WorldWideScience

Sample records for judo mutual benefit

  1. Mutual benefits in academic-service partnership: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghnezhad, Maliheh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Kareshki, Hossein; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2018-05-30

    Academic and service institutions involve with many challenges. Partnership programs are a golden opportunity to achieve mutual benefits to overcome these challenges. Identifying mutual benefits is the cornerstone of forming a successful partnership and guarantee to its continuity. There are definitions and instances of mutual benefits in the literature related to partnership programs, but there is no coherent evidence and clear picture of these benefits. This study is conducted to identify mutual benefits in academic-service partnership by analyzing the definitions and instances of it in the literature. An integrative review of key papers regarding mutual benefits in academic-service partnership was undertaken. This review was guided by the framework described by Whittemore and Knafl. Search of the following databases was conducted: MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, Emerald Insight and Science Direct. The search terms were mutual benefits, mutual gains, mutual interest, mutual expectations, mutual goals, mutual demand, partnership, collaboration, academic-service partnership and academic service collaboration. Cooper's five-stage integrative review method was used. Quality evaluation of articles was conducted. Data were abstracted from included articles. The analysis was conducted based on the qualitative content analysis of the literature suggested by Zhang and Wildemuth. 28 articles were included in this review. Mutual benefits are described in four categories include: synergy in training and empowerment of human resources, education improvement, access to shared resources, facilitate production and application of beneficial knowledge into practice. Mutual benefits in the academic-service partnership include a range of goals, interests, expectations, and needs of partner organizations that is achievable and measurable through joint planning and collaboration. We suggest academic and service policymakers to consider these benefits in the planning and evaluating

  2. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  3. Importance of mutual benefits in online knowledge sharing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Y.; Lau, L.M.S.; Dew, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    The sustainability of knowledge sharing e-communities is a major issue at present. A hypothesis was\\ud proposed at the outset in the paper that the provision of mutual benefits among participants will lead to positive\\ud participation. Drawing from the economic and social theories, a framework for analysis was developed and tested in\\ud an empirical study. The preliminary results demonstrated a direct relationship between mutual benefits and the level\\ud of participation, and hence supported ...

  4. Team Reasoning and Intentional Cooperation for Mutual Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Sugden Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit. This concept uses a form of team reasoning in which team members aim to achieve common interests, rather than maximising a common utility function, and in which team reasoners can coordinate their behaviour by following pre-existing practices. I argue that a market transaction can express intentions for mutually beneficial cooperation even if, extensionally, participation in the transaction promotes each party’s self...

  5. Mutuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, E. J.; Rose, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    and epistemological grounds and reproduces an array of problematic modernist dichotomies (e.g., agency/structure, nurturing family/instrumental public, gift/market, and altruism/self-interest) that significantly constrain the analytical enterprise. This work redresses some of the conceptual problems in the current...... formulation. The critique highlights a focus on resource distribution based on a more holistic, socially grounded perspective on circulation. We offer the alternative concept of mutuality or generalized exchange and the metaphor of inclusion rather than exchange as central to this perspective. We argue...

  6. Oklahoma Retailers' Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. School/Business Partnerships: We Expanded the Idea into a Mutual-Benefit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a "mutual benefit" arrangement that expanded the school-business partnership model. Westfall Secondary School and an industrial operation in Owen Sound Ontario, Canada, linked their strengths and needs to offer students actual work and project experiences and to give the company useful information, services, and adult basic…

  8. Safety on Judo Children: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripanti, Attilio; De Blasis, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Many doctors although they have not firsthand experience of judo, describe it as a sport unsuitable for children. Theoretically speaking falls derived by Judo throwing techniques,could be potentially dangerous,especially for kids,if poorly managed.A lot of researches were focalized on trauma or injuries taking place in judo, both during training and competition The goal of this Research is to define and apply a scientific methodology to evaluate the hazard in falls by judo throws for children...

  9. Morfofunctional parameters in judo's fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Sérgio Lopes Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of judo and the ample energy and neuromuscular demands, a whole process of competitive preparation must be directed to different physical capacities allowing the athlete to perform his combat actions with the best suitability possible. Mapping the  behaviour of a judo athlete from observations of behaviour units  in a real fighting situation would be a way of trying to identify the best topography or the best "aptitude" to achieve victory. The present investigation analysed the judo from the interactions of a real competition situation, aiming to verify, between winners and losers, possible differences or correlations between anthropometric parameters, motor performance and functional behaviours in a competitive situation. The results showed that: a the experience is decisive between winning or losing; b leg techniques are the most used between winners and losers, and losers use them more frequently; c there are different strategies between fights; d The energy cost in judo depends on the configuration of the fights. It is believed that such results can help coaches and athletes in guiding and rationalizing the training process in relation to performance determinants in judo.

  10. How can ASEAN and Japan mutually benefit from ASEAN economic integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of the economic and political relationship between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States and Japan since the 1970s, from the perspectives of trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment (FDI) and international labour movements. ASEAN economic integration is likely to yield mutual benefits for both ASEAN Member States and Japan. The larger ASEAN market will not only attract new Japanese FDI but also encourage Japanese multin...

  11. Dually diagnosed patients' benefits of mutual-help groups and the role of social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C; McKellar, John; Zemore, Sarah; Moos, Rudolf H

    2013-02-01

    There is debate about whether dually diagnosed patients benefit from mutual-help groups (MHGs), partly because social anxiety may make participation problematic. We examined dually diagnosed patients' participation in MHGs and outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months post-treatment, and the extent to which social anxiety was associated with participation. We also examined whether MHG participation and social anxiety were related to outcomes, and whether social anxiety moderated associations between participation and outcomes. We found high rates of MHG participation. Among patients who attended at least one meeting, outcomes were positive. Social anxiety was not associated with levels of MHG participation, but more participation was associated with better outcomes. When social anxiety moderated associations between MHG participation and outcomes, patients with more social anxiety benefited more from participation. Treated dually diagnosed patients participate in, and benefit from, MHGs, and participation and benefits are comparable, or even strengthened, among more socially-anxious patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Empirical Studies on Actively Managed Mutual Funds: New Insights into the Costs and Benefits of Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Dyakov (Teodor)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dyakov’s dissertation bundles three empirical studies on actively managed mutual funds. His studies provide new knowledge of the costs and benefits of portfolio disclosure and shed more light into the question whether mutual fund investors have an information

  13. Sociohistorical evolution of judo: introductory approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozimbo Cordeiro Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The sociohistorical evolution of judo provided by the research project Methodology for teaching judo from the critical–excelling stance is discussed in this article. The aim of the project was to establish a plan for systematizing judo as body culture constituent and scholastic knowledge of physical education. The ancillary pedagogical material is constituted by an introduction, objectives, contents, teaching methodology and evaluation system.

  14. Export Controls and Industry Outreach Mutual Benefits of Business - Government Partnerships (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation is intended to acquaint one and all with the strategy and benefits for developing a mutually contributory relationship between government and industry as a means to support and strengthen an effective nonproliferation export control regime. The study will provide background into the basis for development of multilateral regimes for export controls along with an overview covering the historical involvement of industry and their responsibility in dual-use research and development. The paper will then offer an examination of the unique composition and status of the dual-use industry which makes them vulnerable to the illicit diversion of their products and identify and discuss the recognized indicators of that process. The focus will then move toward explaining justification for establishing a close working relationship or partnership between industry and government and how the process of that partnership can deter access and opportunity for the illicit diversion of dual-use goods. Finally, in summation the presentation will highlight the mutual benefits that result from that relationship.(author)

  15. The effects of self-handicapping on attributions and perceived judo competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Simon; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hypotheses derived from Jones and Berglas's (1978) self-handicapping model. It was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more internal attributions and report greater gains in perceived judo ability following success than individuals using few self-handicaps. In addition, it was hypothesized that individuals using many self-handicaps would use more external attributions and report less reduction in perceived judo ability following failure. Fifty-three judo players completed measures of trait self-handicapping, situational self-handicapping and a measure of perceived judo ability before competition. Following competition, the participants completed the Causal Dimension Scale II and the measure of perceived judo ability for a second time. Analyses of variance revealed that high self-handicappers attributed failure to more external factors than low self-handicappers. It was also found that high self-handicappers reported less of a reduction in perceived judo ability following failure than low self-handicappers. The findings therefore provide support for the potential short-term benefits of self-handicapping in sport, although further research is required to examine the long-term implications of using self-handicaps.

  16. A mutualism without honeydew: what benefits for Melissotarsus emeryi ants and armored scale insects (Diaspididae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Peeters

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms between ants and sap-sucking insects generally involve clear benefits for both partners: the ants provide protection in exchange for honeydew. However, a single ant genus associates with armoured scale insects (Diaspididae that do not excrete honeydew. We studied three colonies of Melissotarsus emeryi ants from two localities in Mozambique. Vast numbers of the diaspidid Morganella conspicua occupied galleries dug by the ants under the bark of living trees. Unlike free-living M. conspicua and other diaspidids, M. conspicua living with ants are known to lack shields, likely because they gain protection against enemies and desiccation. Nevertheless, we documented the occurrence of rare individuals with shields inside ant galleries, indicating that their glands continue to secrete wax and proteins as building material. This is likely to constitute a significant portion of the ants’ diet, in addition to diaspidid exuviae and excretions from the Malpighian tubules. Indeed, Melissotarsus workers cannot walk outside the galleries due to modified middle legs, forcing them to obtain all nourishment within the tree. Melissotarsus founding queens, however, must locate a suitable host tree while flying, and acquire diaspidid crawlers. This mutualism involves ants that are highly specialised to chew through living wood, and diaspidids that can also live freely outside the bark. It is extremely widespread in Africa and Madagascar, recorded from 20 tree families, and harmful effects on plant hosts require rapid study.

  17. Japanese judo in the soviet Ukraine (the 1960s - 1970s: the image in youth and sports press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gulyayeva

    2016-10-01

    The prehistory of the Soviet judo, has also been discussed in the article, the creation on the basis of this martial art Sambo by V. Oshchepkov has been noted. It was later considered the Soviet international martial art, while judo was banned. It became legal again only after its inclusion into the Olympic program in Tokyo 1964, but it developed for a long time only in the framework of the Soviet Sambo. The USSR, according to the vision of its leadership, could not participate in the Olympic judo competitions. Firstly USSR tried to promote the idea of the predominance of Soviet Sambo in comparison to this Japanese martial art. The benefits of Sambo over judo were prescribed in the Soviet press. However, the loss of superiority of Soviet wrestlers in sport judo competitions in the early 1970s forced the Soviet government to reconsider its policy in relation to judo and to separate it from Sambo by creating in 1973 the Federation of judo of the USSR.

  18. Report on the First International Symposium Science in Judo (ISSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Mateo-Cubo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report resumes the First International Symposium Science in Judo (ISSJ, organized by the Department of Health Psychology, Miguel Hernández University, Elche (Spain, and held from October 12 to 14h, 2017. During this symposium some of the most relevant research projects related to judo as a sport were presented. There were a wide variety of topics, including biomechanics of technique, health, psychology, nutrition, sport training, education and future prospects. Five plenary sessions, six mini-sessions, one panel discussion and two workshops on tatami were developed. The symposium was an event where important national and international researchers participated. It was intended for groups related to judo, such as Sports Sciences students, judo coaches and high level judo athletes. More than 70 people participated in the symposium whose main aim was to provide scientific evidence on judo to judo professionals.

  19. The most common types of injuries in judo

    OpenAIRE

    Ječmínek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Title: The most common types of injuries in judo Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the most common injuries that occur during training and judo competitions. Identify treatment options, prevention and identify most common causes of injury. Methods: The chosen method was theoretical and empirical, ie collecting data and information from other publications and conduct its own research. Selecting what is relevant for judo injuries and comparsion whith author's experience and res...

  20. Creating a longitudinal integrated clerkship with mutual benefits for an academic medical center and a community health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Ann Noelle; Mazotti, Lindsay A; Blumberg, Bruce; Wamsley, Maria A; Grennan, Tim; Shore, William B

    2014-01-01

    The longitudinal integrated clerkship is a model of clinical education driven by tenets of social cognitive theory, situated learning, and workplace learning theories, and built on a foundation of continuity between students, patients, clinicians, and a system of care. Principles and goals of this type of clerkship are aligned with primary care principles, including patient-centered care and systems-based practice. Academic medical centers can partner with community health systems around a longitudinal integrated clerkship to provide mutual benefits for both organizations, creating a sustainable model of clinical training that addresses medical education and community health needs. A successful one-year longitudinal integrated clerkship was created in partnership between an academic medical center and an integrated community health system. Compared with traditional clerkship students, students in this clerkship had better scores on Clinical Performance Examinations, internal medicine examinations, and high perceptions of direct observation of clinical skills.Advantages for the academic medical center include mitigating the resources required to run a longitudinal integrated clerkship while providing primary care training and addressing core competencies such as systems-based practice, practice-based learning, and interprofessional care. Advantages for the community health system include faculty development, academic appointments, professional satisfaction, and recruitment.Success factors include continued support and investment from both organizations' leadership, high-quality faculty development, incentives for community-based physician educators, and emphasis on the mutually beneficial relationship for both organizations. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship in a community health system can serve as a model for developing and expanding these clerkship options for academic medical centers.

  1. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  2. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING... in several mutual funds whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund prospectus describes the fund as a “management company,” but does not characterize the fund as having a...

  3. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,87...

  4. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  5. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  6. Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.

  7. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

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    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  8. Sport pedagogy: making the play possible in kids judo

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    Reinaldo Naia Cavazani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to deal with the pedagogical procedures for teaching, experiencing and learning kids Judo, observing the technical-tactical, socio-educational and cultural-historical referential. It is a bibliographic review study of critical-reflective and purposeful character applied to judo, according to the concept of creating the possible game. The possible game is group of pedagogical procedures focused on managing and ensuring the goals of teaching process, experiencing and learning of Judo, in the plans of the content, methodology and didactics, through the observation of the relationship between the characters, the context, the purposes and the meanings of sport, in order to ensure a wide perspective of the sports phenomenon.

  9. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian judo athletes

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    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.

  10. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL PREPARATION IN JUDO

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    Slavko Obadov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preparation is a constituent part of overall sports preparation. Conditional training might be defined as a process of improvement of a sportsman’s functional and motor abilities, morphological characteristics, health, as well as the required motor knowledge. Conditional preparation can be might be classified as: general, basic and situational conditional preparation. Programs of the conditional training might be classified as: developing, resuming, recovering, preventive and recovering ones. High level of the general physical preparation enables maximum demonstration of the physical abilities of a sportsman during the stage of improvement of the specific motor abilities. Good general preparation of a sportsman enables him to push beyond his functional limits in order to cope with heavy loads easier, which subsequently enables him to achieve top performance level. Basic conditional preparation assumes the development of the most important judo abilities. Specific conditional preparation is related directly to the execution of different structural elements under the conditional requirements. Situational conditional preparation enables integration of the tactical and conditional training.

  11. Reinterpreting the history of women's judo in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Marques, Juliana Bastos; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This paper reassesses the role of women in judo in Japan, from its secluded and restricted beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the gradual changes in gender and social paradigms triggered by the influence of Western feminist struggle from the 1960s onwards. Judo has been considered in theory an inclusive martial art because its creator, Jigoro Kano, stressed safety, etiquette and moral teachings irrespective of age, size or gender of its adherents. However, the social and cultural environment in Japan has traditionally discriminated against women both outside and inside the dojo (training place). We treat this issue historically, considering the broader context of the Japanese social, political and cultural developments.

  12. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain.

  13. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  14. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  15. Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Performance in Young Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Camilla; Souza, Diego; Polito, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    To compare the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on performance in young judo athletes. In a randomized double-blind design, eighteen judo athletes (16.1 ± 1.4 yrs.) were evaluated on three nonconsecutive days. On the first day, the special judo fitness test (SJFT) was used as a control session. On the second day, the sample was randomly divided into two equal groups. One group received 4 mg.kg -1 of caffeine (capsule) and the other group received a placebo. After resting for 60 min, the sample performed the SJFT. On the final day of testing, the same procedure was performed but the substance ingested was exchanged between the groups. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the applications of the SJFTs. Caffeine ingestion did not induce changes in HR, but reduced the RPE compared with the placebo session (7.0 ± 1.1 vs 8.2 ± 2.0; p performance on SJFT in young judo athletes and reduced the RPE.

  16. THE EXAMINATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD JUDO IN GREEK ATHLETES

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    Zaggelidis G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate opinions about judo athletes’ personality. For this purpose forty eight (48 judo athletes, 12 women and 36 men, 30+9.1 years old (mean+SD, with none to five dan, participated in the research. All the subjects answered to a 35-item questionnaire describing the image they have towards those people who are doing judo, in regard to five factors such as social nature, volition nature, active nature, physicalnature and emotional nature. For the statistical analysis the statistic packet SPSS/PC version 12.0 for windows wasused. Men’s and women’s rating about judo athletes’ image was almost the same on all items ranging from the average, to somewhat strong and, also, to strong. However, there was a definitely significant difference in the comparison of the two groups, among men and women, with men rating significantly higher in the item of “beingcautious” of active nature (t=3.518, p<0.01, in the item of “not being unfair in things” of emotional nature (t=2.533, p<0.05, and in the item of “being mild” of emotional nature, too (t=2.718, p<0.01. However, women were rating significantly higher in the item of “having an independent nature” of volition nature (t=-2.350,p<0.05. Age didn’t correlate with any item. Moreover, chi square test showed that dan number affects the item of “having leadership” of social nature (x2=31.335, p<0.05. The results lead to the conclusions that the high rating in the image of all thirty-five items, of all the five senses, social nature, volition nature, active nature, physical nature and emotional nature in both men and women regarding judo is high and is thought to be an expression of attitudesprovided in judo lessons and matches, as well as during judo practice time.

  17. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF YOUNG JUDO ATHLETES

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    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 80 young judo athletes aged from 16-17 year, was applied the system a total of 18 variables, of which 10 are morphologic characteristic and 8 motoric abilities variables, with a purpose to determinate mutual report between each other, while the information were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis. With case of authentication statistically important relation was achieve one pair of canonical correlations statistically important. In morphologic variables field the canonical factor is interpreted in first canonical structure is the consists of variables: adipose tissue under skin of stomach (ATST, adipose tissue under skin of triceps (ATTR, adipose tissue under skin of biceps (ATBI, adipose tissue under skin of sub scapulars (ATSS, adipose tissue under skin of sub iliac a (ATSI and adipose tissue under skin of list (ATSL, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of adipose tissue: And second structure of canonical factors of anthropometric characteristics is the consists of variables: body length: body length (LEBO, length of the leg (LELE and length of the arm (LEAR, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of longitudinal dimensionality. The first structure of canonical factors in motoric variables is can not be interpreted because of low values of motor variables, while second structure of canonical factors of motoric abilities is the consists of variables: squeeze palm (SQPA, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of strong factor in palm. Based on structure analysis of matrix results of canonical factors results were shown that to young judo athletes of this age exist statistically valid correlations between canonical factor of anthropometric variables and canonical factor of variables to motoric abilities which is (Rc=77 that is statistically valid in level (P=00.

  18. Rotational Acceleration during Head Impact Resulting from Different Judo Throwing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    MURAYAMA, Haruo; HITOSUGI, Masahito; MOTOZAWA, Yasuki; OGINO, Masahiro; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchigari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an ...

  19. Disability and family in the People's Republic of China: implementation, benefits, and comparison of two mutual support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Helen; McCabe, Karen

    2013-03-01

    The authors and 2 Chinese parents established 2 support groups in China. One group was for parents of children with autism, and the other was for young adults with either mental health issues or intellectual disability, and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and effectiveness of these groups from the parents' perspectives. Qualitative interviews and questionnaires were completed by members of the groups, across the first 16 months. Facilitator monthly reports were also analysed. Members of both groups found the groups provided a feeling of belonging and a place to interact with similar people. Differences existed relating to perspectives on the purpose of the groups and how families benefited, as well as in participation rates. Suggestions were provided by members. Implications of the differences in participation and desires of the parents are considered, including the understanding and perceptions of various disabilities in China.

  20. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Judo Athletes: An Update

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    Gema Torres-Luque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage, heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.

  1. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  2. AEROBIC POWER IN CHILD, CADET AND SENIOR JUDO ATHLETES

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    Elena Pocecco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare performance and physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests of combat duration in male child, cadet and senior judo athletes. Power output and physiological parameters, i.e., peak oxygen uptake ( ·VO2peak, peak ventilation, peak heart rate, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion, of 7 child (under 15 years: age class U15, 12.7 ± 1.1 yrs, 10 cadet (U17, 14.9 ± 0.7 yrs and 8 senior ( 20, 29.3 ± 9.2 yrs male judo athletes were assessed during incremental tests of combat duration on an arm crank and a cycle ergometer. Children as well as cadets demonstrated higher upper body relative VO2peak than seniors (37.3 ± 4.9, 39.2 ± 5.0 and 31.0 ± 2.1 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, respectively; moreover, upper and lower body relative VO2peak decreased with increasing age (r = -0.575, p < 0.003 and r = -0.580, p < 0.002, respectively. Children showed lower blood lactate concentrations after cranking as well as after cycling when compared to seniors (7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.4 ± 2.1 mmol∙l-1 and 7.9 ± 3.0 vs. 12.0 ± 1.9 mmol���l-1, respectively; furthermore, blood lactate values after cranking increased with age (r = 0.473, p < 0.017. These differences should be considered in planning the training for judo athletes of different age classes.

  3. RELIABILITY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF JUDO TECHNIQUES

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    Slavko Obadov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 106 judokas. Assessment of the level of mastership of judo techniques was carried out by evaluation of fi ve competent studies. Each subject performed a technique three times and each performance was evaluated by the judges. In order to evaluate measurement of each technique, Cronbach’s coeffi cient of reliability  was calculated. During the procedure the subjects's results were also transformed to factor scores i.e. the results of each performer at the main component of evaluation in the fi ve studies. These factor scores could be used in the subsequent procedure of multivariant statistical analysis.

  4. Judo strategy. The competitive dynamics of Internet time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoffie, D B; Cusumano, M A

    1999-01-01

    Competition on the Internet is creating fierce battles between industry giants and small-scale start-ups. Smart start-ups can avoid those conflicts by moving quickly to uncontested ground and, when that's no longer possible, turning dominant players' strengths against them. The authors call this competitive approach judo strategy. They use the Netscape-Microsoft battles to illustrate the three main principles of judo strategy: rapid movement, flexibility, and leverage. In the early part of the browser wars, for instance, Netscape applied the principle of rapid movement by being the first company to offer a free stand-alone browser. This allowed Netscape to build market share fast and to set the market standard. Flexibility became a critical factor later in the browser wars. In December 1995, when Microsoft announced that it would "embrace and extend" competitors' Internet successes, Netscape failed to give way in the face of superior strength. Instead it squared off against Microsoft and even turned down numerous opportunities to craft deep partnerships with other companies. The result was that Netscape lost deal after deal when competing with Microsoft for common distribution channels. Netscape applied the principle of leverage by using Microsoft's strengths against it. Taking advantage of Microsoft's determination to convert the world to Windows or Windows NT, Netscape made its software compatible with existing UNIX systems. While it is true that these principles can't replace basic execution, say the authors, without speed, flexibility, and leverage, very few companies can compete successfully on Internet time.

  5. Energy demands during a judo match and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutte, F; Jouanel, P; Filaire, E

    2003-06-01

    To assess energy demand during a judo match and the kinetics of recovery by measuring the metabolites of the oxypurine cascade, lipolytic activity, and glycolytic pathway. Venous blood samples were taken from 16 national judoists (mean (SEM) age 18.4 (1.6) years), before (T(1)) and three minutes (T(2)), one hour (T(3)), and 24 hours (T(4)) after a match. A seven day diet record was used to evaluate nutrient intake. Nutrient analysis indicated that these athletes followed a low carbohydrate diet. Plasma lactate concentration had increased to 12.3 (1.8) mmol/l at the end of the match. An increase in the levels of extracellular markers of muscle adenine nucleotide catabolism, urea, and creatinine was observed at T(2), while uric acid levels remained unchanged. High concentrations of urea persisted for 24 hours during the recovery period. Ammonia, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and creatinine returned to control levels within the 24 hour recovery period. Uric acid concentrations rose from T(3) and had not returned to baseline 24 hours after the match. The levels of triglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids had increased significantly (p<0.05) after the match (T(2)) but returned to baseline values within 24 hours. Concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly increased after the match. These results show that a judo match induces both protein and lipid metabolism. Carbohydrate availability, training adaptation, and metabolic stress may explain the requirement for these types of metabolism.

  6. Agreement on Access and Benefit-sharing for Academic Research: A toolbox for drafting Mutually Agreed Terms for access to Genetic Resources and to Associated Traditional Knowledge and Benefit-sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Biber-Klemm, Susette; Martinez, Sylvia I.; Jacob, Anne; Jevtic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This manual contains a set of model clauses that enables users and providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge to set up a legal contract that is adapted to the individual academic research situation. If mutually negotiated and agreed upon by the involved partners this agreement can yield a “Mutually Agreed Terms” ABS contract.

  7. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  8. Self-assessment and aggression’s manifestation of Judo wrestlers in age and qualification aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine self assessment and aggression’s manifestations of Judo wrestlers in age and qualification aspects. Material: in the research boys - Judo wrestlers from sport schools of Kaunas (Lithuania participated (n=90, age - 16.9 ± 2.0 years. The athletes were divided into three groups. In qualification aspects were divided into two groups. The first group was composed as per sport achievements - the members of combined Lithuanian teams. The second group consisted athletes of different sport categories, which were not the members of combined teams. We used questionnaire as per scale of self assessment of M. Rosenberg and questionnaire of aggressiveness of Buss-Perry. Estimation of the received data was fulfilled with the help of U criterion of Manna-Whitney, H criterion of Kruskall-Wallis and χ2-criterion. Assessment of confidence of mean group data’s differences was fulfilled by Student’s t-test. Correlations of indicators were determined with the help of correlation coefficient of Spearmen. Results: with increasing of Judo wrestlers’ age we observed the tendency to increasing of their self-assessment. The older sportsmen become the higher is theirs aggressiveness. Depending on self-assessment level we did not find statistically confident differences in their aggression indicators. Large quantity of elite Judo wrestlers has high self-assessment. Self assessment and aggression indicators of sportsmen with sport categories statistically do not differ for elite Judo wrestlers’ indicators. Correlation between mean level of self assessment and aggression are present only in young Judo wrestlers. Conclusions: in all age groups of Judo wrester’s average level of self assessment prevails. Higher level is characteristic only for members of combined teams of the country. Judo wrestlers’ aggression depending on age differs only by one component (more adult wrestlers are more aggressive than juniors. In respect to the level of

  9. Relationship of psychophysiological characteristics with different levels of motivation in judo athletes of high qualification

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    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim : to study the connection of psychophysiological characteristics with different levels of motivation in judo athletes of high qualification. Material: highly qualified athletes were examined, members of the National Judo Team (men. All athletes (n = 25 were divided into three groups, depending on the level of motivation to achieve success. Results: it is established that the high level of motivation for achieving success in judo is provided by activation of neurodynamic, cognitive functions and the level of light resistance. Athletes with a high level of motivation to achieve success is observed the predominance of the values of neurodynamic functions: endurance of the nervous system; speed of visual reactions. Athletes with an average level of motivation to achieve success identified higher values: productivity, speed, accuracy, effectiveness of verbal information. Athletes with a predominance of avoidance of failure motivation have a preference for other groups in the speed, efficiency and stability of the processes of thinking and processing information. Conclusions: judo athletes with a predominance of motivation to avoid a failure form coping strategy to prevent psycho-emotional stress. This helps to minimize the exhaustion of vegetative resources in conditions of extreme sports activity. Judo athletes with high level of motivation to achieve success, the presence of mental state of relative comfort is associated with the search for support among others and orientation toward internal beliefs.

  10. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms.

  11. Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications

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    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence of humans and the electromagnetic interference generated by personal portable devices, wireless microphones and other wireless systems used by the media. For the assessment of the impact that the topology and the morphology of these environments have on electromagnetic propagation, an in-house developed 3D ray-launching software has been used in this study. Time domain results as well as estimations of received power level have been obtained for the complete volume of a training venue of a local judo club’s facilities with a contest area with the dimensions specified by the International Judo Federation (IJF for international competitions. The obtained simulation results have been compared with measurements, which have been carried out deploying ZigBee-compliant XBee Pro modules at presented scenario, using approved Judogis (jacket, trousers and belt. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an in-house human body computational model. Such analysis has allowed the design and development of an in house application devoted to monitor the practice of judo, in order to aid referee activities, training routines and to enhance spectator experience.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS OF THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE IN JUDO

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    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The high demands imposed by judo with regard to physical fitness can predispose athletes practising this sport to injury. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between the degree of functional limitations and performance outcomes in judo athletes. Material and methods. The study involved 23 judo athletes aged 17-27 years. For the purpose of carrying out comparative analyses, the judokas were divided into two groups according to their level of achievement. The first group consisted of medallists in international tournaments and Polish championships, and the second group was composed of non-medallists. The research tool used was the Functional Movement Screen test battery, which included seven exercise tests whose performance was rated on a scale from 0 to 3. Relationships between variables were assessed using Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients. Inter-group differences were determined by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, and differences between the left and right side of the body in bilateral tests were examined using the Wilcoxon test (statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results. The total score for the FMS test was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in judo athletes who had a higher level of achievement. Scores below 14 points, which were indicative of high susceptibility to injury, were received by two athletes from the group of medallists and 8 non-medallists. Major asymmetries were not found in the subjects; significant differences were observed only in the shoulder mobility test in senior judokas (p < 0.05 and non-medallists (p < 0.01. Conclusions. Judo athletes who had better performance outcomes in competitions had higher scores in the FMS test. Functional limitations can have an impact on the outcomes of performance in judo; their degree is indicative of the quality of the movement as well as of susceptibility to injury.

  13. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p mood disturbance (p 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  14. Enhancement of current commensurate with mutual noise-noise correlation in a symmetric periodic substrate: The benefits of noise and nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradipta [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sudip, E-mail: sudip_chattopadhyay@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray, E-mail: jprc_8@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713130 (India)

    2012-06-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exploration of directed transport in stochastic systems with embedded nonlinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formalism is valid for open system in the presence of arbitrary periodic potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective temperature depends on correlation time and extent of correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the directed motion in presence of external cross-correlated noises. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steady state current increases with increase in the extent of correlation. - Abstract: Starting from a Langevin description of a particle submerged in a heat bath that offers a state dependent dissipation, we examine the noise-induced transport of a Brownian particle in the presence of two external, mutually correlated noises and envisage that in a symmetric periodic potential, the steady state current increases with an increase in the extent of correlation. The study of inhomogeneous diffusion in the presence of colored noise makes the present development formally interesting since this brings in a direct implication that exercising control on the degree of correlation can enhance the current in a properly designed experiment. As an offshoot of this development, we also envisage an effective temperature that depends on the correlation time and the extent of correlation.

  15. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  16. Physical fitness predicts technical-tactical and time-motion profile in simulated Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu matches

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    Victor S. Coswig

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Among combat sports, Judo and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ present elevated physical fitness demands from the high-intensity intermittent efforts. However, information regarding how metabolic and neuromuscular physical fitness is associated with technical-tactical performance in Judo and BJJ fights is not available. This study aimed to relate indicators of physical fitness with combat performance variables in Judo and BJJ. Methods The sample consisted of Judo (n = 16 and BJJ (n = 24 male athletes. At the first meeting, the physical tests were applied and, in the second, simulated fights were performed for later notational analysis. Results The main findings indicate: (i high reproducibility of the proposed instrument and protocol used for notational analysis in a mobile device; (ii differences in the technical-tactical and time-motion patterns between modalities; (iii performance-related variables are different in Judo and BJJ; and (iv regression models based on metabolic fitness variables may account for up to 53% of the variances in technical-tactical and/or time-motion variables in Judo and up to 31% in BJJ, whereas neuromuscular fitness models can reach values up to 44 and 73% of prediction in Judo and BJJ, respectively. When all components are combined, they can explain up to 90% of high intensity actions in Judo. Discussion In conclusion, performance prediction models in simulated combat indicate that anaerobic, aerobic and neuromuscular fitness variables contribute to explain time-motion variables associated with high intensity and technical-tactical variables in Judo and BJJ fights.

  17. Effect of judo practice on the body composition of children and adolescents: A 9 month intervention

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    Diego de Souza Miranda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: To analyze the effects of 9 months of judo training on the body composition of children and adolescents. Methods: 105 children and adolescents aged between 5 and 15 years were divided into two groups: control (n=40 and Judo (n=65, all participants of one Philanthropic institution. Anthropometric measurements, total body composition, and body composition per region were performed using DEXA. The judo intervention lasted 9 months, held twice a week for one hour. The control group did not perform any type of training. Repeated measures ANOVA with adjustments for age, sex, and maturation, and the effect size by Eta Squared were performed. SPSS software version 13.0 was used and the statistical significance adopted was p-value<5%. Results: After the intervention, statistical significance was observed in body fat (kg (p-value=0.031. There was an increase in BF in both groups; however this increase was much higher in the control group. Conclusion: The practice of 9 months of judo was effective for the maintenance of body fat in children and adolescents.

  18. Plan- en procesevaluatie van de scholing van gevangenispersoneel in 'Verbal Judo'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzhuijzen, J. van; Plaisier, J.

    2007-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is informatie verzameld over de toepassing, ervaringen en werkzaamheid van de training Verbal judo, op grond waarvan een onderbouwde beslissing kan worden genomen over het continueren van deze training, alsmede over de noodzaak om hier nader - kwantitatief - onderzoek naar te

  19. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum, the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  20. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

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    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  1. Efectos agudos del enfrentamiento en judo: análisis multiparamétrico Acute effects of the judo fight: multiparametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carballeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    El propósito del presente estudio fue caracterizar el esfuerzo de judo, mediante la cuantificación de cambios inducidos por un combate sobre aspectos metabólicos y neuromusculares. En una muestra de 8 judocas masculinos pertenecientes a la Selección Gallega Senior, se registró la frecuencia cardíaca (Fc durante un enfrentamiento. Antes e inmediatamente después del combate se midieron lactacidemia, salto con contramovimiento, dinamometría manual y rendimiento isométrico en press banca 90º, remo 90º y sentadilla 160º. Fc se situó en el 92,65±3,26% de la máxima (%Fcmáx. alcanzando la lactacidemia niveles de 13,75±3,09 mmol/L. Descendió aproximadamente un 5% el resultado en dinamometría manual. El rendimiento en los ejercicios de remo y press banca disminuyó, alcanzando significación estadística en éste último para el valor pico (PFI y medio (MFI (postest 93,93±6,20% y 91,60±9,47% respecto al pretest para PFI y MFI respectivamente. Se apreciaron diferencias entre las modificaciones del rendimiento isométrico del miembro inferior y superior, siendo este último menos afectado.
    Palabras Clave: judo, fuerza, lactacidemia, frecuencia cardíaca.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effort in judo, through quantification of changes induced by a fight on neuromuscular and metabolic aspects. In a sample of 8 male judo fighters, members of the Senior Galician Selection (Spain, heart rate (Fc was recorded during a judo match. Before and immediately after the fight lactate blood concentration, countermovement jump, isometric handgrip dinamometry and performance in isometric bench press 90º, rowing 90º and squat 160º were measured. Fc represented 92.65±3.26% of the maximum (%Fcmáx. reaching lactate concentration levels of 13.75±3.09 mmol/L. Results decreased around 5% in isometric handgrip

  2. Martial arts market demand: test and validation of a model on the brazilian judo context / Demanda de mercado de artes marciais: teste e validação de um modelo no contexto brasileiro de judô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Damacena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Deepening the knowledge about factors which determine and explain the reasons and intentions of judo practitioner's consumption, investigating how their demands on the sport relate to the perceived benefits, restrictions, value, satisfaction and commitment to judo. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: We tested a theoretical model that specifies the direct and indirect relations between market demand, perceived benefits, restriction and value, as well as the satisfaction and commitment of a judoist with the martial arts in a different country and sport of the original study. Key methodological aspects: We conducted a survey with 328 judoists in Brazilian gyms. We analysed the data with the software PLSmart which uses the Partial Least Square method. Summary of key results: We found that market demands positively affect the perceived benefits and value and the judo members' satisfaction and commitment. We also discovered that the perceived benefits positively affect the perceived value, which positively triggers satisfaction, this way increasing the practitioner's commitment. Key considerations/conclusions: The results found in this study reinforce the relations proposed in Kim's original study showing a certain solidity in the explaining power of the underlying theory. But there are some peculiarities, like different perceived benefits for practicing judo as well as intrapersonal restrictions which discourages getting involved in judo. Finally, this article reinforces Sheth's (2011 affirmation that marketing is modified according to the context in which it is inserted, in this case, in the sport of judo in Brazil. Objetivo: Aprofundar o conhecimento dos fatores que determinam e explicam as razões e as intenções dos consumidores e dos praticantes de judô, investigando como suas demandas estão relacionadas a benefícios percebidos, restrições, valor, satisfação e comprometimento dos membros do esporte. Originalidade

  3. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  4. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, U. M.; Taimela, S.; Antti-Poika, I.; Orava, S.; Tuominen, R.; Myllynen, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. DESIGN--Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. SETTING--Finland during 1987-91. SUBJECTS--621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and...

  5. Separate and Combined Effects of Caffeine and Sodium-Bicarbonate Intake on Judo Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Leandro C; Lopes-Silva, João P; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; McGinley, Cian; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2016-03-01

    The combined supplementation of caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may have a potential ergogenic effect during intermittent-exercise tasks such as judo; however, its effect in this sport has not been tested. To investigate the isolated and combined effects of CAF and NaHCO3 on judo performance. Ten judokas performed 4 supplementation protocols-NaHCO3, CAF, NaHCO3 + CAF, and placebo (PLA) (cellulose)-followed by 3 Special Judo Fitness Tests (SJFTs) interspaced with 5 min rest. In the first SJFT, the combined supplement (NaHCO3 + CAF) resulted in a higher number of throws than with PLA (24.4 ± 0.9 and 23.2 ± 1.5 throws, respectively, P = .02). There was no significant difference between conditions for the 2nd SJFT (P = .11). In the 3rd SJFT, NaHCO3 and NaHCO3 + CAF resulted in more throws than with PLA (23.7 ± 1.6, 24.4 ± 1.0, and 22.0 ± 1.6 throws, P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). When the total throws performed in the 3 SJFTs were summed, they were higher than PLA only for NaHCO3 + CAF (68.8 ± 4.4 and 72.7 ± 3.1 throws, respectively, P = .003). Postexercise plasma lactate after each SJFT was higher in all experimental conditions than with PLA (P = .001). There was no significant difference in rating of perceived exertion across the conditions (P = .18). The results of the current study show that the combined supplementation of NaHCO3 + CAF increases judo performance compared with PLA.

  6. Léa Linhares and Judo in Rio Grande do Sul in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Gomes de Assis Pimentel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2017v29n50p123 This paper analyzes the insertion of women in judo in Rio Grande do Sul in the 1960s from the perspective of one of its leading figures. Based on the theoretical-methodological contribution of the Oral History, two interviews given by Léa Linhares were analyzed. Both interviews were collated with other sources, such as pictures, reports and institutional documents. From the analysis of the empiric material, four understandings of the meaning of judo to that fighter have emerged: opening paths to personal development; expanding spaces for female participation in sports in times of struggles and hidden prejudices; creating self-defense mechanisms against violence; acknowledging the presence of women in the police staff in Rio Grande do Sul. Léa was the first black belt in the south of Brazil, but this achievement was not acknowledged by the Brazilian Sports Confederation. This caused her to quit judo, and consequences were felt along her lifetime.

  7. Application of the Augmented Reality in prototyping the educational simulator in sport - the example of judo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślńiski, Wojciech B.; Sobecki, Janusz; Piepiora, Paweł A.; Piepiora, Zbigniew N.; Witkowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The mental training (Galloway, 2011) is one of the measures of the psychological preparation in sport. Especially such as the judo discipline requires the mental training, due to the fact that the judo is a combat sport, the direct, physical confrontation of two opponents. Hence the mental preparation should be an essential element of preparing for the sports fight. In the article are described the basics of the AR systems and presents selected elements of the AR systems: sight glasses Vuzix glasses, Kinect sensor and an interactive floor Multitap. Next, there are proposed the scenarios for using the AR in the mental training which are based on using both Vuzix glasses type head as well as the interactive floor Multitap. All options, except for the last, are provided for using the Kinect sensor. In addition, these variants differ as to the primary user of the system. It can be an competitor, his coach the competitor and the coach at the same time. In the end of the article are presented methods of exploring, both, the effectiveness and usefulness, and/or the User Experience of the proposed prototypes. There are presented three educational training simulator prototype models in sport (judo) describing their functionality based on the theory of sports training (the cyclical nature of sports training) and the theory of subtle interactions, enabling an explanation of the effects of sports training using the augmented reality technology.

  8. Kata practice and concepts according to highly experienced judo teachers and referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Miranda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the kata practice among judo teachers, responsible by São Paulo State Federation’s kata competition and grade examinations. A closed questionnaire was applied to 20 teachers (male = 18; female = 2. The sample was 46 ± 10 years-old, with judo practice time of 34 ± 9 years, and graduation 5 ± 1 dan. Practice often varied from 2 (50% to 4 (30% sessions per month. Nage no kata was identified as the most performed (78% and preferred (31% kata, followed by katame no kata (25%, ju no kata (21% and kime no kata (12%. Initiation of kata study usually started at the teacher’s dojo (79% and through courses offered by state federation (21%. Practice is directed to techniques improvement (46%, complementation for judo training (29%, spiritualized/mental practice (14% and for competition preparation (11%. The following attributes are the most important meanings given for kata: foundation (45%, essence (25%, origin (15%, form (10% and principle (5%.

  9. THE PATTERN OF IPPON APPEARANCE IN MAJOR JUDO COMPETITIONS IN THE PERIOD 2008 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: Determining the trends manifested in the current competition judo, in relation to the incidence of the Ippon.Methods: 26 major judo competitions during 2008-2009 are analysed in terms of the incidence of Ippon, based on gender, age, weight category and the importance of competition.Results: Ippon appears, on average, at 55.52% of the meetings of males and 51.95% of the meetings of the females. Independent Samples T-test shows that these averages are significantly different at p = 0.033.In men's competitions Ippon represents an increasing share to the extent that increases the weightcategory: 52.34% in light categories, 57.15% in medium categories, 59.98% in heavy categories. One Way Anova shows that these differences are significant at p = 0.002. The lowest frequency of Ippon occurs in light female categories: 48.90%. The Independent Samples T-test shows that between this value and the frequency of53.91% corresponding to the occurrence of Ippon in the middle categories, there are also statistically significantdifferences at p = 0.025.Conclusions: in Judo competitions Ippon occurs following a normal statistical law, yet, some variables such as sex and the weight category can significantly influence the frequency of its occurrence. The age and the importance of the competition do not significantly influence the frequency of Ippon in the competition.

  10. Características de liderazgo en el deporte del judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruiz Barqu\\u00EDn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro estudio presentamos algunos de los principales resultados obtenidos con la adaptación realizada al deporte del judo de la Escala LSS de Liderazgo en la versión "entrenadores", basándonos en la Escala de Liderazgo de Chelladurai y Saleh (1980 y en la adaptación al castellano realizada por Crespo, Balaguer y Atienza (1994 en el deporte del tenis. La escala fue administrada a una muestra de 26 entrenadores de judo de ámbito nacional pertenecientes a ambos sexos, constituyéndose como una muestra con alta experiencia en el entrenamiento de deportistas de competición y un elevado nivel de cualificación técnica. Los resultados muestran un importante grado de semejanza con otros estudios considerados en las puntuaciones obtenidas y en los análisis correlaciones entre factores. Sin embargo, obtenemos de forma significativa mayores puntuaciones en el factor Apoyo Social, a la vez de disponer de mayores niveles de consistencia interna y fiabilidad en la escala diseñada para el deporte del judo.

  11. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  12. An Analysis of the Mutual Fund Industry: Mutual Fund Investors, Mutual Fund Managers and Mutual Fund Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jieyan

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate the mutual fund industry, especially the three most important participants within this industry: mutual fund investors, mutual fund companies and mutual fund managers. The main research questions of this dissertation are: 1. Does rapid trading exist among German equity mutual fund investors? What are the determinants of rapid trading? Does rapid trading have a negative impact on mutual fund performance? 2. Do mutual fund investors, as a whole, have...

  13. Responses to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 by the Athletes Participated in the (IJF) Judo Grand Prix Competition, Samsun 2015 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2016-01-01

    The judo is a popular sport which people engaged in more than 178 countries at any age in the world. Besides its popularity, the studies on this field continue to increase gradually. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to measure pre-competition anxieties, and to evaluate data obtained of the pre-competition concerns of the judo athletes who…

  14. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  15. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  16. Report about the 1st De Frutos - Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress with Training Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pulido González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current report resumes the 1st De Frutos-Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress, held in San Juan de Alicante (Spain from the 27th to the 30th of June in 2013. Three plenary sessions in classroom, 12 oral communications, a round – table, 2 theoretical – practical workshops on tatami, and 3 randori sessions were developed. This congress was a new event where judo personalities at the international level as well as scientists from the whole Spanish geography interested in this field assisted. The event complied the aim to approach the science to judo professionals and vice versa. A total amount of 112 participants were in the congress.

  17. Rotational acceleration during head impact resulting from different judo throwing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Haruo; Hitosugi, Masahito; Motozawa, Yasuki; Ogino, Masahiro; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchi-gari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an under-mat. For Osoto-gari, peak resultant rotational acceleration ranged from 4,284.2 rad/s(2) to 5,525.9 rad/s(2) and peak resultant translational acceleration ranged from 64.3 g to 87.2 g; for Ouchi-gari, the accelerations respectively ranged from 1,708.0 rad/s(2) to 2,104.1 rad/s(2) and from 120.2 g to 149.4 g. The resultant rotational acceleration did not decrease with installation of an under-mat for both Ouchi-gari and Osoto-gari. We found that head contact with the tatami could result in the peak values of translational and rotational accelerations, respectively. In general, because kinematics of the body strongly affects translational and rotational accelerations of the head, both accelerations should be measured to analyze the underlying mechanism of head injury. As a primary preventative measure, throwing techniques should be restricted to participants demonstrating ability in ukemi techniques to avoid head contact with the tatami.

  18. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  19. Rating Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund’s peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...

  20. Risk and Return Analysis of Mutual Fund Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow; Khurshid Ahmad Butt

    2017-01-01

    The mutual funds is one of the important classes of financial intermediaries which enables millions of small and large savers spread across India as well as internationally to participate in and derive the benefits of the capital market growth. Thus the involvement of mutual funds in the transformation of Indian economy has made it urgent to view their services as they are playing role in mobilizing and allocation of investable funds through markets. The fact is that mutual funds have a lot o...

  1. Tax-Efficient Asset Management: Evidence from Equity Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Investment taxes have a substantial impact on the performance of taxable mutual fund investors. Mutual funds can reduce the tax burdens of their shareholders by avoiding securities that are heavily taxed and by avoiding realizing capital gains that trigger higher tax burdens to the funds’ investors. Such tax avoidance strategies constrain the investment opportunities of the mutual funds and might reduce their before-tax performance. Our paper empirically investigates the costs and benefits of...

  2. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally......, whereas 42% of the funds have shown significantly negative performance and only 7% of the funds have over-performed their benchmark. Furthermore, 14% of the funds analysed possess market timing abilities, but for 8 out of 10 funds, their market timing ability has been unsuccessful....

  3. Pedagogika zdrowia – sekcja judo jako miejsce „uczenia się zdrowia” mężczyzn w różnym wieku = Health pedagogy - Section judo as a space of "health learning" men of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Drumińska

    2015-10-01

      Korespondencja: Stępniak Robert Ph.D Instytut Kultury Fizycznej, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, ul. Sportowa 2, 85-091 Bydgoszcz, Polska email:   Abstrakt   Objective: Poor physical activity is a problem of the young generation of Polish society. Every person should "learn to health" as a way to maintaining physical and mental fitness of all ages.The efficiency of the respiratory system may be developed in various ways by active "learning health" for example: recreational training. It was decided to check whether the assumption of the above can be implemented in judo. Material and methods: We examined the efficiency of respiratory spirometric, BMI index and distribution of body fat tissue of men of different ages who train for recreational judo. The results were compared with the results of people leading a sedentary lifestyle. Results: Were observed a significant differences between the efficiency of the respiratory system and the distribution of body fat tissue between people recreationally practicing judo  at every stage of ontogeny, and peoples leading a settled life. Conclusions: Recreation judo training meets the requirements to improve the functioning of the respiratory system of people of all ages. The physical activity  in this way can be considered as one of method of "learning health"   Streszczenie   Cel: Niska aktywność fizyczna jest  problemem młodego pokolenie polskiego społeczeństwa Każdy człowiek powinien „uczyć się zdrowia” w sposób rozumiany jako dbałość o zachowanie sprawności fizycznej i umysłowej w każdym wieku. Sprawność układu oddechowego może być podtrzymywana na wiele sposobów poprzez aktywne „uczenie się zdrowia” czyli rekreacyjny trening. Postanowiono sprawdzić czy założenie powyższe można realizować w sekcji judo. Materiał i metody: Sprawdzono sprawność układu oddechowego badaniem spirometrycznym mężczyzn w różnym wieku trenującym rekreacyjnie judo, a uzyskane wyniki por

  4. Mutually unbiased bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mutually unbiased bases play an important role in quantum cryptography [2] and in the optimal determination of the density operator of an ensemble [3,4]. A density operator ρ in N-dimensions depends on N2 1 real quantities. With the help of MUB's, any such density operator can be encoded, in an optimal way, in terms of ...

  5. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  6. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).

  7. Division par sexe, hiérarchisation des statuts et socialisation corporelle dans les clubs sportifs de judo : vers une neutralisation situationnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Klein , Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    The framework for the practise of judo is a particular one; it stages elements that make the study of gender division in judo sport clubs particularly interesting. Indeed, the socialisation of the body and the integration of non-official codes of the sport aim at de-Gendering the bodies and the judokas, thus promoting the emergence of neutralized gender relations between judokas. From a situational analysis of the gender division, it was then possible to highlight the fact that gendered statu...

  8. Determination of feedback in judo by means of T-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Prieto Lage

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to propose methodological changes in the teaching-learning process of the judo technique Deashi-harai, pointing out the most frequent technical errors committed during its performance and also its action sequences. We carried out an observational study with the participation of fifty novice judokas at the University of Vigo. We recorded them while performing the Deashi-harai technique after a previous training of four months. Data obtained were evaluated using descriptive statistics and T-patterns analysis. Thus, we indentified: a some typical inaccuracies during the technique execution and b a number of chained errors affecting the imbalance of the body, the position of the right foot, the sweeping action and the action of the arms. These findings allowed us to suggest some motor tasks to correct the identified inaccuracies, the sequential actions to ensure the success of the execution and several recommendations for the proper use of the feedback.

  9. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  10. [Injuries in the Martial Arts Judo, Taekwondo and Wrestling - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, U; Joray, C P; Brülhart, Y; Luijckx, E; Rogan, S

    2015-12-01

    Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences. In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system. In contrast to the FIFA 11+ warm-up program, no preventive programs have been postulated for injury prevention in these martial arts. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo. To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar. The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review (CASP), and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type. It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality. Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention. Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effects of Various Warm Up Protocol on Special Judo Fitness Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Danny

    2017-02-13

    The purposed of this study was to compare the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance using explosive exercises that activates upper and lower limbs muscles. Eleven male judo athletes (mean ± SD, age, 16 - 29 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 73 ± 16 kg) attended four separate sessions. The first session was used to familiarise the subjects to the experimental procedure, the SJFT, the high pull test (HPT) and the two explosive exercises including resistance band pull and standing broad jump. Subsequently, subjects were randomly assigned in a counterbalanced manner to either perform the upper and lower body PAP (ULB), lower body PAP (LB) or usual competition (CON) warm up routine prior to performing the HPT and SJFT. The following variables were quantified: throws performed during series A, B, and C; total number of throws; heart rate immediately and 1 minute after the test; test index; peak power; and RPE after warm up. During series 1, number of throws performed in LB and ULB were significantly greater than CON (p < 0.05). Only ULB resulted in significantly greater number of total throws (p < 0.01) and higher peak power (p < 0.01) than CON. The RPE for both LB and ULB were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.01). Peak power was moderately correlated to total number of throws performed (r=0.4, p < 0.05). This study suggest that performing ULB before SJFT can result in improved performance and peak power.

  12. Jumping Abilities and Power-Velocity Relationship in Judo Athletes: Comparative Analysis Among Age Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine age differences in the maximal power and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in spike jump (SPJ and counter-movement jump (CMJ, and power-velocity relationship of lower extremities between cadet and U23 age class judo athletes. Methods. Seven cadets (age 16.6 ± 0.7 years and eight U23 age class (21.3 ± 1.4 years Polish judoists took part in the study. The maximal power and height of jump were measured at SPJ and CMJ jumps. Power- velocity relations (P-v were determined from 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW. Results. Cadet judoists had a significantly smaller maximal power output (11.56 ± 1.21 W ・ kg-1 than U23 athletes (12.69 ± 0.67 W ・ kg-1. The optimal velocity was similar in both group (119.3 ± 16.0 rpm and 119.6 ± 15.5 rpm, respectively. Significant age differences were founded between the cadet and U23 athletes for power output at external load equal 12.5% BW. Cadet judoists generated insignificantly lower maximal power in CMJ and SPJ than U23 judo athletes with except of the absolute maximal power in SPJ. The age difference was observed in height of CMJ. Conclusions. Based on the characteristics of F-v curve we can see in which direction follow the effects of training. Application of CMJ and SPJ in jumping test allows to assess changes in neuromuscular coordination. The use of the both methods give better information to optimal training control.

  13. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-06

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  14. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  15. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  16. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  17. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  18. Mutual capacitor and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ac circuit element – the mutual capacitor, being a dual of the mutual inductor, which is also a new ac transformer. This element is characteristic of the mutual-capacitance coupling of a multi-capacitance system. A unity-coupled mutual capacitor works as an ideal current or voltage transformer, and incidentally acts as waveform separating when inductor employed or waveform converting from square-wave to quasi-sine or waveform filtering, between ports. As a transformer, the mutual capacitor is easy to design, easy for heat cooling, more accurate for current or voltage transformation, dissipating less energy as well as saving materials, suitable for high-power and high-voltage applications. Experiments to demonstrate performances of unity-coupled mutual capacitors are also given.

  19. Forming mutually beneficial Aboriginal partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, L.; Shaw, M. [ATCO Frontec, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Alberta-based ATCO Group is engaged in power generation, utilities logistics and energy services and technologies in Alaska, Canada's north, and around the world. In 2001, 56 per cent of ATCO's revenue came from Aboriginal joint ventures. ATCO's foundation for successful partnerships is a mutual trust, an understanding of the environment, and constant communication. The partnerships begin with a long term vision, resulting in community-based northern businesses that benefit Aboriginal partners, shareholders, customers and local staff. This paper described 2 unique joint venture case studies: (1) the north warning system in Cambridge Bay, a radar and communication service for government, and (2) Yellowknife's Tli Cho logistics site for support and municipal services to the mining industry. The north warning system joint venture includes Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics (PAIL), representing Inuvialuit, Labrador, Nunavik and Nunavut, while the Tli Cho joint venture includes participation of the Dog Rib Rae band. Management practices in all joint ventures reflect cultural differences, and Aboriginal people are involved in long term jobs relating to northern pipeline development. 21 figs.

  20. BODY BUILD AND BODY COMPOSITION VS. PHYSICAL CAPACITY IN YOUNG JUDO CONTESTANTS COMPARED TO UNTRAINED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lech

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to (1 find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2 compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01, body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05, fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05. Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05. A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001, BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001, moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0

  1. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  2. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  3. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  4. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  6. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, T.M.; Doak, D.F.; Stanton, M.L.; Bronstein, J.L.; Kiers, E.T.; Young, T.P.; Goheen, J.R.; Pringle, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selectionshouldfavor "free-loaders" that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism), most approaches to this paradox focus on costs and benefits of individual partners and the strategies

  7. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U. M.; Taimela, S.; Antti-Poika, I.; Orava, S.; Tuominen, R.; Myllynen, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. DESIGN--Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. SETTING--Finland during 1987-91. SUBJECTS--621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. RESULTS--54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. CONCLUSIONS--Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball. PMID:8520333

  8. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Antti-Poika, I; Orava, S; Tuominen, R; Myllynen, P

    1995-12-02

    To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. Finland during 1987-91. 621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. 54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.

  9. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  10. Impulsive force on the head during performance of typical ukemi techniques following different judo throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshihiko; Ishii, Takanori; Okada, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, eight judo athletes who are major candidates for the Japan national team were recruited as participants. Kinematic analysis of exemplary ukemi techniques was carried out using two throws, o-soto-gari, a throw linked to frequent injury, and o-uchi-gari. The aim of this study was to kinematically quantify the timing patterns of exemplary ukemi techniques and to obtain kinematic information of the head, in a sequence of ukemi from the onset of the throw to the completion of ukemi. The results indicated that the vertical velocity with which the uke's head decelerated was reduced by increasing the body surface exposed to the collision with the tatami and by increasing the elapsed time. In particular, overall upper limb contact with the tatami is greatly associated with deceleration. In o-soto-gari, the impulsive force on the faller's head as the head reached the lowest point was 204.82 ± 19.95 kg m · s(-2) while in o-uchi-gari it was 118.46 ± 63.62 kg m · s(-2), z = -1.75, P = 0.08, and it did present a large-sized effect with r = 0.78. These findings indicate that the exemplary o-soto-gari as compared to o-uchi-gari is the technique that causes more significant damage to the uke's head.

  11. The Effects of the Removal of Electronic Devices for 48 Hours on Sleep in Elite Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunican, Ian C; Martin, David T; Halson, Shona L; Reale, Reid J; Dawson, Brian T; Caldwell, John A; Jones, Maddison J; Eastwood, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of evening use of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite judo athletes. Over 6 consecutive days and nights, 23 elite Australian judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes, all electronic devices were removed on days 3 and 4 (i.e., for 48 hours: the "device-restricted group"), whereas 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the "control group"). All athletes wore an activity monitor (Readiband) continuously to provide measures of sleep quantity and quality. Other self-reported (diary) measures included time in bed, electronic device use, and rate of perceived exertion during training periods. Cognitive performance (Cogstate) and physical performance (single leg triple hop test) were also measured. When considering night 2 as a "baseline" for each group, removal of electronic devices on nights 3 and 4 (device-restricted group) resulted in no significant differences in any sleep-related measure between the groups. When comparing actigraphy-based measures of sleep to subjective measures, all athletes significantly overestimated sleep duration by 58 ± 85 minutes (p = 0.001) per night and underestimated time of sleep onset by 37 ± 72 minutes (p = 0.001) per night. No differences in physical or cognitive function were observed between the groups. This study has shown that the removal of electronic devices for a period of two nights (48 hours) during a judo camp does not affect sleep quality or quantity or influence athletic or cognitive performance.

  12. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Franchini, Emerson; Nicastro, Humberto; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Solis, Marina Y; Lancha, Antonio H

    2010-05-04

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  13. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  14. Revisiting Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidis, Timotheos; Giamouridis, Daniel; Tessaromatis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund manager excess performance should be measured relative to their self-reported benchmark rather than the return of a passive portfolio with the same risk characteristics. Ignoring the self-reported benchmark introduces biases in the measurement of stock selection and timing components of excess performance. We revisit baseline empirical evidence in mutual fund performance evaluation utilizing stock selection and timing measures that address these biases. We introduce a new factor e...

  15. AWARENESS OF MUTUAL FUND INVESTMENT AMONG THE INVESTORS – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. Ravi Kumar; R. Padma Malini

    2017-01-01

    Capital market has been strengthened due to because of increase in investment in mutual funds by small and medium investors. Most of the investors are having awareness about mutual funds and its benefits like tax benefits, less risk, cost etc. The mutual fund industry in India has undergone a most successful phase in the last 15 years. The growth in number of schemes offered by Indian mutual funds from 403 schemes in 2002-03 to 1294 schemes in 2011-12 has shown the inclination of investors to...

  16. São paulo judo team: study of competitive behavior tendency between athlets of differents groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Serassuelo Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to identify the competitive behavior tendency of Judo players according to personal tendencies of competing, winning and setting goals. The samples were separated by circumstantially being part (n=15 or not (n=37 of São Paulo State Team, in two different groups, A and B specifi cally, from different social background and between 14 and 21 years old. The evaluation tools were: Evaluation System ACS – 2 to collect information about competitive tendency; and a second one to obtain Sportive and Personal information about age, practice time and performance level. The Spearman Coeffi cient was used to analyze the intra-group relations between qualitative variables (tendencies of winning, competing and setting goals, and quantitative variables (age, practice time, performance level. The Q-Square was used to analyze the qualitative variables between groups and the test t for the quantitative variables. The results showed that there are signifi cant differences in the variables involved in this study between groups A and B, except for competing tendencies. In conclusion, no differences had been found between qualitative and quantitative variables, in the intra-group analyses but in inter-groups analyses there are signifi cant differences that showed the athletes with more age, practice time and performance level obtain best scores for the competitive tendencies analyzed, these elements can indicate possibilities to reach best results in sport competitions. The Evaluation System ACS – 2 was shown as a good and effi cient model to identify the different competitive behavior tendencies employed by male Judo players. RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal identifi car as tendências de comportamento competitivo de atletas masculinos de Judô, em relação às suas tendências pessoais em vencer, competir e estabelecer metas. Os dados foram coletados, utilizando o Sistema de Avaliação ACS – 2 e o

  17. Is Baseline Cardiac Autonomic Modulation Related to Performance and Physiological Responses Following a Supramaximal Judo Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HRmax). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α1 and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α1 and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  18. Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesniak, M; Zeilinger, A [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Paterek, T, E-mail: tomasz.paterek@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon manifests itself most strongly when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independent of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe the basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed of product states only. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that the properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases may be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.

  19. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  20. When are enhanced relationship tax compliance programs mutually beneficial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Simone, L.; Sansing, R.; Seidman, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the circumstances under which “enhanced relationship” tax-compliance programs are mutually beneficial to taxpayers and tax authorities, as well as how these benefits are shared. We develop a model of taxpayer and tax authority behavior inside and outside of an enhanced

  1. Mutual Recogniton of Professional Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Plimmer, Francis

    The publication aims to review the concept of mutual recognition of qualifications within the world wide surveying community, and to develop a framework for the introduction of standards of global professional competence in this area. The publication also includes a number of case studies from...

  2. The evolution of mutual ornamentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Kraaijeveld-Smit, Femmie J. L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Many conspicuous ornamental traits in animals are expressed in both males and females. Despite this, most research has focused on sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Mutual ornamentation has often been viewed as a result of either a nonadaptive genetic correlation between the sexes or similar

  3. The Mutual Storytelling Writing Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Gold, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Because of differences in cultural backgrounds and learning styles, some children have a difficult time verbalizing their emotions or appear resistant to talking about themselves. Describes a technique, referred to as the mutual storytelling writing game, that has been found to be useful for children who have difficulty in engaging in traditional…

  4. An implementation of mutual inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwoord, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the parallel composition of two cyclic programs. The interaction of these programs consists of a form of synchronisation sometimes referred to as ‘mutual inclusion’. For a given implementation of this synchronisation by means of semaphore operations, we prove the correctness of the

  5. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN SUPLEMENTASI ASAM AMINOBERCABANG TERHADAP PRESTASI PEJUDO DI PUSLATNAS JUDO CILOTO, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Slamet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa faktor berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan prestasi olahragawan, antara lain bobot latihan fisik dan masukan zat gizi, terutama saat dan menjelang bertanding. Kebutuhan energi diharapkan bagi olahragawan lebih besar daripada bukan olahragawan. Bila energi dari karbohidrat dipakai terus menerus selama bertanding, kebutuhan energi diambil dari protein. Bila keadaan tersebut berlanjut dapat menurunkan prestasi olahragawan tersebut. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut dengan disuplementasi asam amino bercabang ke dalam makanan olahragawan akan digunakan pada waktu proses metabolisme protein sebagai sumber energi selama bertanding. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui bila ke dalam makanan olahragawan diberikan asam amino bercabang (BCAA akan meningkatkan prestasi olahragawan. Subyek diambil dari cabang olahraga judo sebanyak 15 orang pejudo yunior, umur antara 14-19 tahun, dibagi dalam 2 kelompok (A dan B masing-masing terdiri dari komposisi, berat badan dan jenis kelamin yang sama, tinggal di asrama dan mendapat makanan yang sama pula. Perlakuan ada 3 periode, masing-masing selama 12 hari. Periode I subyek diberi kapsul placebo ke dalam makanannya selama 12 hari. Hari ke 11 subyek diperiksa keadaan klinis, biokimia darah dan uji kebugaran jasmani. Setelah diistirahatkan selama 14 hari, dilakukan Periode II, subyek diberi kapsul placebo selama 12 hari, pada hari ke 11 dilakukan pemerlksaan klinis, biokimia darah menjelang uji kebugaran jasmani. subyek diberi kapsul asam amino bercabang (BCAA. Setelah diistirahatkan selama 14 hari, dilakukan Periode III, pemberian kapsul placebo diganti dengan kapsul yang berisi asam amino campuran selama 12 hari. Pada hari ke 11 diperiksa ulang klinis dan biokimia darah. Menjelang uji kebugaran jasmani subyek diberi kapsul BCAA. Parameter yang digunakan adalah masukan dan keluaran energi, zat gizi makanan yang dikonsumsi, biokimia darah dan uji kebugaran jasmani. Periode I, II, III, dengan melalui

  6. Clinical supervision, is it mutually beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Clinical education in Nuclear Medicine is essential for student learning as it enables them to develop knowledge and competence and put theory into practice. While the benefit to the student is clear, the clinical education experience should be mutually beneficial. The role of the clinical supervisor involves teaching, role modelling, management and assessment. It could be assumed that the Supervisor would find the teaching role leading to increased knowledge; role modelling leading to increased reflection which improves practice; management skills being enhanced and assessment improving critical evaluation skills. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of taking on the role of a clinical supervisor. Clinical Supervisors participating in the Nuclear Medicine program were surveyed. Questions were grouped into three main categories - professional, interpersonal and communication. A Likert scale was used to assess perceived level of benefit and open-ended questions were included to obtain additional understanding of Supervisors' perceptions. Results from the survey indicate that 64% of supervisors felt an increase in work satisfaction by taking students, 68% agreed their level of performance was improved and 61% agreed that it deepened their understanding of Nuclear Medicine. It is concluded that respondents perceived a positive benefit to areas within the role of Clinical Supervisor. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Features of muscular activity at carrying out body drop by female judo-wrestlers of highly qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elipkhanov S.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluating muscles activity at carrying out body drop, lengths of muscles and velocity of changing their lengths. Was used 2D and 3D video analysis. Three participant of Russia female national judo team (age before 23 years took part in experiment. Has been established at carrying out reception to the right side greatest changes of length are observed at left and right muscle rectus abdominis and right muscle obliquus externus abdominis, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus, back parts of left and right muscle deltoideus. The highest velocity of contraction are noticed at muscle obliquus externus abdominis (especially at the right, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus and middle part of left muscle deltoideus.

  8. Mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The backdrop to this article is provided by the Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007), Section 1 of which is entitled 'Towards a Mutual NHS'. According to Better Health, Better Care (Scottish Government, 2007: 5): 'Mutual organisations are designed to serve their members. They are designed to gather people around a common sense of purpose. They are designed to bring the organisation together in what people often call "co-production."' The aim of this article is to précis the current knowledge of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. In detail, it will: introduce the 'mutual' organisation; offer a historical perspective of mutuality; suggest why healthcare mutuality is important; and briefly, detail the differences in mutual health-care policy in England and Scotland. It is hoped that this analysis will help researchers and practitioners alike appreciate further the philosophy of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. Results: The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P ... : We concluded that the increases in NMIs highlighted functional changes in the interplay between core and shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas....

  10. Mutual funds: temporary problem or permanent morass?

    OpenAIRE

    Paula A. Tkac

    2004-01-01

    The improprieties in the mutual fund industry that surfaced in the fall of 2003 prompted the passage and drafting of legislation and regulations that cover nearly every facet of mutual fund pricing and operations. While this regulatory flurry is clearly intended to protect shareholders’ interests, the question remains: How will these scandals and regulatory changes ultimately affect mutual fund investors? ; When considering the problems inherent in mutual fund management and the best ways to ...

  11. Comparison of investment opportunities in mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the comparison of selected mutual funds in the Czech Republic. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the situation on the securities market of mutual funds and help to the investor with right choice of mutual fund. Work is initially devoted to the characteristics and history of collective investment. The following section describes mutual funds their characteristics, classification, creation and termination. Conclusion of the theoretical part is devoted to investme...

  12. Inquiry of the discomfort offered for different tatamis used in the practical of the judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2007-12-01

    was fastened to the athlete, first at the wrist and then at the hip, for the respective impact measures. For the field research, 63 judo fi ghters, performing the same fall projection, who inferred in a protocol the discomfort perception about each type of material, tested the same tatamis. The data were collected through the SAD 32 program and the experimental acceleration curves were imported for the MATLAB (version 5, 1999 software, which were parameterized and derived in order to obtain the a, q and jerk calculations, respectively. The results obtained for both the subjective perception, in the parameterization of curves (a and q and for the values of jerk, ended up by classifying the tatamis with regard to the discomfort characteristic, being this classifi cation in crescent order for the wrist segment: A, B, F, G, D, C, E; and for the hip: A, F, B, C, G, D, E. It is believed that the procedures here described for the attainment of the a, q and jerk indexes will be useful for the classifi cation of discomfort provided by other materials submitted to impact such as insoles and soles of sportive shoes.

  13. BASIC BIOMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECOND PHASE (TSUKURI OF JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUE OSOTO GARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Rexhepi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of a total of 11 judoists - one was the Tori (thrower, and the other ten were uke (those who were thrown during the performance of throwing technique, was analyzed the second phase of throwing (tsukuri judo technique osoto gari. Tori is an active athlete superior quality (master, body mass = 72 kg, and all the other, who were thrown (uke differ from each other as the weight and height of the body concerned. The average of their body weight was 73.8 kg, which means that it is almost even with body mass of tori. For data collection was used a three-dimensional motion analysis system APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System. Tsukuri is the phase where occur most actions of reaping leg. The second phase (tsukuri begins when tori detach his right foot and lasts until the beginning of reaping opponent's leg, on which was concentrated its weight (uke's weight. The parameters that describe the effect of the reaping leg in the second phase of technique osoto gari are crucial for the successful execution of this leg technique. For the analysis of the second phase of the throw were selected 14 variables that describe the position of the body and certain body parts of both athletes, velocity parameters of tori's reaping leg and the duration of this phase (time. The role of the tori's standing leg is to maintain a stable position during this phase, while the other leg quickly and in full force acts reaping. The smallest angle of the knee joint of standing leg during the second phase was 130.84 °. Before the moment of reaping, or detachment of uke`s feet from the mat, standing leg has a tendency to extension in the knee joint, which impacts positively on raising the tori's body center of mass. Height tori's body center of mass at the beginning phase was 87.79 cm. As a result of tori's action by pulling onto uke, but little to his left side, the uke`s center of mass at the end of this phase is moved laterally to 6.10 cm. The results show quite

  14. Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved

  15. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  16. Mutual attraction of magnetic knots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is observed that the magnetic knots associated with active regions on the Sun have an attraction for each other during the formative period of the active regions, when new magnetic flux is coming to the surface. The attraction disappears when new flux ceases to rise through the surface. Then the magnetic spots and knots tend to come apart, leading to disintegration of the sunspots previously formed. The dissolution of the fields is to be expected, as a consequence of the magnetic repulsion of knots of like polarity and as a consequence of the hydromagnetic exchange instability.The purpose of this paper is to show that the mutual attraction of knots during the formative stages of a sunspot region may be understood as the mutual hydrodynamic attraction of the rising flux tubes. Two rising tubes attract each other, as a consequence of the wake of the leading tube when one is moving behind the other, and as a consequence of the Bernoulli effect when rising side by side

  17. As origens do judô brasileiro: a árvore genealógica dos medalhistas olímpicos Las orígenes del judo brasileño: el árbol genealogica de los ganadores de medallas olímpicas The roots of Brazilian judo, the genealogic tree from olympic medalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Velly Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil participou de todas as edições dos Jogos Olímpicos (JO no judô, nos quais 12 atletas brasileiros conquistaram medalhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar uma "árvore genealógica judoística" do judô brasileiro a partir destes medalhistas. A metodologia utilizada foi História Oral de Vida Híbrida. Foram entrevistados os 12 medalhistas brasileiros em JO e seus professores. Identificamos todos os formadores dos professores destes medalhistas, até encontrar os "genearcas", aqueles que chegaram ao Brasil com condições de transmitir estes conhecimentos. As informações obtidas com os entrevistados foram analisadas juntamente com outros documentos. Maeda e Satake foram os primeiros japoneses a chegar e fazer demonstrações de judô no Brasil, a partir de 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, que fundou a Budokan em 1936, foi o genearca que influenciou o maior número destes atletas. O primeiro medalhista brasileiro, Chiaki Ishii, foi também um genearca, pois influenciou outros atletas e professores.Brasil ha participado en todas las ediciones de los Juegos Olímpicos (JO en judo, aunque 12 atletas brasileños ganaron medallas. El objetivo de este estudio fue preparar un árbol genealogica judoística de estos mismos medallistas olimpicos de judo. La historia oral de vida híbrida es la metodología utilizada. Entrevistamos a los 12 medallistas brasileños y sus entrenadores. Se identificaron todos los entrenadores formadores de estos medallistas también, hasta que encuentre los genearcas, que llegaran a Brasil y lograron hacer la transmisión de este conocimiento. La información obtenida de los encuestados fueron analizadas junto con otros documentos. Maeda y Satake fueron los primeros a llegar y dar demostraciones de judo en Brasil, desde 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, quien fundó Budokan en 1936, fue el genearca que influyó el mayor número de estos atletas. El primer medallista brasileño, Chiaki Ishii, fue también un genearca al influir otros

  18. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  19. Explaining mutualism variation: a new evolutionary paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-02-01

    The paradox of mutualism is typically framed as the persistence of interspecific cooperation, despite the potential advantages of cheating. Thus, mutualism research has tended to focus on stabilizing mechanisms that prevent the invasion of low-quality partners. These mechanisms alone cannot explain the persistence of variation for partner quality observed in nature, leaving a large gap in our understanding of how mutualisms evolve. Studying partner quality variation is necessary for applying genetically explicit models to predict evolution in natural populations, a necessary step for understanding the origins of mutualisms as well as their ongoing dynamics. An evolutionary genetic approach, which is focused on naturally occurring mutualist variation, can potentially synthesize the currently disconnected fields of mutualism evolution and coevolutionary genetics. We outline explanations for the maintenance of genetic variation for mutualism and suggest approaches necessary to address them. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  1. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  2. Performance Changes of Elite Paralympic Judo Athletes During a Paralympic Games Cycle: A Case Study with the Brazilian National Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Winckler, Ciro; Bragança, Jaime R; da Fonseca, Roger A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Franchini, Emerson

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variations in power performance of elite Paralympic judo athletes across three consecutive training cycles of preparation for the ParaPan American Games, the World Championship and the Paralympic Games. Eleven Paralympic judokas from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. They were repeatedly assessed using squat and countermovement jumps, mean propulsive power (MPP) in the jump-squat (JS), the bench press and prone bench pull at several moments of the preparation. Training supervision based on the optimum power zone (range of loads where power production is maximized) was provided in the final cycle, prior to the Paralympic Games. Magnitude-based inference was used to compare the repeated measurements of power performance. Lower and upper limb muscle power gradually increased throughout the cycles; however, the best results in all exercises were observed prior to the Paralympic Games, during which the team won four silver medals. As an illustration, prior to participation in the Paralympic Games the MPP in the JS was likely to very likely higher than prior to the World Championship (effect size [ES] = 0.77) and ParaPan American Games (ES = 0.53), and in January and March 2016 (ES = 0.98 and 0.92, respectively; months preceding the Paralympic Games). Power performance assessments can provide information about the evolution of Paralympic judokas, and training at the optimum power zone seems to constitute an effective method to improve lower and upper limb power in these athletes.

  3. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  4. A multiscale approach to mutual information matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, J.P.W.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods based on mutual information have shown promising results for matching of multimodal brain images. This paper discusses a multiscale approach to mutual information matching, aiming for an acceleration of the matching process while considering the accuracy and robustness of the method. Scaling

  5. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  6. Trading Cost Management of Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Xing (Rang)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents the trading behaviour of actively managed equity mutual funds from the perspective of their trading cost management. Consistent with the predictions in the literature of portfolio choice with trading costs, I present three main findings. Firstly, mutual funds trade

  7. Longitudinal analysis of mutual fund performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Many different motivations for investing in mutual funds have been provided in the literature, including the claim that managers of mutual funds have special abilities that can be used to outperform the market. Testing of the validity of these claims is complicated by two facts. First, the expected

  8. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-07

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.

  9. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  10. Propuesta de planificación y periodización de la fuerza en el judo en deportistas de alto nivel

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Delgado, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se plantea una planificación de la fuerza alternativa para el judo en el alto nivel. Para ello, se han propuesto sesiones de entrenamiento específicas en tatami, así como específicas en gimnasio, así como una distribución de dichas sesiones durante las semanas de trabajo. Todo esto, en diferentes momentos de la temporada, los cuales hemos llamado periodos, que perseguirán unos objetivos concretos de una manera concreta y secuencializada.

  11. Semantic Representation of Mutual-Consent Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مهری سادات موسوی

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discussed mutual-consent divorce in the context of thoughts and attitude of female applicants of this type of divorce with an inductive qualitative and ethnographic method. Based on the qualitative purposive sampling, 30 women of those who had referred for divorce to family court of Karaj, were selected and deeply interviewed. The results obtained in six major categories as follows: Rethinking the role of men as families’ breadwinners, inappropriate sexual relationships, emotional conflicts, cultural- social dissensions, normative pressures of family and relatives, and personality and behavioral disorders. The core-oriented category of this study is "Women's attitude towards mutual-consent divorce" that includes other major categories and can semantically alter and redirect women’s opinion about mutual-consent divorce. According to the results, the term of mutual-consent is thought-provoking in this type of divorce; because considering the situations which were leaded to mutual-consent divorce and quantifying them revealed that nearly 32% of mutual-consent divorces were not mutual in fact; since, these women accepted divorce with desperation, coercion and threat.

  12. The evolution of plant-insect mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L; Alarcón, Ruben; Geber, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Mutualisms (cooperative interactions between species) have had a central role in the generation and maintenance of life on earth. Insects and plants are involved in diverse forms of mutualism. Here we review evolutionary features of three prominent insect-plant mutualisms: pollination, protection and seed dispersal. We focus on addressing five central phenomena: evolutionary origins and maintenance of mutualism; the evolution of mutualistic traits; the evolution of specialization and generalization; coevolutionary processes; and the existence of cheating. Several features uniting very diverse insect-plant mutualisms are identified and their evolutionary implications are discussed: the involvement of one mobile and one sedentary partner; natural selection on plant rewards; the existence of a continuum from specialization to generalization; and the ubiquity of cheating, particularly on the part of insects. Plant-insect mutualisms have apparently both arisen and been lost repeatedly. Many adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain these transitions, and it is unlikely that any one of them dominates across interactions differing so widely in natural history. Evolutionary theory has a potentially important, but as yet largely unfilled, role to play in explaining the origins, maintenance, breakdown and evolution of insect-plant mutualisms.

  13. PERFORMANCE OF SELECT MUTUAL FUNDS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Dash*

    2018-01-01

    Mutual funds is one of the major instruments for wealth creation and wealth saving in the current years. It is a financial instrument which gives positive result and satisfactory return to its investors. The mutual industries in have undergone a most successful phase in the last 15 years. The AUM has shown tremendous growth since inception from Rs. 25 crore in 1965 to Rs. 22,36,717 crore in December 2017. But this tremendous growth in the mutual fund industries in India is still lacking for b...

  14. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  15. Performance Changes of Elite Paralympic Judo Athletes During a Paralympic Games Cycle: A Case Study with the Brazilian National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loturco Irineu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the variations in power performance of elite Paralympic judo athletes across three consecutive training cycles of preparation for the ParaPan American Games, the World Championship and the Paralympic Games. Eleven Paralympic judokas from the Brazilian National team participated in this study. They were repeatedly assessed using squat and countermovement jumps, mean propulsive power (MPP in the jump-squat (JS, the bench press and prone bench pull at several moments of the preparation. Training supervision based on the optimum power zone (range of loads where power production is maximized was provided in the final cycle, prior to the Paralympic Games. Magnitude-based inference was used to compare the repeated measurements of power performance. Lower and upper limb muscle power gradually increased throughout the cycles; however, the best results in all exercises were observed prior to the Paralympic Games, during which the team won four silver medals. As an illustration, prior to participation in the Paralympic Games the MPP in the JS was likely to very likely higher than prior to the World Championship (effect size [ES] = 0.77 and ParaPan American Games (ES = 0.53, and in January and March 2016 (ES = 0.98 and 0.92, respectively; months preceding the Paralympic Games. Power performance assessments can provide information about the evolution of Paralympic judokas, and training at the optimum power zone seems to constitute an effective method to improve lower and upper limb power in these athletes.

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tudorache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator for the financial markets performance in different countries is the evolution of mutual funds in terms of their inflows and outflows. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the performance of the mutual funds in Slovakia. The research objectives are twofold: to study the flows of funds into and out of mutual funds from Slovakia during the period 2007-2014 and to analyse how investors in Slovakian mutual funds behave in terms of their investment choice. The analysis focuses on identifying patterns in investors' decision making process and on examining the similarity of their behavioural patterns with the ones identi¬fied at international level.

  17. Sino-U.S. Strategic Mutual Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Peng; Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    Relations between China and the U.S. have been relatively stable for nearly seven years, for the first time since the end of the Cold War. Strategic mutual trust, however, is not enough and there is a long way to go before both countries can achieve a permanent strategic stability. Four problems have prevented stability in bilateral relations, namely structural, internal, accidental, and cognitive issues. The goal of building strategic mutual trust still remains distant, and developing a good understanding between each other is the thorniest problem for both countries. Better mutual understanding can lead to an expansion of bilateral relations. China and the U.S. need to increase mutual trust and work towards achieving strategic stability.

  18. Indian mutual fund industry: Opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jayant R. Kale; Venkatesh Panchapagesan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the mutual fund industry in India and the reasons for its poor penetration, which includes lack of objective research. It benchmarks the industry globally, and raises key issues regarding the ownership and performance of mutual funds, the sensitivity of fund flows to performance, and the importance of regulation to its growth, all of which have been largely under researched in India. It then captures the views of leading practitioners on these and other is...

  19. Downside Risk Timing by Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnaruk, Andriy; Chokaev, Bekhan; Simonov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We study whether mutual funds systematically manage downside risk of their portfolios in ways that improve their performance. We find that actively managed mutual funds on average possess positive downside risk timing ability. Funds investing in large-cap and value stocks have stronger downside risk timing skills. Managers adjust funds’ downside risk exposure in response to macroeconomic information. The economic value of downside risk timing is comparable to that of market timing.

  20. Mutual Fund Competition and Stock Market Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We study how competition in the mutual fund industry affects stock market liquidity. We argue that mutual fund families operate as multi-product firms, jointly choosing fees, performance and number of funds and sharing common research facilities. The family-based organization generates economies of scale in information that induce a trade off between performance and number of funds. The presence of more and relatively less-informed funds impacts the market, increasing stock liquidity. This in...

  1. Can Chinese Mutual Fund Time Market Liquidity?

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    Extant researches have focused on mutual fund managers’ ability to time market returns or volatility. In this paper, the author offers a new perspective on the traditional timing issue by examining Chinese fund managers’ liquidity timing ability. Using the Chinese mutual fund database, the author finds little evidence that over the period from 2004 to 2012, fund managers cannot demonstrate the ability to time market liquidity in China, i.e., increase (reduce) market exposure in anticipation o...

  2. Mutual Visibility by Robots with Persistent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Subhash; Mukhopadhyaya, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the mutual visibility problem for a set of semi-synchronous, opaque robots occupying distinct positions in the Euclidean plane. Since robots are opaque, if three robots lie on a line, the middle robot obstructs the visions of the two other robots. The mutual visibility problem asks the robots to coordinate their movements to form a configuration, within finite time and without collision, in which no three robots are collinear. Robots are endowed with a constant bits of pe...

  3. Improvement of mutual understanding in risk communication by application of a debate support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Koji; Ishii, Hirotake; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent problem of climate change, nuclear power has become perhaps the world's most important energy source. In Japan, however, it is difficult to build new nuclear facilities. One of the reasons for such difficulty lies in problems in risk communication. In this study, a support method has been proposed to improve mutual understanding in risk communication. The authors paid especial attention at the learning effect of debating and the benefits of employing a debate support system. A laboratory experiment including 30 university students was conducted in order to evaluate the proposed method. Results showed that the use of the system could improve mutual understanding especially with respect to the factors of risk 'reduction measures' and 'accident management'. In addition, it was found that using the system and debating from 'opposite positions' could improve subjective mutual understanding; however, this practice showed no effectiveness in terms of improving objective mutual understanding. (author)

  4. Impact of Martial Arts (Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu) on Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents of Both Genders: 9-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor H; Kemper, Han C G; Agostinete, Ricardo R; Lynch, Kyle R; Christofaro, Diego G D; Ronque, Enio R; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2017-11-01

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into a control group (not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (kung fu/karate, n = 29; judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length, and height set) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (BMD, in g/cm 2 ) at 2 moments, baseline and 9 months later. Maturity offset (age at peak height velocity), lean soft tissue, chronological age, and resistance training were treated as covariates. Male judoists presented higher gains in BMD-spine [0.098 g/cm 2 (95% confidence interval, 0.068-0.128)] than control group [0.040 g/cm 2 (95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.069)] (post hoc test with P = .030). There was no effect of martial art on BMD gains among girls. Independently of gender, in all multivariate models, lean soft tissue constituted the most relevant covariate. Judo practice in adolescents affected the bone accrual significantly after 9-month follow-up compared with controls, mainly in boys.

  5. Mutualism and impacts of global change: response of an important and neglected component of the biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossaert-Mckey, M.

    2007-01-01

    We are studying the impact of global change on two obligate species-specific insect-plant mutualisms. Our approach combines correlative methods (examining spatial patterns of genetic diversity in populations of pairs of mutualists, to examine their responses to past climate change) and experiments (studying responses of plant partners to CO 2 fertilization). Mutualisms function because the partners have contrasting and complementary biological traits, so that a service implying only a low cost to one partner may confer a great benefit to the other. Because they can lead mutualist partners to respond differently to rapid ecological change, the biological differences that are fundamental to mutualisms may also make them vulnerable. Imbalances thereby introduced can disrupt the functioning of the mutualism. By comparing two strongly contrasting systems-fig/wasp pollination mutualisms and ant-plant protection mutualisms-we aim to characterize the diversity of responses of mutualisms to global change. By identifying points in common, we also aim to propose robust generalizations about the response to global change of obligate, specific mutualisms, an important and neglected component of tropical biodiversity. Our results show that the two mutualisms studied differ greatly in their response to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Fig/wasp systems show little spatial genetic differentiation, indicating that the great dispersal capacities of both figs and their pollinating wasps resulted in maintenance of high effective population sizes throughout cycles of climatic and vegetation change. In contrast, limited dispersal capacity of both ant and plant partners has resulted in greater impact of climatic fluctuations on ant/plant protection mutualisms: species-distribution patterns suggest restriction of the system to refugia, and strong spatial genetic structure indicates widespread bottlenecks during fragmentation and expansion. Alternate contraction and expansion

  6. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  7. The Analysis of Mutual Fund Performance: Evidence from U.S. Equity Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Budiono (Diana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the mutual fund performance for about 45 years. There are several key points that we can withdraw from this dissertation. First, to study the persistence of mutual fund performance, it is important to consider time-varying exposures because when they are ignored, the persistence

  8. Holographic mutual information of two disjoint spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Li, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study quantum corrections to holographic mutual information for two disjoint spheres at a large separation by using the operator product expansion of the twist field. In the large separation limit, the holographic mutual information is vanishing at the semiclassical order, but receive quantum corrections from the fluctuations. We show that the leading contributions from the quantum fluctuations take universal forms as suggested from the boundary CFT. We find the universal behavior for the scalar, the vector, the tensor and the fermionic fields by treating these fields as free fields propagating in the fixed background and by using the 1 /n prescription. In particular, for the fields with gauge symmetries, including the massless vector boson and massless graviton, we find that the gauge parts in the propagators play an indispensable role in reading the leading order corrections to the bulk mutual information.

  9. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio – often referred to as a ‘flight-to-liquidity.’ In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...... of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard...

  10. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...... of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard...

  11. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  12. EGYPTIAN MUTUAL FUNDS ANALYSIS: HISTORY, PERFORMANCE, OBJECTIVES, RISK AND RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to overview the mutual fund in Egypt. The establishment of the first mutual funds was achieved in 1994. Nowadays, the total mutual funds reached 90 funds , approximately. The income funds represent the largest share of the Egyptian mutual funds (40%, growth funds (25% and the private equity funds is at least (1%. The total population of the Egyptian mutual funds reached 22. Finally, the study proved that the Egyptian mutual funds have an impact on fund return , total risk and systemic; when analysis relationship between risk and return. The study found influencing for mutual fund's objectives on Sharpe and Terynor ratios.

  13. STUDY ON THE ORGANIZATION AND HABITAT OF THE HUMAN POTENTIAL IN PERFORMANCE JUDO INSIDE ROMANIA, WITH A VIEW TO PREPARYING THE NEXT OLYMPIC CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study underlines the strategic approaches used by the Romanian sportive units with a viewto sustaining the basic high performance competition pattern at the beginning of an Olympic cycle (2009-2012,as well as the geographical diffusion of the potential human resources, with the purpose of improving theorganization of the representative Romanian judo lots.The strategic approaches used for the last past years inside the Romanian sportive units had thetendency of encouraging more and more numerous collaborations. In 2009 the Romanian junior, teens and seniorjudoka participated in the Individual National Championship, by reuniting groups of 1-4 sections sometimesquite geographically distant. This approach characteristic to the entire Romanian sport system started about 5-6years ago, but begins to show uncontrolled dimensions. Our research emphasizes the fact that strategicapproaches based on the collaboration of sportive units is at this very moment a “necessary evil”, but thephenomenon must be controlled or standardized at the level of each sport federation. As far as judo is concerned,the collaborations between different sportive units show a decrease of the section representation efficiency, oncethe number of participant increases, also suggesting other hidden anomalies.The statistic calculus of the results registered by the sport structures involved in the Romanianperformance sport, shows that the combined sportive structures generally obtain the most medals. There arehowever individual sections that register high performances, and the comparison between the individual sportivestructures and the combined ones can only lead to useful and objective conclusions.This paper also underlines the differences between the best performances of the most efficient sportivestructures opting for the collaboration, if compared to the best individual results. Thus, one notices theimportance of the statistic calculus of the sportive structures

  14. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  15. Performance of mutual funds in european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Γκογκάκη, Ελεωνόρα

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance of 220 open-end domestic equity mutual funds of european countries (from 'weak' and 'strong' economies) is analyzed for an eight- year period from 1st January 2004 until 31st December 2011, which is then split in two four-year sub periods in order to examine their performance prior to the global financial crisis and after its burst in 2008. In order to compare the mutual funds' performance to that of each country's market, it used as benchmarks the countries' m...

  16. Indian mutual fund industry: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant R. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the mutual fund industry in India and the reasons for its poor penetration, which includes lack of objective research. It benchmarks the industry globally, and raises key issues regarding the ownership and performance of mutual funds, the sensitivity of fund flows to performance, and the importance of regulation to its growth, all of which have been largely under researched in India. It then captures the views of leading practitioners on these and other issues, including the challenges posed by poor financial literacy, the equity culture in the country, and the weakly supportive regulatory environment.

  17. Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Faghani Makrani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.

  18. Environmental variation shifts the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders along the continuum from mutualism to antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Gina M; Goldberg, Adam S; Steele, Michael A; Dalgleish, Harmony J

    2018-05-01

    The conditional mutualism between scatterhoarders and trees varies on a continuum from mutualism to antagonism and can change across time and space, and among species. We examined 4 tree species (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], American chestnut [Castanea dentata] and hybrid chestnut [C. dentata × Castanea mollissima) across 5 sites and 3 years to quantify the variability in this conditional mutualism. We used a published model to compare the rates of seed emergence with and without burial to the probability that seeds will be cached and left uneaten by scatterhoarders to quantify variation in the conditional mutualism that can be explained by environmental variation among sites, years, species, and seed provenance within species. All species tested had increased emergence when buried. However, comparing benefits of burial to the probability of caching by scatterhoarders indicated a mutualism in red oak, while white oak was nearly always antagonistic. Chestnut was variable around the boundary between mutualism and antagonism, indicating a high degree of context dependence in the relationship with scatterhoarders. We found that different seed provenances did not vary in their potential for mutualism. Temperature did not explain microsite differences in seed emergence in any of the species tested. In hybrid chestnut only, emergence on the surface declined with soil moisture in the fall. By quantifying the variation in the conditional mutualism that was not caused by changes in scatterhoarder behavior, we show that environmental conditions and seed traits are an important and underappreciated component of the variation in the relationship between trees and scatterhoarders. © 2018 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  20. Mutual fund performance: dividends do matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Mingo López, Diego Víctor; Matallín Sáez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the bias in mutual fund performance when a nondividend-reinvesting benchmark is used. Our empirical findings show how performance worsens when using a benchmark that includes reinvestment dividends. We also find that inferences about managers’ ability related to economic states are biased by the effect of omitting dividends when selecting a benchmark.

  1. The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

  2. MISTIC: mutual information server to infer coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, Franco L.; Teppa, Elin; Chernomoretz, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    of several information-related quantities using a circos representation. This provides an integrated view of the MSA in terms of (i) the mutual information (MI) between residue pairs, (ii) sequence conservation and (iii) the residue cumulative and proximity MI scores. Further, an interactive interface...... of circos representation of MI networks and the visualization of the cumulative MI and proximity MI concepts is novel....

  3. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  4. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  5. Competition as a mechanism structuring mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Itamar Giladi; Mark A. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. Hutchinsonian niche theory posits that organisms have fundamental abiotic resource requirements from which they are limited by competition. Organisms also have fundamental biotic requirements, such as mutualists, for which they also might compete. 2. We test this idea with a widespread ant–plant mutualism. Ant-mediated seed dispersal (myrmecochory) in...

  6. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  7. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...

  8. Information Content of Mutual Fund Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAcademic financial economists have been keenly interested in the value of active portfolio management since the seminal paper of Jensen (1968). This book examines the information advantages that active mutual fund managers attain in financial markets through an analysis of disclosed fund

  9. Partner selection in the mycorrhizal mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, G.D.A.; Kiers, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Partner selection in the mycorrhizal symbiosis is thought to be a key factor stabilising the mutualism. Both plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to preferentially allocate resources to higher quality partners. This can help maintain underground cooperation, although it is likely that

  10. Evaluación e intervención psicológica en la «promoción» de talentos deportivos en judo

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno Marco, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    En este artículo se describe el trabajo de evaluación e intervención psicológica que se ha realizado en la Federación Española de Judo, durante el período marzo de 1999 a marzo de 2001, con judokas de categorías infantil y cadete, en el marco del programa de «Detección de Jóvenes Talentos Deportivos» promovido por el Consejo Superior de Deportes. En este trabajo se pone un especial énfasis en tres puntos: (1) la integración del trabajo del psicólogo en el conjunto del trabajo realizado por el...

  11. Medial epiphyseal fracture-detachment of the sternoclavicular joint with posterior displacement in a judo athlete - equivalent of posterior sternoclavicular dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pimenta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior sternoclavicular dislocation is a rare traumatic injury that presents a potential risk of injury to mediastinal structures. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment is done on an emergency basis. The authors report the clinical case of a young judo athlete with post-traumatic medial epiphyseal fracture-detachment, with posterior displacement (lesion equivalent to posterior sternoclavicular dislocation at pediatric ages. He underwent open reduction and ligament repair by means of a mini-anchor.The radiological and clinical outcome was excellent, and the athlete returned to his sports activity without limitations. We discuss the particular features of this pathological condition, along with the different therapeutic approaches and their complications

  12. Judocas olímpicos Brasileiros: fatores de apoio psicossocial para o desenvolvimento do talento esportivo Olympic judo athletes: psychosocial support elements to sports talent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Massa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o judô possua tradição olímpica, pouco se conhece sobre os aspectos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do talento no cenário nacional. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os fatores de apoio psicossocial presentes no desenvolvimento de judocas brasileiros talentosos do sexo masculino. Para tanto, se utilizou uma amostra de seis judocas, pertencentes à seleção brasileira nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas, 2004. A pesquisa foi constituída através de um delineamento qualitativo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista composta por três perguntas abertas. Para a análise dos resultados foi utilizado o "Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo". Os discursos indicaram a importância dos fatores relacionados : a ao apoio da família; b ao prazer pela prática; e c a determinação dos judocas, corroborando com a literatura internacional no que tange a relevância dos fatores psicossociais para o desenvolvimento do talento em diferentes domínios do conhecimento.Although judo is a traditional Olympic Sport in Brazil, little is known regarding the key aspects to develop talents at the national scenario. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychosocial supporting factors that are seen in the development of talented male Brazilian Judo athletes. A sample of 6 athletes that were in the Athens Olympic Games of 2004 was studied. Research was designed on qualitative basis and used a three open questions interview as investigative tool. Results were analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject. Discourses indicated as important, factors related to: a family support; b pleasure in practice; and c athletes determination, reinforcing the international scientific literature regarding the importance of psychosocial factors to talent development in several knowledge domains.

  13. Mutual altruism: evidence from Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Markus; Pfarr, Christian; Zweifel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual (rather than conventional unilateral) altruism. Contingent valuation experiments were conducted in 2000-2002, involving 126 Alzheimer patients and their caregiving spouses living in the Zurich metropolitan area (Switzerland). WTP values for three hypothetical treatments of the demented patient were elicited. The treatment Stabilization prevents the worsening of the disease, bringing dementia to a standstill. Cure restores patient health to its original level. In No burden, dementia takes its normal course while caregiver's burden is reduced to its level before the disease. The three different types of therapies are reflected in different WTP values of both caregivers and patients, suggesting that moderate levels of Alzheimer's disease still permit clear expression of preference. According to the WTP values found, patients do not rank Cure higher than No burden, implying that their preferences are entirely altruistic. Caregiving spouses rank Cure before Burden, reflecting less than perfect altruism which accounts for some 40 percent of their total WTP. Still, this constitutes evidence of mutual altruism. VALUE: The evidence suggests that WTP values reflect individuals' preferences even in Alzheimer patients. The estimates suggest that an economically successful treatment should provide relief to caregivers, with its curative benefits being of secondary importance.

  14. (Mutual Security Mutual Affluence) Negative Factors = Sustained Stability: A Framework for Establishing Stability Between Like States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    160-163. 2 The Concept of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) dates back to the post-WWFI em and the Cold War where the United States and Soviet Unions...United States. Following its defeat in W\\VH, Japan was in shambles. The bombing campaigns left nine million Japanese homeless and three million more...the United States, the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris in 2015, and the bombings in Istanbul in 2016. Michael Bamier, “From Mutual Assistance to

  15. Paradigma experto-novato: Análisis diferencial de la pérdida de consistencia del Tokui Waza en Judo bajo situación específica de fatiga. Expert-Novice paradigm: Differential analysis of the loss of consistency in the Tokui-Waza of Judo under a specif situation of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García, José Manuel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste estudio pretende analizar si existe pérdida en la consistencia de la técnica especial en Judo cuando se ven comprometidas las reservas energéticas del judoka, y si existen, conocer cuáles son los elementos más significativos que pudieran condicionar la óptima ejecución del mismo. Los combates de Judo suelen terminar con una tasa de acumulación lactácida de entre 14 a 20 mmol/l en sangre. El test utilizado (COPTEST© reproduce un combate de Judo con altos niveles de solicitación anaeróbica que asemejan los requerimientos energéticos de un combate en el contexto de la alta competición. En los últimos años, varios estudios científicos (Sterkowicz,1999,2002, (García 1996,1999,2004, (Monteiro, 2003, (Francini, 2003 han intentado enumerar los posibles aspectos tanto condicionales como técnicos y cognitivos que diferencian a un judoka campeón de otro que no lo es. Método: Utilizando el modelo de investigación del paradigma Experto-Novato de Shulman (1986 se evaluaron 110 judokas de alto rendimiento. Todos realizaron el Coptest (García, 1995. Se consideraron “expertos” a los judokas que habían obtenido medalla en unos JJOO, cto mundial o cto continental. Eran “novatos” los judokas de alto rendimiento que no habían conseguido tal resultado. Se evaluaron las siguientes variables: a Desequilibrio b adecuación secuencial c ángulo requerido para la correcta construcción de la técnica y d elementos determinantes para que exista proyección Se tomaron datos de todas la ejecuciones del Tokui waza durante la ejecución del Coptest (total 4950 proyecciones. El análisis de los datos reveló que existen diferencias significativas en la ejecución del tokui waza realizado por un judoka “experto” al realizado por uno “novato.AbstractThe aim of this study tries to analyze if loss in the consistency of the special technique in Judo exists when are seen it jeopardize the power reserves of judoka and know which are

  16. Las claves en el proceso de enseñanza‐aprendizaje de la técnica de judo desde la perspectiva del error: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma The process of teaching‐learning the especific judo technique from the error perspective is the key: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gutiérrez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los errores más frecuentes de las técnicas de judo O Soto Gari y O Soto Guruma, así como clarificar las diferencias existentes entre ambas proyecciones con el fin de mejorar su proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis videográfico -mediante el uso de la metodología observacional- de la ejecución de las técnicas señaladas, siendo éstas efectuadas por alumnos de la Universidad de Vigo que cursaron la asignatura “Deportes de adversario con fines recreativos” durante aproximadamente 4 meses. Los resultados, analizados mediante estadísticos descriptivos con el paquete de software SPSS 12.0.1, muestran, en primer lugar, que O Soto Gari es una técnica donde los sujetos investigados alcanzan una mayor frecuencia y diversidad de errores que en O Soto Guruma, lo cual permite afirmar que esta última, debido a su mayor sencillez técnica, debería utilizarse antes que O Soto Gari en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En segundo lugar, también se ha concluido que, en contra de lo que cabría esperar, no son tantos los errores comunes en ambas proyecciones, y, de éstos, ninguno de ellos corresponde a los más habituales de cada técnica.
    Palabras clave:
    judo, técnica, error, iniciación, O Soto Gari, O Soto Guruma.

    The present study must know the most frequent errors of the O Soto Gari and O Soto Guruma judo techniques, and clarify the existing differences between both projections in order to improve their process of education. An analysis using video-graphics is applied. It is used as observation and recording method for the mentioned judo techniques being exercised. The analysis is carried out by students of the University of Vigo. They attended

  17. Relació entre potència aeròbica i anaeròbica i l’Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) en judokes iranians d’elit

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Hesari, A.; Mirzaei, B.; Mahdavi Ortakand, S.; Rabienejad, A.; Nikolaïdis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introducció L’objectiu d’aquest estudi fou valorar la relació entre potència aeròbica i anaeròbica, i el test específic per al judo, Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT), en judokes iranians d’elit. Mètode Dinou judokes d’elit (edat 24,3 [3,1] anys, alçada 1,78 [0,06] m, massa corporal 76,4 [11,2] kg, índex de massa corporal 20,2 [3,6] kg/m2 i greix corporal 11,0 [1,8] %) realitzaren una prova d’esforç en una cinta ergomètrica, el test anaeròbic de Wingate amb acció de braços i l’S...

  18. [Pharmaco-economics: a point of view of the mutualities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, D; Simon, I

    1998-05-01

    In Belgium, the mutualities are responsible for their budgets. They are playing an important role in drug pricing and reimbursement procedures. This document aims at explaining our line of arguments for a critical evaluation and the place for a pharmacoeconomic evaluation in the Belgian social security system. The available economic data for each molecule or pathology are essential but insufficient. Economic evaluations could help to reveal the costs and benefits of different uses of medical therapies and could thereby enhance the resources allocation in a health care system. But this science is still in its infancy, and in practice, the methodological quality of this kind of study is often weak. Furthermore it is not easy to transfer those evaluations to the Belgian reimburse systems. The clinical efficacy and the transparency is price setting should remain the two most important criterions to build reimbursement rules in order to ensure right price, rational use of medicine and accessibility for all.

  19. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  20. Fast mutual-information-based contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Yu, Lifang; Tian, Huawei; Huang, Xianglin; Wang, Yongbin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, T. Celik proposed an effective image contrast enhancement (CE) method based on spatial mutual information and PageRank (SMIRANK). According to the state-of-the-art evaluation criteria, it achieves the best visual enhancement quality among existing global CE methods. However, SMIRANK runs much slower than the other counterparts, such as histogram equalization (HE) and adaptive gamma correction. Low computational complexity is also required for good CE algorithms. In this paper, we novelly propose a fast SMIRANK algorithm, called FastSMIRANK. It integrates both spatial and gray-level downsampling into the generation of pixel value mapping function. Moreover, the computation of rank vectors is speeded up by replacing PageRank with a simple yet efficient row-based operation of mutual information matrix. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FastSMIRANK could accelerate the processing speed of SMIRANK by about 20 times, and is even faster than HE. Comparable enhancement quality is preserved simultaneously.

  1. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  2. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  3. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, D.; Hopmann, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  4. Returns on Sustainable Mutual Funds in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anant

    2011-01-01

    The world has seen a huge growth in investment through the sustainable sector. But the study on the cost in construction and measuring the performance of such investments is confined to the limited countries. Thus to compare the performance of the sustainable investment with that of traditional investments it is necessary to increase the sample size of the study. Considering this in mind the paper aims to study the performance and risk of the sustainable mutual fund investments with that of t...

  5. Managerial multitasking in the mutual fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vikas; Ma, Linlin; Mullally, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We examine the determinants and consequences of mutual fund managers simultaneously managing multiple funds. Well-performing managers multitask by taking over poorly performing funds or launching new funds. Subsequent to multitasking, funds run by managers prior to multitasking (i.e., incumbent funds) experience performance deterioration while the performance of the acquired funds improves. Multitasking increases the assets of fund companies but results in a wealth transfer from shareholders ...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Investment (Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Vyšniauskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an investment fund is one of the main components in evaluating the performance of the fund. This study seeks for introducing and comparing risk and performance evaluation ratios. The paper is aimed at testing the worked out ratios and at distinguishing between the best ones for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Lithuanian mutual funds. Scientific studies show that a standard deviation, alpha, beta, Sharpe and Treynor ratios are mostly employed for identifying the performance of mutual funds that are also compared with their benchmark index to establish if these funds are outperformed and if is it worth paying management fees to investment banks for managing mutual funds. Historical data were selected for the period from 2012-01-02 to 2013-10-15 analysing the prices of monthly funds. The paper points out the areas of a practical application of the proposed model for investment fund valuation, which may not only provide valuable outcomes for practitioners but also may inspire further research on this article.

  7. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Nectar bacteria, but not yeast, weaken a plant-pollinator mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Gauthier, Marie-Pierre L; Fukami, Tadashi

    2013-02-07

    Mutualistic interactions are often subject to exploitation by species that are not directly involved in the mutualism. Understanding which organisms act as such 'third-party' species and how they do so is a major challenge in the current study of mutualistic interactions. Here, we show that even species that appear ecologically similar can have contrasting effects as third-party species. We experimentally compared the effects of nectar-inhabiting bacteria and yeasts on the strength of a mutualism between a hummingbird-pollinated shrub, Mimulus aurantiacus, and its pollinators. We found that the common bacterium Gluconobacter sp., but not the common yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii, reduced pollination success, seed set and nectar consumption by pollinators, thereby weakening the plant-pollinator mutualism. We also found that the bacteria reduced nectar pH and total sugar concentration more greatly than the yeasts did and that the bacteria decreased glucose concentration and increased fructose concentration whereas the yeasts affected neither. These distinct changes to nectar chemistry may underlie the microbes' contrasting effects on the mutualism. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand the determinants of microbial species composition in nectar and their differential modification of floral rewards to explain the mutual benefits that plants and pollinators gain from each other.

  9. Nectar bacteria, but not yeast, weaken a plant–pollinator mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L.; Gauthier, Marie-Pierre L.; Fukami, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions are often subject to exploitation by species that are not directly involved in the mutualism. Understanding which organisms act as such ‘third-party’ species and how they do so is a major challenge in the current study of mutualistic interactions. Here, we show that even species that appear ecologically similar can have contrasting effects as third-party species. We experimentally compared the effects of nectar-inhabiting bacteria and yeasts on the strength of a mutualism between a hummingbird-pollinated shrub, Mimulus aurantiacus, and its pollinators. We found that the common bacterium Gluconobacter sp., but not the common yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii, reduced pollination success, seed set and nectar consumption by pollinators, thereby weakening the plant–pollinator mutualism. We also found that the bacteria reduced nectar pH and total sugar concentration more greatly than the yeasts did and that the bacteria decreased glucose concentration and increased fructose concentration whereas the yeasts affected neither. These distinct changes to nectar chemistry may underlie the microbes' contrasting effects on the mutualism. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand the determinants of microbial species composition in nectar and their differential modification of floral rewards to explain the mutual benefits that plants and pollinators gain from each other. PMID:23222453

  10. mutual participation in the health worker-patient relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medunsa) ... Keywords: mutual participation, health worker-patient relationship, decision ... The importance of a mutual participatory model in medical care and decision ... workers become aware of differences in opinion or in the balance of power, ...

  11. Danish Mutual Fund Performance - Selectivity, Market Timing and Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    Funds under management by Danish mutual funds have increased by 25% annually during the last 10 years and measured per capita Denmark has the third largest mutual fund industry in Europe. This paper provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity...

  12. 12 CFR 563.74 - Mutual capital certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the funds for redemption are raised by the issuance of mutual capital certificates approved pursuant... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mutual capital certificates. 563.74 Section 563...-OPERATIONS Securities and Borrowings § 563.74 Mutual capital certificates. (a) General. No savings...

  13. Mutual funds : Management styles, social responsibility, performance and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkó, Tamás; Renneboog, Luc; Baker, H.; Filbeck, G.; Kiymaz, H.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual fund industry represents a substantial part of global financial markets with approximately 20 percent invested in mutual funds. Mutual funds offer a simple and easy-to-understand way to invest either into stocks or fixed income products, both for retail and institutional investors. This

  14. Defined Contribution Pension Plans: Mutual Fund Asset Allocation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm; Laura Starks; Hanjiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare changes in asset allocations between mutual funds held in defined contribution pension plans and funds held by other investors. We investigate how flows into equity and fixed income mutual funds depend on macroeconomic conditions. We find that defined contribution plans react more sensitively to these conditions, suggesting effects on mutual fund managers and other investors.

  15. MUTUAL CONCESSIONS - SPECIFIC ELEMENT OF THE COMPROMISE/TRANSACTION CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Bianca Spîrchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the usefulness and practical importance of the compromise contract conclusion and of the amicably dispute resolution, within the business world, we aim to analyze, in what follows, the concrete means by which these kind of settlement are achieved. Two questions become legitimate in the context of concerns about mutual concessions which the parties make in a compromise contract. These questions are the following: “What are the mutual concessions? Do mutual concessions mean equivalent concessions?” and “How mutual concessions are required to complete a valid settlement? Is the requirement of mutual concessions grounded?”

  16. Creating a culture of mutual respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L

    2010-04-01

    The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  18. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  19. Cash Holdings and Mutual Fund Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Simutin

    2014-01-01

    Cash holdings of equity mutual funds impose a drag on fund performance but also allow managers to make quick investments in attractive stocks and satisfy outflows without costly fire sales. This article shows that actively managed equity funds with high abnormal cash—that is, with cash holdings in excess of the level predicted by fund attributes—outperform their low abnormal cash peers by over 2% per year. Managers carrying high abnormal cash compensate for the low return on cash by making su...

  20. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  1. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  2. Feature Selection Based on Mutual Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Somol, Petr; Ververidis, D.; Kotropoulos, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4225 (2006), s. 569-577 ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition. CIARP 2006 /11./. Cancun, 14.11.2006-17.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : feature selection Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/haindl-feature selection based on mutual correlation.pdf

  3. A ingestão de bicarbonato de sódio pode contribuir para o desempenho em lutas de judô? ¿Ingerir bicarbonato de sodio puede contribuir en el mejor desempeño de competiciones de judo? Can sodium bicarbonate intake contribute to judo fights performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giannini Artioli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da ingestão de NaHCO3 sobre o desempenho no judô. Seis atletas do sexo masculino ingeriram 0,3g x kg¹ de peso corporal de NaHCO3 ou CaCO3 (placebo 2h antes de três lutas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperação. Imediatamente após e 15 min após cada luta, os atletas relataram a percepção subjetiva de esforço. A concentração sanguínea de lactato foi verificada em repouso, após o aquecimento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 e 15 min após cada luta. O mesmo protocolo experimental foi repetido duas vezes por cada atleta, com exceção da substância ingerida. O estudo adotou o modelo duplo-cego contrabalançado. Não houve diferença significativa para as variáveis de desempenho. A percepção subjetiva de esforço não diferiu entre os tratamentos e a concentração sanguínea de lactato foi significativamente maior (p El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de investigar el efecto sobre el desempeño en judo al ingerir NaHCO3. Seis deportistas del sexo masculino ingirieron 0,3 g x kg-1 de peso corporal de NaHCO3 o CaCO3 (placebo 2 h antes de 3 luchas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperación. Inmediatamente después, y 15 min después de cada lucha, los deportistas relataron la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo. La concentración sanguínea de lactato fue verificada en reposo, después del precalentamiento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 y 15 min después de cada lucha. El mismo protocolo experimental fue repetido dos veces en cada deportista, con excepción de la sustancia ingerida. El estudio adoptó el modelo doble-ciego contrabalanceado. No hubo diferencia significativa para las variables de desempeño. La percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo no difirió entre los tratamientos, y la concentración sanguínea de lactato fue significativamente mayor (p The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the NaHCO3 ingestion on the judo performance. Six male athletes ingested 0.3 g x kg

  4. The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (mutualism) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal mutualism between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  6. Teaching Culture to Adult Indonesian Students in English Classrooms: a Mutual Understanding Approach

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hendra Tedjasuksmana

    2013-01-01

    Culture is often neglected in FL classrooms while it is important to teach it to the students. In the EFL classrooms in Indonesia, teachers should equip their students not only with the English culture but also other ethnic cultures in Indonesia as Indonesia is a multicultural and multiethnic country. It is English that becomes the bridge for the national unity. This paper describes that students get mutual benefits through learning cultures and it is teachers of English who...

  7. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  8. Performance Evaluation of Equity Mutual Funds in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rini Demi Pangestuti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds considered as an investment alternative for investors. One type of mutual fund that attracts many investors was the equity mutual funds. Equity mutual fund is a type of mutual funds that most part of the investment consists of stocks in the capital market so the risk rate was higher than the other types of mutual funds. For its different characteristic, the measurement for equity funds performance did not be same with other types of mutual funds. As a stock portfolio, equity mutual funds can be measured by portfolio measurement methods such as Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index, Adjusted Jensen Index, and Sortino Ratio. This study was conducted by using all of those performance measurements as most research in Indonesia was conducted by using limited performance measurements (focusing on Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, and Jensen Index. This study aims to evaluated the performance of 42 equity mutual funds available in Indonesia by employing Sharpe Index, Treynor Ratio, Jensen Index, Adjusted Sharpe Index (ASI, Adjusted Jensen Index (AJI, and Sortino Ratio because most previous researches in Indonesian setting disregards ASI and AJI. In general, it was concluded that the SAM Indonesian Equity was the best performing equity fund during the study period. It was further found that most equity mutual fund studied have been well diversified.

  9. Speech Intelligibility Prediction Based on Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, Cees H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of predicting the average intelligibility of noisy and potentially processed speech signals, as observed by a group of normal hearing listeners. We propose a model which performs this prediction based on the hypothesis that intelligibility is monotonically related...... to the mutual information between critical-band amplitude envelopes of the clean signal and the corresponding noisy/processed signal. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the mean-square error (mse) that arises when estimating a clean critical-band amplitude using...... a minimum mean-square error (mmse) estimator based on the noisy/processed amplitude. The proposed model predicts that speech intelligibility cannot be improved by any processing of noisy critical-band amplitudes. Furthermore, the proposed intelligibility predictor performs well ( ρ > 0.95) in predicting...

  10. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agón, Cesar A.; Faulkner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  11. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  12. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agón, Cesar A. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Faulkner, Thomas [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  13. Market timing and selectivity performance of mutual funds in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Musah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in mutual funds in Ghana has been tremendous over the last decade as evidenced by the continuous increases in number and total funds under management. However, no empirical work has been done on the selectivity and timing ability of the mutual fund managers. Using monthly returns data hand-collected from the reports of the mutual fund managers for the period January 2007-December 2012, this paper examines the market timing and selectivity ability of mutual fund managers in Ghana using the classic Treynor-Mazuy (1966 model and Henriksson- Merton (1981 model. The results suggest that, in general mutual fund managers in Ghana are not able to effectively select stocks and also are not able to predict both the magnitude and direction of future market returns. More specifically, all of the sample mutual fund managers attain significant negative selectivity coefficients and also most of them attain insignificant negative timing coefficients.

  14. Mutual Support: Give and Take in Canada's Aging Society = Donnant-Donnant: Soutien Mutuel Dans Une Societe Canadienne Vieillissante.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Canadian quarterly "Transition", in French and English language versions, examines issues related to the demographic shift Canada will experience as the baby boom generation enters "old age." Major articles in this issue are: (1) "Of Mutual Benefit," which outlines some of the challenges Canada faces…

  15. Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1993-01-01

    This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund managers, particularly those that managed aggressive growth funds, earned significantly positive risk-adjusted returns in the 1976-85 p...

  16. Investors’ perception on mutual funds with reference to Chidambaram town

    OpenAIRE

    N. Geetha; M. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Mutual funds in India play a vital role in mobilizing funds for capital and financial markets. The role of mutual funds in India felt significant as it generates funds from small investors at large across the country. The main objective of the study is to elucidate the perceptions and behaviours of the small investors located in the town of Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, South India towards the mutual funds and also suggest some measures to increase the quantum of investors and investments as well.

  17. Performance of Mutual Funds In INDIA: 2000 - 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabra, Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Numerous scholarly researches have been carried out to evaluate the performance of mutual funds. These researches may differ in time period but most studies conclude that mutual funds on average have failed to outperform the market and therefore the efficient market hypothesis holds good. This research is carried out to evaluate the performance of 20 surviving diversified equity growth mutual funds for the period of 6 years from July 2000 to June 2006. The data of the fund is collected on Mon...

  18. Modeling the Substrate Skin Effects in Mutual RL Characteristics.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Roest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to model the influence of the substrateskin effects on the distributed mutual impedance per unit lengthparameters of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects. The proposedanalytic model is based on the frequency-dependent distribution of thecurrent in the silicon substrate and the closed form integrationapproach. It is shown that the calculated frequency-dependentdistributed mutual inductance and the associated mutual resistance arein good agreement with the results obtained from CAD-oriented circuitmodeling technique.

  19. Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Sitikantha Parida; Zhihong Wang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds) vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds). Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and posi...

  20. Mutual couling reduction using a lumped LC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency.......A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency....

  1. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  2. Alignment by Maximization of Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    me how truly valuable unconditional support can be. Students are the AI lab’s most precious resource and I benefited from discussions with Phil Agre...to analyze these problems is purely convenience. There is nothing random about these problems once the samples are drawn. One of the benefits of...To provide further intuition regarding the behavior of ECA we have run ECA, PCA, and two related procedures BCM and BINGO on the same density. BCM

  3. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  4. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2017-05-07

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a sufficiently adverse environment. In an evolutionary game where two defenders can cooperate to defend a common resource, this paper analyzes the common-enemy hypothesis when adversity is endogenous, in that an attacker sets the number of attacks. As a benchmark, we first consider exogenous adversity, where adversity is not subject to evolution. In this case, the common-enemy hypothesis is predicted when the degree of complementarity between defenders' defensive efforts is sufficiently low. When the degree of complementarity is high, the hypothesis is predicted only when cooperation costs are high; when cooperation costs are instead low, a competing hypothesis is predicted, where adversity discourages cooperation. Second, we consider the case of endogenous adversity. In this case, we continue to predict the competing hypothesis for a high degree of complementarity and low cooperation costs. The common-enemy hypothesis, however, only continues to be predicted for the lowest degrees of complementarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  7. Friendly Home and Inhabitants' Morality: Mutual Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartova-Bochaver, Sofya K.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2018-01-01

    The study is aimed at investigating the connection between the friendliness of the home environment and the moral motives' level. The friendliness of the home environment includes two aspects: the number of functions provided by home (functionality) and the congruence of these functions with inhabitants' needs (relevance). The theoretical framework of the study was formed by research and ideas emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments. We hypothesized that the friendliness of the home environment and inhabitants' moral motives would have a reciprocal relationship: the friendlier the home the higher the inhabitants' moral motives' level, and, vice versa, the higher the person's moral motives' level the more positive home image. The respondents were 550 students (25% male). The Home Environment Functionality Questionnaire, the Home Environment Relevance Questionnaire, and the Moral Motivation Model Scale were used. As expected, it was found that the friendliness of the home environment and the inhabitants' moral motives are in reciprocal synergetic relationships. Relevance formed more nuanced correlation patterns with moral motives than functionality did. Functionality predicted moral motives poorly whereas moral motives predicted functionality strongly. Finally, relevance and moral motives were found to be in mutual relationships whereas the perceived functionality was predicted by moral motives only. PMID:29375450

  8. Indirect control and power in mutual control structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, D.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a mutual control structure agents exercise control over each other. Typical examples occur in the area of corporate governance: firms and investment companies exercise mutual control, in particular by owning each others’ stocks. In this paper we formulate a general model for such situations.

  9. Estimation of skill of Russian mutual fund managers

    OpenAIRE

    Parshakov, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Our work is focused on Russian mutual funds managers’ skills versus luck estimating. Using bootstrap procedure we build Jensen’s alpha density for each fund. We find that only 5% of Russian equity mutual funds do have skills (in contrast to luck) to outperform the benchmark.

  10. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  11. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  12. Performance Evaluation of Open-Ended ELSS Mutual Fund ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of the open-ended equity linked saving mutual fund schemes (ELSS) in India during the financial distress in 2008-2009. In this study, the month end net asset values of selected equity linked saving mutual fund schemes were considered and the data was obtained from the website of ...

  13. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  14. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  15. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  16. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

  18. Bacterial protection of beetle-fungus mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrod J. Scott; Dong-Chan Oh; M. Cetin Yuceer; Kier D. Klepzig; Jon Clardy; Cameron R. Currie

    2008-01-01

    The pervasiveness of beneficial associations between symbiotic microbes and plants and animals in every ecosystem illustrates how the acquisition of a microbe’s physiological capacity confers substantial fitness benefits to hosts (1). However, dependence on mutualistic microbes becomes a liability if antagonistic microbes attack or outcompete beneficial ones (2)....

  19. Incipient loss of a rainforest mutualism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Fischer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We use data from motion-activated remote cameras to document a commensal, and possibly mutualistic, relationship between Bornean Ground Cuckoos and Bearded Pigs in the rainforests of Kalimantan, Indonesia.  We hypothesise that birds benefiting from symbiotic relationships may suffer indirect detrimental effects from hunting that targets large mammals in tropical rainforests. 

  20. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  1. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    mutual assistance in the event of radiation accidents

  2. Mutually orthogonal Latin squares from the inner products of vectors in mutually unbiased bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Joanne L; Rao, Asha

    2010-01-01

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are important in quantum information theory. While constructions of complete sets of d + 1 MUBs in C d are known when d is a prime power, it is unknown if such complete sets exist in non-prime power dimensions. It has been conjectured that complete sets of MUBs only exist in C d if a maximal set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS) of side length d also exists. There are several constructions (Roy and Scott 2007 J. Math. Phys. 48 072110; Paterek, Dakic and Brukner 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 012109) of complete sets of MUBs from specific types of MOLS, which use Galois fields to construct the vectors of the MUBs. In this paper, two known constructions of MUBs (Alltop 1980 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26 350-354; Wootters and Fields 1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363-381), both of which use polynomials over a Galois field, are used to construct complete sets of MOLS in the odd prime case. The MOLS come from the inner products of pairs of vectors in the MUBs.

  3. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murao, Mio [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  4. Seasonal asset allocation: Evidence from mutual fund flows

    OpenAIRE

    Kamstra, Mark J.; Kramer, Lisa A.; Levi, Maurice D.; Wermers, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, mutual funds have become the dominant vehicle through which individual investors prepare for retirement via defined contribution plans. Further, money market mutual funds, which hold $2.7 trillion as of September 2013, are now a major part of the cash economy in the U.S. Accordingly, the flow of money to and from different mutual fund categories (e.g., equities vs. money funds) increasingly reflects the sentiment or risk aversion of the general population. In this stud...

  5. Landauer current and mutual information in a bosonic quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikant Sable, Hrushikesh; Singh Bhakuni, Devendra; Sharma, Auditya

    2018-02-01

    We study the quantum transport of bosons through a quantum dot coupled to two macroscopic heat baths L and R, held at fixed temperatures TL and TR respectively. We manage to cast the particle as well as the heat current into the Landauer form. Following the correlation matrix approach, we compute the time-dependent mutual information of the dot with the baths. We find that mutual information goes logarithmically as the number of bosons, and at low temperatures, it is possible to set up the parameters in such a way that in steady-state, the mutual information goes quadratically as a function of current.

  6. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Heo, Jino; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. (paper)

  7. Performance of Mutual Funds in India: (2002-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Saboo, Manish

    2006-01-01

    There has been many studies in the past on performance of Mutual Funds in comparison to the market. These studies might differ in time and the market under study but most of them concluded that on an average, Mutual Funds have failed to outperform the market and thus the Efficient Market Hypothesis holds good. This research was based on performance of 25 mutual funds for a period of almost 5 years on monthly basis. Funds were evaluated using measures like Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Jense...

  8. Performance of Mutual Funds in India 2003-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada, Shantanu

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the past on the performance of Mutual Funds in comparison to the market index. These studies may differ in their time period, but most of them concluded that on an average the Mutual Funds failed to outperform the market thus the Efficient Market Hypothesis holds good. This research was based on the performance of 20 open ended equity diversified growth Mutual Funds for a period of 5 years from April 2003 to March 2008 and was compared to the BSE 500. Funds...

  9. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  10. Mutually unbiased bases and semi-definite programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan, E-mail: steve.brierley@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: stefan.weigert@york.ac.uk

    2010-11-01

    A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Groebner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

  11. Mutually unbiased bases and semi-definite programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, Stephen; Weigert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A complex Hilbert space of dimension six supports at least three but not more than seven mutually unbiased bases. Two computer-aided analytical methods to tighten these bounds are reviewed, based on a discretization of parameter space and on Groebner bases. A third algorithmic approach is presented: the non-existence of more than three mutually unbiased bases in composite dimensions can be decided by a global optimization method known as semidefinite programming. The method is used to confirm that the spectral matrix cannot be part of a complete set of seven mutually unbiased bases in dimension six.

  12. Mutual Coupling Effects on Pattern Diversity Antennas for MIMO Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity antennas play an important role in wireless communications. However, mutual coupling between multiple ports of a diversity antenna has significant effects on wireless radio links and channel capacity. In this paper, dual-port pattern diversity antennas for femtocell applications are proposed to cover GSM1800, UMTS, and WLAN frequency bands. The channel capacities of the proposed antennas and two ideal dipoles with different mutual coupling levels are investigated in an indoor environment. The relation between mutual coupling and channel capacity is observed through investigations of these antennas.

  13. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  14. From metabolism to ecology: cross-feeding interactions shape the balance between polymicrobial conflict and mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Sylvie; Trisos, Christopher H; Brown, Sam P

    2012-11-01

    Polymicrobial interactions are widespread in nature and play a major role in maintaining human health and ecosystems. Whenever one organism uses metabolites produced by another organism as energy or nutrient sources, it is called cross-feeding. The ecological outcomes of cross-feeding interactions are poorly understood and potentially diverse: mutualism, competition, exploitation, or commensalism. A major reason for this uncertainty is the lack of theoretical approaches linking microbial metabolism to microbial ecology. To address this issue, we explore the dynamics of a one-way interspecific cross-feeding interaction in which food can be traded for a service (detoxification). Our results show that diverse ecological interactions (competition, mutualism, exploitation) can emerge from this simple cross-feeding interaction and can be predicted by the metabolic, demographic, and environmental parameters that govern the balance of the costs and benefits of association. In particular, our model predicts stronger mutualism for intermediate by-product toxicity because the resource-service exchange is constrained to the service being neither too vital (high toxicity impairs resource provision) nor dispensable (low toxicity reduces need for service). These results support the idea that bridging microbial ecology and metabolism is a critical step toward a better understanding of the factors governing the emergence and dynamics of polymicrobial interactions.

  15. An ant-plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Turner, Kyle M; Doha, Manjima; Anreiter, Ina; Allen, Aaron M; Sokolowski, Marla B; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-09-13

    In plant-animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant-animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant-plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores. Some ant colonies are better 'bodyguards' than others. Working in the field in Peru, we found that colonies fed with a PKG activator recruited more workers to attack herbivores than control colonies. This resulted in less herbivore damage. PKG gene expression in ant workers correlated with whether an ant colony discovered an herbivore and how much damage herbivores inflicted on leaves in a complex way; natural variation in expression levels of the two genes had significant interaction effects on ant behaviour and herbivory. Our results suggest a molecular basis for ant protection of plants in this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -Cold War era: the search for an analytical framework that will help us understand this turbulent and chaotic period in human history. His lucid and visionary analysis rests on the concept of mutual vulnerability: that in an increasingly ...

  17. The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The study was a research survey that used questionnaires to collect data from 400 samples of Thai investors.

  18. Mutual incomprehension: U.S.- German value gaps beyond Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Larres, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Differences over Iraq policy have revealed deep U.S.- German value gaps over multilateralism, nationalism, and the role of force in international relations. Cooperation in four areas of mutual importance can help compensate for them.

  19. 75 FR 47063 - Mutual Fund Distribution Fees; Confirmations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... section 12(b) is to prevent mutual funds from incurring ``excessive sales, promotion expenses, and so... plans and used the revenue to pay for advertising and sales materials.\\55\\ In time, however, funds began... to revenue sharing. [[Page 47069

  20. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  1. Public-channel cryptography based on mutual chaos pass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Einat; Gross, Noam; Kopelowitz, Evi; Rosenbluh, Michael; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2006-10-01

    We study the mutual coupling of chaotic lasers and observe both experimentally and in numeric simulations that there exists a regime of parameters for which two mutually coupled chaotic lasers establish isochronal synchronization, while a third laser coupled unidirectionally to one of the pair does not synchronize. We then propose a cryptographic scheme, based on the advantage of mutual coupling over unidirectional coupling, where all the parameters of the system are public knowledge. We numerically demonstrate that in such a scheme the two communicating lasers can add a message signal (compressed binary message) to the transmitted coupling signal and recover the message in both directions with high fidelity by using a mutual chaos pass filter procedure. An attacker, however, fails to recover an errorless message even if he amplifies the coupling signal.

  2. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  3. Measuring the performance of mutual funds: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of eight open-end mutual funds in the Republic of Serbia for the period 2009-2012, with the aim of testing the justification of active portfolio management of mutual funds, and determining the selection capability of Serbian portfolio managers. Risk-weighted returns of mutual funds are compared with the risk-weighted return of the leading Belgrade Stock Exchange index, Belex15, whereas the following are used as performance measures: Sharpe ratio (Si, Treynor ratio (Ti, and Jensen's or Alpha index (αi. The results suggest that the portfolio of Serbian mutual funds has inferior performance compared to the market portfolio, which indicates the lack of selection capabilities of domestic portfolio managers.

  4. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  5. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  6. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M; Palmer, Todd M

    2018-02-01

    While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores. Crematogaster mimosae is the ecologically dominant symbiotic ant in this system, also providing the highest protection services. In addition to tending EFN, C. mimosae tend scale insects for carbohydrate-rich honeydew. We investigated the role of scale insects in this specialized ant-plant interaction. Specifically, does this putatively redundant third partner strengthen the ant-plant mutualism by making the ant a better protector of the tree? Or does it weaken the mutualism by being costly to the tree while providing no additional benefit to the ant-plant mutualism? We coupled observational surveys with two scale-manipulation experiments and found evidence that this third partner strengthens the ant-plant mutualism. Trees with scale insects experimentally removed experienced a 2.5X increase in elephant damage compared to trees with scale insects present over 10 months. Reduced protection was driven by scale removal causing a decrease in ant colony size and per capita baseline activity and defensive behavior. We also found that ants increased scale-tending and the density of scale insects on trees when EFN were experimentally reduced. Thus, in this system, scale insects and EFN are likely complementary, rather than redundant, resources with scale insects benefitting ants when EFN production is low (such as during annual dry periods in this semi-arid ecosystem). This study reveals that a third

  7. Mutual emergency assistance arrangements at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1979-01-01

    All countries do not necessarily have resources in skilled manpower and equipment enabling them to deal satisfactorily with the consequences of a nuclear incident. Therefore, a mechanism whereby such countries could obtain or provide mutual emergency assistance at international level is extremely useful. This article analyses the provisions of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement and the measures taken in respect of emergency assistance by international organisations such as IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  8. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Quan; Zhuang, Shengxian; Hu, Dan; Zeng, Yingfeng; Xiao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks $A$ and $B$ with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks $A$ and $B$ can asymptotically c...

  9. On the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers

    OpenAIRE

    Goriaev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates empirically and theoretically the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers. These two aspects are closely related to each other. Investors try to select funds that follow an optimal investment policy from their point of view, while fund managers are typically interested in maximizing net fund inflows. In the first part of the thesis, we analyze the determinants of mutual fund flows, concentrating on the impact of past performance on fund flows. In particular, we...

  10. Mutually shared team competence of professionals in early childhood intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Ališauskienė, Stefanija; Kairienė, Daiva

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on theoretical study as well as on written survey. The aim of theoretical analysis to present a theoretical model of the concept of the mutually shared team competence in an interprofessional team meeting early special needs of child and family and to find out presumptions of its development. The aim of survey is to reveal ECI professionals' reflections about competences necessary for teamwork. The mutually shared team competence is analysed on the basis of the teamwork p...

  11. Liquidity risk and the performance of UK mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Foran, Jason; O'Sullivan, Niall

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of liquidity risk, both as a stock characteristic as well as systematic liquidity risk, in UK mutual fund performance for the first time. Using four alternative measures of stock liquidity we extract principal components across stocks in order to construct systematic or market liquidity factors. We find that on average UK mutual funds are tilted towards liquid stocks (except for small stock funds as might be expected) but that, counter-intuitively, liquidity as a stock cha...

  12. Enhanced mutual capture of colored solitons by matched modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Eyal; Orenstein, Meir

    2004-08-01

    The mutual capture of two colored solitons is enhanced by a modulator, to a level which enables its practical exploitation, e.g., for a read- write mechanism in a soliton buffer. The enhanced capture was analyzed using closed form particle-like soliton perturbation, and verified by numerical simulations. Optimal modulator frequency and modulation depth are obtained. This mutual capture can be utilized for all-optical soliton logic and memory.

  13. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  14. On the Importance of Mutual Fund Families in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders; Pasternack, Daniel; Sandvall, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the mutual fund literature by looking at performance persistence on a fund family level, allowing for individual equity, bond and balanced funds to be included under single family umbrellas. The study is conducted on the emerging Finnish mutual fund market, an environment in which the importance of superior fund family teams is likely to be accentuated. Using both non–parametric and parametric tests we find robust evidence of performance persistence for the fund fami...

  15. The dance between companies and performing arts; corporate sponsorships of performing arts and its mutual benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Nazlıcan

    2011-01-01

    113 pages These days, it really does take two to tango. Have you ever thought about this saying in its literal meaning? When you do, you will find out that the saying has a very straight forward message. Without the other partner, the dance would not exist. Just like the dance between the major players of the Turkish Economy and the Independent Performing Arts sector, without the support of the Private Sector, the Independent Performing Arts sector would not exist in Turkey. Over the last ...

  16. Oklahoma Retailers’ Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health’s voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point of sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retaile...

  17. Recasting Education and Research Processes for Mutual Student/Faculty Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Joyce; Swenson, David

    1998-01-01

    Barriers to implementing market research in business classes can be eliminated by using the Internet. Advantages include speed, low cost, and potential for a wider target audience. Limitations include the need for computer skills and potential for biased samples. (SK)

  18. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may mutually benefit both obesity and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Kim, Youjin; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2013-07-01

    The overconsumption of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), resulting in a high ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA, may contribute to the increased pathogenesis of obesity and osteoporosis by promoting low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). As evidence suggests, both obesity and osteoporosis are linked on a cellular and systemic basis. This review will analyze if a relationship exists between LGCI, fat, bone, and n-3 PUFA. During the life cycle, inflammation increases, fat mass accumulates, and bone mass declines, thus suggesting that a connection exists. This review will begin by examining how the current American diet and dietary guidelines may fall short of providing an anti-inflammatory dose of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It will then define LGCI and outline the evidence for a relationship between fat and bone. Inflammation as it pertains to obesity and osteoporosis and how EPA and DHA can alleviate the associated inflammation will be discussed, followed by some preliminary evidence to show how mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage commitment may be altered by inflammation to favor adipogenesis. Our hypothesis is that n-3 PUFA positively influence obesity and osteoporosis by reducing LGCI, ultimately leading to a beneficial shift in MSC lineage commitment. This hypothesis essentially relates the need for more focused research in several areas such as determining age and lifestyle factors that promote the shift in MSC commitment and if current intakes of EPA and DHA are optimal for fat and bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBENSTEIN, MICHAEL; SAI, YING; CHUONG, CHENG-MING; SHEN, WEI-MIN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. “Self” here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering. PMID:19557691

  20. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Michael; Sai, Ying; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Shen, Wei-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. Self here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering.

  1. Balancing individual and organizational goals in global talent management : A mutual-benefits perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Pai, A.; Sparrow, P.; Scullion, H.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the talent management and global mobility literatures, there is simultaneous pressure to address both organizational goals to place talent internationally, and individual goals of self-initiated expatriation. This raises important questions for the future of global talent management

  2. Modelling nutritional mutualisms: challenges and opportunities for data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Teresa J; Friel, Colleen A; Grman, Emily; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Friesen, Maren L

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional mutualisms are ancient, widespread, and profoundly influential in biological communities and ecosystems. Although much is known about these interactions, comprehensive answers to fundamental questions, such as how resource availability and structured interactions influence mutualism persistence, are still lacking. Mathematical modelling of nutritional mutualisms has great potential to facilitate the search for comprehensive answers to these and other fundamental questions by connecting the physiological and genomic underpinnings of mutualisms with ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, when integrated with empirical data, models enable understanding of underlying mechanisms and generalisation of principles beyond the particulars of a given system. Here, we demonstrate how mathematical models can be integrated with data to address questions of mutualism persistence at four biological scales: cell, individual, population, and community. We highlight select studies where data has been or could be integrated with models to either inform model structure or test model predictions. We also point out opportunities to increase model rigour through tighter integration with data, and describe areas in which data is urgently needed. We focus on plant-microbe systems, for which a wealth of empirical data is available, but the principles and approaches can be generally applied to any nutritional mutualism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Mutual information against correlations in binary communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowska, Agnieszka; Szczepanski, Janusz; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-05-19

    Explaining how the brain processing is so fast remains an open problem (van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski T., 2004). Thus, the analysis of neural transmission (Shannon CE, Weaver W., 1963) processes basically focuses on searching for effective encoding and decoding schemes. According to the Shannon fundamental theorem, mutual information plays a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency of communication channels. It is well known that this efficiency is determined by the channel capacity that is already the maximal mutual information between input and output signals. On the other hand, intuitively speaking, when input and output signals are more correlated, the transmission should be more efficient. A natural question arises about the relation between mutual information and correlation. We analyze the relation between these quantities using the binary representation of signals, which is the most common approach taken in studying neuronal processes of the brain. We present binary communication channels for which mutual information and correlation coefficients behave differently both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite this difference in behavior, we show that the noncorrelation of binary signals implies their independence, in contrast to the case for general types of signals. Our research shows that the mutual information cannot be replaced by sheer correlations. Our results indicate that neuronal encoding has more complicated nature which cannot be captured by straightforward correlations between input and output signals once the mutual information takes into account the structure and patterns of the signals.

  4. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  5. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755

  6. Mutualism and adaptive divergence: co-invasion of a heterogeneous grassland by an exotic legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S Porter

    Full Text Available Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion.

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR FORMING MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL NETWORK INTERACTION BETWEEN SMALL CITIES AND DISTRICT CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to develop a methodology for networking between small towns and regional centres on the basis of developing areas of mutual benefit. It is important to assess the possibility of cooperation between small towns and regional centres and local selfgovernment bodies on the example of individual territorial entities of Russia in the context of the formation and strengthening of networks and support for territorial development. Methods Systemic and functional methodical approaches were taken. The modelling of socio-economic processes provides a visual representation of the direction of positive changes for small towns and regional centres of selected Subjects of the Russian Federation. Results Specific examples of cooperation between small towns and district centres are revealed in some areas; these include education, trade and public catering, tourist and recreational activities. The supporting role of subsystems, including management, regulatory activity, transport and logistics, is described. Schemes, by to which mutually beneficial network interaction is formed, are characterised in terms of the specific advantages accruing to each network subject. Economic benefits of realising interaction between small cities and regional centres are discussed. The methodology is based on assessing the access of cities to commutation, on which basis contemporary regional and city networks are formed. Conclusion On the basis of the conducted study, a list of areas for mutually beneficial networking between small towns and district centres has been identified, allowing the appropriate changes in regional economic policies to be effected in terms of programmes aimed at the development of regions and small towns, including those suffering from economic depression.

  8. A window into the transcriptomic basis of genotype-by-genotype interactions in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Corlett W; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-11-01

    The maintenance of genetic variation in the benefits provided by mutualists is an evolutionary puzzle (Heath & Stinchcombe, ). Over time, natural selection should favour the benefit strategy that confers the highest fitness, eroding genetic variation in partner quality. Yet abundant genetic variation in partner quality exists in many systems (Heath & Stinchcombe, ). One possible resolution to this puzzle is that the genetic identity of both a host and its partner affects the benefits each mutualist provides to the other, a pattern known as a genotype-by-genotype interaction (Figure ). Mounting evidence suggests that genotype-by-genotype interactions between partners are pervasive at the phenotypic level (Barrett, Zee, Bever, Miller, & Thrall, ; Heath, ; Hoeksema & Thompson, ). Ultimately, however, to link these phenotypic patterns to the maintenance of genetic variation in mutualisms we need to answer two questions: How much variation in mutualism phenotypes is attributable to genotype-by-genotype interactions, and what mutualistic functions are influenced by each partner and by the interaction between their genomes? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Burghardt et al. (2017) use transcriptomics to address both questions in the legume-rhizobia mutualism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.. We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  10. Persistence of pollination mutualisms in the presence of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wang, Shikun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers plant-pollinator-ant systems in which the plant-pollinator interaction is mutualistic but ants have both positive and negative effects on plants. The ants also interfere with pollinators by preventing them from accessing plants. While a Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) formula can describe the plant-pollinator interaction, the formula is extended in this paper to characterize the pollination mutualism under the ant interference. Then, a plant-pollinator-ant system with the extended BD functional response is discussed, and global dynamics of the model demonstrate the mechanisms by which pollination mutualism can persist in the presence of ants. When the ant interference is strong, it can result in extinction of pollinators. Moreover, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for survival, the strong interference could drive pollinators into extinction, which consequently lead to extinction of the ants themselves. When the ant interference is weak, a cooperation between plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms could occur, which promotes survival of both ants and pollinators, especially in the case that ants (respectively, pollinators) cannot survive in the absence of pollinators (respectively, ants). Even when the level of ant interference remains invariant, varying ants' negative effect on plants can result in survival/extinction of both ants and pollinators. Therefore, our results provide an explanation for the persistence of pollination mutualism when there exist ants.

  11. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  12. The Profile of a Polish Mutual Fund Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers. Design/methodology/approach - The study concentrates on a set of socio-demographic data, such as: age, gender, education, experience, and professional qualifications of 336 portfolio managers. The applied research strategy relies on an analysis concerning a set of statistical metrics describing the population under examination. Findings - The average Polish fund manager is a 37-year-old man, a holder of a stock-broker or investment adviser license. He obtained the authorization from the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF a few years after graduating from the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH. He has 11 years' experience in financial markets and 7 years' experience in the mutual fund industry. Research implications/limitations - The identification of managerial characteristics for the purpose of creating a profile of a Polish mutual fund manager will provide an important basis for further surveys and analyses aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mutual funds. Originality/value/contribution - There are no investigations within the discussed area in Polish studies. Therefore, the identification of the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers will make a contribution to the finance literature.(original abstract

  13. Relación entre potencia aeròbica y anaeròbica y el Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) en judocas masculinos iraníes de élite

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Hesari, A.; Mirzaei, B.; Mahdavi Ortakand, S.; Rabienejad, A.; Nikolaïdis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introducción El objetivo de estudio fue la evaluación de la relación entre las potencias aeróbica y anaeróbica, así como la prueba especial de aptitud física para el judo en los judokas masculinos de élite. Método Diecinueve judokas de élite—edad 24,3 (3,1) años, altura 1,78 (0,06) m, masa corporal 76,4 (11,2) kg, índice de masa corporal 20,2 (3,6) kg·m2 y grasa corporal 11,0 (1,8)%—realizaron una prueba de esfuerzo en cinta, la prueba anaeróbica de Wingate para brazos, y la p...

  14. apılan Sporun Karakteristiği Solunum Fonksiyonlarını Etkiler mi? Voleybol ve Judo Sporcularının Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba KOCAHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporcular yapılan spora bağlı olarak farklı fizyolojik adaptasyonlar geliştirirler. Solunum fonksiyonları da bu adaptasyonlardan etkilenir. Çalışmamızın amacı karakteristiği birbirinden oldukça farklı olan voleybol ve judo sporunun solunum fonksiyonları üzerindeki etkisini karşılaştırmaktır. Çalışmaya ortalama yaşı 15,50±1,08 yıl olan 12 erkek voleybol sporcusu ile ortalama yaşı 15,10±1.37 yıl olan 10 erkek judo sporcusu dahil edildi. Sporcuların solunum fonksiyonları spirometre ile test edildi. Sporcuların forced expiratory volume-zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV, forced expiratory volume in one second-bir saniyedeki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV1, forced vital capasity- zorlu vital kapasite (FVC, forced ekspiratuary volume-zorlu ekspiraturar volüm/ forced vital capasity-zorlu vital kapasite yüzdesi (FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow- tepe akım hızı (PEF, forced expiratory volume at %25- %25’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV25, forced expiratory volume at %50- %50’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV50, forced expiratory volume at %75- %75’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV75 değerleri kaydedildi ve SPSS istatistiksel analiz programı kullanılarak veriler karşılaştırıldı. Sporcuların yaşları arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır (p>0,05. Boy ve kilo değerleri arasında anlamlı bir fark mevcut olsa da söz konusu bu fark BKI (Beden Kitle İndeksi için geçerli değildir (p>0,05. Spirometrik değişkenlerden FEV1/FVC% haricindeki tüm değerler voleybol sporcularında daha yüksek belirlenmiştir ve iki grup arasındaki değişkenler arasındaki farkın tamamı anlamlılık düzeyine ulaşmıştır (p<0,05. Voleybol sporunda, judo sporuna kıyasla solunum sistemi üzerine düşen yükün daha fazla olması bu sporcuların solunum fonksiyonlarının judo sporcularından yüksek çıkmasına sebep olmuştur. Bu çalışma ile yapılan sporun karakteristiğinin solunum sistemi

  15. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Thermalization of mutual information in hyperscaling violating backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanhayi, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science,Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB),P.O. Box 14676-86831, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)165 to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description of entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We show that during the thermalization process, the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior of mutual information (e.g., at the pre-local-equilibration regime). It is shown that the scaling violating parameter can be employed to define an effective dimension.

  17. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs. Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  18. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  19. Anomalous behaviour of mutual information in finite flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.; Brown, J.; Bossomaier, T.

    2017-11-01

    The existing consensus is that flocks are poised at criticality, entailing long correlation lengths and a maximal value of Shannon mutual information in the large-system limit. We show, by contrast, that for finite flocks which do not truly break ergodicity in the long-observation-time limit, mutual information may not only fail to peak at criticality —as observed for other critical systems— but also diverge as noise tends to zero. This result carries implications for other finite-size, out-of-equilibrium systems, where observation times may vary widely compared to time scales of internal system dynamics; thus it may not be assumed that mutual information locates the phase transition.

  20. Impact of Competition on Mutual Fund Marketing Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Parida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I study the impact of market competition on mutual fund marketing expenses. In a sample of US domestic equity mutual funds, I find that marketing expenses decrease with the competition. This effect is stronger for top-performing funds. These results are counterintuitive, as one would ordinarily expect funds to incur more marketing expenses in response to pressure from competing funds. However, these results support the narrative that mutual funds employ marketing to draw attention to their performance in a tournament-like market, where the top-performing funds (the winners are rewarded with disproportionately high new investments. Higher competition decreases the chances of each fund to outperform the others and adversely affect their ability to attract new investments, and the funds respond by decreasing marketing expenses. Thus, competition appears to have implications for investor search cost.

  1. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  2. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ ABC is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I α (A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one

  3. UK equity mutual fund alphas make a comeback

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, Irina B.; Mateus, Cesario; Todorovic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we re-visit the performance of 887 active UK equity mutual funds using a new approach proposed by Angelidis, Giamouridis, and Tessaromatis. The authors argue that mutual funds stock selection is driven by the benchmark index, so if the benchmark generates alpha, there will be a bias in interpretation of manager's stock-picking ability. In their model, the alpha of a fund is adjusted by the benchmark's alpha. By applying this method, we eliminate bias inflicted by the persistent...

  4. Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yan Lin; Wang, Li Xia; Chen, Ming Ting

    2017-05-01

    China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  6. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual...... these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated...

  7. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  8. Evaluating Selection and Timing Ability of a Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and a case study to evaluate the performance of a mutual fund by taking a look at the timing and selection abilities of a portfolio manager. Separating the timing and selection abilities of the fund manager is taken into consideration by two major models. The data about the mutual fund chosen for study is the German blue chip fund “DWS Deutsche Aktien Typ O”, which includes most of the DAX 30 companies. The data consists of 117 monthly observations of the fund returns from January 1999 to September 2008. We used EViews to analyse the data.

  9. The Tradeoff Between Mutual Fund and Direct Stock Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Steininger, Bertram I.

    2014-01-01

    We study the tradeoff between direct and indirect stock investments through equity mutual funds for a utility-maximizing investor. Whereas direct investments impose higher transaction costs on the formation of a well-diversified portfolio, mutual funds charge fees for their services. Our results...... show that the fee levels that make private investors indifferent between direct and indirect stock investments vary heavily according to risk aversion, the amounts invested, correlations between assets, transaction costs, and the length of investment horizon. In particular, our results suggest...

  10. Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-end Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-end Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulut

    2008-01-01

    The important part of this study attempts to explain that both venture capital and interest-free financing are based on similar ground, if not the same. Two new models called Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-End Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-End Mutual Funds, based on both the similarities and the needs of financial innovation in the interest-free financing system, are detailed. It is believed that the development of these two models could make some improvements not only in th...

  11. A Mutually Beneficial Relationship: University of the Third Age and a regional university campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Ellis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A mutually beneficial relationship has developed over the past 15 years between a regional South Australian branch of the University of the Third Age (U3A and the local university campus. Arising from the initiative of a community member, the group sought assistance from the university, and has now become integrated into campus life. The university has provided a venue for meetings and access to other facilities, and university staff have contributed to the program of classes. The U3A has undoubtedly benefited from these inputs. However, the university has also benefited from these opportunities to engage with the wider community, the presence of willing volunteers to contribute in various ways to university classes and other activities, and favourable word-of-mouth marketing. Beginning with background information on U3A, the local branch and its setting, we reflect on the sustainability of this relationship with the university and the factors that have contributed to this. We draw on our U3A experience and on two qualitative research projects in which U3A members have taken part: projects which have investigated their motivation for participation in U3A classes and activities, and the contributions of U3A to the university and vice versa. Not only has the relationship itself been sustained thus far, it has also contributed to sustaining U3A members in their active involvement in learning and community activities, and has been a significant part of community engagement activities of the campus. Keywords University of the Third Age; university-community engagement; mutual benefit; lifelong learning; retirement; productive ageing

  12. Information content when mutual funds deviate from benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Jiang (Hao); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); Y. Wang (Yu)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The consensus wisdom of active mutual fund managers, as reflected in their average over-and underweighting decisions, contains valuable information about future stock returns. Analyzing a comprehensive sample of active U.S. equity funds from 1984 to 2008, we find that

  13. Mutual Funds as a Form of Collective Investment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershukova, Marina B.; Savinov, Oleg G.; Zhegalova, Elena V.; Zhuruhinc, Georgy I.; Zhegalova, Alexandra S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem inspired with the fact nowadays there is a need for theoretical generalization based on international experience the essence of the collective investment system and the rationale for prioritizing the mutual funds development as the most attractive form of collective investment. The goal of the article lies in…

  14. Spillover Effects of Marketing in Mutual Fund Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); J.J. Huij (Joop)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the presence of spillover effects of marketing in mutual fund families. We find that funds with high marketing expenses generate spillovers, and enhance cash inflows to family members with low marketing expenses. In particular, low-marketing funds that are

  15. High-Contention Mutual Exclusion by Elevator Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhr, Peter A.; Dice, Dave; Hesselink, Wim H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents new starvation-free hardware-assisted and software-only algorithms for the N-thread mutual-exclusion problem. The hardware-assisted versions use a single atomic-CAS instruction and no fences. The software-only algorithms simulate the CAS instruction using a variation of

  16. Front-running of Mutual Fund Fire-sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakov, T.C.; Verbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that a real-time trading strategy which front-runs the anticipated forced sales by mutual funds experiencing extreme capital outflows generates an alpha of 0.5% per month during the 1990-2010 period. The abnormal return stems from selling pressure among stocks that are below the NYSE mean

  17. Application of Joint Error Maximal Mutual Compensation to hexapod robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veryha, Yauheni; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2008-01-01

    A good practice to ensure high-positioning accuracy in industrial robots is to use joint error maximum mutual compensation (JEMMC). This paper presents an application of JEMMC for positioning of hexapod robots to improve end-effector positioning accuracy. We developed an algorithm and simulation ...

  18. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter. SAPTARSHI MANDAL. Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,. 2A&2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India. E-mail: mandal.saptarshi1@gmail.com. MS received 7 September 2012; revised ...

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  20. Dynamics of chaotic oscillations in mutually coupled microchip lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, A; Kinugawa, S; Yoshimori, S

    2003-01-01

    We have numerically and experimentally investigated the dynamics of mutually coupled microchip lasers. Chaotic oscillations are observed in the vicinity of the boundary of the injection-locking range when the coupling strength and the difference of the optical frequencies are varied. Synchronization of chaos is always achieved under the condition to generate chaos.

  1. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  2. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  3. Market Timing : A Decomposition of Mutual Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, L.A.P.; van der Sluis, P.J.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in ve parts.Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well.The dynamic model that we use to estimate the relative

  4. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  5. Investor Attrition and Fund Flows in Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Xu, Haoyu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the properties of equity mutual funds that experience a loss of assets after poor performance. We document that both inflows and outflows are less sensitive to performance, because performance-sensitive investors leave or decide not to invest after bad performance. Consistent with the ...

  6. 77 FR 48566 - The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30164; File No. 812-14024] The Hartford Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application August 8, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of an application under section 6(c) of the Investment...

  7. Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Drainage Modeling Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM output to its input parameters. A global parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to determine which parameters mostly affect the model simulation results. Two different methods of sensitivity analysis are applied in this study. The first one is the partial rank correlation coefficient (PRCC which measures nonlinear but monotonic relationships between model inputs and outputs. The second one is based on the mutual information which provides a general measure of the strength of the non-monotonic association between two variables. Both methods are based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS of the parameter space, and thus the same datasets can be used to obtain both measures of sensitivity. The utility of the PRCC and the mutual information analysis methods are illustrated by analyzing a complex SWMM model. The sensitivity analysis revealed that only a few key input variables are contributing significantly to the model outputs; PRCCs and mutual information are calculated and used to determine and rank the importance of these key parameters. This study shows that the partial rank correlation coefficient and mutual information analysis can be considered effective methods for assessing the sensitivity of the SWMM model to the uncertainty in its input parameters.

  8. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political Economy of Development and ... that will help us understand this turbulent and chaotic period in human history. ... The Rapid Research Fund (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  9. Reducing Interpolation Artifacts for Mutual Information Based Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, H.; Khosravifard, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Medical image registration methods which use mutual information as similarity measure have been improved in recent decades. Mutual Information is a basic concept of Information theory which indicates the dependency of two random variables (or two images). In order to evaluate the mutual information of two images their joint probability distribution is required. Several interpolation methods, such as Partial Volume (PV) and bilinear, are used to estimate joint probability distribution. Both of these two methods yield some artifacts on mutual information function. Partial Volume-Hanning window (PVH) and Generalized Partial Volume (GPV) methods are introduced to remove such artifacts. In this paper we show that the acceptable performance of these methods is not due to their kernel function. It's because of the number of pixels which incorporate in interpolation. Since using more pixels requires more complex and time consuming interpolation process, we propose a new interpolation method which uses only four pixels (the same as PV and bilinear interpolations) and removes most of the artifacts. Experimental results of the registration of Computed Tomography (CT) images show superiority of the proposed scheme. PMID:22606673

  10. Collision detection and prediction using a mutual configuration state approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert L.; Weiss, N.; Jesse, N.; Reusch, B.

    A configuration state approach is presented that simplifies the mutual collision analysis of objects with known shapes that move along known paths. Accurate and fast prediction of contact situations in games such as robot soccer enables improved anticipatory and corrective actions of the state

  11. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  12. On the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates empirically and theoretically the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers. These two aspects are closely related to each other. Investors try to select funds that follow an optimal investment policy from their point of view, while fund managers are typically

  13. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  14. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon adoption...

  15. Mutual recognition and the right to damages for criminal investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how the citizen who has been surrendered on an EAW in a case ending with acquittal or non-prosecution may achieve compensation for the loss of freedom and the surrender to another Member State. The analysis shows how the EAW and the principle of mutual recognition have been...

  16. Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB

  17. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero Carretero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  18. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory: On Perspectives, Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory’s approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives–mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  19. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory:On Perspectives,Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory's approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives—mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  20. Sarcocystosis of chital-dhole: conditions for evolutionary stability of a predator parasite mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with a predator-prey life cycle, the completion of the life cycle often depends on consumption of parasitized prey by the predator. In the case of such parasite species the predator and the parasite have common interests and therefore a mutualistic relationship is possible. Some evidence of a predator-parasite mutualism was reported from spotted deer or chital (Axix axis as a prey species, dhole or Indian wild-dog (Cuon alpinus as the predator and a protozoan (Sarcocystis axicuonis as the parasite. We examine here, with the help of a model, the ecological conditions necessary for the evolution and stability of such a mutualistic relationship. A two – level game theory model was designed in which the payoff of a parasite is decided not only by alternative parasite strategies but also by alternative host strategies and vice versa. Conditions for ESS were examined. Results A tolerant predator strategy and a low or moderately virulent parasite strategy which together constitute mutualism are stable only at a high frequency of recycling of parasite and a substantial prey – capture benefit to the predator. Unlike the preliminary expectation, parasite will not evolve towards reduced virulence, but reach an optimum moderate level of virulence. Conclusion The available data on the behavioral ecology of dhole and chital suggest that they are likely to meet the stability criteria and therefore a predator-parasite mutualism can be stable in this system. The model also points out the gaps in the current data and could help directing further empirical work.

  1. An Evaluation of the Outcomes of Mutual Health Organizations in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Ridde, Valery; Yacoubou, Ismaelou; Mák, Geneviève; Gbetié, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been seen as a promising alternative to the fee-based funding model but scientific foundations to support their generalization are still limited. Very little is known about the extent of the impact of MHOs on health-seeking behaviours, quality and costs. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of an evaluation of the effects attributable to membership in an MHO in a rural region of Benin. Two prospective studies of users (parturients and hospitalized patients) were conducted on the territory of an inter-mutual consisting of 10 MHOs and as many healthcare centres (one, Ouessé, serving as a referral hospital) and one hospital (Papané). Members and non-members were matched (142 pairs of parturients and 109 triads of hospitalized patients) and multilevel multiple regression was used. Results show that member parturients went to healthcare centres sooner (p = 0.049) and were discharged more quickly after delivery (p = 0.001) than non-members. Length of stay in some cases was longer for hospitalized member parturients (+41%). Being a member did not shorten hospital stay, total length of episode of care, or time between appearance of symptoms and recourse to care. Regarding expenses, member parturients paid one-third less than non-members for a delivery. For hospitalized patients, the average savings for members was around $35 US. Total expenses incurred by patients hospitalized at Papané Hospital were higher than at Ouessé but the two hospitals’ relative advantages were comparable at −36% and −39%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance These results confirm mutual health organizations’ capacity to protect households financially, even if benefits for the poor have not been clearly determined. The search for scientific evidence should continue, to understand their impacts with regard to services obtained by their members. PMID:23077556

  2. An evaluation of the outcomes of mutual health organizations in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Haddad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutual health organizations (MHO have been seen as a promising alternative to the fee-based funding model but scientific foundations to support their generalization are still limited. Very little is known about the extent of the impact of MHOs on health-seeking behaviours, quality and costs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the results of an evaluation of the effects attributable to membership in an MHO in a rural region of Benin. Two prospective studies of users (parturients and hospitalized patients were conducted on the territory of an inter-mutual consisting of 10 MHOs and as many healthcare centres (one, Ouessé, serving as a referral hospital and one hospital (Papané. Members and non-members were matched (142 pairs of parturients and 109 triads of hospitalized patients and multilevel multiple regression was used. Results show that member parturients went to healthcare centres sooner (p = 0.049 and were discharged more quickly after delivery (p = 0.001 than non-members. Length of stay in some cases was longer for hospitalized member parturients (+41%. Being a member did not shorten hospital stay, total length of episode of care, or time between appearance of symptoms and recourse to care. Regarding expenses, member parturients paid one-third less than non-members for a delivery. For hospitalized patients, the average savings for members was around $35 US. Total expenses incurred by patients hospitalized at Papané Hospital were higher than at Ouessé but the two hospitals' relative advantages were comparable at -36% and -39%, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm mutual health organizations' capacity to protect households financially, even if benefits for the poor have not been clearly determined. The search for scientific evidence should continue, to understand their impacts with regard to services obtained by their members.

  3. Dynamics of a macroscopic model characterizing mutualism of search engines and web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong

    2006-05-01

    We present a model to describe the mutualism relationship between search engines and web sites. In the model, search engines and web sites benefit from each other while the search engines are derived products of the web sites and cannot survive independently. Our goal is to show strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. From mathematical analysis of the model, we show that mutualism does not always result in survival. We show various conditions under which the search engines would tend to extinction, persist or grow explosively. Then by the conditions, we deduce a series of strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. We present conditions under which the initial number of consumers of the search engines has little contribution to their persistence, which is in agreement with the results in previous works. Furthermore, we show novel conditions under which the initial value plays an important role in the persistence of the search engines and deduce new strategies. We also give suggestions for the web sites to cooperate with the search engines in order to form a win-win situation.

  4. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  5. A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE ON MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE AND EXTRADITION IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch Watney

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the modalities of mutual legal assistance and extradition from a South African perspective. The question is posed whether South Africa has succeeded to establish the required framework as a fully fledged member of the international community to make a positive contribution in the fields of mutual legal assistance and extradition subsequent to its international political isolation during the apartheid era. Although the international community derives substantial benefit from a borderless global world, it has as a result also to deal with the negative impact of globalization on international crime. Physical and/or electronic crimes are increasingly committed across borders and may be described as borderless, but law enforcement (combating, investigation and prosecution of crime is still very much confined to the borders of a state. Criminal networks have taken advantage of the opportunities resulting from the dramatic changes in world politics, business, technology, communications and the explosion in international travel and effectively utilize these opportunities to avoid and hamper law enforcement investigations. As a sovereign state has control over its own territory it also implies that states should not interfere with each other’s domestic affairs. The correct and acceptable procedure would be for a state (requesting state to apply to another state (requested state for co-operation in the form of mutual legal assistance regarding the gathering of evidence and/or extradition of the perpetrator. Co-operation between states are governed by public international law between the requesting and requested state and the domestic law of the requested state. The South African legislature has increasingly provided for extraterritorial jurisdiction of South African courts in respect of organized crime and terrorism. It does however appear that existing criminal justice responses are experiencing challenges to meet the

  6. Mutual punishment promotes cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-01-01

    Punishment has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. In previous studies, punishment is unidirectional: an individual i can punish j but j cannot punish i. In this paper, we propose a mechanism of mutual punishment, in which the two individuals will punish each other if their strategies are different. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might expect intuitively the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that the mutual punishment can promote cooperation in the spatial public goods game. Other pertinent quantities such as the time evolution of cooperator density and the spatial distribution of cooperators and defectors are also investigated

  7. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  8. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  9. Mutual information as an order parameter for quantum synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, V.; Eghbali-Arani, M.; Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Kheirandish, F.; Giovannetti, V.; Fazio, R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon, important in many theoretical studies and applications. Recently, this effect has been analyzed and observed in a number of physical systems close to the quantum-mechanical regime. In this work we propose mutual information as a useful order parameter which can capture the emergence of synchronization in very different contexts, ranging from semiclassical to intrinsically quantum-mechanical systems. Specifically, we first study the synchronization of two coupled Van der Pol oscillators in both classical and quantum regimes and later we consider the synchronization of two qubits inside two coupled optical cavities. In all these contexts, we find that mutual information can be used as an appropriate figure of merit for determining the synchronization phases independently of the specific details of the system.

  10. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  11. Spatially resolved detection of mutually locked Josephson junctions in arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, M.; Doderer, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Traeuble, T.; Dolata, R.; Weimann, T.; Niemeyer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Mutual locking due to the internal coupling in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions was investigated. The appearance of Shapiro steps in the current versus voltage curve of a coupled on-chip detector junction is used to indicate coherent oscillations in the array. A highly coherent state is observed for some range of the array bias current. By scanning the array with a low-power electron beam, mutually locked junctions remain locked while the unlocked junctions generate a beam-induced additional voltage drop at the array. This imaging technique allows the detection of the nonlocked or weakly locked Josephson junctions in a (partially) locked array state. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Valada, Teresa I.C.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Azevedo, Eduarda E.F.G.; Azevedo, Maria L.G.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm −3 . The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

  13. Does the third mutual friction coefficient B'' exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, P.; Placais, B.; Simon, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Precise measurements of the attenuation of a second-sound wave propagation axially in rotating He II at first sight suggest that the third mutual-friction coefficient B'' has a non-zero value (B'' = 0.021 at 1.9 K). But the observation of metastable states associated with various levels of attenuation is not reconcilable with the semi-classical model of the vortex line [fr

  14. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document [es

  15. Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, which was signed on 17 October 1963 by the Director General and by representatives of the Governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Article IX will be notified to Members in an Addendum to this document

  16. The Persistence of Risk-Adjusted Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, Edwin J; Gruber, Martin J; Blake, Christopher R

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine predictability for stock mutual funds using risk-adjusted returns. They find that past performance is predictive of future risk-adjusted performance. Applying modern portfolio theory techniques to past data improves selection and allows the authors to construct a portfolio of funds that significantly outperforms a rule based on past rank alone. In addition, they can form a combination of actively managed portfolios with the same risk as a portfolio of index funds but with ...

  17. Geometric Performance Analysis of Mutual Exclusion: The Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Marc

    1990-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to better understand parallel program run-time behavior. The paper first formally describes a general model of program execution based on Djkstra's progress graphs. The paper then defines a special case of the model representing two cyclic processes sharing mutually exclusive, reusable resources. Processes synchronize through semaphore operations that are not embedded in conditionally executed code segments. Model parameters are the times at which each ...

  18. Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...

  19. La Crema: A case study of mutual fire insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Cabrales; Antoni Calvó; Matthew O. Jackson

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a mutual fire insurance mechanism used in Andorra, which is called La Crema in the local language. This mechanism relies on households' announced property values to determine how much a household is reimbursed in the case of a fire and how payments are apportioned among other households. The only Pareto-efficient al- location reachable through the mechanism requires that all house- holds honestly report the true value of their property. However, such honest reporting is not an equi...

  20. Information properties of a hologram of mutually conjugate waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubanov, A.S.; Serebryakova, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical study of information properties of a correlation response to a fragment of an image of a thin referenceless hologram of mutually conjugate waves that is recorded with a phase-conjugating (PC) mirror is reported. It is shown that this hologram reconstructs a full image in reflected light and can be used as an associative storage device and as a selective PC mirror. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. The performance of mutual funds : evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Parlak, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In academic world much controversy exists regarding the performance of pension and mutual funds. Some studies have concluded that actively managed funds on average, underperform their passively managed counterparts whereas other studies have shown just the reverse. Another important debate centers on the persistence of under- and over-performance of portfolios. Still evidence from emerging markets which are characterized by high volatility in terms of terms of stock returns is scarce. Hence t...

  2. Mandatory portfolio disclosure, stock liquidity, and mutual fund performance

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vikas; Mullally, Kevin Andrew; Tang, Yuehua; Yang, Baozhong

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of mandatory portfolio disclosure by mutual funds on stock liquidity and fund performance. We develop a model of informed trading with disclosure and test its predictions using the SEC regulation in May 2004 requiring more frequent disclosure. Stocks with higher fund ownership, especially those held by more informed funds or subject to greater information asymmetry, experience larger increases in liquidity after the regulation change. More informed funds, especially thos...

  3. Mutually Exclusive CBC-Containing Complexes Contribute to RNA Fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacometti, Simone; Benbahouche, Nour El Houda; Domanski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) stimulates processing reactions of capped RNAs, including their splicing, 3′-end formation, degradation, and transport. CBC effects are particular for individual RNA families, but how such selectivity is achieved remains elusive. Here, we analyze three main CBC......-containing complexes are short lived in vivo, and we therefore suggest that RNA fate involves the transient formation of mutually exclusive CBC complexes, which may only be consequential at particular checkpoints during RNA biogenesis....

  4. Exometabolomics Assisted Design and Validation of Synthetic Obligate Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosina, Suzanne M; Danielewicz, Megan A; Mohammed, Mujahid; Ray, Jayashree; Suh, Yumi; Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Northen, Trent R

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic microbial ecology has the potential to enhance the productivity and resiliency of biotechnology processes compared to approaches using single isolates. Engineering microbial consortia is challenging; however, one approach that has attracted significant attention is the creation of synthetic obligate mutualism using auxotrophic mutants that depend on each other for exchange or cross-feeding of metabolites. Here, we describe the integration of mutant library fitness profiling with mass spectrometry based exometabolomics as a method for constructing synthetic mutualism based on cross-feeding. Two industrially important species lacking known ecological interactions, Zymomonas mobilis and Escherichia coli, were selected as the test species. Amino acid exometabolites identified in the spent medium of Z. mobilis were used to select three corresponding E. coli auxotrophs (proA, pheA and IlvA), as potential E. coli counterparts for the coculture. A pooled mutant fitness assay with a Z. mobilis transposon mutant library was used to identify mutants with improved growth in the presence of E. coli. An auxotroph mutant in a gene (ZMO0748) with sequence similarity to cysteine synthase A (cysK), was selected as the Z. mobilis counterpart for the coculture. Exometabolomic analysis of spent E. coli medium identified glutathione related metabolites as potentially available for rescue of the Z. mobilis cysteine synthase mutant. Three sets of cocultures between the Z. mobilis auxotroph and each of the three E. coli auxotrophs were monitored by optical density for growth and analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm high cell counts for each species. Taken together, our methods provide a technological framework for creating synthetic mutualisms combining existing screening based methods and exometabolomics for both the selection of obligate mutualism partners and elucidation of metabolites involved in auxotroph rescue.

  5. Training benefits from NSSS owners group participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, R.C.; Jones, J.E.; Ruzich, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though the event at Three Mile Island was a bleak moment in the history of nuclear power, many advances in the nuclear industry have evolved as a result. One such advancement involves the establishment of NSSS Vendor Owners Groups. These groups were organized on a voluntary basis with nearly all utilities participating. The main purpose was to achieve mutual benefit, both technical and financial, through joint engineering and plant operation programs. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Owners Group, which is commonly referred to as the WOG, and how it has benefited and could further benefit utility training. The paper consists of three sections. The first section provides an overview of the WOG structure and how it functions. The second section focuses on the major accomplishments of the WOG with emphasis on the development of the Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs). The third section provides some recommendations as to how utility training departments can better utilize their owners groups

  6. Mutual understanding: a communication model for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantho, Arne; Jensen, Lena; Malterud, Kirsti

    2002-12-01

    To present our pursuits towards development of a simple model for clinical communication intended for application by the practitioner as a tool for enhancing mutual understanding. Inspired by theories about patient-centredness and interactive modes of understanding, and supported by the perspectives of the Danish philosopher Niels Thomassen, we reviewed audiotapes from our own consultations. Recognising four dimensions assumed to be essential for mutual understanding in the transcripts, we explored these dimensions further. We present a communication model consisting of the following dimensions: The Framework, within which the communication takes place; The Subject, about which the communication takes place; The Persons, between whom the communication takes place; and The Action, verbally and non-verbally, through which communication takes place. We describe these dimensions in detail. The nature of the dimensions indicates that there is an interrelationship between them, implying that the character of the communication may change if one of the factors is changed. Analysis of an ongoing or recent consultation completed in accordance with these four dimensions allows the doctor to refocus the communication, thus leading to a more extensive mutual understanding and perhaps enhanced freedom of action.

  7. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  8. Mutual fund performance: A synthesis of taxonomic and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Badrinath

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of mutual funds and discusses the relative importance of these fund types. While most academic research focuses on US equity funds, we provide results for many more asset classes with this taxonomy—fixed income, balanced, global, International, sector, market-neutral and long-short funds. For each, we start by reporting statistics on the number of funds and their total net asset values at different intervals over the last four decades. We then identify short and long-term patterns in annual returns to mutual funds. We study the cross-sectional and time-series properties of the distribution of investor flows into different types of mutual funds, describe the relationship between flows and performance and discuss its implications for the strategic behaviour of managers and investors. We estimate and interpret fund performance alphas using both the single-factor and four-factor Fama-French models for each taxonomy type. Finally we describe the state of academic research on portfolio performance evaluation tilted towards an applied audience.

  9. Link overlap, viability, and mutual percolation in multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems are best modeled by multiplex networks. The multiplexity has proved to have broad impact on the system’s structure and function. Most theoretical studies on multiplex networks to date, however, have largely ignored the effect of the link overlap across layers despite strong empirical evidences for its significance. In this article, we investigate the effect of the link overlap in the viability of multiplex networks, both analytically and numerically. After a short recap of the original multiplex viability study, the distinctive role of overlapping links in viability and mutual connectivity is emphasized and exploited for setting up a proper analytic framework. A rich phase diagram for viability is obtained and greatly diversified patterns of hysteretic behavior in viability are observed in the presence of link overlap. Mutual percolation with link overlap is revisited as a limit of multiplex viability problem, and the controversy between existing results is clarified. The distinctive role of overlapping links is further demonstrated by the different responses of networks under random removals of overlapping and non-overlapping links, respectively, as well as under several link-removal strategies. Our results show that the link overlap facilitates the viability and mutual percolation; at the same time, the presence of link overlap poses a challenge in analytical approaches to the problem

  10. Yucca aloifolia (Asparagaceae) opts out of an obligate pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Jeremy D; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2014-12-01

    • According to Cope's 'law of the unspecialized' highly dependent species interactions are 'evolutionary dead ends,' prone to extinction because reversion to more generalist interactions is thought to be unlikely. Cases of extreme specialization, such as those seen between obligate mutualists, are cast as evolutionarily inescapable, inevitably leading to extinction rather than diversification of participating species. The pollination mutualism between Yucca plants and yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula) would seem to be locked into such an obligate mutualism. Yucca aloifolia populations, however, can produce large numbers of fruit lacking moth oviposition scars. Here, we investigate the pollination ecology of Y. aloifolia, in search of the non-moth pollination of a Yucca species.• We perform pollinator exclusion studies on Yucca aloifolia and a sympatric yucca species, Y. filamentosa. We then perform postvisit exclusion treatments, an analysis of dissected fruits, and a fluorescent dye transfer experiment.• As expected, Yucca filamentosa plants set fruit only when inflorescences were exposed to crepuscular and nocturnal pollinating yucca moths. In contrast, good fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded from Y. aloifolia inflorescences from dusk to dawn, and no fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded during the day. Follow up experiments indicated that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were passively yet effectively pollinating Y. aloifolia flowers.• These results indicate that even highly specialized mutualisms may not be entirely obligate interactions or evolutionary dead ends. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  13. Financial Crisis and Corporate Social Responsible Mutual Fund Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Parida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate investment flows into mutual funds that hold more high corporate social responsible stocks (top CSR funds vs. mutual funds that hold more low corporate social responsible stocks (bottom CSR funds. Using a large sample of equity mutual funds spanning 2003–2012, we find that top CSR funds on average receive about 5% less investment per annum compared to the other funds; whereas bottom CSR funds receive about 5.6% more investments. These relative negative and positive flows into the top and bottom CSR funds respectively were larger during the pre-financial crisis period (2003–2007. This trend, however, reversed during the financial crisis (2008–2009. Top CSR funds attracted about 8.7% more investments during the financial crisis compared to the pre-crisis period; whereas bottom CSR funds received about 9.8% less investment. This higher investment into the top CSR funds during the crisis seems to have disappeared during the post-crisis period (2009–2012. Additional analysis shows that the corporate social ratings of top CSR funds improved through the crisis, whereas it deteriorated for the bottom CSR funds. Our findings are consistent with the “flight to quality” phenomenon observed in financial markets during market crises, indicating that investors perceive top CSR fund investments as relatively safe or of higher quality and hence, invest more in them during financial crises.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Risk, Return and Diversification of Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Funds have become a widely popular and effective way for investors to participate in financial markets in an easy, low-cost fashion, while muting risk characteristics by spreading the investment across different types of securities, also known as diversification. It can play a central role in an individual's investment strategy. With the plethora of schemes available in the Indian markets, an investors needs to evaluate and consider various factors before making an investment decision. The present investigation is aimed to examine the performance of safest investment instrument in the security market in the eyes of investors. Five mutual fund large cap scheme have been selected for this purpose. The examination is achieved by assessing various financial tests like Sharpe Ratio, Standard Deviation, Alpha, and Beta. Furthermore, in-depth analysis also has been done by considering return over the period of last five years on various basis, expenses ratio, corpus-size etc. The data has been taken from various websites of mutual fund schemes and from www.valueresearch.com. The study will be helpful for the researchers and financial analysts to analyze various securities or funds while selecting the best investment alternative out of the galaxy of investment alternatives.

  15. 77 FR 25349 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...

  16. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafu, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...

  17. Ambiguity Towards Multiple Historical Performance Information Signals: Evidence From Indonesian Open-Ended Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Haris Pratama Loeis; Ruslan Prijadi

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the behavior of open-ended mutual fund investors when encountered with multiple information signals of mutual fund’s historical performance. The behavior of investors can be reflected on their decision to subscribe or redeem their funds from mutual funds. Moreover, we observe the presence of ambiguity within investors due to multiple information signals, and also their reaction towards it. Our finding shows that open-ended mutual fund investors do not only have sen...

  18. Why mutual helping in most natural systems is neither conflict-free nor based on maximal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshary, Redouan; Zuberbühler, Klaus; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-02-05

    Mutual helping for direct benefits can be explained by various game theoretical models, which differ mainly in terms of the underlying conflict of interest between two partners. Conflict is minimal if helping is self-serving and the partner benefits as a by-product. In contrast, conflict is maximal if partners are in a prisoner's dilemma with both having the pay-off-dominant option of not returning the other's investment. Here, we provide evolutionary and ecological arguments for why these two extremes are often unstable under natural conditions and propose that interactions with intermediate levels of conflict are frequent evolutionary endpoints. We argue that by-product helping is prone to becoming an asymmetric investment game since even small variation in by-product benefits will lead to the evolution of partner choice, leading to investments by the chosen class. Second, iterated prisoner's dilemmas tend to take place in stable social groups where the fitness of partners is interdependent, with the effect that a certain level of helping is self-serving. In sum, intermediate levels of mutual helping are expected in nature, while efficient partner monitoring may allow reaching higher levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Research on the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, D., VI; Xu, J.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river, cascaded hydropower stations development in which attracts the attention of downstream countries. In this paper, we proposed a coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation to relieve the conflict of upstream and downstream countries. Firstly, analyze the benefits and risks caused by the cascaded hydropower stations development and the evolution process of water resources use conflict between upstream and downstream countries. Secondly, evaluate the benefits and risks of flood control, water supply, navigation and power generation based on the energy theory of cascaded hydropower stations development in Lancang-Mekong River. Thirdly, multi-agent cooperation motivation and cooperation conditions between upstream and downstream countries in Lancang-Mekong River is given. Finally, the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River is presented. This coordination framework for water resources utilization can increase comprehensive benefits in Lancang-Mekong River.

  20. Decreasing water availability across the globe improves the effectiveness of protective ant-plant mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Peixoto, Paulo E C

    2017-08-01

    Abiotic conditions can increase the costs of services and/or the benefits of rewards provided by mutualistic partners. Consequently, in some situations, the outcome of mutualisms can move from beneficial to detrimental for at least one partner. In the case of protective mutualisms between ant bodyguards and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), plants from arid environments face a trade-off between EFN production and maintenance and water and carbon economy. This trade-off may increase EFN costs and decrease their value as a defensive strategy to plants in such environments. Despite this, the presence of EFNs is an ubiquitous trait in plants from arid environments, suggesting that they provide greater benefits to plants in these environments to compensate for their higher costs. We used a meta-analysis to investigate if such benefits do increase with decreasing water availability and the possible underlying causes (such as ant behaviour or ant diversity). As predicted, ant effect on EFN plants performance increased as mean annual precipitation decreased. We also found that the frequency of dominant ants on EFN plants increased in drier areas. Due to the more aggressive behaviour of dominant ants, we suggest that they represent an important factor shaping the adaptive value of EFNs to plants in arid environments. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. 26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual savings banks, building and loan... § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. (a) While the... deduction provided in section 172, any taxable year for which a mutual savings bank, building and loan...

  2. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  3. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

  4. Relação entre técnicas e lesões em praticantes de judô Relación entre las técnicas y lesiones en los practicantes del judo Relationship between techniques and injuries among judo practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barsottini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Criado em 1882, o judô, arte marcial caracterizada por um grande número de técnicas e bases filosóficas, tem sido apontado por vários estudos como um dos esportes que apresenta os maiores números em ocorrências de lesões. Entretanto, existe uma carência para levantamentos detalhados de modo a possibilitar uma correlação causal entre aspectos técnicos e o panorama percentual das lesões encontradas. A amostra, constituída de 78 relatos de casos, foi obtida através da aplicação de questionário fechado, em 46 atletas do sexo masculino, com idade média de 23 ± 10 anos, e em 32 atletas do sexo feminino com idade média de 19 ± 7 anos. O tempo de prática dos atletas do sexo masculino foi de 9 ± 6 anos, sendo a graduação distribuída entre 20% com faixa preta, 50% com faixa marrom e 30% com graduação inferior à marrom. As atletas apresentaram tempo médio de prática de 5 ± 3 anos, sendo 9% com faixa preta, 25% com faixa marrom e 66% com graduação inferior. Através da aplicação de um questionário, observou-se que as lesões ocorreram com prevalência de 23% em articulação do joelho, seguido de 16% para ombro, 22% em dedos de mãos e pés; as demais ocorrências totalizaram 39%. Encontraram-se 10% de lesões leves, 9% moderadas e 63% de ocorrências graves. A relação de ocorrência de lesões em treino atingiu 71% dos casos; 42% desse total ocorreram quando existiu a participação de um adversário mais pesado. Os golpes mais freqüentes que ocasionaram lesões foram o Ippon seoi Nague, com 23%, o Tai otoshi com 22% e o Uchi mata com 9%.Creado en 1882, el judo, un arte marcial caracterizado por un gran número de técnicas y bases filosóficas, ha sido apuntada por varios estudios como uno de los deportes que presentan un número más grande en la aparición de lesiones. Sin embargo, existe una carencia para los levantamientos detallados de la manera de hacer posible una correlación causal entre los aspectos t

  5. A ingestão de cafeína não melhora o desempenho de atletas de judô The intake of caffeine does not improve the performance of judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Adriano Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos ergogênicos da ingestão de cafeína, sobre o desempenho motor de atletas de judô feminino. Participaram do estudo 13 atletas do sexo feminino (17,6 ± 1,6 anos, 58,3 ± 11,4 kg, 162 ± 4,1 cm, 22,5 ± 4 kg/m², vinculadas à Federação Paranaense de Judô, por pelo menos dois anos. O desempenho motor foi avaliado mediante a utilização do Special Judô Fitness Test (SJFT, a partir do qual foi analisado o número de arremessos em cada bloco, número total de arremessos, frequência cardíaca (FC final e de recuperação e o índice no SJFT. Os sujeitos foram testados em duas condições, após ingestão de cafeína (6 mg.kg-1 ou placebo (dextrose 60 minutos antes dos testes, em um delineamento duplo-cego, cruzado. O número de arremessos em cada bloco não diferiu entre as condições cafeína (CAF e placebo (PL (Bloco A: 4,53 ± 0,51 CAF e 4,46 ± 0,51 PL; Bloco B: 8,3 ± 0,63 CAF e 8,23 ± 0,72 PL; Bloco C: 7,23 ± 0,59 CAF e 7,46 ± 0,77 PL, bem como o número total de arremessos (20,07 ± 1,18 CAF e 20,15 ± 1,67 PL, FC (Final: 190,3 ± 9,63 bpm CAF e 190,69 ± 9,19 bpm PL; Recuperação: 162,07 ± 13,78 bpm CAF e 164,3 ± 9,64 bpm PL e índice no SJFT (17,59 ± 1,4 CAF e 17,75 ± 1,98 PL. A ingestão de cafeína não melhorou o desempenho durante atividade de alta intensidade e curta duração em lutadores de judô.The objective of this study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of caffeine on motor performance of judo female athletes. Thirteen female athletes (17.6 ± 1.6 years, 58.3 ± 11.4 kg, 162 ± 4.1 cm, 22.5 ± 4 kg/m², registered in the State Federation of Judo for at least two years, participated in this study. The motor performance was assessed using the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT, from which was considered the number of throws in each block, the total number of throws, recovery and final heart rate (HR and final score in SJFT. The subjects were tested in two

  6. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  7. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  8. Characterization of actinobacteria associated with three ant-plant mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshew, Alissa S; McDonald, Bradon R; Díaz Díaz, Carol; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms are conspicuous and ecologically important components of tropical ecosystems that remain largely unexplored in terms of insect-associated microbial communities. Recent work has revealed that ants in some ant-plant systems cultivate fungi (Chaetothyriales) within their domatia, which are fed to larvae. Using Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. from French Guiana and Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana and Crematogaster margaritae/Keetia hispida, both from Cameroon, as models, we tested the hypothesis that ant-plant-fungus mutualisms co-occur with culturable Actinobacteria. Using selective media, we isolated 861 putative Actinobacteria from the three systems. All C. margaritae/K. hispida samples had culturable Actinobacteria with a mean of 10.0 colony forming units (CFUs) per sample, while 26 % of P. penetrator/Tachigali samples (mean CFUs 1.3) and 67 % of P. phylax/L. africana samples (mean CFUs 3.6) yielded Actinobacteria. The largest number of CFUs was obtained from P. penetrator workers, P. phylax alates, and C. margaritae pupae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of four main clades of Streptomyces and one clade of Nocardioides within these three ant-plant mutualisms. Streptomyces with antifungal properties were isolated from all three systems, suggesting that they could serve as protective symbionts, as found in other insects. In addition, a number of isolates from a clade of Streptomyces associated with P. phylax/L. africana and C. margaritae/K. hispida were capable of degrading cellulose, suggesting that Streptomyces in these systems may serve a nutritional role. Repeated isolation of particular clades of Actinobacteria from two geographically distant locations supports these isolates as residents in ant-plant-fungi niches.

  9. A robust cloud access scheme with mutual authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of network technology, we can access some information through remote servers, and we also can save and access lots of personal data in remote servers. Therefore, to protect these data and resist unauthorized access is an important issue. Some researchers proposed authentication scheme, but there still exist some security weaknesses. This article is based on the concept of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System, and offers a robust authentication scheme. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication, prevents re-play attack, solves asynchronous issue, and prevents offline password guessing attack.

  10. Founding of ''European Mutual Association for Nuclear Insurance'' (EMANI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulck, A. van

    1979-01-01

    A brief account is given of the study leading to and the founding of the European pool for Nuclear Insurance concerning the liability for damage to property. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the structure of insurance guarantee in a nuclear plant, insurances against nuclear risks and fires, founding project of a European Mutual Insurance, following the American experience and founding of ENAMI by the nuclear power plants operators and energy producers of Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. (AF)

  11. Light-weight Mutual Authentication with Non-repudiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Clupek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focused on a problem of authentication on low-cost devices. We have proposed a new light-weight protocol for mutual authentication of communication entities with non-repudiation of realized events. The protocol is simple and suitable for implementation on low-cost devices. Non-repudiation of realized events is achieved by involving a Trusted Third Party (TTP to the communication. The proposed protocol uses only an appropriate lightweight hash function and pre-shared secret data. Security of the proposed protocol was verified by the BAN (Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic.

  12. Mutual information based feature selection for medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lijia; Zhang, Shaomin; Li, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, authors propose a mutual information based method for lung CT image retrieval. This method is designed to adapt to different datasets and different retrieval task. For practical applying consideration, this method avoids using a large amount of training data. Instead, with a well-designed training process and robust fundamental features and measurements, the method in this paper can get promising performance and maintain economic training computation. Experimental results show that the method has potential practical values for clinical routine application.

  13. Quantum circuit implementation of cyclic mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Dittmann, Niklas; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) play an important role in the areas of quantum state tomography and quantum cryptography. Sets which can be generated cyclically may eliminate certain side-channel attacks. To profit from the advantages of these MUBs we propose a method for deriving a quantum circuit that implements the generator of a set into an experimental setup. For some dimensions this circuit is minimal. The presented method is in principle applicable for a larger set of operations and generalizes recently published results.

  14. Characteristic properties of Fibonacci-based mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ranade, Kedar [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) offer interesting applications in quantum information processing ranging from quantum cryptography to quantum state tomography. Different construction schemes provide different perspectives on these bases which are typically also deeply connected to various mathematical research areas. In this talk we discuss characteristic properties resulting from a recently established connection between construction methods for cyclic MUBs and Fibonacci polynomials. As a remarkable fact this connection leads to construction methods which do not involve any relations to mathematical properties of finite fields.

  15. A Measurement of $R_b$ using Mutually Exclusive Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    A measurement of $R_b$ using five mutually exclusive hemisphere tags has been pe rformed by ALEPH using the full LEP1 statistics. Three tags are designed to sele ct the decay of the $Z^0$ to $b$ quarks, while the remaining two select $Z^0$ decays to $c$ and light quarks, and are used to measure the tagging efficiencies. The result, {$R_b~=~0.2159~\\pm~0.0009\\mbox{(stat)}~\\pm 0.0011\\mbox{(syst)}$}, is in agreement with the electroweak theory prediction of $0.2158 \\pm 0.0003$.

  16. On the mathematical foundations of mutually unbiased bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thas, Koen

    2018-02-01

    In order to describe a setting to handle Zauner's conjecture on mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) (stating that in C^d, a set of MUBs of the theoretical maximal size d + 1 exists only if d is a prime power), we pose some fundamental questions which naturally arise. Some of these questions have important consequences for the construction theory of (new) sets of maximal MUBs. Partial answers will be provided in particular cases; more specifically, we will analyze MUBs with associated operator groups that have nilpotence class 2, and consider MUBs of height 1. We will also confirm Zauner's conjecture for MUBs with associated finite nilpotent operator groups.

  17. Paul Drude's prediction of nonreciprocal mutual inductance for Tesla transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed.

  18. Conditional Mutual Information Based Feature Selection for Classification Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4756 (2007), s. 417-426 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern classification * feature selection * conditional mutual information * text categorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  19. Superconductivity and magnetism: From antagonism to mutual interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steglich, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a brief survey is given on a number of research activities devoted to exploring the relationship between superconductivity and magnetism in f-electron systems. The starting point for these activities has been the pioneering work of 1958 by Matthias and coworkers illustrating the antagonistic nature of the two phenomena. Subsequent efforts concerned the investigation of Kondo superconductors and Kondo-lattice systems (in the 1970s), heavy-fermion metals (in the 1980s and 90s) and quantum critical materials (in the last decade). The latter systems are especially interesting as they promise a deeper insight into the mutual interplay between unconventional superconductivity and magnetism

  20. A measurement of Rb using mutually exclusive tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nilolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Sau, Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    A measurement of Rb using five mutually exclusive hemisphere tags has been performed by ALEPH using the full LEP1 statistics. Three tags are designed to select the decay of the Z0 to b quarks, while the remaining two selectZ0 decays to c and light quarks, and are used to measure the tagging efficiencies. The result, Rb = 0.2159 +/- 0.0009 (stat) +/- 0.0011 (syst), is in agreement with the electroweak theory prediction of 0.2158 +/- 0.0003.

  1. Eavesdropping on cooperative communication within an ant-butterfly mutualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Mark A.; Nash, David Richard; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    Signalling is necessary for the maintenance of inter-specific mutualisms but is vulnerable to exploitation by eavesdropping. While eavesdropping of intra-specific signals has been studied extensively, such exploitation of inter-specific signals has not been widely documented. The juvenile stages...... for oviposition and mate searching respectively. Our experiments reveal that two natural enemies of J. evagoras, araneid spiders and braconid parasitoid wasps, exploit ant signals as cues for increasing their foraging and oviposition success respectively. Intriguingly, selection through eavesdropping is unlikely...

  2. Gamma camera image processing and graphical analysis mutual software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqian; Chen Yongming; Ding Ailian; Ling Zhiye; Jin Yongjie

    1992-01-01

    GCCS gamma camera image processing and graphical analysis system is a special mutual software system. It is mainly used to analyse various patient data acquired from gamma camera. This system is used on IBM PC, PC/XT or PC/AT. It consists of several parts: system management, data management, device management, program package and user programs. The system provides two kinds of user interfaces: command menu and command characters. It is easy to change and enlarge this system because it is best modularized. The user programs include almost all the clinical protocols used now

  3. Mutualism and impacts of global change: response of an important and neglected component of the biodiversity; Mutualisme et impacts des changements globaux: reponse d'une composante importante et negligee de la biodiversite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossaert-Mckey, M. [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), UMR CNRS 5175, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-07-01

    We are studying the impact of global change on two obligate species-specific insect-plant mutualisms. Our approach combines correlative methods (examining spatial patterns of genetic diversity in populations of pairs of mutualists, to examine their responses to past climate change) and experiments (studying responses of plant partners to CO{sub 2} fertilization). Mutualisms function because the partners have contrasting and complementary biological traits, so that a service implying only a low cost to one partner may confer a great benefit to the other. Because they can lead mutualist partners to respond differently to rapid ecological change, the biological differences that are fundamental to mutualisms may also make them vulnerable. Imbalances thereby introduced can disrupt the functioning of the mutualism. By comparing two strongly contrasting systems-fig/wasp pollination mutualisms and ant-plant protection mutualisms-we aim to characterize the diversity of responses of mutualisms to global change. By identifying points in common, we also aim to propose robust generalizations about the response to global change of obligate, specific mutualisms, an important and neglected component of tropical biodiversity. Our results show that the two mutualisms studied differ greatly in their response to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Fig/wasp systems show little spatial genetic differentiation, indicating that the great dispersal capacities of both figs and their pollinating wasps resulted in maintenance of high effective population sizes throughout cycles of climatic and vegetation change. In contrast, limited dispersal capacity of both ant and plant partners has resulted in greater impact of climatic fluctuations on ant/plant protection mutualisms: species-distribution patterns suggest restriction of the system to refugia, and strong spatial genetic structure indicates widespread bottlenecks during fragmentation and expansion. Alternate contraction and

  4. Mutualism and impacts of global change: response of an important and neglected component of the biodiversity; Mutualisme et impacts des changements globaux: reponse d'une composante importante et negligee de la biodiversite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossaert-Mckey, M [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), UMR CNRS 5175, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-07-01

    We are studying the impact of global change on two obligate species-specific insect-plant mutualisms. Our approach combines correlative methods (examining spatial patterns of genetic diversity in populations of pairs of mutualists, to examine their responses to past climate change) and experiments (studying responses of plant partners to CO{sub 2} fertilization). Mutualisms function because the partners have contrasting and complementary biological traits, so that a service implying only a low cost to one partner may confer a great benefit to the other. Because they can lead mutualist partners to respond differently to rapid ecological change, the biological differences that are fundamental to mutualisms may also make them vulnerable. Imbalances thereby introduced can disrupt the functioning of the mutualism. By comparing two strongly contrasting systems-fig/wasp pollination mutualisms and ant-plant protection mutualisms-we aim to characterize the diversity of responses of mutualisms to global change. By identifying points in common, we also aim to propose robust generalizations about the response to global change of obligate, specific mutualisms, an important and neglected component of tropical biodiversity. Our results show that the two mutualisms studied differ greatly in their response to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Fig/wasp systems show little spatial genetic differentiation, indicating that the great dispersal capacities of both figs and their pollinating wasps resulted in maintenance of high effective population sizes throughout cycles of climatic and vegetation change. In contrast, limited dispersal capacity of both ant and plant partners has resulted in greater impact of climatic fluctuations on ant/plant protection mutualisms: species-distribution patterns suggest restriction of the system to refugia, and strong spatial genetic structure indicates widespread bottlenecks during fragmentation and expansion. Alternate contraction and

  5. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman-MacLaren Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress

  6. An Optimal Design of Multiple Antenna Positions on Mobile Devices Based on Mutual Coupling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerapong Uthansakul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of practical implementation of multiple antenna systems for mobile communications has recently gained a lot of attention. Due to the area constraint on a mobile device, the problem of how to design such a system in order to achieve the best benefit is still a huge challenge. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA is used to find the optimal antenna positions on a mobile device. Two cases of 3×3 and 4×4 MIMO systems are undertaken. The effect of mutual coupling based on Z-parameter is the main factor to determine the MIMO capacity concerning the objective function of GA search. The results confirm the success of the proposed method to design MIMO antenna positions on a mobile device. Moreover, this paper introduces the method to design the antenna positions for the condition of nondeterministic channel. The concern of channel variation has been included in the process of finding optimal MIMO antenna positions. The results suggest that the averaging position from all GA solutions according to all channel conditions provides the most acceptable benefit.

  7. DYNAMICS OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN RELATION TO STOCK MARKET: A VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE CAUSALITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahadath Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, primary and secondary mutual fund markets behave in a completely different way, where initial public offering (IPO investors of mutual funds earn more than 250 percent rerun, whereas secondary market investors cannot even manage to cover the opportunity cost of their investment. There are few other abnormalities present in this market – unlike everywhere in the world, most of the mutual funds are closed-end (92 percent and closed-end mutual funds are barred to issue bonus or right shares. A total of 714 day’s observations, from January 2008 to December 2010, of four variables– DSE (Dhaka Stock Exchange general index return, DSE general index turnover, mutual funds’ return and mutual funds’ turnover– are utilized. Stationarity of the variables are tested with Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF unit root test and found that variables are in different order of integration. Long-term equilibrium relationships among the variables are tested with Johansen cointegration and it is found that DSE general index return and mutual funds’ return are cointegrated. Toda-Yamamoto (TY version of granger non-causality test is employed and bidirectional causality is found moving from DSE (Dhaka Stock Exchange general index turnover to DSE general index return, whereas unidirectional causality is found moving from mutual fund’s return to DSE general index return, mutual funds’ return to mutual funds turnover, and DSE general index turnover to mutual funds turnover. This finding helps to conclude that equity shares’ demand drives the mutual funds demand but even higher demand of mutual funds fails to raise its own price unless underlying value of the mutual funds changes.

  8. Mutual Word Borrowings between the English and the Spanish Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Rinatovna Ismagilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses growing popularity of foreign languages learning and their role in the modern society. The article is devoted to the problem of mutual borrowings from English and Spanish languages. The aim of the article is to investigate new tendencies in the English words borrowings, their establishment in the Spanish language and the other way round. The Spanish language is one of the most widespread languages in the world and it is a native language for different nationalities. On the other hand, English has borrowed quite a lot of Spanish words as well. The mutual enrichment of the languages makes the process of language teaching specific and it is important in the modern process of globalization where languages are the main resource of international cooperation. The article contains both theoretical and practical materials dedicated to the investigation of this problem. This article may be useful for a wide range of readers, students, scientists, linguists in the study of modern Spanish and English languages.

  9. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  10. Mutual learning and reverse innovation–where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

  11. Mutual learning and reverse innovation--where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Nigel

    2014-03-28

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal's ongoing thematic series, "Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries" illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly "global innovation flow", although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world.

  12. Selectivity Skills of Mutual Fund Managers in India: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock selection is the nucleus in the investment management process. It involves identifying and selecting undervalued securities which among other things requires the successful forecasting of the company specific events or an ability to predict the general behavior of security prices in the future. If the fund manager is able to identify and select the undervalued securities for the portfolio, then it will be possible for the fund manager to increase the returns of the schemes and vice versa. In practice fund managers are expected to earn superior returns for unit holders consistently as being professionals therefore possess superior skills to collect and analyze the data with the purpose to select the right type of securities for the portfolio. The present work is based on the review of tens of studies both foreign and Indian studies relating to mutual funds. The mutual fund industry in India consists of public sector, private sector and foreign funds. All the three sectors were studied to compare the selectivity and timing performance on the basis of sponsorship of funds. However, from these only active funds belongings to Growth, Income, Balanced and Tax-Saving Schemes were selected for the study. In this paper stock selectivity skills of sample fund managers were tested by using Jensen’s Alpha and Fama’s net selectivity measure.

  13. Mutual fund flows: an analysis of the main macroeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Moses Roquete

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether some macroeconomic factors (country risk, IBrX volatility and Interbank Certificate of Deposit are related to mutual fund flows for the period between January 2005 and August 2014. In order to investigate whether the flow series behaved differently during this period, the Chow test was conducted for September 2008 (the month in which the Lehman Brothers investment bank collapsed. The regressions were performed and the parameters were estimated through the OLS method for both periods, the first running from January 2005 to August 2008 and the second from September 2008 to August 2014. For the period between January 2005 and August 2008, all the variables, except for the Interbank Certificate of Deposit, proved significant, at a significance level of 10%. For the subsequent period, none of the variables proved significant and the R² was very low, which may merely indicate that investors failed to analyze the main macroeconomic variables for mutual fund allocations or redemptions and simply considered other aspects, such as manager performance.

  14. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  15. Water Stress Strengthens Mutualism Among Ants, Trees, and Scale Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521

  16. Mutual information measures applied to EEG signals for sleepiness characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Umberto; Guaita, Marc; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Salamero, Manel; Santamaria, Joan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the main symptoms of several sleep related disorders with a great impact on the patient lives. While many studies have been carried out in order to assess daytime sleepiness, the automatic EDS detection still remains an open problem. In this work, a novel approach to this issue based on non-linear dynamical analysis of EEG signal was proposed. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded during five maintenance of wakefulness (MWT) and multiple sleep latency (MSLT) tests alternated throughout the day from patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. A group of 20 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was compared with a group of 20 patients without daytime sleepiness (WDS), by analyzing 60-s EEG windows in waking state. Measures obtained from cross-mutual information function (CMIF) and auto-mutual-information function (AMIF) were calculated in the EEG. These functions permitted a quantification of the complexity properties of the EEG signal and the non-linear couplings between different zones of the scalp. Statistical differences between EDS and WDS groups were found in β band during MSLT events (p-value CMIF measures yielded sensitivity and specificity above 80% and AUC of ROC above 0.85 in classifying EDS and WDS patients. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Side-band mutual interactions in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. C. D.; Helliwell, R. A.; Bell, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Sideband mutual interactions between VLF waves in the magnetosphere are investigated. Results of an experimental program involving the generation of sidebands by means of frequency shift keying are presented which indicate that the energetic electrons in the magnetosphere can interact only with sidebands generated by signals with short modulation periods. Using the value of the memory time during which electrons interact with the waves implied by the above result, it is estimated that the length of the electron interaction region in the magnetosphere is between 4000 and 2000 km. Sideband interactions are found to be similar to those between constant-frequency signals, exhibiting suppression and energy coupling. Results from a second sideband transmitting program show that for most cases the coherence bandwidth of sidebands is about 50 Hz. Sideband mutual interactions are then explained by the overlap of the ranges of the parallel velocity of the electrons which the sidebands organize, and the wave intensity in the interaction region is estimated to be 2.5-10 milli-gamma, in agreement with satellite measurements.

  18. An invasive slug exploits an ant-seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadley Dunphy, Shannon A; Prior, Kirsten M; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-05-01

    Plant-animal mutualisms, such as seed dispersal, are often vulnerable to disruption by invasive species. Here, we show for the first time how a non-ant invasive species negatively affects seed dispersal by ants. We examined the effects of several animal species that co-occur in a temperate deciduous forest-including native and invasive seed-dispersing ants (Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica rubra, respectively), an invasive slug (Arion subfuscus), and native rodents-on a native myrmecochorous plant, Asarum canadense. We experimentally manipulated ant, slug, and rodent access to seed depots and measured seed removal. We also video-recorded depots to determine which other taxa interact with seeds. We found that A. rudis was the main disperser of seeds and that A. subfuscus consumed elaiosomes without dispersing seeds. Rodent visitation was rare, and rodent exclusion had no significant effect on seed or elaiosome removal. We then used data obtained from laboratory and field mesocosm experiments to determine how elaiosome robbing by A. subfuscus affects seed dispersal by A. rudis and M. rubra. We found that elaiosome robbing by slugs reduced seed dispersal by ants, especially in mesocosms with A. rudis, which picks up seeds more slowly than M. rubra. Taken together, our results show that elaiosome robbing by an invasive slug reduces seed dispersal by ants, suggesting that invasive slugs can have profound negative effects on seed dispersal mutualisms.

  19. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  20. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  1. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  2. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  3. Selection for protection in an ant–plant mutualism: host sanctions, host modularity, and the principal–agent game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Hassall, Mark; Sutherland, William J; Yu, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Retaliation against cheaters can prevent the breakdown of cooperation. Here we ask whether the ant–plant Cordia nodosa is able to apply retaliatory sanctions against its ant symbiont Allomerus octoarticulatus, which patrols new shoots to prevent herbivory. We test the hypothesis that the modular design of C. nodosa physiologically ties the growth of housing (stem swellings known as domatia) to the successful development of the attached leaves. We experimentally simulated herbivory by cutting leaves from patrolled shoots and found that the domatia on such ‘cheated’ shoots suffered higher mortality and lower growth than did controls, evidence for a host sanction. On the other hand, patrolling is costly to the ant, and experiment shows that non-patrollers run a low risk of being sanctioned because most leaves (and the attached domatia) escape heavy herbivory even when patrollers are absent. This suggests that cheaters might enjoy a higher fitness than do mutualists, despite sanctions, but we find that patrolling provides a net fecundity benefit when the colony and plant exceed a minimum size, which requires sustained ant investment in patrolling. These results map directly onto the principal–agent (P–A) game from economics, which we suggest can be used as a framework for studying stability in mutualisms, where high sampling costs and cheating do not allow market effects to select for mutual benefits. PMID:16537131

  4. Mutual Events in the Uranian satellite system in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlot, J. E.

    2008-09-01

    The equinox time on the giant planets When the Sun crosses the equatorial plane of a giant planet, it is the equinox time occurring every half orbit of the planet, i.e. every 6 years for Jupiter, 14 years for Saturn, 42 years for Uranus and 82 years for Neptune. Except Neptune, each planet have several major satellites orbiting in the equatorial plane, then, during the equinox time, the satellites will eclipse each other mutually. Since the Earth follows the Sun, during the equinox time, a terrestrial observer will see each satellite occulting each other during the same period. These events may be observed with photometric receivers since the light from the satellites will decrease during the events. The light curve will provide information on the geometric configuration of the the satellites at the time of the event with an accuracy of a few kilometers, not depending on the distance of the satellite system. Then, we are able to get an astrometric observation with an accuracy several times better than using direct imaging for positions. Equinox on Uranus in 2007 In 2007, it was equinox time on Uranus. The Sun crossed the equatorial plane of Uranus on December 6, 2007. Since the opposition Uranus-Sun was at the end of August 2007, observations were performed from May to December 2007. Since the declination of Uranus was between -5 and -6 degrees, observations were better to make in the southern hemisphere. However, some difficulties had to be solved: the faintness of the satellites (magnitude between 14 and 16), the brightness of the planet (magnitude 5) making difficult the photometric observation of the satellites. The used of K' filter associated to a large telescope allows to increase the number of observable events. Dynamics of the Uranian satellites One of the goals of the observations was to evaluate the accuracy of the current dynamical models of the motion of the satellites. This knowledge is important for several reasons: most of time the Uranian system is

  5. Measurement of particle velocity using a mutual inductance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Garden, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary work on the development of a novel method for the measurement of particle velocity is described. The technique relies on measurement of the mutual inductance between two coaxial coils, one stationary and the other perturbed by the shock wave. The moving coil is the gauge and is deposited on thin film. The method was developed to assist in the study of particle velocities in large samples of porous media surrounding an explosive charge. The technique does not require measurements to be taken in a region of uniform magnetic field and therefore dispenses with the need for Helmholtz coils, the size and cost of which can become prohibitive for large experiments. This has the added advantage of allowing measurements to be taken at points widely dispersed through a sample with relative ease. Measurements of particle velocity in porous media have been compared with those from co-located conventional electromagnetic particle velocity gauges with reasonable agreement

  6. Activist Infighting among Courts and Breakdown of Mutual Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    had itself created it out of nowhere. In turn this appeared to be an implicit reference to the widely criticized interpretative approach of the CJEU, resulting in a far-reaching willingness to espouse judicial activism. But in acting as it did, it seems ironic that the Danish Supreme Court itself......, in this article the judgments are analysed in depth and placed into their wider context. Among other matters, we have considered how the courts should strike a sensitive balance, which has to exist in the relationship between the national courts and the CJEU, requiring mutual trust or, at the least, judicial......In its combative Ajos judgment recently rendered by the Danish Supreme Court, the court openly and controversially challenged the authority of the CJEU. By the same token, in the preliminary ruling by the CJEU preceding it, the CJEU had continued to develop the controversial general principle...

  7. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31st January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  8. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may apply again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31 January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265)  who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name: ................................................................. Department: .................................... Tel.: ..............................

  9. The mutual impact of organizational culture and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the structure and culture of an organization. The starting assumption is that organizational structure and organizational culture impact each other, and that there is a causal relationship due to which the agreement of the two components of organization leads to better performance. First, the mechanism through which organizational culture impacts the design of organizational structures and the manner in which organizational structure affects the maintenance, strengthening, or changing of organizational culture is explained at the conceptual level. Then, based on the known classifications of organizational structure and culture, they are put into a relationship of direct mutual interdependence. This is done by generating hypotheses about the agreement of particular types of organizational culture and particular types of organizational structure.

  10. Alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Martin; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Grützmann, Konrad; Schuster, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNAs in higher eukaryotes and several viruses is one major source of protein diversity. Usually, the following major subtypes of AS are distinguished: exon skipping, intron retention, and alternative 3' and 5' splice sites. Moreover, mutually exclusive exons (MXEs) represent a rare subtype. In the splicing of MXEs, two (or more) splicing events are not independent anymore, but are executed or disabled in a coordinated manner. In this review, several bioinformatics approaches for analyzing MXEs are presented and discussed. In particular, we revisit suitable definitions and nomenclatures, and bioinformatics tools for finding MXEs, adjacent and non-adjacent MXEs, clustered and grouped MXEs. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms for splicing MXEs proposed in the literature are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Machine Learning with Squared-Loss Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sugiyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual information (MI is useful for detecting statistical independence between random variables, and it has been successfully applied to solving various machine learning problems. Recently, an alternative to MI called squared-loss MI (SMI was introduced. While ordinary MI is the Kullback–Leibler divergence from the joint distribution to the product of the marginal distributions, SMI is its Pearson divergence variant. Because both the divergences belong to the ƒ-divergence family, they share similar theoretical properties. However, a notable advantage of SMI is that it can be approximated from data in a computationally more efficient and numerically more stable way than ordinary MI. In this article, we review recent development in SMI approximation based on direct density-ratio estimation and SMI-based machine learning techniques such as independence testing, dimensionality reduction, canonical dependency analysis, independent component analysis, object matching, clustering, and causal inference.

  12. Unextendible Mutually Unbiased Bases (after Mandayam, Bandyopadhyay, Grassl and Wootters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Thas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider questions posed in a recent paper of Mandayam et al. (2014 on the nature of “unextendible mutually unbiased bases.” We describe a conceptual framework to study these questions, using a connection proved by the author in Thas (2009 between the set of nonidentity generalized Pauli operators on the Hilbert space of N d-level quantum systems, d a prime, and the geometry of non-degenerate alternating bilinear forms of rank N over finite fields F d . We then supply alternative and short proofs of results obtained in Mandayam et al. (2014, as well as new general bounds for the problems considered in loc. cit. In this setting, we also solve Conjecture 1 of Mandayam et al. (2014 and speculate on variations of this conjecture.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  14. Mutual Value Co-Creation in Practitioner-Academia Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the research practice of practicable research by drawing a map of methodological in-roads to doing research with a view to bridging the practitioner-research gap and producing what has been termed as ‘actionable research’ by engaging closely with practitioners in the research...... process. The map includes three territories and methodological in-roads for doing research in close collaboration with practitioners with a view to mutual value creation and co-construction: Doing research, in/with(in), for and in-between organizations. The methodological reflections in the map...... governments to universities with regards to the ability of research groups to demonstrate co-operation with external stakeholder groups and an illustration of the privileges and pitfalls of doing research in close engagement with practice called for by the increasing academic interest for actionable research...

  15. Modeling mutual feedback between users and recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Recommender systems daily influence our decisions on the Internet. While considerable attention has been given to issues such as recommendation accuracy and user privacy, the long-term mutual feedback between a recommender system and the decisions of its users has been neglected so far. We propose here a model of network evolution which allows us to study the complex dynamics induced by this feedback, including the hysteresis effect which is typical for systems with non-linear dynamics. Despite the popular belief that recommendation helps users to discover new things, we find that the long-term use of recommendation can contribute to the rise of extremely popular items and thus ultimately narrow the user choice. These results are supported by measurements of the time evolution of item popularity inequality in real systems. We show that this adverse effect of recommendation can be tamed by sacrificing part of short-term recommendation accuracy.

  16. Enlivening Cultural Environments through Sharing and Gotong Royong (Mutual Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Butler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of best practices and cooperative approaches that ensure the active participation of local communities in identifying and safeguarding tangible and intangible cultural heritage for the long-term has become a major aim of cultural policies in recent decades. This paper proposes that the value of sharing and custom termed gotong royong (mutual cooperation, still an intrinsic part of daily life in most villages in Indonesia and in several Southeast Asian nations, is a means by which traditional cultural environments can be enlivened in the present. In particular, art practices show the contemporary value and efficacy of traditional forms of social cooperation and can foreground the continuing role of local ethnic communities, as the caretakers of the various elements of tangible and intangible cultural heritage present in their territory. To illustrate why and how, I draw on examples of art practice from public participatory intercultural events held in Bali and Java, Indonesia as well as in other countries.

  17. Mutuality and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, D

    1997-01-01

    Mutuality is the principle of private, commercial insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance is subject to the uberrima fides principle, or utmost good faith; each side declares all it knows about the risk. The Disability Discrimination Act requires insurers to justify disability discrimination on the basis of relevant information, acturial, statistical or medical, on which it is reasonable to rely. It could be very damaging to private insurance to abandon uberrima fides. However, although some genetic information is clearly useful to underwriters, other information may be so general as to be of little use. The way in which mortality rates are assessed is also explained. PMID:9304668

  18. Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R

    2015-08-01

    Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.

  19. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  20. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Fonds d'Entraide

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name Department Tel  

  1. Mutual construction and reconstruction in client-consultant interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Irene Skovgaard

    Based on preliminary interviews with client representatives and a pilot case study, the pa-per explores collaboration and mutual construction in client-consultant relationships. Both consultants and client actors take part in an active construction and reconstruction of knowledge that involve...... struggles over position, power and control. In the context of client-consultant interaction, it is thus not only ideas and solutions that are contested but also the power to define. Attention is paid to how ideas are brought into play and negotiated in the interaction between actors. The empirical material...... presented in the paper illustrates how consultancy projects evolve through processes of negotiation over whose interpretation should count and who should be in control. In the process, client actors with different posi-tions and interests play an active role in creating what become valid and what ideas...

  2. Terahertz Magnetoelectric Resonance Enhanced by Mutual Coupling of Electromagnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yamasaki, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Both electric- and magnetic-dipole active spin excitations, i.e., electromagnons, which mediate the dynamical magnetoelectric effect, have been investigated for a multiferroic perovskite of manganite by optical spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies. Upon the magnetoelectric resonance at 1 meV in the multiferroic phase with the bc-plane spin cycloidal order, a gigantic dynamical magnetoelectric effect has been observed as a nonreciprocal directional dichroism or birefringence. The light k-vector-dependent difference (Δκ=κ+-κ-) of the extinction coefficient (κ±) is as large as Δκ˜1 or 2Δκ/(κ++κ-)˜0.7 at the lowest-lying electromagnon energy. We clarified the mutual coupling of the Eω∥a-polarized electromagnons of the different origins, leading to the enhancement of the magnetoelectric resonance.

  3. Mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation and slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternklar, Shmuel; Sarid, Eyal; Wart, Maxim; Granot, Er'el

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of pump and Stokes light in a Brillouin medium, where both beams are modulated, can be utilized for controlling the group velocity of the amplified Stokes (or depleted pump). The dependence of the group velocity for this mutually-modulated cross-gain modulation (MMXGM) technique on the Brillouin gain parameter is studied. A sharp transition to slow light occurs in the G 1 α/β≈1 regime, where G 1 is the Brillouin gain parameter, and α and β are the pump and Stokes modulation indices, respectively. A comparison of MMXGM slow light to the Brillouin dispersion-based slow-light technique reveals the fundamental differences between them. The formation of higher harmonics of the modulation frequency is also discussed. The theoretical predictions are experimentally corroborated and potential applications in fiber-based sensing and interferometry are discussed

  4. On the number of mutually disjoint cyclic designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Emami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We denote by $LS[N](t,k,v$ a large set of $t$-$(v,k,\\lambda$ designs of size $N$, which is a partition of all $k$-subsets of a $v$-set into $N$ disjoint $t$-$(v,k,\\lambda$ designs and $N={v-t \\choose k-t}/\\lambda$. We use the notation $N(t,v,k,\\lambda$ as the maximum possible number of mutually disjoint cyclic $t$-$(v,k,\\lambda$designs. In this paper we give some new bounds for $N(2,29,4,3$ and $N(2,31,4,2$. Consequently we present new large sets $LS[9](2,4,29, LS[13](2,4,29$ and $LS[7](2,4,31$, where their existences were already known.

  5. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  6. The Mutual Benchmarking Method for Smes’ Competitive Strategy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostek Katarzyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitive advantage is a relative feature, evaluated in respect of other competing enterprises. The gaining of sustainable competitive advantage is conditioned by knowledge of own performance and the results of the competitive environment. SMEs have limited opportunities to obtain such information on their own. The method of mutual benchmarking changes this situation by introducing the collaborative network. The aim of the cooperation is to support each of the group members to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, which is the result of a conscious strategy, and not only a matter of chance. This cooperation is based on the collecting and processing of data and sharing information through a common IT platform: for example, a group of Polish SMEs was shown how to implement such a common IT solution and how to provide the information preparing within the proposed service. The whole is a complete proposal for effective support of creating a competitive strategy in SMEs.

  7. A multivariate extension of mutual information for growing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kenneth R; Grant, Christopher; Mundy, William R; Shafer, Timothy J

    2017-11-01

    Recordings of neural network activity in vitro are increasingly being used to assess the development of neural network activity and the effects of drugs, chemicals and disease states on neural network function. The high-content nature of the data derived from such recordings can be used to infer effects of compounds or disease states on a variety of important neural functions, including network synchrony. Historically, synchrony of networks in vitro has been assessed either by determination of correlation coefficients (e.g. Pearson's correlation), by statistics estimated from cross-correlation histograms between pairs of active electrodes, and/or by pairwise mutual information and related measures. The present study examines the application of Normalized Multiinformation (NMI) as a scalar measure of shared information content in a multivariate network that is robust with respect to changes in network size. Theoretical simulations are designed to investigate NMI as a measure of complexity and synchrony in a developing network relative to several alternative approaches. The NMI approach is applied to these simulations and also to data collected during exposure of in vitro neural networks to neuroactive compounds during the first 12 days in vitro, and compared to other common measures, including correlation coefficients and mean firing rates of neurons. NMI is shown to be more sensitive to developmental effects than first order synchronous and nonsynchronous measures of network complexity. Finally, NMI is a scalar measure of global (rather than pairwise) mutual information in a multivariate network, and hence relies on less assumptions for cross-network comparisons than historical approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thünken Timo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i one (usually the female or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, in which mate choice is mutual. Results In mate choice experiments, both sexes preferred large mates irrespective of own body size suggesting mating preferences are not size-assortative. Especially males were highly selective for large females, probably because female body size signals direct fitness benefits. However, when potential mates were able to interact and assess each other mutually they showed size-assortative mating patterns, i.e. the likelihood to mate was higher in pairs with low size differences between mates. Conclusion Due to variation in body size, general preferences for large mating partners result in a sexual conflict: small, lower quality individuals who prefer themselves large partners are unacceptable for larger individuals. Relative size mismatches between mates translate into a lower likelihood to mate, suggesting that the threshold to accept mates depends on own body size. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of assortment in P. taeniatus is mutual mate choice resolving the sexual conflict over mates, rather than preference for mates of similar size.

  9. Mutually unbiased coarse-grained measurements of two or more phase-space variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E. C.; Walborn, S. P.; Tasca, D. S.; Rudnicki, Łukasz

    2018-05-01

    Mutual unbiasedness of the eigenstates of phase-space operators—such as position and momentum, or their standard coarse-grained versions—exists only in the limiting case of infinite squeezing. In Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 040403 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.040403, it was shown that mutual unbiasedness can be recovered for periodic coarse graining of these two operators. Here we investigate mutual unbiasedness of coarse-grained measurements for more than two phase-space variables. We show that mutual unbiasedness can be recovered between periodic coarse graining of any two nonparallel phase-space operators. We illustrate these results through optics experiments, using the fractional Fourier transform to prepare and measure mutually unbiased phase-space variables. The differences between two and three mutually unbiased measurements is discussed. Our results contribute to bridging the gap between continuous and discrete quantum mechanics, and they could be useful in quantum-information protocols.

  10. Cointegration and causality analysis of dynamic linkage between stock market and equity mutual funds in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipa Pojanavatee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature finds conflicting results on the magnitude of price linkages between equity mutual funds and the stock market. The study contends that in an optimal lagged model, the expectations of future prices using knowledge of past price behaviour in a particular equity mutual fund category will improve forecasts of prices of other equity mutual fund categories and the stock market index. The evidence shows that the long-run pricing of equity mutual funds is cointegrated with the stock market index. In the short run, the results indicate that some equity mutual fund categories possess both long-run and short-run exogeneity with the stock market. Therefore, the short-run dynamic indicates short-run Granger causal links running between different equity mutual fund categories.

  11. Análisis de las acciones técnicas de los judokas cadetes participantes en el campeonato de España. (Analysis of technical actions of the judoist cadets participating in the judo championship of Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Carratalá Deval

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl entrenamiento del judoka dada su amplia estructura técnica, su dimensión táctica, su estructuración por categorías de peso y la incertidumbre creada por el adversario, muestra diversos y complejos aspectos a considerar, que deben ser analizados en situación real de competición. Desde esta perspectiva, la presente investigación tiene como objetivos identificar las características técnicas y tácticas de los judokas cadetes masculinos de nivel nacional, en cada una de las categorías de peso, a través del análisis de las acciones técnicas más utilizadas por los participantes en el campeonato de España de judo cadete. La muestra está formada por 128 judokas cadetes masculinos, de los que se analizaron 121 combates. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con el análisis de las siguientes variables: las diferentes categorías de peso, las técnicas más utilizadas para la consecución de las ventajas técnicas y el minuto del combate en el que se produce la ventaja y las sanciones arbitrales. De los resultados se extrae que los judokas se caracterizan por utilizar en mayor medida las técnicas de te-waza, con un alto porcentaje de aplicación de seoi-nage y kata-guruma, seguidas por las técnicas de sutemi-waza y las técnicas de ashi-waza. Se obtienen un elevado número de ventajas técnicas mediante sanciones arbitrales por pasividad y falso ataque. En función del tiempo, es durante el primer y segundo minuto donde se producen el mayor número de ventajas técnicas, con predominio de las técnicas de tewaza y el sutemi-waza, acentuándose las ventajas por sanción arbitral en el segundo minuto. Abstract The training of the judoka, given its wide technical structure, its tactical dimension, its division into weight categories and the uncertainty created by the adversary, shows diverse and complex aspects to be considered and analyzed in real competitive situations. From this perspective, the objective of the present research

  12. Improved inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance using panel bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Caulfield, Tristan; Ioannidis, Christos; Tonks, I P

    2014-01-01

    Two new methodologies are introduced to improve inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance against benchmarks. First, the benchmark models are estimated using panel methods with both fund and time effects. Second, the non-normality of individual mutual fund returns is accounted for by using panel bootstrap methods. We also augment the standard benchmark factors with fund-specific characteristics, such as fund size. Using a dataset of UK equity mutual fund returns, we find that fun...

  13. An Intricate Multiple-Factor Approach To Evaluate Performance Of Indian Mutual Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Suyash Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    This research paper examines performance of top twelve Indian mutual funds by Asset Under Management (AUM).  We use seven portfolio performance measurement parameters like Alpha, Beta, Standard Deviation, R Squared, Sharpe Ratio, Treynor Ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. The study reveals which amongst these mutual fund is the best performer based on all these parameters and the benchmark taken for this is NIFTY Index. The mutual funds selected are HDFC Top 200 Fund, Franklin India Bluechip Fund, ICI...

  14. An Empirical Study of Mutual Fund Performance and Its Relation with Fund Size

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Daofen

    2007-01-01

    The increasing popularity of mutual fund investment is a remarkable phenomenon of recent decades. Mutual funds have been among the largest investors and played an important role in the financial market worldwide. The evaluation of mutual fund performance has been achieving a great deal of academic interest since the 1960s. This study employed a time-series data to examine the performance of sixty actively-managed equity growth funds of the United States during the period of July, 2002 to June...

  15. Multi-objective portfolio optimization of mutual funds under downside risk measure using fuzzy theory

    OpenAIRE

    M. Amiri; M. Zandieh; A. Alimi

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund is one of the most popular techniques for many people to invest their funds where a professional fund manager invests people's funds based on some special predefined objectives; therefore, performance evaluation of mutual funds is an important problem. This paper proposes a multi-objective portfolio optimization to offer asset allocation. The proposed model clusters mutual funds with two methods based on six characteristics including rate of return, variance, semivariance, turnove...

  16. Evaluation of Performance of Mutual Funds in India from 2004-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Badani, Ankit

    2009-01-01

    Mutual funds play an important role in the globalization of the financial markets. Various past studies have been carried out by academics and researchers to analyse the performance of mutual funds. One of the important facts revealed by most of these studies is that a mutual fund cannot perform better than the market. Performance measures like Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Jensen measure etc are applied to evaluate the performance 30 open-ended equity diversified growth funds in India for the...

  17. The Behavioral Aspects of Mutual Funds and the Lessons Learned from the Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Åhlén, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The fund industry has grown tremendously over the last decades and the function for mutual funds and their managers have gained importance. Sweden is today the greatest fund saving country in the world however the function of the mutual funds and their managers is still rather unexplored. Mutual fund managers were blamed for the recent financial crisis and their irrational behavior was highlighted. This indicated how weak the classic financial theories are when trying to explain the function ...

  18. Main Determinants of the Mutual Funds Dynamics in Romania before and after the Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Ioana; Nistor Ioan Alin; Ciupac-Ulici Maria Lenuþa

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the main determinants of attraction or inhibitive factors for investments, the current paper evaluates the Romanian mutual fund market development. Using a regression analysis on quarterly data during 2004Q3 – 2012Q2, the study explores the impact of current financial crisis on mutual funds. The paper is organized as it follows. Part 2 presents a brief literature review and extracts the studies that appreciate best the determinants of the mutual funds dynamics. Next ...

  19. Comparison of the performance of Islamic, Sri and green mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures and compares performance of Islamic, SRI and Green mutual equity funds worldwide in the period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2015. The sample consists of 611 mutual equity funds and their performance was assessed by using traditional risk-adjusted measures, namely Sharpe ratio, Modified Sharpe Ratio, Adjusted Sharpe Ratio, Treynor measure, Information ratio and Jensen’s alpha. The main findings show that Green mutual equity funds, on average, outperform both SRI and I...

  20. MUTUAL FUND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS PRE AND POST FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Asadov, Elvin; Dinger, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Using a sample of 955 mutual funds, free of survivorship bias, we analyse the performance of diversified equity mutual funds in the United States of America that invest solely in stocks listed on the U.S. stock exchanges before and after the financial crisis of 2008. We categorize all mutual funds into their respective strategy including value, growth, and blend in order to see any relationship with respect to their strategic focus.We find that mutual funds were not able to provide a positive...

  1. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Hoek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment.

  2. PERFORMANCE PERSISTENCE OF TURKISH A AND B TYPE MUTUAL FUNDS: THE PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELİ AKEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, single index models are applied to a free survivorship bias database of 51 A and 51 B Types Turkish mutual funds using monthly returns over 5 years from 2000 to 2004. Then, it has been investigated whether mutual fund managers have market timing ability. Turkish Institutional Investment Managers’ Association A and B Type Fund Indexes are firstly used as benchmark portfolios. The challenging question is whether Turkish mutual funds have performance persistency over the short and long term or not. This study uses both parametric and non-parametric techniques to examine performance persistence. The overall conclusion is that Type A mutual funds managers do not have stock selection and market timing ability. However, Type B mutual funds managers do have stock selection ability. Type A mutual funds show evidence of relative and absolute persistence in the short term while Type B mutual funds show significant results of relative and absolute persistence in both of the terms. Although there are various results in performance persistence of mutual funds, the repeat winner phenomenon is stronger over shorter periods of evaluation. Consequently, it seems that Turkish mutual funds have performance persistency at least for the short term.

  3. The mutual recognition arrangement and primary standard dosimetry laboratory comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The majority of the Member States of the Metre Convention have signed an arrangement for the mutual recognition (MRA) of national measurement standards and calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs). Part of the MRA involves an open access database of CMCs that in turn need to be supported by key and supplementary comparisons of national standards. This paper outlines the MRA, describing the comparisons of national primary standards in the field of dosimetry that support the claims of the CMCs in the key comparison database (KCDB). The MRA was drawn up by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comite International des Poids et Mesures CIPM) and was signed at a meeting held in Paris on 14 October 1999 by the directors of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of thirty-eight Member States of the Metre Convention and representatives of two international organizations. Since that date, the directors of the NMIs of several other Member States and nine Associates of the General Conference (Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures CGPM) have also signed the MRA. The metrological objectives of the MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs and thus provide the basis for the mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs. The NMIs provide the traceability to the international system of units (SI) required for these services and thus mutual recognition of the capabilities of the NMIs is a prerequisite for the mutual recognition of the metrology services of countries in general. The objectives of the MRA are achieved through a process of: (a) international comparisons of measurements, known as key comparisons (b) supplementary international comparisons of measurements, and (c) quality systems and demonstrations of competence by the NMIs. The outcome of the MRA is a determination of the degrees of equivalence of national standards and a set of statements of

  4. Why mutualist partners vary in quality: mutation-selection balance and incentives to cheat in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K Charlotte; Steidinger, Brian S

    2017-07-01

    Mutualisms between species are ecologically ubiquitous but evolutionarily puzzling. Host discrimination mechanisms that reduce the fitness of uncooperative symbionts can stabilise mutualism against collapse, but also present a paradox - if discrimination is effective, why do uncooperative symbionts persist? Here, we test whether mutations or fitness benefits of cheating best explain the prevalence of uncooperative wasps in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism. By combining theory with field-collected data we demonstrate that the proportions of pollen-free wasps of strongly discriminating hosts are reached with reasonable mutation rates. In contrast, in weakly discriminating hosts, the required mutation rates, assuming a single locus, are untenably high, but the required cheater advantages fall within expected ranges. We propose that when discrimination is weak, uncooperative symbionts proliferate until they reach the equilibrium proportion that balances costs and benefits of cheating. Our results suggest that mechanisms that resolve the paradox of uncooperative symbionts differ among host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Mutual Dependence Between Sedimentary Organic Carbon and Infaunal Macrobenthos Resolved by Mechanistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Wirtz, Kai

    2017-10-01

    The mutual dependence between sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) and infaunal macrobenthos is here quantified by a mechanistic model. The model describes (i) the vertical distribution of infaunal macrobenthic biomass resulting from a trade-off between nutritional benefit (quantity and quality of TOC) and the costs of burial (respiration) and mortality, and (ii) the variable vertical distribution of TOC being in turn shaped by bioturbation of local macrobenthos. In contrast to conventional approaches, our model emphasizes variations of bioturbation both spatially and temporally depending on local food resources and macrobenthic biomass. Our implementation of the dynamic interaction between TOC and infaunal macrobenthos is able to capture a temporal benthic response to both depositional and erosional environments and provides improved estimates of the material exchange flux at the sediment-water interface. Applications to literature data for the North Sea demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the model and its potential as an analysis tool for the status of TOC and macrobenthos in marine sediments. Results indicate that the vertical distribution of infaunal biomass is shaped by both the quantity and the quality of OC, while the community structure is determined only by the quality of OC. Bioturbation intensity may differ by 1 order of magnitude over different seasons owing to variations in the OC input, resulting in a significant modulation on the distribution of OC. Our relatively simple implementation may further improve models of early diagenesis and marine food web dynamics by mechanistically connecting the vertical distribution of both TOC and macrobenthic biomass.

  6. MFIB: a repository of protein complexes with mutual folding induced by binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichó, Erzsébet; Reményi, István; Simon, István; Mészáros, Bálint

    2017-11-15

    It is commonplace that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are involved in crucial interactions in the living cell. However, the study of protein complexes formed exclusively by IDPs is hindered by the lack of data and such analyses remain sporadic. Systematic studies benefited other types of protein-protein interactions paving a way from basic science to therapeutics; yet these efforts require reliable datasets that are currently lacking for synergistically folding complexes of IDPs. Here we present the Mutual Folding Induced by Binding (MFIB) database, the first systematic collection of complexes formed exclusively by IDPs. MFIB contains an order of magnitude more data than any dataset used in corresponding studies and offers a wide coverage of known IDP complexes in terms of flexibility, oligomeric composition and protein function from all domains of life. The included complexes are grouped using a hierarchical classification and are complemented with structural and functional annotations. MFIB is backed by a firm development team and infrastructure, and together with possible future community collaboration it will provide the cornerstone for structural and functional studies of IDP complexes. MFIB is freely accessible at http://mfib.enzim.ttk.mta.hu/. The MFIB application is hosted by Apache web server and was implemented in PHP. To enrich querying features and to enhance backend performance a MySQL database was also created. simon.istvan@ttk.mta.hu, meszaros.balint@ttk.mta.hu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Interphyletic relationships in the use of nesting cavities: mutualism, competition and amensalism among hymenopterans and vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, José P.; Wamiti, Wanyoike; Polo, Vicente; Muchai, Muchane

    2013-09-01

    Although competition is usually assumed to be the most common interaction between closely related organisms that share limiting resources, the relationships linking distant taxa that use the same nesting sites are poorly understood. In the present study, we examine the interactions among social hymenopterans (honeybees and wasps) and vertebrates in tropical ecosystems of East Africa. By analysing the preferences of these three groups for nest boxes that were empty or previously occupied by a different taxon, we try to establish whether the relationships among them are commensal, mutualistic, competitive or amensal. Vertebrates and honeybees selected nest boxes that had previously been occupied by the other, which suggests that each obtains some benefit from the other. This relationship can be considered mutualistic, although a mutual preference for each others' nests does not exclude a competitive interaction. Vertebrates and wasps preferred nest boxes not previously occupied by the other, which suggests that they compete for tree cavities. Finally, wasps seemed to completely refuse cavities previously used by honeybees, while the bees occupied cavities regardless of whether they had been previously used by wasps, an apparently amensal relationship. These results indicate that the interdependence between distantly related taxa is stronger and more complex than previously described, which may have important implications for population dynamics and community structure.

  8. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  9. A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria and epithelial Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; von Martels, Julius Z H; Khan, Muhammed Tanweer; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Paglia, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Gerard; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2015-12-15

    Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria. A main obstacle in generating such knowledge is the lack of simple and robust coculturing methods for anaerobic bacteria and oxygen-requiring human cells. Here, we describe the development of a coculture system for intestinal Caco-2 cells and an anaerobic symbiont, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, making use of 50 mL culture tubes. F. prausnitzii was grown in 40 mL YCFAG-agar with glass-adhered Caco-2 cells placed on top in 10 mL DMEM medium. Grown for 18-36 h in a humidified incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO2, coverslip-attached Caco-2 cells promoted growth and metabolism of F. prausnitzii, while F. prausnitzii suppressed inflammation and oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. F. prausnitzii did not compromise Caco-2 cell viability. Exogenously added porcine mucin also promoted growth of F. prausnitzii, suggesting that it may be part of the mechanism of Caco-2-stimulated growth of F. prausnitzii. This 'Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic' (HoxBan) coculturing system uniquely establishes host-microbe mutualism of a beneficial anaerobic gut microbe in vitro and principally allows the analysis of host-microbe interactions of pure and mixed cultures of bacteria and human cells.

  10. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  11. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  12. Consumer choice among Mutual Healthcare Purchasers: a feasible option for China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiwei; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2013-11-01

    In its 2009 blue print of healthcare reform, the Chinese government aimed to create a competitive health insurance market in order to increase efficiency in the health insurance sector. A major advantage of a competitive health insurance market is that insurers are stimulated to act as well-motivated prudent purchasers of healthcare on behalf of their enrolees, and that consumers can choose among these purchasers. To emphasize the insurers' role of purchasers of care we denote them, as well as other entities that can fulfil this role (e.g. fundholding community health centres), as 'Mutual Healthcare Purchasers' (MHPs). As feasible proposals for creating competition in China's health insurance sector have yet to be made, we suggest two potential approaches to create competition among MHPs: (1) separating finance and operation of social health insurance and allowing consumer choice among operators of social health insurance schemes; (2) allowing consumer choice among fund-holding community health centres. Although the benefits of competition are widely accepted in China, the problematic consequences of a free competitive health insurance market - especially in relation to affordability and accessibility - are generally neglected. To solve the problems of lack of affordability and inaccessibility that would occur in the case of unregulated competition among MHPs, at least the following regulations are proposed to the Chinese policy makers: a 'standard benefit package' for basic health insurance, a 'risk-equalization scheme', and 'open enrolment'. Potential obstacles for implementing a risk equalization scheme are examined based on theoretical arguments and international experiences. We conclude that allowing consumer choice among MHPs and implementing a risk equalization scheme in China is politically and technically complex. Therefore, the Chinese government should prepare carefully for a market-oriented reform in its healthcare sector and adopt a strategic approach

  13. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  14. Can the Air Force and Airlines Collaborate for Mutual Benefit An Exploration of Pilot and Maintenance Workforce Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Virgin America UNIQUE_CARRIER_NAME 14 Figure 8. Air Force and Commercial Maintenance Personnel Salaries NOTE: AF Annual = Air Force, enlisted. Avg...have drill weekends Holiday : blue No week 5: orange Weekend split over 2 months: purple We also considered the overlap between ARC...ebb in the winter. Cargo airlines have a sustained busy season in November and December with holiday package shipping. We obtained five years of

  15. Ancient DNA and Forensics Mutual Benefits a Practical Sampling and Laboratory Guide Through a Virtual Ancient DNA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cemper-Kiesslich

    2014-09-01

    In this review the authors give a general overview on the field of ancient DNA analysis focussing of the potentials and limits, fields of application, requirements for samples, laboratory setup, reaction design and equipment as well as a brief outlook on current developments, future perspectives and potential cross links with associated scientific disciplines. Key words: Human DNA, Ancient DNA, Forensic DNA typing, Molecular archaeology, Application.

  16. Disability and Family in the People's Republic of China: Implementation, Benefits, and Comparison of Two Mutual Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Helen; McCabe, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The authors and 2 Chinese parents established 2 support groups in China. One group was for parents of children with autism, and the other was for young adults with either mental health issues or intellectual disability, and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and effectiveness of these groups from the…

  17. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  18. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E

    2015-10-23

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  19. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  20. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szpankowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5′ untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS, we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats—an application of importance in genetic profiling.