studies, the number of different thick juice bacterial species increased from 29 to 72. Remarkably, a limited, gram-positive, culturable flora, encompassing species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus and mainly Tetragenococcus dominated thick juice during storage, while a more heterogeneous and unculturable fraction of Acinetobacter, Sporolactobacillus and Thermus species could be detected in freshly produced thick juice. Notably, almost all bacteria detected in the thick juice were also detected in the air, emphasising the importance of further investigation and assessment of strategies to reduce (air) contamination during processing and storage. The discovery of the contamination source may be used for the development of management strategies for thick juice degradation resulting from microbial activity.

  20. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  1. Shaji Juice, Healthy Drink from Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ We are going to promote the Shaji juice to the world. At present, it has been sold to overseas markets including Japan and Taiwan. The Shaji products, such as Shaji juice and Shaji milk, are organic beverages which have not only very nice tastes, but also be very good to health.Therefore, I am very confident that it will be accepted by the international market.Standard Chartered Bank Outlines China

  2. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  3. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  5. Potential interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Kathy E

    2009-08-01

    To my knowledge, no published reports have described an interaction between pomegranate juice and warfarin. Investigators from previous animal and in vitro studies have reported a potential for pomegranate juice to inhibit metabolism involving the cytochrome P450 system, an effect that could translate into a clinical drug-diet interaction with warfarin. This case report describes a 64-year-old Caucasian woman who was treated with warfarin for recurrent deep vein thrombosis. She had been receiving a relatively stable dosage of warfarin 4 mg/day for several months, with stable international normalized ratios (INRs). During that time, the patient was consuming pomegranate juice 2-3 times/week. She stopped drinking the juice, and her INRs became subtherapeutic. Her dosage of warfarin was increased to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation. No rechallenge with pomegranate juice was performed. Use of the Drug Interaction Probability Scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's subtherapeutic INR and the pomegranate juice. Although this potential interaction needs to be explored further, clinicians should be aware of the interaction and thoroughly interview and closely monitor their patients who are receiving warfarin.

  6. No influence of increased intake of orange and blackcurrant juices and dietary amounts of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Jonung, Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    by dietary factors like the antioxidants. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined the effect of antioxidant-rich orange and blackcurrant juices and vitamin E supplement on PON1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, we studied whether genetic polymorphisms in the PON1 gene predicted...... the change in PON1 activity. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-over trial with 48 participants who received two of the four possible treatments: (1) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice; (2) 15 mg vitamin E; (3) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice and 15 mg vitamin E...... significant interaction was observed between treatment and PON1 genotype, such that PON1 activity increased after juice alone in patients carrying the PON1 L55-allele. Results need to be interpreted with care since the study population was relatively small. CONCLUSION: Consumption of orange and blackcurrant...

  7. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  8. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  9. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ VIEWS ON BLENDED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Umit YAPICI,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students’ views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of “Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity” with 47 9th grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010. The lessons were taught in a way appropriate to the blended learning model both via the Internet and on face-to-face basis. As the online dimension of the blended learning model, Moodle, a Learning Management System (LMS, was used. The application lasted 10 weeks. The scale of learners’ views on blended learning was applied and interviews were held to determine the views. As a result of the analysis of the scale, it was seen that their views were “highly” positive. The interviews held with the students revealed that the blended learning model provided students with various opportunities such as getting prepared for the lessons, reviewing the lessons as many times as wanted, reaching the subject-related materials without being dependent on time and place, testing oneself and communicating with the teacher and other students out of the school. The interviews also revealed that there were various problems though such as lack of Internet connection at home and problems experienced while playing the videos.

  10. Effects on results of occult blood test in gastric juice at different pH values by two gold immunochromatographic assay strips%pH值对两种胶体金试剂条检测胃液潜血的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁冬冬; 陈英利; 李翀; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of different PH values on the results of occult blood test in gastric juice. Methods:In the neutral environment, the minimum detection limit of two kinds of occult blood test strip was measured by gradually increasing the hemoglobin concentration; To adjust the PH value of fresh gastric juice in 5 mol/L NaOH solution and determine the critical PH value, hemoglobin can be detected at this critical PH value; at the critical PH value, hemoglobin concentration and measurement time were changed to detect their influence on the test results. Results; The minimum detection limit of two kinds of occult blood test strip respectively were 0.2 jig/ml and 0.4 μg/ml; As PH value of gastric juice was 3. 7, hemoglobin can not be detected, while PH < 3.7, increase of hemoglobin concentration can tentatively extend the time for positive occult blood test results. Conclusion:In PH <3.7 acid environment, the occult blood test will give the false negative results. Testing personnel can draw the right conclusions by adjusting the PH value of gastric juice and using microscope to observe the form of red blood cells.%目的:研究在胃液潜血实验中不同pH值对结果的影响.方法:在中性环境下逐渐增加血红蛋白浓度,测定两种潜血试纸条的最低检测限;用5 mol/L NaOH调节新鲜胃液的PH值,确定能检测出血红蛋白的临界pH值;在临界pH的环境里,改变血红蛋白浓度和测定时间,检测时间与浓度对检出率的影响.结果: 两种试纸条的最低检测限为0.2 μg/ml和0.4 μg/ml;pH值3.7时不能检测出血红蛋白;在pH <3.7的酸性环境里,血红蛋白浓度升高会暂时延长潜血实验结果阳性的时间.结论:胃液潜血实验在pH <3.7酸环境中检测,使结果出现假阴性,可以通过调节pH值和镜下观察得出正确结论.

  11. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  12. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  13. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  14. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  15. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages.

  16. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

  17. STUDY ON THE MISCIBILITY OF DYNAMICALLY VULCANIZED EPDM/PP BLEND BY POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Xue-liang Jiang; Shi-yuan Cheng; Yi-qun Dai; Shao-jie Wang; Bo Wang

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was utilized to investigate the relationship between the free-volume hole properties and miscibility of dynamically vulcanized EPDM/PP blend. The results showed that the noncrystalline region of PP and EPDM in the blend was partially miscible and the miscibility of the blend became worse when the weight percent of EPDM was <50%. This was also demonstrated by DMTA and mechanical properties of the blends with various compositions.

  18. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S

    2014-02-15

    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films.

  20. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  1. Multi-model blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Hwang, Youngdeok; van Kessel, Theodore G.; Khabibrakhmanov, Ildar K.; Muralidhar, Ramachandran

    2016-10-18

    A method and a system to perform multi-model blending are described. The method includes obtaining one or more sets of predictions of historical conditions, the historical conditions corresponding with a time T that is historical in reference to current time, and the one or more sets of predictions of the historical conditions being output by one or more models. The method also includes obtaining actual historical conditions, the actual historical conditions being measured conditions at the time T, assembling a training data set including designating the two or more set of predictions of historical conditions as predictor variables and the actual historical conditions as response variables, and training a machine learning algorithm based on the training data set. The method further includes obtaining a blended model based on the machine learning algorithm.

  2. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2016-01-01

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  3. Physical properties of whey protein--hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, L P; Krochta, J M

    2008-11-01

    The formations of glycerol (Gly)-plasticized whey protein isolate (WPI)-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) films, blended using different combinations and at different conditions, were investigated. The resulting WPI: Gly-HPMC films were analyzed for mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), and water solubility. Differences due to HPMC quantity and blend method were determined via SAS software. While WPI: Gly and HPMC films were transparent, blend films were translucent, indicating some degree of immiscibility and/or WPI-HPMC aggregated domains in the blend films. WPI: Gly-HPMC films were stronger than WPI: Gly films and more flexible and stretchable than HPMC films, with films becoming stiffer, stronger, and less stretchable as the concentration of HPMC increased. However, WPI: Gly-HPMC blended films maintained the same low OP of WPI: Gly films, significantly lower than the OP of HPMC films. Comparison of mechanical properties and OP of films made by heat-denaturing WPI before and after blending with HPMC did not indicate any difference in degree of cross-linking between the methods, while solubility data indicated otherwise. Overall, while adding HPMC to WPI: Gly films had a large effect on the flexibility, strength, stretchability, and water solubility of the film polymeric network, results indicated that HPMC had no effect on OP through the polymer network. WPI-HPMC blend films had a desirable combination of mechanical and oxygen barrier properties, reflecting the combination of hydrogen-bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and disulfide bond cross-linking in the blended polymer network.

  4. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  5. [Comparison of Coptidis Rhizoma processed with different ginger juice based on metabolomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ling-Yun; Su, Dan; Zhu, Jing; Deng, Yu-Fen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of two different ginger juices on the medicinal properties of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) by using UPLC-MS-TOF. The rats were fed with decoction of raw CR (RCR), CR processed with ginger juice from fresh ginger(CRGJFG), CR processed with ginger juice from Zinger (CRGJZ), ginger juice from fresh ginger (GJFG) and ginger juice from Zinger (GJZ), and then their urine was collected at different time points for metabolomics analysis. PeakviewTM 1.7 software was applied to analyze the total ion current under positive ion mode; MarkerviewTM 2.0 software was applied for principal component analysis (PCA). The possible biomarkers were screened and their content changes were described according to the searching results in Scifinder and Chemspider databases and related literature reports. The results showed that CR processed with different ginger juice would produce different effects on energy metabolism. Nine possible biomarkers relating to medicinal properties were found as sarcosine, hippuric acid, creatinine, kynurenine, tyrosine, L-tryptophan, nicotinic acid, arachidonic acid and L-proline. L-tryptophan, kynurenine and nicotinic acid were involved in the metabolism of tryptophan; sarcosine, creatinine, L-proline and tyrosine were involved in arginine and proline metabolism; the content of arachidonic acid in urine, precursor of leukotrienes B4, from high to low were CRGJZ, CRGJFG and RCR. The contents of all biomarkers in GJZ group were higher than those in GJFG group, indicating the cold nature of CR was gradually decreased in the following order: RCR, CRGJZ and CRGJFG, and resulting in different anti-inflammatory effects of samples. The results were in consistent with the conclusion that GJFG had hot nature and GJZ had warm nature. The study provided the scientific basis for proper use of different ginger juice as processing assistants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables′ juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. Results: All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. Conclusions: This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves′ juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion.

  7. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  8. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  9. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  10. UV-C light inactivation and modeling kinetics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in white grape and apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ayse Handan; Molva, Celenk; Unluturk, Sevcan

    2013-09-16

    In the present study, the effect of short wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores in commercial pasteurized white grape and apple juices was investigated. The inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in juices was examined by evaluating the effects of UV light intensity (1.31, 0.71 and 0.38 mW/cm²) and exposure time (0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 min) at constant depth (0.15 cm). The best reduction (5.5-log) was achieved in grape juice when the UV intensity was 1.31 mW/cm². The maximum inactivation was approximately 2-log CFU/mL in apple juice under the same conditions. The results showed that first-order kinetics were not suitable for the estimation of spore inactivation in grape juice treated with UV-light. Since tailing was observed in the survival curves, the log-linear plus tail and Weibull models were compared. The results showed that the log-linear plus tail model was satisfactorily fitted to estimate the reductions. As a non-thermal technology, UV-C treatment could be an alternative to thermal treatment for grape juices or combined with other preservation methods for the pasteurization of apple juice.

  11. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at 25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition

  12. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  13. Polymer blend membranes for CO2 separation from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, H.; Mannan, H. A.; Minh, D.; Nasir, R.; Moshshim, D. F.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    Polymeric membranes are dominantly used in industrial gas separation membrane processes. Enhancement in membranes permeability and/or selectivity is a key challenge faced by membrane researchers. The current work represents the effect of poyetherimide blending on separation performance of polysulfone membranes. Polysulfone/poyetherimide (PSF/PEI) blend flat sheet dense membranes were synthesized and tested for permeation analysis of CO2 and CH4 gases at 6, 8 and 10 bar pressure and 25oC temperature. Morphology and thermal properties of membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Blend membranes were dense and homogeneous as deduced from FESEM analysis. Thermal stability of synthesized blend membranes was maintained by blending with PEI as characterized by TGA results. Decrease in permeability of both gases was observed by the addition of PEI due to rigidity of PEI chains. Additionally, selectivity of synthesized blend membranes was enhanced by blending PEI and blend membranes show improved selectivity over pure PSF membrane. This new material has the capability to be used as gas separation membrane material.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Cesar, Thais B; Manthey, John A; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Raithore, Smita

    2014-12-31

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids considered beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two styles of orange juice, fresh-squeezed (FOJ) and commercially processed (POJ), differing in their amounts of soluble and insoluble forms of these compounds. Healthy human subjects consumed 11.5 mL/kg body weight of FOJ, and after an interval of 30 days, consumed the same quantity of POJ. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two styles of juices, and corrected for differences in doses in the POJ and FOJ, there were also no significant differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds.

  15. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  16. RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE/POLYAMIDE-66 BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Canshu; LI Jihong; WANG Yinghan; CHEN Yongrong; WANG Ling

    1996-01-01

    Blends of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) containing trace amounts of branching and/or cross-linking in chain and Polyamide-66 (PA-66) have been prepared by melt blending. The rheological behavior of PPS/PA-66 blends has been studied by means of capillary rheometer, and compared with PPS. The effects of shear rate, shear stress and temperature on the flow of PPS/PA-66 blends and PPS are discussed. The non-Newtonian indexes and the activation energies of viscous flow are obtained. The results show that the apparent viscosity of PPS/PA-66 blends is not sensitive to shear rate and stress, but decreases with the elevation of temperature. On the contrary, the apparent viscosity of the PPS decreases obviously with the increasing of shear rate and shear stress, but it is increased by the elevation of temperatue.

  17. Influence of coal blending on mineral transformation at high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin; LI Wen; LI Chun-zhu; BAI Zong-qing; LI Bao-qing

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of mineral matter is important for coal utilization at high temperatures. This is especially true for blended coal. XRD and FTIR were employed together to study the transformation of mineral matter at high temperature in blended coals. It was found that the concentration of catalytic minerals, namely iron oxides, increases with an increasing ratio of Shenfu coal, which could improve coal gasification. The transformation characteristics of the minerals in blended coals are not exactly predictable from the blend ratio. This was proved by comparing the iron oxide content to the blending ratio. The results from FTIR are comparable with those from XRD. FTIR is an effective method for examining variation in mineral matter.

  18. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (Pjuice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotypic identification of Penicillium expansum and the role of processing on patulin presence in juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhariry, Hesham; Bahobial, Abdul Aziz; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2011-04-01

    This work aimed at isolation and identification of patulin producing fungi and to follow the presence of patulin during apple juice processing. Among 34 Penicillium isolates, eight isolates (five from healthy appeared apples and 12 from rot spotted apples) were considered as patulin producers using thin-layer chromatography. These isolates were classically identified as a Penicillium expansum. PCR utilizing primers based on the polygalacturonase gene of P. expansum was applied for detecting this mold. The PCR amplified a 404-bp DNA product from all tested P. expansum isolates, but not in other common food spoilage Penicillium species. RAPD technique using P1 or M13 primers was applied to determine the similarity of the P. expansum isolates. RAPD results revealed that the tested strains showed high percentage of similarity and no correlation was observed between cluster analysis and the sources of isolation. Patulin could not be detected in healthy appeared apples and their extracted juice during different stages of juice process. In apple juice made from the healthy parts of apples decayed by P. expansum contained patulin which may present health hazard. The obtained results assured that patulin is known to be stable in apple juice even after pasteurization. In conclusion, the removal of the rotten part from the fruit is not sufficient to eliminate the mycotoxin patulin from apple juice. Although, the enzyme treatment (pectinase and amylase) and pasteurization (95 °C for 7 min) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced patulin level, its level is still higher than the level of <50 μg/kg considered by Codex alimentarius when the apple juice processed from the healthy parts of rot spotted fruits.

  20. No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165826.html No Fruit Juice Before Age 1, Pediatricians Say Plus, they support ... toddlers into tantrums. One recommendation is that fruit juice be limited for toddlers and older children, and ...

  1. Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164260.html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have long suggested that fruit juice may prompt weight gain in children, but a ...

  2. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... vegetable juices includes steps like extraction, clarification, and stabilization .... given by INRAB. Methods. Juice extraction: The collected cashew fruits were ...... Clarification, Preservation and Shelf Life. Evaluation of Cashew ...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of orange juice soluble solids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° Brix concentrate in 1-gallon cans may be named on the label “canned concentrated orange juice, 62° Brix”. If the food does not...

  4. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  6. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  7. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  8. Blended Learning in English Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Haugestad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Blended Learning This study investigates blended learning used in a course of English Literature and Culture in upper secondary school. It raises the question how the use of blended learning may promote and encourage learning in a course of English literature and culture. The study also compares traditional face-to-face classroom communication with communication mediated by digital artefacts. It has been important to go beyond the strictly technical issues ...

  9. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (Pcider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Sánchez-Franco, José Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín

    2016-11-29

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice), pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L). The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.

  11. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Manríquez-Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice, pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L, anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L; antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L. The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.

  12. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  13. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  14. Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ∼78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(∗)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices.

  15. Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Nematollahi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that low pH and presence of inhibitor phenolic compounds of cornelian cherry juice have negative effect on viability of probiotics, especially industrial strains during refrigerated storage.

  16. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  17. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  18. Impact of PEF and Thermal Processing on Apple Juice Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Torkamani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pulsed electric field (PEF is a novel emerging technology which is believed to have the potential to substitute conventional thermal pasteurization (HTST. In the current study PEF was compared with HTST based on microbial inactivation and quality attributes.Materials and Methods: Juice was prepared by extracting it from Semirum apples. They were chilled to 4ºC over night. Then were divided into two lots, one was treated by PEF and the other by HTST. The treated juices were cultured on tryphtic soy broth (TSB and results were recorded for 168 days. Quality changes were characterized by color and sensory test. Color changes were quantified using Hunter Lab equipment and equation. Sensory changes were evaluated by test panelists.Results: Using selective media E. Coli was enumerated, the total count of the organism was noticeably lower than PEF treated specimen and after 168. The count didn't reach the initial population. Whereas in PEF treated juice bacterial count bounced back to the initial count and exceeds. Results from Hunter Lab indicated a of 3.04 and 3.08 system for PEF and HTST treated juices. Sensory panel showed that PEF is superior to thermal treatment.Conclusion: The study indicated HTST is more suitable based on food safety encounters. However PEF treated are closer to fresh juices based on quality factors. It can be concluded that PEF has the potential to become a suitable replacement to conventional process if improvements in design are applied.

  19. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  20. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baosheng; Tuuli, Methodius G; Longtine, Mark S; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D

    2012-05-15

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus.

  1. Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Miriam; Back, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Der Arbeitsbericht Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen liefert einen Beitrag zur Bearbeitung des Themas Blended Learning und liefert dem Leser einen Überblick und erste Anregungen zur Planung, Integration und Gestaltung von Blended-Learning-Konzepten im Unternehmen.

  2. Managing as blended care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, H

    1994-09-01

    As part of a research project on managerial work based on a new model of the roles, the head nurse of a hospital unit was observed during a working day. Her work is described, with reference especially to the roles of leading, linking, controlling, and doing. Conclusions are drawn about the advantages of a craft style of management as opposed to the more traditional "boss" or professional styles. The author also discusses what those in general management can learn from those in nursing management, which seems best practiced out in the open, on one's feet, as a kind of blended care.

  3. Blended Learning on Campus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale project implementing information and communication technology at Roskilde University, Denmark, this paper discusses ways of introducing technology-based blended learning in academic life. We examine some examples of use of systems for computer-mediated collabora......-tive learning and work in Danish Open University education as well as in courses on campus. We further suggest some possi-bilities for using technology in innovative ways, arguing that innovation is to be found, not in isolated instantiations of sys-tems, but in the form of a deliberate integration of all...... relevant ICT-features as a whole into the learning environment....

  4. Ochratoxin A in grape juice and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2000-03-01

    37 different grape juices and 21 red wines were analyzed for their contents of ochratoxin A at the State's Veterinary and Food Research Institute of Saxony-Anhalt in Halle in 1999 and the 1(st) quarter of 2000. Ochratoxin A was found in 78 % of the grape juices and 100 % of the wines. 27 % or 33 % respectively exceeded the EC Commission's lately intended proposal for an ochratoxin A maximum permissible level which is 0.5 ppb. A higher contamination rate for wines originating from southern growing regions of the EC was noticeable.

  5. Optimization of polyphenol removal from kiwifruit juice using a macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenpeng; Yu, Zhifang; Yue, Tianli; Quek, Siew Young

    2017-06-01

    The separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential for enhancing sensory properties and prevent the browning reaction in juice during processing and storage. The present study investigated the dynamic adsorption and desorption of polyphenols in kiwifruit juice using AB-8 resin. The model obtained could be successfully applied to predict the experimental results of dynamic adsorption capacity (DAC) and dynamic desorption quantity (DDQ). The results showed that dynamic adsorption of polyphenols could be optimised in a juice concentration of 19 °Brix, with a feed flow-rate of 1.3 mL min(-1) and a feed volume of 7 bed volume (BV). The optimum conditions for dynamic desorption of polyphenols from the AB-8 resin were an ethanol concentration of 43% (v/v), an elute flow-rate of 2.2 mL min(-1) and an elute volume of 3 BV. The optimized DAC value was 3.16 g of polyphenols kg(-1) resin, whereas that for DDQ was 917.5 g kg(-1) , with both values being consistent with the predicted values generated by the regression models. The major polyphenols in the dynamic desorption solution consisted of seven compositions. The present study could be scaled-up using a continuous column system for industrial application, thus contributing to the improved flavor and color of kiwifruit juice. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.

  7. Risk factors for Salmonella infection in fattening pigs - an evaluation of blood and meat juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotes, S; Kemper, N; Traulsen, I; Rave, G; Krieter, J

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse potential herd-level factors associated with the detection of Salmonella antibodies in fattening pigs. Two independent datasets, consisting of blood and meat juice samples respectively, were used. Additional information about husbandry, management and hygiene conditions was collected by questionnaire for both datasets. The serological analysis showed that 13.8% of the blood samples and 15.7% of the meat juice samples had to be classified as Salmonella-positive. Logistic-regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with a positive sample result. The results of the statistical blood sample analysis showed that the application of antibiotics increased the odds ratio (OR) by a factor of 5.21 (P meat juice samples revealed the importance of feed aspects. The chance of obtaining a positive meat juice sample increased by a factor of 3.52 (P flour. It also became clear that liquid feeding should be preferred to dry feeding (OR = 0.33, P meat juice model revealed that the latter was less powerful because data structure was less detailed. The expansion of data acquisition might solve these problems and improve the suitability of QS monitoring data for risk factor analyses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The Mixture of Yogurt and Strawberry Juice to Repair Blood Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rince Alfia Fadri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways to do in reducing cholesterol concentration in blood. Yogurt and strawberry juice have ability  to repair blood lipid profile at hypercholesterolemia. Research and lactobacillus development potention as the cholesterol killing probiotic that to be mixed with strawberry juice is necessary to do to support community health. The purpose of this reasearch was measuring the mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice effectiveness to repair blood lipid profile.  The design of this research that to be used was experimental by pretest and posted randomized control design progam. The sample of this research was thirty white mice (Rattus Norvegicus. Cholesterol Total, HDL and LDL to be analyzed by WI-M-KK2 BLK-SB methode (Clinical Chemstry Auto Analyzer using tool Selectra E Auto Analyzer. The data was analyzed by Anova test, continued by LSD test using computer program . The result after giving mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice with the dosage 2ml and 3ml per day could obviously reduce LDL Level (p<0,05, Cholesterol Total (p<0,05 and to increase HDL Level (p>0,05. The differentiation in dosis giving showed unmeaning reduction result (p>0,05. Conclusion, the mixture of yogurt and strawberry juice could repair blood lipid profile, where it’s proved to reduce drastically choleterol Total Level, LDL in 30 days.

  9. Functional Properties of Punica granatum L. Juice Clarified by Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Galiano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in pomegranate juice because of the high content of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the interest in the separation of bioactive compounds from natural sources has remarkably grown. In this work, for the first time, the Punica granatum L. (pomegranate juice—clarified by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polysulfone (PSU hollow fiber (HF membranes prepared in the laboratory—was screened for its antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, and β-carotene bleaching tests, and for its potential inhibitory activity of the carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The effects of clarification on quality characteristics of the juice were also investigated in terms of total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid. Experimental results indicated that PVDF membranes presented a lower retention towards healthy phytochemicals in comparison to PSU membranes. Accordingly, the juice clarified with PVDF membranes showed the best antioxidant activity. Moreover, the treatment with PVDF membranes produced a clarified juice with 2.9-times fold higher α-amylase inhibitory activity in comparison to PSU (IC50 value of 75.86 vs. 221.31 μg/mL, respectively. The same trend was observed using an α-glucosidase inhibition test. These results highlight the great potential of the clarified juice as a source of functional constituents.

  10. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  11. Design of tailor-made chemical blend using a decomposition-based computer-aided approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Manan, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    methodology for blended liquid products that identifies a set of feasible chemical blends. The blend design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model where the objective is to find the optimal blended gasoline or diesel product subject to types of chemicals....... The application of this systematic and computer-aided approach is illustrated through a case study involving the design of blends of gasoline with oxygenated compounds resulting from degradation and fermentation of biomass for use in internal combustion engines. Emphasis is given here on the concepts used...

  12. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  13. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  14. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  15. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  16. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  17. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  18. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  19. Survey design for blended acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, G.; Berkhout, A.J.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing an acquisition geometry for the case of source blending, it is important that the blended source arrays are capable of transmitting a wavefield with a large spatial and temporal bandwidth: the wavefield must be incoherent. We call this incoherent shooting. Furthermore, the array must

  20. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education.

  1. The use of meat juice or blood serum for the diagnosis of Salmonella infection in pigs and its possible implications on Salmonella control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Juan P; Mainar-Jaime, Raúl C

    2011-05-01

    Serology is the method of choice for country-scale Salmonella control programs in pigs and can be carried out both on blood serum or meat juice. However, the diagnostic performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) on these sample matrices has not been sufficiently compared. The agreement between the serum ELISA and meat juice ELISA on samples taken from commercial farms was assessed in 2 pig populations (adult sows and finishers). Results of optical density percentage (OD%) from the serum ELISA were consistently higher than those from the meat juice ELISA (38.5 vs. 27.9; Pmeat juice ELISA results was low (r=0.53). These results indicated an important disagreement between ELISA performed on serum and meat juice matrices and suggested that before implementing a control program to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in swine the choice of matrix on which to perform the ELISA should be carefully considered.

  2. The Ellipticity Distribution of Ambiguously Blended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, William A; Tyson, J Anthony; Jee, M James

    2014-01-01

    Using overlapping fields with space-based Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based Subaru Telescope imaging we identify a population of blended galaxies that would not be easily distinguished with ground-based monochromatic imaging alone, which we label as 'ambiguous blends'. For the depth targeted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), the ambiguous blend population is both large (~14%) and has a distribution of ellipticities that is markedly different from that of unblended objects in a way that will likely be important for the weak lensing measurements. Most notably, we find that ambiguous blending results in a ~14% increase in shear noise (or ~12% decrease in the effective number density of galaxies, $n_{eft}$) due to 1) larger intrinsic ellipticity dispersion, 2) a scaling with the galaxy number density $N_{gal}$ that is shallower than 1/$\\sqrt{N_{gal}}$. For the LSST Gold Sample (i<25.3) there is a $\\sim$7\\% increase in shear noise (or ~7% decrease in $n_{eff}$)

  3. Compatibilizing Bulk Polymer Blends by Using Organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Mayu; Gersappe, Dilip; Zhang, Wenhua; Ade, Harald; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rudomen, Gregory; Schwartz, Bradley; Fisher, Robert

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the compatiblizing performance of organoclays on melt mixed binary and tertiary polymer blends, such as, PS/PMMA, PC/SAN, PS/PMMA/PVC and PS/PMMA/PE. These polymer blends were characterized by TEM, STXM, DSC and DMA. TEM and STXM photographs show that the addition of organoclays into polymer blends drastically reduces the average domain size of the component phases. And the organoclay goes to the interfacial region between the different polymers and effectively slows down the domain size increasing during high temperature annealing. DMA and DSC results show the effect of organoclays on the mechanical properties and glass transitions temperature, which indicates the compatibilization on the molecular level. The generalized compatibilization induced by the nanoscale fillers for blends can be explained in terms of mean field models where the reduction of interfacial tension induced by in-situ grafting is counterbalanced by the increased bending energy due to the rigidity of the filler. This in turn can be shown to be a function of the degree of exfoliation, aspect ratio, and polymer filler interactions. Supported by NSF funded MRSEC at Stony Brook

  4. Clarification of purple carrot juice: analysis of the fouling mechanisms and evaluation of the juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ben Hassan, Ines; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2015-05-01

    Purple carrot juice was clarified by microfiltration. Two modes of filtration, batch concentration and total recycle were tested and the effect of microfiltration process on permeate flux and membrane fouling was studied. Intrinsic membrane resistance was negligible compared with the fouling resistances, which was less than 5 % of total resistance. Determination of membrane hydraulic permeability showed that water cleaning could permit a recovery of about 7 % of initial hydraulic flux. The analysis of color parameters of feed, permeate and concentrate juice during filtration shows that the a* and b* values decrease for the permeate corresponding respectively to changes from green to red and from blue to yellow. The total sugar and reducing sugars increase in permeate and decrease in concentrate. This work showed that it was possible to clarify the purple carrot juice by microfiltration with a real amelioration of the juice appearance.

  5. A multigeneration reproductive and developmental safety evaluation of authentic Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Hurn, Jenae; Peng, Lin; Nowicki, Diane; Anderson, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Morinda citrifolia (noni) juice on fertility and offspring health in three generations of ICR mice was evaluated. The authenticity of the source of noni juice in this study was determined by chemical analysis of known marker compounds. Mice were supplied with 5% noni juice at gestation (day 0) until weaning (21 days postpartum). This procedure was followed through three generations of offspring. Three generations of control mice were also evaluated. There were no intergroup differences in gestation and fertility indices or malformation rates. However, litter sizes of the noni group in the first (F1),  second (F2), and third (F3) generations were, respectively, 29.3% (P < 0.01), 19.8% (P < 0.01) and 19.6% (P < 0.01) larger than corresponding controls. Despite larger litter sizes, there were no decreases in fetal weight in any generation of the noni group. Further, maternal health and offspring viability in the noni groups were equal to or greater than the controls. The results of this study suggest that authentic noni juice has no adverse effect on fertility and fetal development, consistent with previous two-generation studies of noni fruit from French Polynesia, Indonesia, and Hainan , China. On the contrary, noni juice appears to facilitate pregnancy and fetal development.

  6. The development of fermented juice beer%发酵果汁啤酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴平; 李文兴; 曹显俊

    2001-01-01

    How a juice beer is prepared with fruit juice and malt juice through fermenting by beer yeast under lower temperature is in troduced in the paper. The results show that the fruit - juice- to- malt - juice ratio of 6: 1 is ideal, and that alcohol 3 % (V / V),sugar 5.5°Bx and pH 4.4 in the formulation of fermenting liquid can help to obtain pleasant flavour in the final products.%介绍了以果汁、麦汁为原料,以啤酒酵母为菌种,通过低温发酵研制成果汁啤酒的方法。研究表明:果汁:麦汁以6:1混合较好,对发酵液进行调配时,酒精度3%(V/V),糖度5.5°Bx,pH值4.4,最终产品可以形成令人满意的风味。

  7. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  8. Impact of panchratna juice in the management of diabetes mellitus: Fresh vs. processed product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the plant sources have excellent nutrient and non-nutrient properties which can be exploited to manage clinical conditions. The current study was undertaken to assess the impact of panchratna juice (Amla, Tulsi, Ginger, Mint and Turmeric in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects. A total of 55 stable type 2 diabetics were enrolled from pathology laboratories and were given either fresh panchratna juice (n = 15 for 45 days or processed panchratna juice (n = 20 for 90 days and compared with diabetic controls (n = 20. Anthropometric profile, glycemic status and lipid profile were assessed on all the subjects at baseline, 45 days and 90 days. Students t test, paired t test and ANOVA were applied using Microsoft Excel. The results indicated that fresh panchratna juice or processed panchratna juice supplementation for long-term did not have any significant impact on the glycemic and lipemic status of diabetic subjects. Thus, the protective effects are lost with processing, and therefore, these plant sources should be consumed in their natural form.

  9. 雪梨汁饮料工艺的研究%Technology of Sydney Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思宁

    2012-01-01

    本文以浓缩雪梨汁为原料,通过正交试验设计澄清梨汁饮料,确定梨汁饮料的合理配方.结果表明,浓缩汁含量5%、白砂糖6%、柠檬酸0.18%、香精添加量0.06%,以适量果胶和CMC-Na为复合稳定剂时,可以制成风味、色泽良好的梨汁饮料.%In this paper, concentrated Sydney juice as raw material, by orthogonal experimental to design clarified pear juice drinks, a reasonable formula of pear juice drink was determined. The results showed that the juice content of 5%, 6% sugar, 0.18%citric acid, 0.06% flavor, a modest pectin and CMC-Na as a composite stabilizer, the flavor, color and good pear juice drinks could be made.

  10. Effectiveness of a bacteriophage in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Colàs, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M

    2014-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L. monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00 log cfu plug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfu mL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10 log cfu mL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L. monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10 °C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  12. Polyacetylene levels in carrot juice, effect of pH and thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, I; Brunton, N; Rai, D K; Balagueró, E; Hossain, M B; Valverde, J

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on the study of polyacetylenes in carrot juice and their response to pH, storage and thermal processing conditions. Falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) and falcarinol (FaOH) were in fresh carrot juice at concentrations of 73 and 233 μg/L, respectively. Reducing the pH of the raw carrot juice from its natural pH 6.13 to pH 3.5 resulted in 2 and 5 fold better extraction of FaDOAc and FaOH respectively in comparison to a control sample (pH 6.13). Polyacetylenes were retained better in acidified juices and cold storage temperatures (4 °C) for first week of storage with respect to untreated juices. An increase in FaDOAc and FaOH of 10- and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to raw unprocessed samples was observed when processing samples at 90 °C for 1 min. This was assumed to be due to cell wall polysaccharides dissolution. However, negative correlation between total polyacetylenes and hexoses was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, indicating some biological links between polyacetylenes and soluble sugars.

  13. Characteristic of Fermented Whey Beverage with Addition of Tomato Juice (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursiwi, A.; Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Sari, A. M.; Laksono, P. W.; Aprilia, E. N.

    2017-04-01

    Whey is the liquid resulting from the coagulation of milk from cheese manufacture. The availability of lactose in whey and presence of other essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms makes it one of the potential substrate for the production of different bio-products through fermentation process. Lactic acid production through fermentation from lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative processing route for whey lactose utilization. However, a problem with such approaches is the low total solids content. Sucrose and tomato juice added to increases the total solids content. The aim of this work was to study the characteristic of fermented whey beverage with different tomato juice concentration (5, 10, 15%) using probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Lactic acid content, pH, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of fermented whey beverage samples were examined after 18hours fermentation. Fermented whey beverage with 5% tomato juice obtained the highest scores for color, aroma, flavor, texture and overall attributes. The lactic acid content and pH of fermented whey beverage ranged from 0.326 to 0.437% and from 4.13 to 4.64, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity (9.073%) was found in sample with 15% tomato juice concentration. The best formulation is the sample with 5% of tomato juice concentration.

  14. A Study on Students’ Views On Blended Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem YILMAZ SOYLU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, information and communication technologies (ICT have developed rapidly and influenced most of the fields and education as well. Then, ICT have offered a favorable environment for the development and use of various methods and tools. With the developments in technology, blended learning has gained considerable popularity in recent years. Together with the developments it brought along the description of particular forms of teaching with technology. Blended learning is defined simply as a learning environment that combines technology with face-to-face learning. In other words blended learning means using a variety of delivery methods to best meet the course objectives by combining face-to-face teaching in a traditional classroom with teaching online. This article examines students’ views on blended learning environment. The study was conducted on 64 students from Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technologies in 2005–2006 fall semester in Instructional Design and Authoring Languages in PC Environment at Hacettepe University. The results showed that the students enjoyed taking part in the blended learning environment. Students’ achievement levels and their frequency of participation to forum affected their views about blended learning environment. Face-to-face interaction in blended learning application had the highest score. This result demonstrated the importance of interaction and communication for the success of on-line learning.

  15. Antioxidant properties of caroot juices and their impact on intestinal and probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in non-dairy probiotic products. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of juice prepared from 15 various cultivars of carrot on the growth of representatives of human intestinal microbiota (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Escherichia coli and probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lactobacillus casei 01. Carrot juice was added to liquid medium at a final concentration of 5.0% and their impact on the bacteria number was assessed by measurement of the turbidity after 24 h of culture. The number of cells was expressed as % of positive control (medium without juice addition. Juices prepared from all tested cultivars of carrot inhibited the growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for juices obtained from the 'Kongo F1' cultivar (3.40 ±2.85% of positive control, 'Rumba F1'(4.17 ±2.27% and 'Broker F1' (5.35 ±2.14%. The majority of tested juices also inhibited the growth of E. coli, but those prepared from the 'Niland F1', 'Napa F1', 'Afro F1'and 'Samba F1' cultivars stimulated the growth of this bacterium. The probiotic strains were less sensitive to carrot juice impact than intestinal species, however both stimulation and inhibition could be observed. Juices made from the cultivars 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' acted negatively on the growth of both probiotic strains, while juice from 'Bangor F1' cultivar inhibited L. casei 01 growth, but stimulated the growth of LA-5. The obtained results suggest that 'Kongo F1' and 'Deep Purple F1' cultivars are not suitable as an additive or raw material for the production of probiotic products, because of their inhibitory properties against probiotic strains. Concluding, carrots can be used as raw material for the production of probiotic beverages, however both the cultivar of carrot and the strains of probiotic bacteria used for the production should be selected carefully. The most suitable for production of

  16. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  17. Blended learning in ethics education: a survey of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling

    2011-05-01

    Nurses are experiencing new ethical issues as a result of global developments and changes in health care. With health care becoming increasingly sophisticated, and countries facing challenges of graying population, ethical issues involved in health care are bound to expand in quantity and in depth. Blended learning rather as a combination of multiple delivery media designed to promote meaningful learning. Specifically, this study was focused on two questions: (1) the students' satisfaction and attitudes as members of a scenario-based learning process in a blended learning environment; (2) the relationship between students' satisfaction ratings of nursing ethics course and their attitudes in the blended learning environment. In total, 99 senior undergraduate nursing students currently studying at a public nursing college in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted in this study. The participants were asked to fill out two Likert-scale questionnaire surveys: CAAS (Case Analysis Attitude Scale), and BLSS (Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale). The results showed what students felt about their blended learning experiences - mostly items ranged from 3.27-3.76 (the highest score is 5). Another self-assessment of scenario analysis instrument revealed the mean scores ranged from 2.87-4.19. Nearly 57.8% of the participants rated the course 'extremely helpful' or 'very helpful.' This study showed statistically significant correlations (r=0.43) between students' satisfaction with blended learning and case analysis attitudes. In addition, results testified to a potential of the blended learning model proposed in this study to bridge the gap between students and instructors and the one between students and their peers, which are typical of blended learning, and to create meaningful learning by employing blended pedagogical consideration in the course design. The use of scenario instruction enables students to develop critical

  18. Chemical characterization of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jong-Ho; Kim, Youngshik; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the chemical properties of tomato juice fermented with bifidobacterial species. Tomato juice was prepared from fresh tomatoes and heated at 100 degrees C prior to fermentation. Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis were inoculated in tomato juice and kept at 35 to 37 degrees C for up to 6 h. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was added to tomato juice prior to fermentation. The analyses for brix, total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, color, and lycopene content were conducted to characterize tomato juices fermented with bifidobacterial species. Heat treatment of tomato juice did not cause any significant changes in brix, pH, and TTA. Only the redness of tomato juice was significantly increased, as the heating time increased to 30 min. The tomato juices fermented with B. breve and B. longum exhibited significant decreases in pH (3.51 and 3.80, respectively) and significant increases in TTA (13.50 and 12.50, respectively) (P tomato juice. The addition of FOS further improved the fermentation of tomato juice by bifidobacterial species. The lycopene contents of tomato juice were significantly increased from 88 to 113 microg/g by heat treatment at 100 degrees C (P < 0.05), however did not exhibit any significant change after fermentation with bifidobacterial species.

  19. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  20. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  1. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice. This led to the constitution of an Expert Committee by Department of Health Research at Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in October 2010. The committee looked into the issues related to safety of consumption of bottle gourd juice, and this paper presents the findings. Methods: Information on cases of suspected toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice was collected by internet search, advertising on website of ICMR and by writing to State and district health authorities as well as to medical colleges, hospitals and private nursing homes across the country. Results: Three deaths were reported, one from Delhi and two from Uttar Pradesh after consumption of extremely bitter bottle gourd juice. Three persons who died after consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice or juice mixed with bitter gourd (karela) juice were over 59 years of age and had diabetes since last 20 years. This juice was reported to be extremely bitter by all three. Twenty six persons were admitted to various hospitals of the country on complaint of abdominal pain and vomiting following consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice. Diarrhoea and vomiting of blood (haematemesis) was reported in 18 (69.2%) and 19 (73.1%) patients, respectively. Biochemical investigations revealed elevated levels of liver enzymes. More than 50 per cent patients had hypotension. Endoscopic findings showed profusely bleeding stomach with excessive ulceration seen in distal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in most of the cases. All these patients recovered

  2. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  4. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  5. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  6. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. The food may contain one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  7. Blend or not to blend: a study investigating faculty members perceptions of blended teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Ocak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a satisfaction with blended teaching, (b perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c perceived impact on student learning, (d perceived impact on student motivation, (e advantages of blended teaching, and (f disadvantages of blended teaching. Findings indicated that faculty members were likely to agree that blended teaching provides a high degree of satisfaction and that it requires more time and commitment from the faculty. The faculty members perceived that blended teaching improves student learning and, to some extent, improves motivation. The faculty members also emphasized the importance of institutional support and the use of technology to mitigate student problems. This study presents these faculty members’ perceptions, which are helpful for those planning to implement a blended teaching approach, and makes suggestions for trouble-shooting and taking advantage of the opportunities in a blended environment successfully.

  8. Mixing Online and Face-to-Face Therapy: How to Benefit From Blended Care in Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van der Vaart, Rosalie; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2016-02-09

    Blended care, a combination of online and face-to-face therapy, is increasingly being applied in mental health care to obtain optimal benefit from the advantages these two treatment modalities have. Promising results have been reported, but a variety in descriptions and ways of operationalizing blended care exists. Currently, what type of "blend" works for whom, and why, is unclear. Furthermore, a rationale for setting up blended care is often lacking. In this viewpoint paper, we describe postulates for blended care and provide an instrument (Fit for Blended Care) that aims to assist therapists and patients whether and how to set up blended care treatment. A review of the literature, two focus groups (n=5 and n=5), interviews with therapists (n=14), and interviews with clients (n=2) were conducted to develop postulates of eHealth and blended care and an instrument to assist therapists and clients in setting up optimal blended care. Important postulates for blended care are the notion that both treatment modalities should complement each other and that set up of blended treatment should be based on shared decision making between patient and therapist. The "Fit for Blended Care" instrument is presented which addresses the following relevant themes: possible barriers to receiving blended treatment such as the risk of crisis, issues in communication (at a distance), as well as possible facilitators such as social support. More research into the reasons why and for whom blended care works is needed. To benefit from blended care, face-to-face and online care should be combined in such way that the potentials of both treatment modalities are used optimally, depending on patient abilities, needs, and preferences. To facilitate the process of setting up a personalized blended treatment, the Fit for Blended Care instrument can be used. By applying this approach in research and practice, more insight into the working mechanisms and optimal (personal) "blends" of online and

  9. CROSSLINKING AND COMPATIBILIZATION IN BLENDS OF POLYSTYRENE AND POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigated the influences ofbutadiene rubber (BR) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) on thermal and rheological behaviour, morphology and mechanical properties of PS/LLDPE/SBS blend. Addition of DCP alone was found to decrease the mechanical properties of PS/LLDPE/SBS blend due to the decomposition of PS. When BR was added together with DCP, it is found that the co-crosslinking of BR, SBS and PE takes place,and the decomposition of PS is reduced simultaneously because of the consumption of the free radicals in the crosslinking process. Synergism was thus realised which resulted in the improvement of the ductility of blend.

  10. Controlling the Solidification of Organic Photovoltaic Blends with Nucleating Agents

    KAUST Repository

    Nekuda Malik, Jennifer A.

    2014-11-20

    Blending fullerenes with a donor polymer for the fabrication of organic solar cells often leads to at least partial vitrification of one, if not both, components. For prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene blend, we show that the addition of a commercial nucleating agent, di(3,4-dimethyl benzylidene)sorbitol, to such binary blends accelerates the crystallization of the donor, resulting in an increase in its degree of crystallinity in as-cast structures. This allows manipulation of the extent of intermixing/ phase separation of the donor and acceptor directly from solution, offering a tool to improve device characteristics such as power conversion efficiency.

  11. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  12. Image blending techniques and their application in underwater mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, Ricard; Neumann, László

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes strategies and solutions to tackle the problem of building photo-mosaics of very large underwater optical surveys, presenting contributions to the image preprocessing, enhancing and blending steps, and resulting in an improved visual quality of the final photo-mosaic. The text opens with a comprehensive review of mosaicing and blending techniques, before proposing an approach for large scale underwater image mosaicing and blending. In the image preprocessing step, a depth dependent illumination compensation function is used to solve the non-uniform illumination appearance du

  13. Improved water solubility of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in sweetener blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Del Baño, M J; Lorente, J

    2001-01-01

    Significant technological advantages in terms of sweetness synergy and hence cost-saving can be obtained if neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is used in sweetener blends with other intense or bulk sweeteners. The combination of NHDC with sodium saccharin or sodium cyclamate is an excellent method to improve the water solubility at room temperature of NHDC. In the case of NHDC-sodium saccharin, two different methods for blend preparation, a simple mixture and a cosolubilized mixture, can be used, with similar results obtained for solubility and solution stability properties. To improve temporally the water solubility of NHDC in combination with sodium cyclamate, it is absolutely necessary to prepare cosolubilized blends.

  14. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning For Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Gedik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elicit students’ perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment. Data were collected from the students’ weekly reflection papers, interviews with students, and documents, and analyzed by structurally and texturally describing the resulting experiences and perceptions. The findings of the study indicate that used together, online and face-to-face course structures offer several opportunities and challenges for students. The participating students mentioned interaction and communication opportunities, increased motivation, increased opportunities to voice their opinions, and reinforcement of learning as the affordances in the blended learning environment. The barriers included increased workload, cultural and technical barriers, and the inter-dependence of the two environments. Implications and suggestions are offered for instructors in higher education settings.

  15. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemical...... been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products.......This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The methodology has...

  16. Blended learning in health education: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nynke; Savin-Baden, Maggi; Cunningham, Anne Marie; Verstegen, Daniëlle M L

    2014-09-01

    Blended learning in which online education is combined with face-to-face education is especially useful for (future) health care professionals who need to keep up-to-date. Blended learning can make learning more efficient, for instance by removing barriers of time and distance. In the past distance-based learning activities have often been associated with traditional delivery-based methods, individual learning and limited contact. The central question in this paper is: can blended learning be active and collaborative? Three cases of blended, active and collaborative learning are presented. In case 1 a virtual classroom is used to realize online problem-based learning (PBL). In case 2 PBL cases are presented in Second Life, a 3D immersive virtual world. In case 3 discussion forums, blogs and wikis were used. In all cases face-to-face meetings were also organized. Evaluation results of the three cases clearly show that active, collaborative learning at a distance is possible. Blended learning enables the use of novel instructional methods and student-centred education. The three cases employ different educational methods, thus illustrating diverse possibilities and a variety of learning activities in blended learning. Interaction and communication rules, the role of the teacher, careful selection of collaboration tools and technical preparation should be considered when designing and implementing blended learning.

  17. CURING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE RUBBER BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425. Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces

  18. Effect of blended learning to academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karani Ceylan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of blended learning on the middle school students’ academic achievement level and product evaluation scores were investigated. Blended learning provides more effective learning outcome gains through enriching todays’ developing Web Technologies with learning environments. This study was carried out with a total of 53 students enrolled in the experimental group and control group in the 6th grade classrooms during the 2014/2015 school year in a middle school in southwest part of Turkey. The intervention lasted 7 weeks. During the seven weeks, the unit of “problem solving, computer programming and development of Software product”, covered in Educational technologies and Software course, is taught through blended learning environment. The experimental group was taught using blended learning environment which supported with enriched web technologies (such as video-conference, Learning Management System, Discussion blogs , etc.. Whereas the experimental group was given access to all these enriched contents that are presented to the control group only during the classroom environment through present teaching methods. The design of the study includes quantitative method. We collected quantitative data such as academic achievement test and product evaluation scale. Academic achievement test and product evaluation scale were used as quantitative data collection sources. Quantitative data was collected through the evaluation of students’ projects that they developed during the process of the study and the academic achievement tests. During the data analysis phase, independent t-test, frequency and ANOVA tests were used. As a result of this study, it is concluded that blended learning environment had generated a significant difference in students’ academic achievement on behalf of experimental group. Implications of the study for the educational environments were discussed.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the stability of anthocyanins and shelf-life of various pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighourchi, H; Barzegar, M; Abbasi, S

    2008-10-15

    Food irradiation is a process which exposing food to ionizing radiations and it can improve the safety of food. The pomegranate juice contained considerable anthocyanins and has become a new functional food available for dieting and health. In the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation (0-10kGy) on the stability of anthocyanins and inhibition of microbial growth in pomegranate juice during storage were investigated. Results indicated that the irradiation at all applied doses, significantly reduced total and individual anthocyanins. Moreover, irradiation with higher dosages (3.5-10kGy) had undesirable effect on the total content of anthocyanins. However, irradiation at 2.0kGy had effectively diminished the total bacteria and fungi count and retarding microbial growth during storage. Based on adverse effect of gamma irradiation on ACs content of studied juices, it is not recommended to irradiate pomegranate juice with dosage higher than 2.0kGy.

  20. Antioxidant activity, polyphenol content, and related compounds in different fruit juices and homogenates prepared from 29 different pomegranate accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzulker, Revital; Glazer, Ira; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Aviram, Michael; Amir, Rachel

    2007-11-14

    Pomegranate juice is well known for its health beneficial compounds, which can be attributed to its high level of antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content. Our objective was to study the relationships between antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins content, and the levels of four major hydrolyzable tannins in four different juices/homogenates prepared from different sections of the fruit. To this end, 29 different accessions were tested. The results showed that the antioxidant activity in aril juice correlated significantly to the total polyphenol and anthocyanin contents. However, the homogenates prepared from the whole fruit exhibited an approximately 20-fold higher antioxidant activity than the level found in the aril juice. Unlike the arils, the antioxidant level in the homogenates correlated significantly to the content of the four hydrolyzable tannins in which punicalagin is predominant, while no correlation was found to the level of anthocyanins.

  1. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit juices by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Wei, Ke-yi; Wang, Jia; Ma, Hui-xin; Li, Ji; Xu, Yan-jun; Li, Qing X

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive ELISAs have been applied to analyze imidacloprid and thiamethoxam residues in apple, grape, orange, and peach juices after simple dilution of the samples without any extraction and cleanup. The matrix interference of the fruit juices was eliminated after 100-fold dilution, and the ELISAs gave method LODs of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in fruit juices down to 20 and 5 ng/g, respectively. Average recoveries of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from the spiked fruit juices were in the range of 92-115% and 87-118%, respectively. The CVs of the recoveries ranged from 3 to 19% and from 6 to 19% for imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. The ELISA results were comparable to those obtained by a reference HPLC/MS method using pesticide-spiked samples, with reasonable correlation coefficients between 0.89 and 0.93 and regression coefficients (slopes) between 0.75 and 0.94.

  3. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.% in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, the concentrations of CO and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons emissions were significantly decreased, compared to the neat gasoline. Methanol–gasoline blends presented the lowest emissions of CO and UHC among all test fuels. Ethanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate emission level between the neat gasoline and ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, e.g., ethanol–gasoline blends presented lower CO and UHC emissions than those of the neat gasoline but higher emissions than those of the ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. In addition, the CO and UHC decreased and CO2 increased when ethanol and/or methanol contents increased in the fuel blends. Furthermore, the effects of blended fuels on engine performance were investigated and results showed that methanol–gasoline blends presents the highest volumetric efficiency and torque; ethanol–gasoline blends provides the highest brake power, while ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate level of volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power between both methanol–gasoline and ethanol–gasoline blends; gasoline, on the other hand, showed the lowest volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power among all test fuels.

  4. Phase Behavior, Thermal Stability and Rheological Properties of PPEK/PC Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phase behavior, thermal stability and rheological properties of the blends of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK)with bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) prepared by solution coprecipitation were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Frourier-Transform IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and capillary rheometer. The DSC results indicated that PPEK/PC blends are almost immiscible in full compositions. FT-IR investigation showed that there were no apparent specific interactions between the constituent polymers. The blends keep excellent thermal stability and the addition of PC degrades the thermal stability of blends to some degree. The thermal degradation processes of the blends are much similar to that of PC. The studies on rheological properties of blends show that blending PPEK with PC is beneficial to reducing the melt viscosity and improving the appearance of PPEK.

  5. Preparation and characterization of silk fibroin/HPMC blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Govt. First Grade College Hiriadka, Udupi - 576113 (India); Kumar, R. Madhu; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this work, the structural and mechanical stability of silk fibroin/Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The results indicate that with the introduction of HPMC, the interactions between SF and HPMC results in improved crystallite size and increase in mechanical properties. The blend film obtained is more flexible compared to pure SF film.

  6. [Visible transmittance techniques for rapid analysis of sugar content of fresh navel orange juices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-de; Luo, Ji; Ouyang, Ai-guo

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of visible spectroscopic technology for rapid quantifying sugar content (SC) of navel orange fresh juices was investigated by means of spectral transmittance technique. A total of 55 juice samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. Calibration models based on different spectral ranges and different spectral pretreatment were compared in the precent research. Performance of different models was investigated in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of validation set of samples. The correlation coefficient of calibration model for SC was 0.965, the correlation coefficient of prediction model for SC was 0.857, and the corresponding RMSEP was 0.562. The results show that visible transmittance technique is a feasible method for non-invasive estimation of fruit juice SC.

  7. Mathematic Models for Analysis of Quality Components in Sugarcane Juice with Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gan; TAN Zhong-wen; LIANG Ji-nan; LONG Yong-hui; ZHOU Xue-qiu

    2003-01-01

    With the technique of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, the calibration models for quantitative analysis of sucrose and polarization in sugarcane juice were developed by using transmission mode and calibrating with partial least square (PIS) algorithm. The determination coefficients (R2)of the predicted models for sucrose and polarization in juice were 0. 9980 and 0. 9979 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0. 143 and 0. 155% for sucrose and polarization in juice respectively. The predictive errors measured by FT-NIR were close to those by routine laboratory methods. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR methods had high accuracy and they were able to replace the routine laboratory analysis. It was also demonstrated that as a rapid and accurate measurement, the FT-NIR technique had potential applications in quality control of mill sugarcane, establishment of payment system based on sugarcane quality, and selection of clones in sugarcane breeding.

  8. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  9. Non-newtonian flow and pressure drop of pineapple juice in a plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. F. Cabral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-Newtonian flow in plate heat exchangers (PHEs is of great importance for the food industry. The objective of this work was to study the pressure drop of pineapple juice in a PHE with 50º chevron plates. Density and flow properties of pineapple juice were determined and correlated with temperature (17.4 < T < 85.8ºC and soluble solids content (11.0 < Xs < 52.4 ºBrix. The Ostwald-de Waele (power law model described well the rheological behavior. The friction factor for non-isothermal flow of pineapple juice in the PHE was obtained for diagonal and parallel/side flow. Experimental results were well correlated with the generalized Reynolds number (20 < Re g < 1230 and were compared with predictions from equations from the literature. The mean absolute error for pressure drop prediction was 4% for the diagonal plate and 10% for the parallel plate.

  10. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Antioxidant Compositions From Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia(Noni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-hong; XUE Ya-rong; YE Yong-hang; YUAN Feng-feng; LIU Jun-yan; SHUANG Jing-lei

    2007-01-01

    Extraction and characterization of antioxidative compositions from the extracts of fermented Xisha Noni(Morinda citrifolia L.)juice were studied.The antioxidative constituents of 184.6g freeze-dried extracts of naturally fermented Xisha Noni juice were isolated successfully by petroleum ether,EtOAc and n-BuOH solvents,and the antioxidative effects were measured according to scavenging activity against hydroxyl generated in Fenton reaction system and superoxide anion radicals in pyrogallol autoxidation system.The EtOAc extract exhibited most significantly higher(P<0.01)antioxidative activity than mannitol or vitamin C,while the petroleum ether and n-BuOH extracts showed lower activities compared to were isolated from the EtOAc extract by several chromatography techniques for the first time.The results suggest that several compounds,in particular,the phenolic compounds,contribute separately or synergistically to the antioxidative activity of fermented Noni fruit juice.

  12. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  13. Influence of compatibilizer on blends degradation during processing

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    Walter R. Waldman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical degradation of blends made from polypropylene and polystyrene, with or without compatibilizer, was studied using an internal mixer coupled to a torque rheometer. The blends processed without compatibilizer presented regular and expected results regarding torque reduction, with evidence of chain scission. The blends processed with the block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, SBS, as a compatibilizer presented unchanged or less reduced variation on torque values during processing. The extraction of stabilizers from the compatibilizer before processing did not affect the results. The compatibilizer concentration in the blends was varied, with its influence still being observed in concentrations as low as 0.03 parts per hundred. Similar results were obtained in an experiment comparing the performance of a primary commercial anti-oxidant, Irganox 1076, and the compatibilizer SBS. Therefore, the compatibilizer can be considered as a processing aid agent with positive influence on avoiding thermomechanical degradation.

  14. Rheological Behavior of Immiscible PS/LDPE Blends: A Comparative Study of the Palierne Emulsion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai KUNYAWUT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends have been investigated. Blends with 10, 20 and 30 wt% LDPE were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at a melt mixing temperature of 180°C. SEM micrographs revealed that all blends exhibited droplet-type dispersion morphology. Rheological measurements were performed at the same temperature as the mixing temperature. The complex viscosity of the blends laid between those of the PS and the LDPE and decreased with increasing LDPE concentration. The plots of tand of blends with 10 and 20 wt% LDPE suggested that the elasticity of these blends was comparable to that of the pure PS. By contrast, the elasticity behavior of the blend with 30 wt% LDPE was shown to be similar to that of LDPE. Palierne model predictions were in very good agreement with the experimental data for the blends having 10 and 20 wt% LDPE. For the 30 wt% LDPE blend, agreement with the prediction and the experimental data was not as good. Within the frequency range of the rheological measurements, the second plateau at low frequency which results from an increase of the elasticity was not observed in any of the blends studied. This is expected to be due to the long relaxation times of the relatively large LDPE droplets of these blends.

  15. Effects of blended-cement paste chemical composition changes on some strength gains of blended-mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Mehmet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC) on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG) were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC) were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP) or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP) for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min). Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC) and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O), and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2) at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM) in comparison with reference mortars (RM) at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement.

  16. Effects of Blended-Cement Paste Chemical Composition Changes on Some Strength Gains of Blended-Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serkan Kirgiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min. Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS and flexural strengths (FS of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2, sodium oxide (Na2O, and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2 at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM in comparison with reference mortars (RM at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement.

  17. Effects of Blended-Cement Paste Chemical Composition Changes on Some Strength Gains of Blended-Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Mehmet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC) on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG) were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC) were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP) or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP) for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min). Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC) and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O), and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2) at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM) in comparison with reference mortars (RM) at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement. PMID:24587737

  18. Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction

  19. Application of principal component-radial basis function neural networks (PC-RBFNN) for the detection of water-adulterated bayberry juice by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-juan XIE; Xing-qian YE; Dong-hong LIU; Yi-bin YING

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques was used to classify the pure bayberry juice and the one adulterated with 10% (w/w) and 20% (w/w) water. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensions of spectral data, give information regarding a potential capability of separation of objects, and provide principal component (PC) scores for radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). RBFNN was used to detect bayberry juice adulterant. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to preprocess spectra. The results demonstrate that PC-RBFNN with optimum parameters can separate pure bayberry juice samples from water-adulterated bayberry at a recognition rate of 97.62%, but cannot clearly detect water levels in the adulterated bayberry juice. We conclude that NIR technology can be successfully applied to detect water-adulterated bayberry juice.

  20. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  1. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

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    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  2. Heavy Metal Removal from Commercially-available Fruit Juice Packaged Products by Citric Acid

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    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing trend in the production and consumption of local and imported fruit juices in Iran. The presence of impurities and foreign matter in finished products for human consumption is of great concern because they present health hazards when they exceed beneficial limits. The manufacture of juices requires special attention in terms of purity and the sources of water and its purification are crucial for maintaining quality and safety. Biosorption can be defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by biological material. citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. Levels of heavy metals: Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in 180 selected fruit juice commercially available packaged samples (Pineapple, Orange, Mango, Tropical, Cherry& Grape purchased from Tehran local Market in 2014. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS by wet digestion method in Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University Tehran-Iran. From the obtained result Ni, Cd and Pb were detectable in 85% of samples especially in Mango and Tropical juices. The efficiency removal of Nickel, lead and Cadmium and neutralization of calculus contain of juice by Citric acid as a chelating were carried out by using of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and cadmium in addition to this removal were increased by increasing the citric acid. The enhancing of citric acid in removal of lead and cadmium caused to create a

  3. THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED SUGAR BEET JUICE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS USE

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    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Different methods of obtaining the product given were tested and rational modes for the proposed technology were chosen in the development of technology for production of sugar beet concentrated juice. The sugar beet concentrated juice is obtained as follows: sugar beets are washed in the continuous action washing machine, checked, rotten or spoiled beets are removed from the cycle, and insufficiently treated roots are directed to re-washing. Then with the help of thermal processing the sugar beet is peeled. The peeled roots are white. They are crushed to the 3-4 mm particles size, mixed with acidified to pH 3,5-4,0 water (hydromodule 1-1.2, then the resulting mass is heated to 80 0C temperature. The use of acidified water is necessary to prevent the darkening initiation. Then the received sugar beet mass is fed to pressing to obtain its juice. The pressed juice depending on the beet source contains 12 % of DS and 1.5-3 % reducing substances (RS of the total mass of dry substances. The juice concentration is under the suction of 0.008 MPa at the boiling temperature of up to 60 0C to the content of 70 % DS. Due to the delicate mode, the sugars breakdown is less intensive, the finished product is of good quality. At the simultaneous concentration with steam the volatile substances with a specific smell are removed, that improves the juice taste and smell. Under this mode, the sugar hydrolysis is intensive, there is a growth reducing substances up to 20 %, the color is increased to 40% density. The research results allow to recommend the product obtained as the sugar syrup substitute.

  4. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Juices from Ten Iranian Pomegranate Cultivars Depend on Extraction

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    Hamidreza Akhavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ten juices from arils and whole pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran were studied. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of juices from whole pomegranate fruit were significantly higher than juices from pomegranate arils, but the variety has a greater influence than the processing method. The main phenolics in the studied juices were punicalagin A (5.40–285 mg/L, punicalagin B (25.9–884 mg/L, and ellagic acid (17.4–928 mg/L. The major and minor anthocyanins of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside (0.7–94.7 mg/L, followed by cyanidin 3-glucoside (0.5–52.5 mg/L, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside + delphinidin 3-glucoside (0–10.3 mg/L, delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside (0–7.68 mg/L, pelargonidin 3-glucoside (0–9.40 mg/L, and cyanidin-pentoside (0–1.13 mg/L were identified; the latter anthocyanin as well as cyanidin-pentoside-hexoside and delphinidin-pentoside were detected for the first time in Iranian pomegranates. The total phenolic contents were in the range of 220–2931 mg/100 mL. The results indicate that the pomegranate phenolics are not only influenced by extraction method but also—and even more—affected by the cultivar. Moreover, a good correlation was observed between total phenolic content and ABTS and FRAP methods in all pomegranate juices (>0.90. The results of current research can help to select the pomegranate cultivars for commercial juice production.

  5. Combined Pressure–Temperature Effects on Carotenoid Retention and Bioaccessibility in Tomato Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rockendra; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Balasubramaniam, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights the changes in lycopene and β-carotene retention in tomato juice subjected to combined pressure–temperature (P-T) treatments ((high-pressure processing (HPP; 500–700 MPa, 30 °C), pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 500–700 MPa, 100 °C), and thermal processing (TP; 0.1 MPa, 100 °C)) for up to 10 min. Processing treatments utilized raw (untreated) and hot break (~93 °C, 60 s) tomato juice as controls. Changes in bioaccessibility of these carotenoids as a result of ...

  6. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  7. Effectiveness of High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP) treatments for the control of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua in apple juice, orange juice and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgan, I; Caminiti, I M; Muñoz, A; Noci, F; Whyte, P; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A; Lyng, J G

    2011-02-01

    High Intensity Light Pulses (HILP) represent an emerging processing technology which uses short (100-400 μs) light pulses (200-1100 nm) for product decontamination. In this study, model and real foods of differing transparencies (maximum recovery diluent (MRD), apple and orange juices and milk) were exposed to HILP in a batch system for 0, 2, 4 or 8 s at a frequency of 3 Hz. After treatment, inactivation of Escherichia coli or Listeria innocua was evaluated in pre-inoculated samples. Sensory and other quality attributes (colour, pH, Brix, titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) were assessed in apple juice. Microbial kill decreased with decreasing transparency of the medium. In apple juice (the most transparent beverage) E. coli decreased by 2.65 and 4.5 after exposure times of 2 or 4 s, respectively. No cell recovery was observed after 48 h storage at 4°C. No significant differences were observed in quality parameters, excepting TEAC and flavour score, where 8 s exposure caused a significant decrease (p<0.05). Based on these results, HILP with short exposure times could represent a potential alternative to thermal processing to eliminate undesirable microorganisms, while maintaining product quality, in transparent fruit juices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  9. Cocontinuous polymer blends: The role of block copolymer in blend morphology evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joel Richard

    Cocontinuous morphologies are distinguished by the mutual interpenetration of two polymer phases and allow for enhanced mechanical properties, static charge dissipation, and barrier properties. Cocontinuous morphologies form over a range of compositions, depending largely on mixing history and the relative polymer viscosities, elasticities, and interfacial tension. Because cocontinuous morphologies are thermodynamically unstable, they will coarsen when held above their glass or melt transition temperature. Since the unique properties of these blends depend directly on the continuous nature of the microstructure and its phase size, stabilization of the cocontinuous morphology is extremely important. To address this challenge, compatibilizers, e.g. block copolymers (bcp), are often added to hinder phase coarsening in blends of immiscible polymers and can improve bonding at interfaces. The effects of bcp on the cocontinuous morphology of polystyrene (PS)/polyethylene (PE) and PS/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with image analysis, 3D imaging, mercury porosimetry, solvent extraction, and rheology. It was shown that diblock copolymers were able to suppress coarsening during annealing in cocontinuous PS/PE and PS/PMMA blends. Bcp effectiveness was dependent on molecular weight, concentration, and architecture. Self consistent mean field theory and bending elasticity theory were used to estimate the proper bcp architecture for maximum reduction in interfacial tension; experimental results agreed well with the theory. In addition to slowing coarsening, bcp was shown to widen the range of cocontinuity for both the PS/PE and PS/PMMA systems. To aid determination of the range of cocontinuity, a new technique for analyzing SEM micrographs was developed. The new technique classifies blend morphology according to the normalized fraction of drops present in the 2D microstructure. It was found that a blend becomes

  10. Bebida mista com propriedade estimulante à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado Mixed drink with stimulating properties consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelia Marques de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria de bebidas, uma alternativa para acrescentar valor nutricional ou simplesmente desenvolver novos sabores é a mistura de diferentes sucos de frutas na formulação de bebidas mistas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma bebida à base de água de coco e suco de caju clarificado (cajuína, com adição de cafeína, conferindo-lhe propriedades estimulantes. Foram avaliadas cinco formulações, com diferentes proporções de cajuína, tendo sido padronizados previamente o pH, teor de sólidos solúveis e cafeína. As formulações foram submetidas à caracterização físico-química (pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez, açúcares redutores, não redutores e totais e vitamina C, análises microbiológicas e avaliação sensorial de aceitação (atributos de cor, sabor, avaliação global e intenção de compra. Todas as formulações em estudo apresentaram boa aceitação sensorial, não havendo diferença entre as médias dos atributos avaliados. Na intenção de compra, a formulação mais aceita foi ACC 20 (20% de cajuína e 80% de água de coco. A incorporação de vitamina C na bebida através da adição da cajuína foi mais evidente até a formulação ACC 20. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação ACC 20 foi a mais viável para elaboração da bebida mista. Todas as formulações apresentaram padrões microbiológicos satisfatórios.In the beverage industry, an alternative to add nutritional quality or simply to develop new tastes is the blending of different kinds of fruit juices. The objective of this work was the development of blends consisting of coconut water and clarified cashew apple juice with the addition of caffeine so as to provide stimulating properties to the beverage. Five formulations with different concentration of clarified cashew apple juice and previously standardized for pH, total soluble solids and caffeine concentration were evaluated. The formulations were submitted to

  11. Otimização no planejamento agregado de produção em indústrias de processamento de suco concentrado congelado de laranja Optimization in the aggregate production planning in frozen concentrated orange juice processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Munhoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se modelos de programação linear e programação por metas para apoiar decisões no processo de planejamento agregado da produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja, com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos. Além das decisões de produção, mistura e estocagem de sucos, os modelos também incorporam o planejamento de colheita da laranja, levando-se em consideração suas curvas de maturação. Desta maneira, os modelos consideram grande parte da cadeia de suprimento envolvida no setor de produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Outro ponto a destacar é a consideração do processo de mistura de diferentes tipos de sucos para a obtenção da especificação de ratio do produto acabado, utilizando a acidez da laranja como base de cálculo para a especificação de ratio. Para resolver os modelos de programação linear e programação por metas, utilizou-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um aplicativo de última geração de solução de problemas de programação matemática. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma empresa de suco de laranja localizada no Estado de São Paulo, envolvendo várias plantas e com uma rede de distribuição internacional com características típicas de outras empresas do setor. Os resultados indicam que a abordagem aqui proposta pode ser aplicada em situações reais.This work presents models using linear programming and goal programming to support decision making in the frozen concentrated orange juice planning process with multiple products, stages, and periods. Besides decisions about the production, blending, and juice storage, the models also include orange harvesting plan, which takes into account oranges maturation curves. Thus, the models take into consideration a large portion of the supply chain involved in the frozen concentrated orange juice sector. Another point to highlight is the inclusion of the blending process of different types of

  12. Reflux oesophagitis in the rat : the damaging action of pancreatic juice : the development of mural fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Mud

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe results obtained in a recent study of surgically induced reflux oesophagitis in rats (Kranendonk, 1980) prompted the study presented in this thesis. In the randomized study by Kranendonk (1980) the reflux of pancreatic juice invariably resulted in oesophagitis; admixture of bile and/

  13. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

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    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  14. Commercial scale pulsed electric field processing of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seacheol; Jin, Z Tony; Zhang, Q Howard

    2003-05-21

    Effects of commercial scale pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on the quality of tomato juice were studied and compared with those of thermal processing. Tomato juice was prepared by hot break at 88 degrees C for 2 min or by cold break at 68 degrees C for 2 min and then thermally processed at 92 degrees C for 90 s or PEF processed at 40 kV/cm for 57 micros. Thermally processed, PEF processed, and unprocessed control juices were packed into 50 mL sterilized polypropylene tubes in a sanitary glovebox and stored at 4 degrees C for 112 days. Both thermally and PEF processed juices showed microbial shelf life at 4 degrees C for 112 days. The lipoxygenase activities of thermally and PEF processed juices were 0 and 47%, respectively. PEF processed juice retained more ascorbic acid than thermally processed juice at 4 degrees C for 42 days (p Brix, pH, or viscosity between thermally and PEF processed juices during the storage (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluations indicated that flavor and overall acceptability of PEF processed juice were preferred to those of thermally processed juice (p < 0.05).

  15. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  16. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

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    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  17. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow

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    Martinez Veronica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. Results In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux, which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. Conclusion JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in

  18. Polyamide blend-based nanocomposites: A review

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    W. S. Chow

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer blend nanocomposites have been considered as a stimulating route for creating a new type of high performance material that combines the advantages of polymer blends and the merits of polymer nanocomposites. In nanocomposites with multiphase matrices, the concept of using nanofillers to improve select properties (e.g., mechanical, thermal, chemical, etc of a polymer blend, as well as to modify and stabilize the blend morphology has received a great deal of interest. This review reports recent advances in the field of polyamide (PA blend-based nanocomposites. Emphasis is placed on the PA-rich blends produced by blending with other thermoplastics in the presence of nanofillers. The processing and properties of PA blend-based nanocomposites with nanofillers are discussed. In addition, the mechanical properties and morphology changes of PA blends with the incorporation of nanofillers are described. The issues of compatibility and toughening of PA blend nanocomposites are discussed, and current challenges are highlighted.

  19. Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2009-08-12

    The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed.

  20. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological quality and safety of carrot juice during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret F; McKay, Alan M; Connolly, Malachy; Linton, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The microbial quality of untreated and pressure-treated carrot juice was compared during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C. High pressure treatment at 500 MPa and 600 MPa (1 min/20 °C) reduced the total counts by approximately 4 log CFU ml⁻¹ and there was very little growth of the survivors during storage at 4 °C for up to 22 days. Total counts increased during storage of pressure-treated juice at 8 °C and 12 °C but took significantly longer to reach maximum levels compared to the untreated juice. The microflora in the untreated juice consisted predominantly of Gram-negative bacteria, identified as mostly Pantoea spp., Erwinia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Initially the pressure-treated juice contained low numbers of spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp.) and Gram-positive cocci; the spore-formers continued to dominate during storage. When irradiation-sterilised juice was inoculated with a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes, numbers decreased during storage at 4 °C and 8 °C by 1.50 and 0.56 log CFU ml⁻¹ respectively. When the inoculated carrot juice was pressure treated (500 MPa/1 min/20 °C) no L. monocytogenes were found immediately after pressure treatment or during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C (>6 log inactivation). In contrast, pressure treatment in TSBYE only resulted in 1.65 log inactivation and survivors grew rapidly. This suggests that the antilisterial effect of carrot juice is enhanced by HPP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome

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    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption. Results: The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6 had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6. Conclusions: Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  3. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits

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    rohani Ali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol, 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups. Results Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations. Conclusion Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice.

  4. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  5. Quality Markers of Functional Tomato Juice with Added Apple Phenolic Antioxidants

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    Laura Massini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using natural antioxidants instead of synthetic additives for food stabilisation is at the forefront of research in food formulation. Matrix interactions and stability studies of the incorporated foods are necessary prior to further processing. In this study, apple peel phenolics were added to a commercial bottled tomato juice. The juice was opened and then stored in the presence of air in the headspace at 4 °C for four days to assess its physical-chemical stability (pH, turbidity, colour and total phenolic content and nutritional content (ascorbic acid and total carotenoids; it was also stored at 4 °C for 10 days for the microbiological analysis. The antimicrobial capacity of the phenolic extracts was tested against a range of food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Results showed that apple peel phenolics could form complexes with colloidal pectins thus increasing the turbidity, even though this effect was not significant during the four-day storage; the colour of the enriched juice was brighter with enhanced yellowness due to added pigments such as flavonol glycosides. The presence of other natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids in tomato juice was not affected by the addition of peel phenolics. Ascorbic acid was partially reduced during storage in all the juice samples; however, the presence of the added peel phenolics whose amount remained constant over time significantly contributed to a higher radical scavenging capacity compared to the control. The microbiological spoilage of the opened tomato juice was also delayed by two to three days in the presence of apple peel phenolics compared to the control. The antimicrobial capacity was due to a bacteriostatic effect of the phenolic extracts mostly against the growth of yeasts; the antimicrobial capacity was related to the acidity of phenolic acids and the presence of apple flavonoids such as flavan-3-ols.

  6. The Polyphenols Stability, Enzyme Activity and Physico-Chemical Parameters During Producing Wild Elderberry Concentrated Juice

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    Ante Galić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of processing wild elderberry into concentrated juice on polyphenols (total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, hydrolysed tannins stability, activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD, and changes of physico-chemical parameters (total and soluble dry matter, total acidity, pH, sugars were investigated. The amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, falvan-3-ols and hydrolysed tannins were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, while the total anthocyanins were determined by bisulphite bleaching method. Total phenols ranged from 25.87 mg/g DM to 38.87 mg/g DM. Total anthocyanins were the most abundant polyphenols in all investigated samples (raw elderberries, elderberries after blanching, elderberry juice after disintegration and pressing, concentrated elderberry juice and their concentration ranged from 13.12 mg/g DM to 25.67 mg/g DM. Other polyphenols determined in high concentration were hydrolysed tannins, followed by fl avan-3-ols, flavonoids and nonfavonoids. After blanching, the concentration of all polyphenols did not decrease significantly. After disintegration of elderberries the concentration of all polyphenols increased, probably due to inactivation of PPO and POD and better isolation of polyphenols from homogenized puree. During processing of elderberry juice into concentrated juice most polyphenols were stable. Total acidity and pH value were not changed during processing, whereas the amounts of total and reducing sugar increased after pressing and additionally after concentration. The obtained results suggest that raw elderberries as well as elderberry concentrated juice are high potential source of polyphenols especially anthocyanins.

  7. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (≤19%), proteins (≤82%), phosphorus (≤53%), and SiO2 (≤23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (≤136%) and sulfur (≤200%).

  8. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI.

  9. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  10. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  11. Effects of thermosonication on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, W-S; Bhat, R; Rosma, A; Cheng, L-H

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of thermosonication and thermal treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice were investigated at 50 and 60°C. Besides, nonlethal injury of Salm. Enteritidis after both treatments was also examined. The highest inactivation was attained with thermosonication at 60°C. The inactivation rate was different for both pathogens, and Salm. Enteritidis was found to be more sensitive to thermosonication than E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered in all treated samples, except those subjected to more than 5-min thermosonication at 60°C. It was found that the introduction of high-intensity ultrasound enhanced the inactivation of pathogens compared to thermal treatment alone. On the other hand, Salm. Enteritidis was detected in a number of samples following incubation in universal pre-enrichment broth, but no growth was detected after incubation in mango juice. Fruit juices are commonly heat treated to inactivate micro-organisms and enzymes. However, excessive heat treatments may result in undesirable changes in juice quality. Treatment by power ultrasound, a nonthermal technology, may be an alternative processing technique to pasteurize fruit juices. This study highlights the effectiveness of thermosonication in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  14. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  15. Alteration of Porcine Serum Albumin Levels in Pork Meat by Marination in Kiwi or Pineapple Juice and Subsequent Pan Broiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Il-Suk; Ham, Jun-Sang; Park, Beom-Young; Jang, Aera

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in porcine serum albumin (PSA), a major allergen, which occur when raw pork ham is marinated with kiwi or pineapple juice, and/or when the ham is pan broiled at 300℃ for 4 min after marination. In this study, raw pork ham was soaked for 4 h or 8 h in marinades containing commercial marinating sauce only, commercial marinating sauce and 7% kiwi juice, or commercial marinating sauce and 7% pineapple juice. When the meat was marinated and then pan-broiled, pork ham meat protein was significantly denatured and hydrolyzed, and the level of PSA in the meat was significantly reduced. The PSA contents of pork broiled without marination, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce alone, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with kiwi juice, and pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with pineapple juice, were 95.4, 43.3, 14.3, and 5.4 ng/mL, respectively (pkiwi juice; and marination for 8 h was more effective than marinating for 4 h. These results indicate that the level of PSA in pork ham is effectively reduced, when the meat is first marinated in sauces that contain kiwi or pineapple extracts for 8 h, rather than 4 h, and then cooked. Further study is needed to determine whether marinated pork meat reduces allergenicity in vivo, as well.

  16. Effects of blending alcohols with poultry fat methyl esters on cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Hem; Walker, Terry [Biosystems Engineering, 114 Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States); Toler, Joe [Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Smith, William F. [Southeast Biodiesel, North Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols to poultry fat methyl esters. The alcohol type did not result in a statistically significant difference in low temperature performance at similar blend ratios in poultry fat methyl esters. In addition, blends of ethanol in poultry fat methyl esters afforded the least viscous mixtures, whereas isopropanol and butanol blends were progressively more viscous, but still within specifications contained in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in failure of the flash point specifications found in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Flash points of butanol blends were superior to those of isopropanol and ethanol blends, with the 5 vol.% butanol blend exhibiting a flash point (57 C) superior to that of No. 2 diesel fuel (52 C). Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in an improvement in acid value with increasing content of alcohol. An increase in moisture content of biodiesel was observed with increasing alcohol content, with the effect being more pronounced in ethanol blends versus isopropanol and butanol blends. Finally, none of the alcohol-methyl ester samples exhibited a phase separation at sub-ambient temperatures. (author)

  17. Blended Learning: The Student Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    learning and development to the needs of individuals by integrating the innovative and .... Learners represent different generations, different personality types, and different .... learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning.

  18. Blended Learning: The Student Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the needs of students who are not in a position to attend traditional contact classes ... Keywords: Blended learning, Online learning, Students' perceptions. Access this ... lecture time. Online .... The BL content encouraged me to learn. ‑. 4. 9.3.

  19. Bioavailability of multiple components following acute ingestion of a polyphenol-rich juice drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Mullan, Adam; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2010-07-01

    A healthy diet involves eating fruit and vegetables on a daily basis, the benefits of which are in part linked to the ingestion of bioactive compounds including polyphenols. As a convenient means of delivering additional polyphenols to the diet, a polyphenol-rich (P-R) juice drink was prepared and the bioavailability of its diverse spectrum of constituents investigated. Ten human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 days before drinking 350 mL of the P-R beverage. Plasma and urine were collected for 24 h and analyzed by HPLC-PDA-MS. The plasma pharmacokinetics and recoveries of urinary metabolites of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, dihydrochalcones and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, both in terms of their identity and quantity, were, in most instances, not markedly different to those reported in other feeding studies with green tea, orange juice, apple cider and coffee. This indicates that the combination of polyphenolic compounds in the P-R beverage are absorbed and excreted to a similar extent whether fed individually or together in a single beverage. It is concluded that the P-R beverage can deliver the intended blend of bioavailable polyphenols, which would normally require consumption of several different plant-derived foods.

  20. Blended Learning in der Wirtschaftsinformatik

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Roland; Weber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Der vorliegende Projektbericht stellt das Blended Learning-Konzept und insbesondere ein darin enthaltenes Sonderpunkteprogramm zweier Vorlesungen vor, die auf dem RuhrCampusOnline der drei Ruhrgebietsuniversitäten angeboten werden. Der Artikel entwickelt sich dabei vom Allgemeinen zum Speziellen: Nach einer Erläuterung der Rahmenbedingungen in Form des RuhrCampusOnline und des Lehrmoduls „Management & Information“ wird zunächst das Blended Learning-Konzept der Lehrveranstaltungen vorgestellt....