WorldWideScience

Sample records for judo mutual benefit

  1. Team Reasoning and Intentional Cooperation for Mutual Benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Sugden Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of intentional cooperation for mutual benefit. This concept uses a form of team reasoning in which team members aim to achieve common interests, rather than maximising a common utility function, and in which team reasoners can coordinate their behaviour by following pre-existing practices. I argue that a market transaction can express intentions for mutually beneficial cooperation even if, extensionally, participation in the transaction promotes each party’s self...

  2. Mutual Benefits,China and ASEAN Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the restart of the China-ASEAN dialogue,bilateral trade between the two groups has developed rapidly.On January 1,2010,the China-ASEAN free trade zone was inaugurated,becoming the third largest flee trade zone in the world,encompassing a population of 1.9 billion and implementing preferential policies such as more than 90 percent of goods with zero-tariffs,to enable rapid development of bilateral and multilateral trade between its members.But what impact will ChinaASEAN bring to ASEAN countries?At the beginning of its establishment,the officials and experts from China and ASEAN countries expressed that although competition and difficulties would appear,the benefits of such an agreement would outweigh them.

  3. Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density‐dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed‐eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist.

  4. An Unusual Judo Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Unusual Li Lingling The deciding match of judo in the 48-kg category at the Eighth National Games was a showdown between the 27-year-old judo legend Li Aiyue from Zhejiang, the world champion, and a 19-year-old from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region named Li Lingling. The fierce competition between the two best judo athletes in China attracted great attention of judo experts and fans. The result? Li Lingling won the championship. Li Lingling grew up in Guilin, a region famous for its beautiful landscape. Although she only began training in judo

  5. Judo%柔道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2005-01-01

    @@ Kodokan Judo Judo means many things to different people.It is a fun sport, an art,a discipline, a recreational or social activity, a fitness program,a means of self-defenso or combat, and a way of life. It is all of these and more.

  6. Mutual benefits of collaborations between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, David,

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Effective collaboration between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians can be of great benefit to all parties, leading to improved instrument designs, greater understanding of an instrument’s playing characteristics, and an improved knowledge of the physical processes that occur within an instrument. As a working relationship develops between an instrument maker, a musician and an acoustician, the trust that builds up can facilitate increasingly more detailed in...

  7. Herbivores alter the fitness benefits of a plant-rhizobium mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2011-03-01

    Mutualisms are best understood from a community perspective, since third-party species have the potential to shift the costs and benefits in interspecific interactions. We manipulated plant genotypes, the presence of rhizobium mutualists, and the presence of a generalist herbivore and assessed the performance of all players in order to test whether antagonists might alter the fitness benefits of plant-rhizobium mutualism, and vice versa how mutualists might alter the fitness consequences of plant-herbivore antagonism. We found that plants in our experiment formed more associations with rhizobia (root nodules) in the presence of herbivores, thereby increasing the fitness benefits of mutualism for rhizobia. In contrast, the effects of rhizobia on herbivores were weak. Our data support a community-dependent view of these ecological interactions, and suggest that consideration of the aboveground herbivore community can inform ecological and evolutionary studies of legume-rhizobium interactions.

  8. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Light from astronomical targets has to pass the Earth's atmosphere when being observed by ground-based telescope facilities. The signal detected by modern astronomical spectrographs is significantly influenced by molecular absorption and airglow emission. The first mainly arises from various species in the lower, thus denser atmosphere, whereas the latter is caused by chemiluminescence in the mesopause region and above. As ground-based astronomical spectrographs are optimised from the near-UV to the mid-infrared regime (0.3....25μm), a number of absorption features from numerous species are directly visible (e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4, O2, O3,...). The same is true for the airglow emission arising e.g. from the hydroxyl radical and oxygen. The high resolution provided by some spectrographs and their frequent usage allows a detailed investigation of atmospheric lines. Usually being a source of noise for astronomers, which needs to be corrected for, this influence can be used to precisely analyse the composition and the state of the Earth's atmosphere above an observatory. On the other hand, a good knowledge of this allows astronomers to better correct for this influence. Thus, both, atmospheric and astronomical sciences highly benefit from a good understanding of the atmospheric state above an observatory. During the past years we conducted several studies to link astronomical and atmospheric data. For this purpose we use data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) operated by the European Southern Observatory, and the Cerro Armazones Observatory (OCA, University of Bochum, Germany; Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile), both located in the Chilean Atacama desert. The three spectrographs used in our studies are X-Shooter@VLT (resolving power R˜3300...18000, wavelength range λ=0.3...2.5μm), UVES@VLT (R˜20.000....110.000, λ=0.3....1.1μm), and BESO@OCA (R=50000@Hα=0.656μm, λ=0.38 - 0.84μm). In addition, we use atmospheric data obtained with the satellites

  9. Oklahoma Retailers' Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts.

  10. Oklahoma Retailers’ Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health’s voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point of sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers’ perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove non-contractual POS advertisements for a six-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. PMID:25767197

  11. Enhancing the Level of Opening up to Achieve Mutual Benefit and Win-win Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    From upholding opening up strategy of mutual benefit and win-win results to developing top-level design of higher level open economy,then further to putting forward targets of actively participating in global economic governance and supplying public products and enhancing voice in institutional building,and still further to opening the developing concepts and planning,the CPC Central Committee has commanded the deep insights for

  12. Empirical Studies on Actively Managed Mutual Funds: New Insights into the Costs and Benefits of Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Dyakov (Teodor)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dyakov’s dissertation bundles three empirical studies on actively managed mutual funds. His studies provide new knowledge of the costs and benefits of portfolio disclosure and shed more light into the question whether mutual fund investors have an information advantage

  13. Benefits for Plants in Ant-Plant Protective Mutualisms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Matthew D.; Bhotika, Smriti; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Andrade, Gilda V.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; McKeon, C. Seabird; Osenberg, Craig W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model) and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75) indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial) explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several questions to guide

  14. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  15. Judo Biomechanical Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, there is comprehensively tackling the problem of biomechanical optimization of a sport of situation such as judo. Starting from the optimization of more simple sports, optimization of this kind of complex sports is grounded on a general physics tool such as the analysis of variation. The objective function is divided for static and dynamic situation of Athletes couple, and it is proposed also a sort of dynamic programming problem Strategic Optimization. A dynamic programming problem is an optimization problem in which decisions have to be taken sequentially over several time periods linked in some fashion. A strategy for a dynamic programming problem is just a contingency plan, a plan that specifies what is to be done at each stage as a function of all that has transpired up to that point. It is possible to demonstrate, under some conditions, that a Markovian optimal strategy is an optimal strategy for the dynamic programming problem under examination. At last we try to appr...

  16. Content Validation of a Catalog of Exercises for Judo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Gustavo F; Soares, Ytalo M; Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Couto, Bruno P; Dias, Ronaldo A; Costa, Varley T; Kalina, Roman M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the content validity of a catalog of 76 judo exercises. Two groups of raters comprising 16 judo experts evaluated the following content validity indicators: Clarity of Language, Practical Pertinence, Theoretical Relevance, and the Dimension of each exercise. The results confirmed the content validity of the judo training catalog with indicators showing scores greater than 0.80. These findings suggest that all 76 judo exercises are pertinent, representative of judo training and understandable for judo coaches. Thus, this catalog of judo exercises may help judo coaches in the selection and recording of exercises.

  17. Sociohistorical evolution of judo: introductory approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozimbo Cordeiro Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The sociohistorical evolution of judo provided by the research project Methodology for teaching judo from the critical–excelling stance is discussed in this article. The aim of the project was to establish a plan for systematizing judo as body culture constituent and scholastic knowledge of physical education. The ancillary pedagogical material is constituted by an introduction, objectives, contents, teaching methodology and evaluation system.

  18. Competition Versus Tradition in Kodokan Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Biron Ebell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Judo’s association with the International Olympic Committee (IOC and their corporate sponsors is eroding the practice, larger principles, and aims envisioned for Kodokan Judo by its founder, Jigoro Kano. In order to be accessible to a neophyte television audience, judo has had to become a more marketable commodity. These changes, among others, have devalued recreational judo in the minds of some. This paper presents a brief developmental history of judo as it evolved to meet the needs of the IOC.

  19. The First Kodokan Judo Kata International Competition and its Katas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gatling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In October 2007, the Kodokan hosted the first global Kodokan Judo forms (katas competition in Tokyo. This article briefly outlines the background of the competition, the competitors, the motivations for this competition, the historical development of judo katas, and their importance to the correct study of judo. Sources include personal kata study, observation of the two-day competition, interviews, and English and Japanese texts. Judo katas are an often neglected aspect of judo training, but there is growing interest in this classical, important part of the study of judo. The katas preserve the oldest techniques of judo, including its classical jujutsu roots.

  20. Judo the roads to Ippon

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    In this invited lecture the biomechanical analysis of tactical tools utilized by top athletes in high level competition is presented. In the first part, the lecture starts with a very short summary of the researches carried out on biomechanics, thermal exchange and metabolic energy expenditure related to judo throwing technique. In the second part it is developed the specific analysis of the technical tactical support tools.These tools allow to enhance the effectiveness of the athletes special throwing techniques,Tokui Waza,increasing the probability to obtain Ippon. The last part of the lecture emphasizes,the physics and biomechanics connected to judo competition that is defined as:an interacting complex nonlinear system, with chaotic and fractals aspect.This system must be analyzed studying the motion of couple of athletes system and evaluating their interaction,throws.Brownian tools are today the actual most sophisticated way of modeling motion in competition, starting from fractals till to multifractals a...

  1. The Way of Kata in Kodokan Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llyr C. Jones

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a “deep dive” into the formal exercises (katas of Kodokan judo. Specifically, it has two objectives: (i to explain the purpose of kata in judo, and (ii to critically evaluate the concept of kata championships. To achieve these objectives, we offer the authors’ personal comments, observations from rare Japanese source material, as well as insight into the thinking of world-renowned judo experts. We conclude that the concept of kata championships is fundamentally flawed and also damaging kata training.

  2. The Mutual Benefits of Listening to Young People in Care, with a Particular Focus on Grief and Loss: An Irish Foster Carer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Deirdre; Jenkinson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the mutual benefits for social workers and young people of active listening within a collaborative partnership incorporating foster carers, allowing the possibility to create a virtuous circle. The benefits for young people of increased self-esteem, positive identity and resilience among others are explored. The benefits for…

  3. Microbial fuel cells and osmotic membrane bioreactors have mutual benefits for wastewater treatment and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dianxun; Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates that microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) can be mutually beneficial when integrated together for wastewater treatment. When connecting MFCs with OMBRs, the solute buildup increased conductivity and buffer capacity, which greatly increased MFC power density from 3 W/m(3) up to 11.5 W/m(3). In turn, the MFCs conditioned and reduced sludge production and therefore reduced forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling. The MFC-OMBR equipped with new thin-film composite (TFC) membrane showed excellent organic (>95%) and phosphorus removal (>99%) and therefore maintained effluent sCOD below 20 mg/L. However, the nitrogen removal was limited due to the negative surface charge of the thin-film composite membrane and solution chemistry, which led to higher flux of ammonium toward the OMBR draw solution. Further studies are needed to improve nitrogen removal, reduce fouling, and optimize system integration.

  4. 5 CFR 2640.201 - Exemptions for interests in mutual funds, unit investment trusts, and employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plans. (a) Diversified mutual funds and unit investment trusts. An employee may participate in any particular matter affecting one or more holdings of a diversified mutual fund or a diversified unit... in several mutual funds whose portfolios contain stock in a small computer company. Each mutual fund...

  5. For Mutual Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Following years of political and economic turmoil,Ukraine is returningto the pro-Russia camp Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych started to change his predecessor Viktor Yushchenko’s pro-West policy after he won the country’s presidential election in February.

  6. NASA'S Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: An international approach toward bringing science and human exploration together for mutual benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and explora-tion, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. The institute is a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdis-ciplinary, research-focused collaborations. Its relative-ly large domestic teams work together along with in-ternational partners in both traditional and virtual set-tings to bring disparate approaches together for mutual benefit. This talk will describe the research efforts of the nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. com-plement of the Institute and how it is engaging the in-ternational science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. The Institute is centered on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars. It focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science cen-tered around all airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study reported here will represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Mar-tian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environ-ments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. The technical focus ranges from investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. SSERVI enhances the widening knowledgebase of planetary research by acting as a bridge between several differ-ent groups and bringing together researchers from the scientific and exploration communities, multiple disci-plines across the full range of planetary sciences, and domestic and

  7. Special Judo Fitness Test Level and Anthropometric Profile of Elite Spanish Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Cristina; Huertas, Jesús R; Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Escobar-Molina, Raquel

    2017-05-01

    Casals, C, Huertas, JR, Franchini, E, Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Sterkowicz, S, Gutiérrez-García, C, and Escobar-Molina, R. Special judo fitness test level and anthropometric profile of elite spanish judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1229-1235, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric variables that best predict Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance. In addition, anthropometric profiles of elite Spanish judo athletes were compared by sex and age category (seniors and juniors). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 51 (29 females) athletes from the Spanish National Judo Team were evaluated during a competitive period. All athletes performed the SJFT and underwent an anthropometric assessment through skinfold thickness measurements. Mann-Whitney comparisons by sex and age category showed that males had significantly higher muscle mass and lower fat mass than females (p elite athletes (R = 0.31, p somatotypes as predictors. Higher muscle and bone masses and lower ectomorphy were associated with better SJFT performance (R = 0.44, p athletes in conjunction with other factors.

  8. Judo: Where is the ease road?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This report had the intention of pointing some concerns with Judo practice that are discordant with Jigoro Kano’s ideas when he idealized Judo. In this way, some comments on how Judo practice is changing over time; the cultural differences that hinder the understanding of Judo principles and their application in practice as well as in everyday life are presented. There is also a discussion on how difficult is to teach this martial art that requires persistence to those who lack it. It also describes the difference between being judoist and a Judo fighter. Therefore, this approach aims to motivate practitioners, fighters, teachers and judoists to know, understand and deepen their knowledge about Judo. But it also has the goal to help them to contemplate, criticize and discuss their practices so that they do not leave the ease road to a totally rough one. RESUMO Este relato teve o intuito de apontar algumas questões que não estão indo ao encontro do que foi preconizado por Jigoro kano ao idealizar o Judô. Neste sentido, teceu-se alguns comentários sobre as transformações observadas na prática do Judô em função do tempo; as diferenças culturais que dificultam o entendimento dos princípios do Judô e, com isto, a não utilização destes tanto na prática como no cotidiano e, ainda, comentários sobre a dificuldade de se transmitir uma arte marcial que exige persistência àqueles que não a tem, além de levantar sobre a diferença entre ser judoca e lutador de Judô. Deste modo, com tal abordagem, pretendeu-se instigar praticantes, lutadores, professores e judocas, a conhecer, a compreender, a aprofundar e a continuar aprimorando, e também para que reflitam, critiquem, discutam e, principalmente, que não deixem o caminho suave se tornar de vez, totalmente ríspido.

  9. Technique and Tactic in Judo: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Miarka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to scrutinize various studies on technical and tactical aspects of judo matches. In addition, it also discusses how variables can have practical implications, preceded by a conceptual and historical perspective of the technical and tactical analysis through observation, notation and application of tactical systems of combats. This research deals with important tasks for technical and tactical analysis, such as comparisons of frequency distribution of events over a range of factors such as time structure, number of applied techniques and directions, number of successful actions per minute, quality of attacks awarded with points, movements of elite judo athletes, development and grip forms. This work tries to propose a digest of main studies from 1966 to 2008.

  10. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  11. 稻鸭共育对病虫草害及经济效益的影响%Effects of Rice-duck Mutualism on Diseases Insect Pests and Weeds and Economic Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强辉; 潘晓华

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]Study on the effects of rice-duck mutualism on weeds and insects pests and economic benefits of paddy field.[Method]Comparison of the incidence of weeds,sheath blight and insects pest under rice-duck mutualism,conventional cultivation and control treatment,the yield and economic benefits were analyzed under the 3 treatments.[Result]Average occurrence of weeds in rice-duck mutualism group decreased by 2.33 and 52.08 ind/m2 compared with that in conventional cultivation and control treatment;the control rate of mutualism was up to 75% against rice hopper,but just between 25%-60% against rice leaf miler and Chilo suppressalis.The rates of diseased plant and diseased holl against rice sheath blight were higher and disease indices were lower compared with control group.The yield of mutualism group was identical with conventional cultivation,which was greatly higher than that of control group.The results suggested an higher economic benefits and lower cost benefit ratio for rice-duck mutualism treatment.[Conclusion]Rice-duck mutualism gives birth to a positive effect to control the diseases,insect pests and weeds,as well as to economic benefits,providing basis on extension of rice-duck mutualism system.

  12. Benefits and costs associated with mutual-help community-based recovery homes: The Oxford House model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Byro, Erik; Jason, Leonard A; Ferrari, Joseph R; Olson, Bradley

    2012-02-01

    We used data from a randomized controlled study of Oxford House (OH), a self-run, self-supporting recovery home, to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Following substance abuse treatment, individuals that were assigned to an OH condition (n=68) were compared to individuals assigned to a usual care condition (n=61). Economic cost measures were derived from length of stay at an Oxford House residence, and derived from self-reported measures of inpatient and outpatient treatment utilization. Economic benefit measures were derived from self-reported information on monthly income, days participating in illegal activities, binary responses of alcohol and drug use, and incarceration. Results suggest that OH compared quite favorably to usual care: the net benefit of an OH stay was estimated to be roughly $29,000 per person on average. Bootstrapped standard errors suggested that the net benefit was statistically significant. Costs were incrementally higher under OH, but the benefits in terms of reduced illegal activity, incarceration and substance use substantially outweighed the costs. The positive net benefit for Oxford House is primarily driven by a large difference in illegal activity between OH and usual care participants. Using sensitivity analyses, under more conservative assumptions we still arrived at a net benefit favorable to OH of $17,830 per person. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.

  14. Employers and Families: Strategies for Mutual Benefit. San Diego Symposium (San Diego, California, April 15, 1983). [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dorothy W.; And Others

    Pros and cons of family-related benefits from both the employee's and the employer's viewpoints are first delineated in this transcription summarizing symposium presentations. Subsequent addresses focus on (1) the acceptability, availability, and affordability of employer-supported day care (in slide/cassette format); (2) reasons for and ways of…

  15. Judo Economics in Markets with Multiple Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cracau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a sequential Bertrand game with one dominant market incumbent and multiple small entrants selling homogeneous products. Whilst the equilibrium for the case of a single entrant is well known from Gelman and Salop (1983, we derive properties of the N-firm equilibrium and present an algorithm that can be used to calculate this equilibrium. The algorithm is based on a recursive manipulation of polynomials that derive the optimisation problem that each of the market entrants is facing. Using this algorithm we derive the exact equilibrium for the cases of two and three small entrants. For more than three entrants only approximate results are possible. We use numerical results to gain further understanding of the equilibrium for an increasing number of firms and in particular for the case where N diverges to infinity. Similarly to the two-firm Judo equilibrium, we see that a capacity limitation for the small firms is necessary to achieve positive profits.

  16. Analysis on judo specific and unspecific test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santos Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature it is not easy to find test which give us information about judokas developing their specific kinetic habits. Although judo is included in sociomotor sports (Parlebas, 2001, judokas physical fitness is normally evaluated through test which come from other type of sports, mainly from phychomotor sports. At the same time, batteries as the battery Eurofit (Conseil de L´Europe, 1989, are use to evaluate perceptive-motors aspects. In this article, we describe some of the tests found in specific western bibliography. Once finished this analysis, we mention the need of creating test which value the reality of competition confrontation more specifically, and which can be reliable, objective and reproductive (López and cols. 2004 being easy and useful to the trainer as well.

  17. Does exogenic food benefit both partners in an ant-plant mutualism? The case of Cecropia obtusa and its guest Azteca plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier; Orivel, Jérôme; Leroy, Céline

    2012-03-01

    In the mutualisms involving the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa and Azteca ovaticeps or A. alfari, both predatory, the ants defend their host trees from enemies and provide them with nutrients (myrmecotrophy). A. ovaticeps provisioned with prey and then (15)N-enriched food produced more individuals than did control colonies (not artificially provisioned). This was not true for A. alfari colonies, possibly due to differences in the degree of maturity of the colonies for the chosen range of host tree sizes (less than 3m in height). Myrmecotrophy was demonstrated for both Azteca species as provisioning the ants with (15)N-enriched food translated into higher δ(15)N values in host plant tissues, indicating that nitrogen passed from the food to the plant. Thus, the predatory activity of their guest ants benefits the Cecropia trees not only because the ants protect them from defoliators since most prey are phytophagous insects but also because the plant absorbs nutrients.

  18. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz; Chmura, Paweł; Błach, Wiesław; Migasiewicz, Juliusz; Klich, Sebastian; Chmura, Jan; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes within and between muscles of the torso and shoulder region during static endurance contraction in elite judokas. We hypothesized an increased functional connectivity of muscles from the shoulder and torso regions during sustained isometric contraction. Twelve healthy, right-handed judo competitors participated in the study. The SEMG signals from the dominant trapezius (upper, middle and lower part), deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscles were recorded during isometric endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas.

  19. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

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    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  20. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

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    Gaurav Dureja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  1. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain.

  2. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian judo athletes

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    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.

  3. Sport pedagogy: making the play possible in kids judo

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    Reinaldo Naia Cavazani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to deal with the pedagogical procedures for teaching, experiencing and learning kids Judo, observing the technical-tactical, socio-educational and cultural-historical referential. It is a bibliographic review study of critical-reflective and purposeful character applied to judo, according to the concept of creating the possible game. The possible game is group of pedagogical procedures focused on managing and ensuring the goals of teaching process, experiencing and learning of Judo, in the plans of the content, methodology and didactics, through the observation of the relationship between the characters, the context, the purposes and the meanings of sport, in order to ensure a wide perspective of the sports phenomenon.

  4. 丹尼尔·笛福的保险互助思想述评%A Review of Daniel Defoe's Thought of Insurance Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭磊

    2012-01-01

    文章旨在介绍丹尼尔·笛福以保险互助为代表的社会福利思想。为预防贫困,化解生活风险,笛福建议在海员、妇女等特殊群体以及普通劳动者中推行互助会和年金局计划。他对互助会和年金局的概念、原理、运作机制及功能等进行了详尽说明。文章认为笛福的保险互助思想具有问题预见性、理念先进性与计划可行性三大特点,但也存在保险性质不明、缺乏稳定性、理想化色彩浓厚等缺点。结合工业革命前夕的社会特点,文章认为这种以追求人类福祉为己任的保险互助思想值得肯定。%This article aims to introduce Daniel Defoe' s social welfare thought typified by insurance mutual benefit. In order to prevent the poverty and defuse the risk of life, Daniel Defoe suggested establishing the programs of mutual benefit association and pension bureau among such special groups as sailors and women, as well as ordinary laborers. He elaborated the concept, principles, operating mechanism and functions of the association and the bureau. The present paper believes that Defoe' s social welfare thought has three fea- tures: the accurate forecast of the social issues, the advanced nature of the ideas and the feasibility of the plans. However, there are shortcomings in his thought. For example, the nature of his insurance is un- known, the plan lacks stability, and his thought has a strong sense of idealism. The author believes that, in view of the social characteristics on the eve of the industrial revolution, such insurance thought aiming at helping each other is worthy of affirmation for its taking the human' s well-being as a duty.

  5. Reinterpreting the history of women's judo in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Marques, Juliana Bastos; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-01-01

    This paper reassesses the role of women in judo in Japan, from its secluded and restricted beginnings in the late nineteenth century to the gradual changes in gender and social paradigms triggered by the influence of Western feminist struggle from the 1960s onwards. Judo has been considered in theory an inclusive martial art because its creator, Jigoro Kano, stressed safety, etiquette and moral teachings irrespective of age, size or gender of its adherents. However, the social and cultural environment in Japan has traditionally discriminated against women both outside and inside the dojo (training place). We treat this issue historically, considering the broader context of the Japanese social, political and cultural developments.

  6. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL PREPARATION IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preparation is a constituent part of overall sports preparation. Conditional training might be defined as a process of improvement of a sportsman’s functional and motor abilities, morphological characteristics, health, as well as the required motor knowledge. Conditional preparation can be might be classified as: general, basic and situational conditional preparation. Programs of the conditional training might be classified as: developing, resuming, recovering, preventive and recovering ones. High level of the general physical preparation enables maximum demonstration of the physical abilities of a sportsman during the stage of improvement of the specific motor abilities. Good general preparation of a sportsman enables him to push beyond his functional limits in order to cope with heavy loads easier, which subsequently enables him to achieve top performance level. Basic conditional preparation assumes the development of the most important judo abilities. Specific conditional preparation is related directly to the execution of different structural elements under the conditional requirements. Situational conditional preparation enables integration of the tactical and conditional training.

  7. Mutual Benefits in Promoting Bequests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Charles W., III

    1979-01-01

    Encouragement of wills and bequests is the backbone of a good planned giving program. Methods of promotion, types of will gifts, tax aspects, identification of potential donors, a simple bequest program, program evaluation, and the need for continuity and patience are discussed. (MLW)

  8. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF YOUNG JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 80 young judo athletes aged from 16-17 year, was applied the system a total of 18 variables, of which 10 are morphologic characteristic and 8 motoric abilities variables, with a purpose to determinate mutual report between each other, while the information were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis. With case of authentication statistically important relation was achieve one pair of canonical correlations statistically important. In morphologic variables field the canonical factor is interpreted in first canonical structure is the consists of variables: adipose tissue under skin of stomach (ATST, adipose tissue under skin of triceps (ATTR, adipose tissue under skin of biceps (ATBI, adipose tissue under skin of sub scapulars (ATSS, adipose tissue under skin of sub iliac a (ATSI and adipose tissue under skin of list (ATSL, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of adipose tissue: And second structure of canonical factors of anthropometric characteristics is the consists of variables: body length: body length (LEBO, length of the leg (LELE and length of the arm (LEAR, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of longitudinal dimensionality. The first structure of canonical factors in motoric variables is can not be interpreted because of low values of motor variables, while second structure of canonical factors of motoric abilities is the consists of variables: squeeze palm (SQPA, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of strong factor in palm. Based on structure analysis of matrix results of canonical factors results were shown that to young judo athletes of this age exist statistically valid correlations between canonical factor of anthropometric variables and canonical factor of variables to motoric abilities which is (Rc=77 that is statistically valid in level (P=00.

  9. Biomechanical Classification of Judo Throwing Techniques (Nage Waza)

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is applied the classic mechanical point of view to classify all the movements known as throwing judo techniques; the application of the Newtonian physical methods and principles is able to rationalize the whole matter and to group under only two very simple and clear principles all the movements, before grouped in many generic and not very clear way.

  10. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  11. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  12. The formation of corona reception of judo veteran competitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Serhij

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the substantiation of the algorithm of corona reception of judo veteran competitive activity formation, each of its steps. Purposeful formation of judoka technical actions individual arsenal using the proposed algorithm (7 stages is implemented on the basis of the identification, a subsequent in-depth development and improvement of the best techniques.

  13. THE EXAMINATION OF ATTITUDES TOWARD JUDO IN GREEK ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaggelidis G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate opinions about judo athletes’ personality. For this purpose forty eight (48 judo athletes, 12 women and 36 men, 30+9.1 years old (mean+SD, with none to five dan, participated in the research. All the subjects answered to a 35-item questionnaire describing the image they have towards those people who are doing judo, in regard to five factors such as social nature, volition nature, active nature, physicalnature and emotional nature. For the statistical analysis the statistic packet SPSS/PC version 12.0 for windows wasused. Men’s and women’s rating about judo athletes’ image was almost the same on all items ranging from the average, to somewhat strong and, also, to strong. However, there was a definitely significant difference in the comparison of the two groups, among men and women, with men rating significantly higher in the item of “beingcautious” of active nature (t=3.518, p<0.01, in the item of “not being unfair in things” of emotional nature (t=2.533, p<0.05, and in the item of “being mild” of emotional nature, too (t=2.718, p<0.01. However, women were rating significantly higher in the item of “having an independent nature” of volition nature (t=-2.350,p<0.05. Age didn’t correlate with any item. Moreover, chi square test showed that dan number affects the item of “having leadership” of social nature (x2=31.335, p<0.05. The results lead to the conclusions that the high rating in the image of all thirty-five items, of all the five senses, social nature, volition nature, active nature, physical nature and emotional nature in both men and women regarding judo is high and is thought to be an expression of attitudesprovided in judo lessons and matches, as well as during judo practice time.

  14. Judo comes to California: Judo vs. Wrestling in the American West, 1900-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hlinak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Japanese-American immigration into the American West through the prism of athletics, specifically by examining a series of contests between judoka and wrestlers from 1900 to 1920 in California. The popularity of these matches demonstrates the complex relationship between Japanese-Americans and the dominant European-American culture of the western states during this period. This complexity will be shown first by looking at the way in which martial arts are closely linked to national and ethnic identity. The strong barnstorming tradition in both judo and wrestling led to a number of matches of great interest to European-Americans of the period. These matches appealed to an interest in Japanese culture, a desire to see stereotypes reinforced, and nationalist tendencies during an age of uncertainty.

  15. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection.

  16. Do maximal aerobic power and blood lactate concentration affect Specific Judo Fitness Test performance in female judo athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbouj, H; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A

    2016-12-01

    The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m(-2)) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l(-1). No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes.

  17. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  18. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Judo Athletes: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Torres-Luque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage, heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.

  19. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  20. The Investigation of Physical Performance Status of Visually and Hearing Impaired Applying Judo Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the physical performances of visually and hearing impaired doing judo training in this study. 32 male athletes, who were doing judo training, volunteer and, visually and hearing impaired, participated in this study. The investigation was applied to visually impaired (N = 12, mean ± SD; age: 25.75 ± 3.55 years, height:…

  1. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POSTURAL STATE NON-ATHLETEST AND JUDO ATLETES OF YOUNG ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojica Dačević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of this work is to determine the situation and possible differences in postural state between judo athletes and non-athletes of younger adolescent age. Research is conducted on a sample of 186 examinees of 12 and 13 years old, from the territory of Podgorica and Niksic. The total sample is divided into two subsamples as follows: non-athletes subsample (96 from the 4th grade of elementary school and subsample of judo athletes (90 from the 14 judo clubs. Postural state is assessed by using the method of Napoleon Wolanski. H square test (χ2 ie. Yet׳s correction for continuity in tables 2x2 was applied in determining possible differences of frequency of postural disorders between non-athletes and judo athletes of younger adolescent age. It has been determined that there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of postural disorders in holding abdomen between sub samples of judo athletes and non-athletes. It was indicated that the prevalence of this disorder is in higher percentage at judo athletes. In other segments of the body were not determined any statistically significant differences between judo athletes and non-athletes of the same age.

  3. AEROBIC POWER IN CHILD, CADET AND SENIOR JUDO ATHLETES

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    Elena Pocecco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare performance and physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests of combat duration in male child, cadet and senior judo athletes. Power output and physiological parameters, i.e., peak oxygen uptake ( ·VO2peak, peak ventilation, peak heart rate, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion, of 7 child (under 15 years: age class U15, 12.7 ± 1.1 yrs, 10 cadet (U17, 14.9 ± 0.7 yrs and 8 senior ( 20, 29.3 ± 9.2 yrs male judo athletes were assessed during incremental tests of combat duration on an arm crank and a cycle ergometer. Children as well as cadets demonstrated higher upper body relative VO2peak than seniors (37.3 ± 4.9, 39.2 ± 5.0 and 31.0 ± 2.1 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, respectively; moreover, upper and lower body relative VO2peak decreased with increasing age (r = -0.575, p < 0.003 and r = -0.580, p < 0.002, respectively. Children showed lower blood lactate concentrations after cranking as well as after cycling when compared to seniors (7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 11.4 ± 2.1 mmol∙l-1 and 7.9 ± 3.0 vs. 12.0 ± 1.9 mmol���l-1, respectively; furthermore, blood lactate values after cranking increased with age (r = 0.473, p < 0.017. These differences should be considered in planning the training for judo athletes of different age classes.

  4. A Taxonomy of Principles Used in Judo Throwing Techniques

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    Linda Yiannakis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for examining principles of judo throwing techniques (nage-waza. The principles formulated in this study are classified as primarily structural, operational, or contextual in nature. Such an organization of properties allows a clearer examination of the operation of throwing techniques for the purpose of identification, teaching, and innovation. This framework was developed from the author’s personal observations and understanding of throwing principles. This way of thinking about throwing principles may be useful for examining techniques in other martial arts as well.

  5. RELIABILITY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF JUDO TECHNIQUES

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    Slavko Obadov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 106 judokas. Assessment of the level of mastership of judo techniques was carried out by evaluation of fi ve competent studies. Each subject performed a technique three times and each performance was evaluated by the judges. In order to evaluate measurement of each technique, Cronbach’s coeffi cient of reliability  was calculated. During the procedure the subjects's results were also transformed to factor scores i.e. the results of each performer at the main component of evaluation in the fi ve studies. These factor scores could be used in the subsequent procedure of multivariant statistical analysis.

  6. How to enhance effectiveness of Direct Attack Judo throws

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is performed an appraisal of the Olympic Sport Judo effectiveness in the optics of Biomechanics. To broaden the classical view,the field of experimentation is obviously the high level competition in which most of rotational application can be found applied more or less instinctively by high level Athletes. Considering the two biomechanical tools that are the physical basis of judo throws it is possible to obtain such results from the analysis of high competition application:Lever Techniques are enhanced in their effectiveness in three ways: The rotational movements, strictly connected to the Lever techniques mechanics achieving victory in competition, can be extended to the unbalance phase. The rotational movements can be applied in a totally new way putting away even the unbalance that is basic in the Lever techniques. The Lever tool can be hybridized with the Couple tool to lower the energy consumption. Couple Techniques are enhanced in their effectiveness also in three ways: The Couple tool t...

  7. THE PROGRESS ACHIEVED BY JUDOKAS AFTER STRENGTH TRAINING WITH A JUDO-SPECIFIC MACHINE

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    Laurent Blais

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available For judo players, as in many sports activities, strength development has become an important element of performance. However, this should not be done separately from the development of technique. Specific strength training is thus used for the controlled strengthening of specific muscles or muscle groups, corresponding to the movement in a competitive situation. In line with this, the use of a judo specific apparatus is proposed. The aim of this study is to analyze the progress of a group of judokas after a training program with the apparatus. The results have shown that, using the apparatus, the heaviest weight achieved using the throwing technique is greater. In addition, the judokas' technique improves as a consequence of this training program. This judo specific apparatus could therefore be used to complement traditional judo training

  8. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

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    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  9. Feature of the reaction to physical exertion of the students, engaged in basketball and judo

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    Evdokimov E.I.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of multifactor method of express-diagnostics S. Dushanin and evaluation vegetovascular regulation to predict the reaction of students involved in basketball and judo to physical activity. It is shown that the reaction of basketball has the same type that suits the sport. In judo identified two opposing tendencies of functional changes. Study shows promise to control the training process, the ratio of different types of metabolism.

  10. Self-assessment and aggression’s manifestation of Judo wrestlers in age and qualification aspects

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    V.P. Ivaskiene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine self assessment and aggression’s manifestations of Judo wrestlers in age and qualification aspects. Material: in the research boys - Judo wrestlers from sport schools of Kaunas (Lithuania participated (n=90, age - 16.9 ± 2.0 years. The athletes were divided into three groups. In qualification aspects were divided into two groups. The first group was composed as per sport achievements - the members of combined Lithuanian teams. The second group consisted athletes of different sport categories, which were not the members of combined teams. We used questionnaire as per scale of self assessment of M. Rosenberg and questionnaire of aggressiveness of Buss-Perry. Estimation of the received data was fulfilled with the help of U criterion of Manna-Whitney, H criterion of Kruskall-Wallis and χ2-criterion. Assessment of confidence of mean group data’s differences was fulfilled by Student’s t-test. Correlations of indicators were determined with the help of correlation coefficient of Spearmen. Results: with increasing of Judo wrestlers’ age we observed the tendency to increasing of their self-assessment. The older sportsmen become the higher is theirs aggressiveness. Depending on self-assessment level we did not find statistically confident differences in their aggression indicators. Large quantity of elite Judo wrestlers has high self-assessment. Self assessment and aggression indicators of sportsmen with sport categories statistically do not differ for elite Judo wrestlers’ indicators. Correlation between mean level of self assessment and aggression are present only in young Judo wrestlers. Conclusions: in all age groups of Judo wrester’s average level of self assessment prevails. Higher level is characteristic only for members of combined teams of the country. Judo wrestlers’ aggression depending on age differs only by one component (more adult wrestlers are more aggressive than juniors. In respect to the level of

  11. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGIC AND MOTORIC PARAMETER TO JUDO AND KARATE SPORTIEST BOYS

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    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 160 boys from secondary schools of Prizren 16-17 age, separated in two groups were implicated 18 tests, from them 10 test for valuation morphologic characteristic and 8 test, for valuation motoric abilities. Group (A is component from 80 judo athletes’ boys and group (B from 80 karate athletes’ boys. Purpose of this investigation is to verify changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys in morphologic characteristic and motoric abilities. The problem of investigation was to investigate if there are changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys in morphologic characteristic that represent longitudinal dimensionality, body measure and adipose tissue, and in motoric abilities (used is eurofit battery tests. For global analysis of dimension to some changes and variable system (which contribute in changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys were implicated t-test for small independent sample and, canonic discriminative analysis. The results of this study show that judo and karate athletes significantly differ among themselves in motoric abilities, judo athletes are better in the tests: long jump from place (LOJU, squeeze palm (SQPA and support the knuckle (SUKN, while the karate athletes are better in the tests: taping for hands (TAHE, reach sitting down position (RSDP and run there-hire 10x5 meters (R10x5M, but these changes were not noticed and morphological variables.

  12. Judges in judo conform to the referee because of the reactive feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Filip; Ginis, Pieter; Smits, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This experiment tested whether the conformism observed among panels of judges in aesthetic sports also occurs among judges in judo. Similar to aesthetic sports, judo judging relies upon a form of open feedback. However, in judo, this system is reactive (i.e. two judges have to publicly 'correct' the score given by the higher-status referee), whereas it is active in aesthetic sports (i.e. judges with equal status report their score simultaneously and can use the feedback about the scores of their colleagues for evaluating later performances). In order to test whether such reactive open-feedback system leads to conformism among judges in judo, we designed an experiment in which this feedback was manipulated. Participants were 20 certified Flemish judges, who had to score two sets of 11 ambiguous video sequences that are used during formation and training of judo judges: one set with feedback about the referee's score and one set without feedback. The results revealed that when participants knew the referee's score, their scores were significantly more in line with this score than when they did not know this score. More specifically, for both sets of sequences at least 10% less deviations from the referee were observed when participants were given feedback about the score of the referee. These results suggest that preventable conformism can occur in typical judo judging, that is with reactive open feedback.

  13. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

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    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  14. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae) compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, B C; Fagundes, R; Silva, L F; Tofoli, J F V; Santos, A M; Imai, B Y P; Gomes, G G; Hermidorff, M M; Ribeiro, S P

    2015-01-01

    Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), are important components of ecological communities' evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  15. [Trichophyton tonsurans infection among judo practitioners who attended the National Junior High School Judo Tournament in Japan (2005): incidence and therapeutic response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganami, Morio; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2006-01-01

    The spread of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among high school students and university undergraduates who practice Judo is an emerging problem in Japan and other countries. However, the extent of infection among Judo practitioners in junior high school in Japan is unknown. We conducted an epidemiological study of T. tonsurans infection among students who participated in the national junior high school Judo tournament in 2005. Of the 1,039 tournament participants invited to undergo screening, 496 (218 boys and 278 girls) consented, and 45 participants (9.1%) were found to be positive by hairbrush culture. We found the following to be relative risk factors for T. tonsurans infection: 1) male gender, 2) frequent judo practice in groups at either a high school or a dojo, 3) presence of tinea corporis in practice partners, 4) history of tinea corporis, 5) classification in lower-weight categories. 45 culture positive subjects were offered treatment and re-examined by hairbrush culture 3 months later. All twelve of them had negative cultures after miconazole shampoo treatment. A half of 12 subjects who had systemic antifungal therapy with itraconazole had positive culture. These observations suggest that T. tonsurans infection is rapidly spreading among junior high school Judo players in Japan. We speculate that the outbreak is caused, at least in part, by ignorance of the disease among Judo students, coaches and officials due to the high incidence of carriers and the mild or asymptomatic form of disease seen in infected individuals. Appropriate measures should be taken immediately to prevent more severe outbreak of this disease.

  16. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  17. Technical variation in a sample of high level judo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Meira, Cassio Miranda Júnior; Gomes, Fabio Rodrigo Ferreira; Tani, Go

    2008-06-01

    Technical actions performed by two groups of judokas who won medals at World Championships and Olympic Games during the period 1995-2001 were analyzed. In the Super Elite group (n = 17) were the best athletes in each weight category. The Elite group (n = 16) were medal winners who were not champions and did not win more than three medals. Super Elite judokas used a greater number of throwing techniques which resulted in scores, even when expressed relative to the total number of matches performed, and these techniques were applied in more directions than those of Elite judokas. Further, the number of different throwing techniques and the variability of directions in which techniques were applied were significantly correlated with number of wins and the number of points and ippon scored. Thus, a greater number of throwing techniques and use of directions for attack seem to be important in increasing unpredictability during judo matches.

  18. Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

  19. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum, the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  20. Mutual benefit for foreign medical students and Chinese postgraduates: A mixed team-based learning method overcomes communication problems in hematology clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianling; Chen, Buyuan; Li, Xiaofan; Song, Qingxiao; Chen, Yuanzhong

    2017-03-04

    Hematology is difficult for students to learn. A beneficial education method for hematology clerkship training is required to help students develop clinical skills. Foreign medical students often encounter communication issues in China. To address this issue, Chinese post-graduates from our institute are willing to assist with educating foreign students. Therefore, we propose a mixed team-based learning method (MTBL) which might overcome communication problems in hematology clerkship. Twenty-two foreign medical Students attended a 2-week hematology clerkship in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. Twenty-one foreign African medical students were assigned randomly into two groups. Fourteen foreign African medical students were assigned to MTBL group. Each MTBL team included two foreign African medical students and one Chinese post-graduate. Seven foreign African medical students were assigned to lecture-based learning method (LBL) group, which had a foreign medical classmate from Hong Kong or Chinese intern volunteers to serve as translators. The practice test scores of MTBL were significantly higher than LBL group (p problems in hematology clerkship. Foreign medical students and Chinese post-graduates alike can benefit from MTBL. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):93-96, 2017.

  1. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms.

  2. Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence of humans and the electromagnetic interference generated by personal portable devices, wireless microphones and other wireless systems used by the media. For the assessment of the impact that the topology and the morphology of these environments have on electromagnetic propagation, an in-house developed 3D ray-launching software has been used in this study. Time domain results as well as estimations of received power level have been obtained for the complete volume of a training venue of a local judo club’s facilities with a contest area with the dimensions specified by the International Judo Federation (IJF for international competitions. The obtained simulation results have been compared with measurements, which have been carried out deploying ZigBee-compliant XBee Pro modules at presented scenario, using approved Judogis (jacket, trousers and belt. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an in-house human body computational model. Such analysis has allowed the design and development of an in house application devoted to monitor the practice of judo, in order to aid referee activities, training routines and to enhance spectator experience.

  3. Analysis of the Relative Age Effect in Elite Youth Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes.

  4. Olympic preparation in Brazilian judo athletes: description and perceived relevance of training practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the training routines used by judo athletes and their perception concerning the relevance, effort made, concentration needed, and pleasure obtained during the training sessions conducted 6 months before their Olympic participation and to compare with medal winners and other competitors in these aspects. Sixty-one Olympic Brazilian judo athletes (men = 39; women = 22), representing 66.3% of all Brazilian participants in this Olympic sport (from 1964 to 2008), including 10 medal winners (9 men and 1 woman) answered a questionnaire concerning their training routines. Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test for independent samples were used. Judo medalists and nonmedalists in the Olympic Games did not differ in: (a) the age when they started to practice and to compete in judo, (b) the age when they competed in the Olympic Games, (c) hours of training per week and per training session and the number of training sessions per day in their preparation for this event, (d) frequency and time spent for performing judo-specific and general exercises and their perceived relevance, effort, pleasure, and concentration for these activities performed during the preparation for the Olympic Games. The only differences found were the groundwork (ne-waza) randori practice, which was less frequently performed by medal winners, and perceived relevance attributed to this activity, which was considered less relevant by the medal winners compared with nonmedal winners. Thus, judo Olympic medal winners and nonmedalists did not differ in many training aspects in the final phase of their preparation to the Olympic Games.

  5. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  6. The Distribution Pattern of Skinfold Thickness in College Female Judo Players

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 優; 竹内, 外夫; 湯浅, 景元; Masaru, HASEGAWA; Hokao, TAKEUCHI; Kagemoto, YUASA

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the distribution pattern of the skinfold thickness in female college judo players. A total of 17 judo players were divided into two groups : -56kg and +56kg groups. These players were compared to non-trained female subjects of similar age. Skinfold thickenesses were measured on 30 body sites with using B-mode ultrasonic device employing a 5MHz tansducer. The +56kg group showed significantly thicker skinfold than-56kg group at the sites of above and under...

  7. Enhancing Communication and Achieving Mutual-benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gendang; Xu Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small &Medium Enterprises Fair was completed successfully The pageant for international small and medium enterprises, the third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small & Medium Enterprises Fair, was completed successfully recently in Guangzhou.During those several days, the fair has achieved great success.

  8. The Ist CIAPE: Better Services & Mutual Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Held by the Ministry of Commerce,China International Auto Parts Expo (CIAPE) is the only internationalized exposition of auto parts by the state, which will be held everyyear. The first CIAPE is scheduled to be held from November 29 to December 1, 2007 in China International Exhibition Center in Beijing, with a floorage of over 50,000 square meters.

  9. La evolución histórica del judo femenino: Japón versus Occidente

    OpenAIRE

    Villamón Herrera, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Se analiza la evolución histórica del judo femenino. De este modo, se pretende constatar la diferente evolución que, en el devenir de los tiempos, ha experimentado la práctica del judo por la mujer en Japón y en Occidente. Si bien dicho proceso evolutivo se unificaría, como se pone de manifiesto, fruto de la occidentalización o, lo que es lo mismo, de la deportivización que desplazaría el arraigo tradicional caracterizador del judo japonés.

  10. Rapid weight loss followed by recovery time does not affect judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson; Gualano, Bruno; Kashiwagura, Daniel B; Solis, Marina Y; Benatti, Fabiana B; Fuchs, Marina; Lancha Junior, Antonio H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of rapid weight loss followed by a 4-h recovery on judo-related performance. Seven weight-cycler athletes were assigned to a weight loss group (5% body weight reduction by self-selected regime) and seven non-weight-cyclers to a control group (no weight reduction). Body composition, performance, glucose, and lactate were assessed before and after weight reduction (5-7 days apart; control group kept weight stable). The weight loss group had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate after the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss period and recovery after the weigh-in. Performance was evaluated through a specific judo exercise, followed by a 5-min judo combat and by three bouts of the Wingate test. Both groups significantly improved performance after the weight loss period. No interaction effects were observed. The energy and macronutrient intake of the weight loss group were significantly lower than for the control group. The weight loss group consumed large amounts of food and carbohydrate during the 4-h recovery period. No changes were observed in lactate concentration, but a significant decrease in glucose during rest was observed in the weight loss group. In conclusion, rapid weight loss did not affect judo-related performance in experienced weight-cyclers when the athletes had 4 h to recover. These results should not be extrapolated to inexperienced weight-cyclers.

  11. Astonishing Judo, first contact tactics: A Biomechanical evaluation of tactics at start of high level competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focalized on the limit application of judo throws, by tactics at first contact time, with some astonishing information at a first seeing, but biomechanically grounded, not often applied or because against the sound common sense or out the old oral judo tradition. To do so we provide an appraisal of the grips concept and his consequences in the Olympic sport judo from a biomechanics perspective, we will try to deeper both the concept and the function of grips and define the potential application of some throws without grips. Broadening this situation we try to underline some specific throwing situation in which grips are or not at all applied or applied in non conventional way. We describe at first the problem from the theoretical point of view. And as second point we try to find practical application, original or already developed in high level competitions. The provocative words Judo without grips or throw without grips are connected to the limit application of some biomechanical tricks, ground...

  12. Evaluation of a Judo/Community Organization Program to Treat Predelinquent Hispanic Immigrant Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Stephen J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Ninety Latino immigrant children in grades 3-6, many of whom were referred due to aggressive or other problem behaviors, participated for 1 year in a twice-weekly community program that featured judo instruction, tutoring, and parent training. Children improved significantly in academic achievement and behavior. Parents improved significantly in…

  13. Plan- en procesevaluatie van de scholing van gevangenispersoneel in 'Verbal Judo'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzhuijzen, J. van; Plaisier, J.

    2007-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is informatie verzameld over de toepassing, ervaringen en werkzaamheid van de training Verbal judo, op grond waarvan een onderbouwde beslissing kan worden genomen over het continueren van deze training, alsmede over de noodzaak om hier nader - kwantitatief - onderzoek naar te verric

  14. Plan- en procesevaluatie van de scholing van gevangenispersoneel in 'Verbal Judo'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzhuijzen, J. van; Plaisier, J.

    2007-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is informatie verzameld over de toepassing, ervaringen en werkzaamheid van de training Verbal judo, op grond waarvan een onderbouwde beslissing kan worden genomen over het continueren van deze training, alsmede over de noodzaak om hier nader - kwantitatief - onderzoek naar te

  15. Kinematics of judo breakfall for osoto-gari: Considerations for head injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Sentaro; Ishii, Takanori; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Hashimoto, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that increasing the skill level of judokas will decrease the number of head injuries sustained during judo. However, the kinematics are poorly understood, making it difficult to establish an effective breakfall teaching programme. Therefore, we studied the kinematic parameters of breakfall for osoto-gari to identify the risk of judo-related head injuries by comparing experienced and novice judokas. This information will provide insight into developing a better prevention plan for judo-related head injuries. A total of 10 experienced and 12 novice judokas volunteered to participate in this study. The kinematic data of the breakfall motion for osoto-gari were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis technique (200 Hz). We observed a significantly higher peak neck extension momentum in the novice group than in the experienced group. This suggests that neck extension momentum during breakfall is associated with the risk of head injuries during judo. In addition, the novice judokas demonstrated a significantly greater flexed pattern in the trunk and hip movement than the experienced judokas (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the trunk and lower extremity motion are important kinematic parameters that determine the skill level in performing the breakfall for osoto-gari.

  16. Evaluation of a Judo/Community Organization Program to Treat Predelinquent Hispanic Immigrant Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Stephen J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Ninety Latino immigrant children in grades 3-6, many of whom were referred due to aggressive or other problem behaviors, participated for 1 year in a twice-weekly community program that featured judo instruction, tutoring, and parent training. Children improved significantly in academic achievement and behavior. Parents improved significantly in…

  17. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    regions during sustained isometric contraction. Methods: Twelve healthy, right-handed judo competitors participated in the study. The SEMG signals from the dominant trapezius (upper, middle and lower part), deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscles were recorded during isometric...

  18. Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.

  19. Use of heart rate variability in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Alamo, Juan M; García-Massó, Xavier; Buscà, Bernat; López, Jose L; Serra-Añó, Pilar; González, Luís-Millán

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of different judo training loads on heart rate variability (HRV) measurements, to determine if they can be used as valid indicators in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes. Fourteen male national-standard judo athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, and each group followed a different type of training, namely, a high training load (HTL) and a moderate training load program (MTL). Data collection included HRV measurements, a Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-SPORT), and strength measurements, 4 weeks before and after the training program. The HTL group had lower square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals, very low frequency, high frequency, short-term variability, short-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, general stress, maximum strength, maximum power, and higher low/high frequency ratio at posttest compared with pretest (p ≤ 0.05). The HTL group showed lower short-range and long-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, and higher general stress than the MTL group in posttest measurements (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, judo athletes enrolled in an HTL program showed an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system with decreased vagal modulation, together with a decrease in strength parameters, higher markers for stress, and a lower perception of recovery.

  20. Home advantage in judo: a study of the world ranking list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Julio, Ursula; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Miarka, Bianca; Takito, Monica Yuri; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the International Judo Federation established a ranking system (RS) to classify athletes and to distribute the competitor quotas of the Olympic Games. However, the RS does not consider the home advantage. This issue has not been studied in judo, and its implications for the RS have not been determined. The objective was to verify the home advantage in judo in terms of winning a medal or the number of matches won. Therefore, 25 competitions that computed points for the RS in 2009 were analysed. Logistic regression analysis and the Poisson generalised linear model were used for the analyses, which included the relative quality of the athletes. The sample was composed only of athletes who had competed both at home and away. The odds ratio for winning medals was higher for athletes who competed at home for both males and females. The association between the number of matches won and competing at home was significant only for the male athletes. The home advantage was observed in the competitions that used the judo RS. Thus, it is likely that athletes from countries that host competitions using the RS have an advantage in terms of obtaining their Olympic classification.

  1. ATHLETE'S RETENTION OF A COACH'S INSTRUCTION BEFORE A JUDO COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mesquita

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the instruction of the Judo coach immediately before the competition, in the process of preparation for the fights, looking to (1 study the coherency between the information which the coach transmits and that which the athlete retains; (2 identify the correlation between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach; (3 determine if the retention varies in relation to variables such as the form and nature of the information, as well as the gender and practice category of the athletes. The participants were 11 coaches and 58 athletes of 3 categories: under- 15, under-17 and under-20, of both genders. One hundred and sixteen (116 instructional episodes were observed, which corresponds to four hundred and six (406 information units convoyed by the coaches. The coaches' instructions given before the competition were recorded in an audio and video register. After the coaches' instruction, the athletes were approached by the investigator and an interview was accomplished. To determine if the retention varies in relation to form and nature of the information and gender and practice category of the athletes, the non-parametric statistics, U de Mann-Whitney and Kruskal- Wallis, was used. Correlation of Spearman was applied to verify the degree of association between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes and the information coherency was inversely related to the number of transmitted ideas. The coaches were, mainly, prescriptive and the form of the information was not important for the retention of the information. Gender was a differentiated variable as the girls showed more coherency in the retained ideas in relation to the ideas transmitted by the coach

  2. LA ADQUISICIÓN DE LA PERICIA EN JUDO: ACTIVIDADES GENERALES Y COTIDIANAS [The acquisition of expertise in Judo: general and daily activities] The acquisition of expertise in Judo: general and daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Iglesias Gallego

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la precepción que tienen los judocas de diferente nivel de pericia respecto a las actividades generales y cotidianas. La muestra de estudio estuvo compuesta por judocas de nivel regional (n = 9, nacional (n = 27 e internacional (n = 40. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó el cuestionario como instrumento de medida, a través del cual los sujetos valoraron cada actividad desde cuatro dimensiones: concentración, esfuerzo físico, diversión y rendimiento. Los judocas de nivel internacional destacaron la dieta como la actividad más importante para mejorar el rendimiento dentro de las actividades generales. En cuanto a las actividades cotidianas todos los judocas destacaron dormir como la actividad más importante para mejorar el rendimiento. Palabras clave: Práctica deliberada, rendimiento, pericia, judo.The objective of this research is to analyze the preception that have the judokas of different levels of expertise regarding the general and daily activities. The study sample consisted of regional level judo (n = 9, national (n = 27 and international (n = 40. For data collection questionnaire was used as a measuring instrument, through which the subjects rated each activity from four dimensions: concentration, physical exertion, fun and performance. The international judokas stressed the diet as the most important activity to improve performance within the overall activities. With regard to daily activities sleep all judokas highlighted as the most important activity to improve performance.   Key words: Deliberate practice, performance, expertise, judo.

  3. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  4. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  5. Efectos agudos del enfrentamiento en judo: análisis multiparamétrico Acute effects of the judo fight: multiparametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carballeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    El propósito del presente estudio fue caracterizar el esfuerzo de judo, mediante la cuantificación de cambios inducidos por un combate sobre aspectos metabólicos y neuromusculares. En una muestra de 8 judocas masculinos pertenecientes a la Selección Gallega Senior, se registró la frecuencia cardíaca (Fc durante un enfrentamiento. Antes e inmediatamente después del combate se midieron lactacidemia, salto con contramovimiento, dinamometría manual y rendimiento isométrico en press banca 90º, remo 90º y sentadilla 160º. Fc se situó en el 92,65±3,26% de la máxima (%Fcmáx. alcanzando la lactacidemia niveles de 13,75±3,09 mmol/L. Descendió aproximadamente un 5% el resultado en dinamometría manual. El rendimiento en los ejercicios de remo y press banca disminuyó, alcanzando significación estadística en éste último para el valor pico (PFI y medio (MFI (postest 93,93±6,20% y 91,60±9,47% respecto al pretest para PFI y MFI respectivamente. Se apreciaron diferencias entre las modificaciones del rendimiento isométrico del miembro inferior y superior, siendo este último menos afectado.
    Palabras Clave: judo, fuerza, lactacidemia, frecuencia cardíaca.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effort in judo, through quantification of changes induced by a fight on neuromuscular and metabolic aspects. In a sample of 8 male judo fighters, members of the Senior Galician Selection (Spain, heart rate (Fc was recorded during a judo match. Before and immediately after the fight lactate blood concentration, countermovement jump, isometric handgrip dinamometry and performance in isometric bench press 90º, rowing 90º and squat 160º were measured. Fc represented 92.65±3.26% of the maximum (%Fcmáx. reaching lactate concentration levels of 13.75±3.09 mmol/L. Results decreased around 5% in isometric handgrip

  6. Analysis of Dehydration in the Different Stages of Women Training: Wrestling vs. Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Calvo Rico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing variables concerning body composition and strength affected by dehydration methods used to reach the competition weight in sportswomen (19 women. This study took into account two combat sports (wrestling sample: 11 women and judo sample: 8 women in three different training stages: base, specific and pre-competitive. The assessment tools applied to body composition sizes and strength variables were Inbody 230 and Isocontro 5.0, respectively. Results showed that both wrestling training and judo training in specific and pre-competitive stages were done under water scarcity. Then, the most affected strength variables were: maximum strength and the body composition ones were: weight, percentage of water and body fat. Thus, this research proposed to set some regulations to be applied in reasoned weight loss depending on training goals in order to avoid a disservice to each stage, competition and sportswomen health.

  7. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, Pjudo fight simulations (Pjudo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  8. The effects of tournament preparation on anthropometric and sport-specific performance measures in youth judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Wray, Mandy E; Hetrick, Robert P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the adaptations imposed by 4 weeks of precompetition judo training in youth athletes. It was hypothesized that anthropometric and sport-specific performance would improve during the preparation for a junior national championship event. Twenty youth athletes (mean ± SD; chronological age: 13.1 ± 3.2 years; training age: 5.3 ± 3.5 years; judo experience: 7.8 ± 2.5 hours per week) completed pretesting and posttesting procedures. Child (12 years old; n = 8) and adolescent (13 years old; n = 12) groups were evaluated to determine the anthropometric and sport-specific performance changes caused by 4 weeks of judo training conducted in preparation for the junior national championships. The child group showed an increase in flexibility (11.5%), and the adolescent group showed a decrease in skinfold thickness (-12.2%); increased jumping power (26.7%), force (7.7%), and velocity (19.0%); and improved judo-specific ability (-5.9%), as measured by the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) index. Additionally, the SJFT index for all the study participants was shown to be inversely correlated to handgrip strength (r = -0.681), rope pull performance (r = -0.545), and jump height (r = -0.503). These results support the use of preparatory judo training in the improvement of anthropometric and sport-specific measures in adolescent athletes. Furthermore, the outcomes from this study provide direction for coaches and trainers in their efforts to impact physical performance and judo skills in children and adolescents through precompetition training.

  9. The angiotensin converting enzyme gene i/d polymorphism in ellite polish and lithuanian judo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Eider

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of this study is to perform preliminary studies to analyze the possible importance of the ACE gene polymorphisms in elite Polish and Lithuanian judo players and sedentary individuals representing the possible relationships with genotype and physical performance. 28 male of elite Polish and Lithuania judo players were recruited for this study. For controls samples were prepared from 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of ACE gene contained either the insertion (I or deletion (D fragment was performed. Compared with sedentary controls, the frequency of I allele differ significantly from that found in judo player’s group: 60.7% vs. 44.3%(p=0.02 and ACE genotype frequency amongst the whole athletes group (28.6% II, 64.3% ID, 7.1% DD was also different from expected values (control group 19.1% II, 50.4% ID, 30.4% DD; p=0.019. Our investigation have proved the ACE I/D allele could be one of the factors influencing the elite endurance exercise performance. The research suggests that those most predisposed to judo are individuals with the allele distribution in the ACE gene that is most significant with regard to the duration of a fight, and not with regard to the character of the performed moves, as could be supposed.

  10. Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis outbreak among university students in a judo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akiko; Ashizawa, Tatsuto; Ebata, Akira; Nasu, Yutaka; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    We report on an outbreak of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis among university students in a judo club. Eventually, 14 of total 23 club members developed acute pharyngitis clinically. In a span of 15 days in April 2013, 12 students visited our hospital complaining of sore throat and high fever. All were men with a median age of 19.5 years (interquartile range, 18-21). The rapid streptococcal antigen test was positive in 3 of 4 patients (75%) without previous antibiotic treatment, and in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with previous antibiotic treatment. The definitive diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was made by either a positive RADT or positive throat culture of GAS when patients had more than 2 findings from the Centor scoring system in this study. 5 students received the definitive diagnosis. The throat culture results showed that 1 out of 9 asymptomatic students was GAS-positive. The outbreak might have occurred by person-to-person contact while living in a dormitory and during judo training, which is a highly close-contact sport. However, there was also the possibility of oral transmission by the shared use of water bottles, although the culture from 1 bottle was negative. Some students continued to participate in the judo club activities after the onset of sore throat or fever. Healthcare professionals, teachers, and coaches should be aware of the potential outbreaks of infectious diseases among university students engaged in athletic activities. Furthermore, it is important to educate athletes about infectious diseases.

  11. Application of the Augmented Reality in prototyping the educational simulator in sport - the example of judo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślńiski, Wojciech B.; Sobecki, Janusz; Piepiora, Paweł A.; Piepiora, Zbigniew N.; Witkowski, Kazimierz

    2016-04-01

    The mental training (Galloway, 2011) is one of the measures of the psychological preparation in sport. Especially such as the judo discipline requires the mental training, due to the fact that the judo is a combat sport, the direct, physical confrontation of two opponents. Hence the mental preparation should be an essential element of preparing for the sports fight. In the article are described the basics of the AR systems and presents selected elements of the AR systems: sight glasses Vuzix glasses, Kinect sensor and an interactive floor Multitap. Next, there are proposed the scenarios for using the AR in the mental training which are based on using both Vuzix glasses type head as well as the interactive floor Multitap. All options, except for the last, are provided for using the Kinect sensor. In addition, these variants differ as to the primary user of the system. It can be an competitor, his coach the competitor and the coach at the same time. In the end of the article are presented methods of exploring, both, the effectiveness and usefulness, and/or the User Experience of the proposed prototypes. There are presented three educational training simulator prototype models in sport (judo) describing their functionality based on the theory of sports training (the cyclical nature of sports training) and the theory of subtle interactions, enabling an explanation of the effects of sports training using the augmented reality technology.

  12. THE PATTERN OF IPPON APPEARANCE IN MAJOR JUDO COMPETITIONS IN THE PERIOD 2008 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: Determining the trends manifested in the current competition judo, in relation to the incidence of the Ippon.Methods: 26 major judo competitions during 2008-2009 are analysed in terms of the incidence of Ippon, based on gender, age, weight category and the importance of competition.Results: Ippon appears, on average, at 55.52% of the meetings of males and 51.95% of the meetings of the females. Independent Samples T-test shows that these averages are significantly different at p = 0.033.In men's competitions Ippon represents an increasing share to the extent that increases the weightcategory: 52.34% in light categories, 57.15% in medium categories, 59.98% in heavy categories. One Way Anova shows that these differences are significant at p = 0.002. The lowest frequency of Ippon occurs in light female categories: 48.90%. The Independent Samples T-test shows that between this value and the frequency of53.91% corresponding to the occurrence of Ippon in the middle categories, there are also statistically significantdifferences at p = 0.025.Conclusions: in Judo competitions Ippon occurs following a normal statistical law, yet, some variables such as sex and the weight category can significantly influence the frequency of its occurrence. The age and the importance of the competition do not significantly influence the frequency of Ippon in the competition.

  13. Kata practice and concepts according to highly experienced judo teachers and referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Miranda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the kata practice among judo teachers, responsible by São Paulo State Federation’s kata competition and grade examinations. A closed questionnaire was applied to 20 teachers (male = 18; female = 2. The sample was 46 ± 10 years-old, with judo practice time of 34 ± 9 years, and graduation 5 ± 1 dan. Practice often varied from 2 (50% to 4 (30% sessions per month. Nage no kata was identified as the most performed (78% and preferred (31% kata, followed by katame no kata (25%, ju no kata (21% and kime no kata (12%. Initiation of kata study usually started at the teacher’s dojo (79% and through courses offered by state federation (21%. Practice is directed to techniques improvement (46%, complementation for judo training (29%, spiritualized/mental practice (14% and for competition preparation (11%. The following attributes are the most important meanings given for kata: foundation (45%, essence (25%, origin (15%, form (10% and principle (5%.

  14. Características de liderazgo en el deporte del judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruiz Barqu\\u00EDn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro estudio presentamos algunos de los principales resultados obtenidos con la adaptación realizada al deporte del judo de la Escala LSS de Liderazgo en la versión "entrenadores", basándonos en la Escala de Liderazgo de Chelladurai y Saleh (1980 y en la adaptación al castellano realizada por Crespo, Balaguer y Atienza (1994 en el deporte del tenis. La escala fue administrada a una muestra de 26 entrenadores de judo de ámbito nacional pertenecientes a ambos sexos, constituyéndose como una muestra con alta experiencia en el entrenamiento de deportistas de competición y un elevado nivel de cualificación técnica. Los resultados muestran un importante grado de semejanza con otros estudios considerados en las puntuaciones obtenidas y en los análisis correlaciones entre factores. Sin embargo, obtenemos de forma significativa mayores puntuaciones en el factor Apoyo Social, a la vez de disponer de mayores niveles de consistencia interna y fiabilidad en la escala diseñada para el deporte del judo.

  15. On mutually unbiased bases

    CERN Document Server

    Durt, Thomas; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol \\

    2010-01-01

    Mutually unbiased bases for quantum degrees of freedom are central to all theoretical investigations and practical exploitations of complementary properties. Much is known about mutually unbiased bases, but there are also a fair number of important questions that have not been answered in full as yet. In particular, one can find maximal sets of ${N+1}$ mutually unbiased bases in Hilbert spaces of prime-power dimension ${N=p^\\m}$, with $p$ prime and $\\m$ a positive integer, and there is a continuum of mutually unbiased bases for a continuous degree of freedom, such as motion along a line. But not a single example of a maximal set is known if the dimension is another composite number ($N=6,10,12,...$). In this review, we present a unified approach in which the basis states are labeled by numbers ${0,1,2,...,N-1}$ that are both elements of a Galois field and ordinary integers. This dual nature permits a compact systematic construction of maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases when they are known to exist but th...

  16. Responses to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 by the Athletes Participated in the (IJF) Judo Grand Prix Competition, Samsun 2015 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaoglu, Yavuz Selim

    2016-01-01

    The judo is a popular sport which people engaged in more than 178 countries at any age in the world. Besides its popularity, the studies on this field continue to increase gradually. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to measure pre-competition anxieties, and to evaluate data obtained of the pre-competition concerns of the judo athletes who…

  17. Genotype analysis of the variable internal repeat region in the rRNA gene of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from Japanese Judo practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takashi; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2006-01-01

    Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans is currently epidemic among Japanese Judo practitioners. T. tonsurans has seven genotypes in a variable internal repeat (VIR) region of the rRNA gene. All 101 isolates obtained from Japanese Judo practitioners had the identical genotype. This suggests that a specific genotype strain occurs throughout Japan.

  18. Athlete's Retention of a Coach's Instruction Before a Judo Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Rosado, Antonio; Januário, Nuno; Barroja, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the instruction of the Judo coach immediately before the competition, in the process of preparation for the fights, looking to (1) study the coherency between the information which the coach transmits and that which the athlete retains; (2) identify the correlation between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach; (3) determine if the retention varies in relation to variables such as the form and nature of the information, as well as the gender and practice category of the athletes. The participants were 11 coaches and 58 athletes of 3 categories: under- 15, under-17 and under-20, of both genders. One hundred and sixteen (116) instructional episodes were observed, which corresponds to four hundred and six (406) information units convoyed by the coaches. The coaches' instructions given before the competition were recorded in an audio and video register. After the coaches' instruction, the athletes were approached by the investigator and an interview was accomplished. To determine if the retention varies in relation to form and nature of the information and gender and practice category of the athletes, the non-parametric statistics, U de Mann-Whitney and Kruskal- Wallis, was used. Correlation of Spearman was applied to verify the degree of association between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes and the information coherency was inversely related to the number of transmitted ideas. The coaches were, mainly, prescriptive and the form of the information was not important for the retention of the information. Gender was a differentiated variable as the girls showed more coherency in the retained ideas in relation to the ideas transmitted by the coach. Key pointsThe instructions given by the coach are optimized if the athletes retain and understand them well and

  19. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally......, whereas 42% of the funds have shown significantly negative performance and only 7% of the funds have over-performed their benchmark. Furthermore, 14% of the funds analysed possess market timing abilities, but for 8 out of 10 funds, their market timing ability has been unsuccessful....

  20. Report about the 1st De Frutos - Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress with Training Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pulido González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current report resumes the 1st De Frutos-Universidad Miguel Hernández Judo Scientific Congress, held in San Juan de Alicante (Spain from the 27th to the 30th of June in 2013. Three plenary sessions in classroom, 12 oral communications, a round – table, 2 theoretical – practical workshops on tatami, and 3 randori sessions were developed. This congress was a new event where judo personalities at the international level as well as scientists from the whole Spanish geography interested in this field assisted. The event complied the aim to approach the science to judo professionals and vice versa. A total amount of 112 participants were in the congress.

  1. Mutually unbiased bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaturvedi

    2002-08-01

    After a brief review of the notion of a full set of mutually unbiased bases in an -dimensional Hilbert space, we summarize the work of Wootters and Fields (W K Wootters and B C Fields, Ann. Phys. 191, 363 (1989)) which gives an explicit construction for such bases for the case = r, where is a prime. Further, we show how, by exploiting certain freedom in the Wootters–Fields construction, the task of explicitly writing down such bases can be simplified for the case when is an odd prime. In particular, we express the results entirely in terms of the character vectors of the cyclic group of order . We also analyse the connection between mutually unbiased bases and the representations of .

  2. Rotational Acceleration during Head Impact Resulting from Different Judo Throwing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURAYAMA, Haruo; HITOSUGI, Masahito; MOTOZAWA, Yasuki; OGINO, Masahiro; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchigari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an under-mat. For Osoto-gari, peak resultant rotational acceleration ranged from 4,284.2 rad/s2 to 5,525.9 rad/s2 and peak resultant translational acceleration ranged from 64.3 g to 87.2 g; for Ouchi-gari, the accelerations respectively ranged from 1,708.0 rad/s2 to 2,104.1 rad/s2 and from 120.2 g to 149.4 g. The resultant rotational acceleration did not decrease with installation of an under-mat for both Ouchi-gari and Osoto-gari. We found that head contact with the tatami could result in the peak values of translational and rotational accelerations, respectively. In general, because kinematics of the body strongly affects translational and rotational accelerations of the head, both accelerations should be measured to analyze the underlying mechanism of head injury. As a primary preventative measure, throwing techniques should be restricted to participants demonstrating ability in ukemi techniques to avoid head contact with the tatami. PMID:24477065

  3. Anger in Adolescent Boy Athletes: a Comparison among Judo, Karate, Swimming and Non Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Mansournia; Homayoun Amini; Sara Lotfian; Vahid Ziaee; Amir-Hossein Memari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents’ behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70), karateka (n=66), swimmers (n=59), and non athletes (n=96). One stage cluster s...

  4. Quantifying synergistic mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying cooperation among random variables in predicting a single target random variable is an important problem in many biological systems with 10s to 1000s of co-dependent variables. We review the prior literature of information theoretical measures of synergy and introduce a novel synergy measure, entitled *synergistic mutual information* and compare it against the three existing measures of cooperation. We apply all four measures against a suite of binary circuits to demonstrate our measure alone quantifies the intuitive concept of synergy across all examples.

  5. Pilot Sportplein Groningen: Zelfregulatie in het VMBO : Onderzoek naar zelfregulatie in lessenreeksen floorball en judo op het VMBO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, Alien van der; [Mombarg], [R.

    2014-01-01

    In het kader van kwaliteitsverbetering van bewegingsonderwijs heeft er in het voorjaar van 2014 een pilot plaatsgevonden waarin in een tweetal lessenreeksen van drie lessen (floorball en judo) meer aandacht is geweest voor zelfregulatie. Zelfregulatie is de mate waarin een individu in staat is om ze

  6. Sex differences and the effects of modified combat regulations on endurance capacity in judo athletes: A meta-analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Judo requires endurance capacity to recover from its high-intensity intermittent actions. This systematic review aimed to evaluate VO2max and the anaerobic threshold in competitive male and female judo athletes. Twelve eligible studies were chosen for quantitative meta-analysis, including results for 188 male and 159 female athletes. Combined values were calculated and compared by gender prior to and following altered combat regulations in 2003. No significant differences in VO2max were noted following the rule changes, but female athletes’ values increased to a level comparable to those reported in male athletes prior to the alterations. VO2max in male judo athletes was higher (54.8±1.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 than in female athletes (48.7±2.2 ml·kg-1·min-1. The effect size of gender was large (d = 1.30 for VO2max and negligible for the anaerobic threshold. Sexual dimorphism exists in VO2max of judo athletes and changes in combat duration did not affect these differences.

  7. Cheaters in mutualism networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genini, Julieta; Morellato, L Patrícia C; Guimarães, Paulo R; Olesen, Jens M

    2010-08-23

    Mutualism-network studies assume that all interacting species are mutualistic partners and consider that all links are of one kind. However, the influence of different types of links, such as cheating links, on network organization remains unexplored. We studied two flower-visitation networks (Malpighiaceae and Bignoniaceae and their flower visitors), and divide the types of link into cheaters (i.e. robbers and thieves of flower rewards) and effective pollinators. We investigated if there were topological differences among networks with and without cheaters, especially with respect to nestedness and modularity. The Malpighiaceae network was nested, but not modular, and it was dominated by pollinators and had much fewer cheater species than Bignoniaceae network (28% versus 75%). The Bignoniaceae network was mainly a plant-cheater network, being modular because of the presence of pollen robbers and showing no nestedness. In the Malpighiaceae network, removal of cheaters had no major consequences for topology. In contrast, removal of cheaters broke down the modularity of the Bignoniaceae network. As cheaters are ubiquitous in all mutualisms, the results presented here show that they have a strong impact upon network topology.

  8. [Screening Examination and Management of Dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans in the Judo Club of a University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yumi; Soda, Naomi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one members of the Judo Club of a certain university (age: 18~23) underwent a screening examination for dermatophytosis by Trichophyton tonsurans. Test items were: age, sex, height, weight, living mode, exercise duration, number of judo contestants, presence of foreign contestants, occurrence, if any, of dermatophytosis past or present according to a subject's answers to a questionnaire, medical examinations and mycological examinations (KOH, cellophane tape culture, and hairbrush culture). Twenty-four subjects (77%) replied that they had suffered from dermatophytosis in the past, and 8 subjects (26%) had had head eruption in the past. Eleven subjects (35%) had suspicious dermatophytosis at the time of screening; 3 of them were found positive by direct microscopy, 2 of them were positive by cellophane tape culture. Eleven subjects (35%) were found positive by the hairbrush culture, but only 2 had eruption-like folliculitis. The remaining 9 subjects were free from clinical symptoms and were judged to be asymptomatic carriers. As countermeasures, we recommended cleaning and the use of shampoo containing miconazole nitrate. Subjects with suspicious tinea corporis were treated with antimycotic ointment. The 7 subjects who showed more than 5 colonies by the hairbrush culture were treated with 1-week pulse therapy of 400 mg itraconazole, and 3 of these who took a total dose of a pulse became negative through one pulse therapy.

  9. Development of Indicators of the National Judo Coaches Selection: Athletes and Coaches` Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Afsanepurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and develop National Coaches' Selection indicators in Judo from experts` viewpoints carried out through a descriptive field method. The statistical population included all managers, coaches and athletes involved in judo. A questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability (α= 0.76 was distributed among the samples. The respective samples (59 coaches and 63 athletes responded to the questionnaire consisting of two parts: a Personal characteristics and b 50 questions included 10 indicators. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including Mann Whitney U Test and Friedman Test were used to analyze the data. There were ten criteria selected for the national team coaches from of the Delphi method. These indicators included Communicational, Psychological, Motivational, Personality-Moral, Supportive-Feedback, Goal setting, Experimental-Technique, Efficacy, Leadership and Management and Performance Assessment indicators. Data analysis results showed that there were no significant differences among statistical samples regarding Coaches' Selection indicators (p> 0.05. Also there were different priorities about Coaches' Selection indicators in samples (p <0.05.

  10. Judo: how to enhance tactics in competition, biomechanics of combination and action reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an ideal continuation of the previous one - How to enhance effectiveness of Direct Attack Judo throws -in it there are analyzed the two following parts of Judo tactics in high level competitions: combination, and action-reaction. The paper start with a review of the Japanese approach to Initiative ( Sen) and follows by the biomechanical view of the same subject. High level competitions are the main argument not only of coaches match analysis , but also of a lot of scientific researches. However the connection between these two field that analyze the same subject is very hard . A lot of information are not easily transfer to coaching area. In this paper the effort to give coaching useful information is the primary aspect also at detriment of some formal mechanical information. After a new Operative Classification of throwing techniques , the biomechanical analysis of combination and action-reaction tricks flows in easy way singling out some interesting finding, useful for coaches. With this effor...

  11. Judo match analysis,a powerful coaching tool, basic and advanced tools

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, A

    2013-01-01

    In this second paper on match analysis, we analyze in deep the competition steps showing the evolution of this tool at National Federation level.On the basis of our,first classification. Furthermore, it is the most important source of technical assessment. Studying competition with this tool is essential for the coaches because they can obtain useful information for their coaching. Match Analysis is today the master key in situation sports like Judo, to help in useful way the difficult task of coach or best for National or Olympic coaching equips. In this paper it is presented a deeper study of the judo competitions at high level both from the male and female point of view, explaining at light of biomechanics, not only the throws evolution in time, introduction of Innovative and Chaotic techniques, but also the evolution of fighting style in these high level competitions, both connected with the grow of this Olympic Sport in the Word Arena. It is shown how new interesting ways are opened by this powerful coac...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC TRAINING ON THE FORMS OF SPEED MANIFESTATION IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Ioan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influences specific speed training on the forms of its manifestation in judo. Methods: The subjects of the survey were two 10-student groups practicing judo at C.S.S. Gloria of Arad – a control group (C.Gr.: M age = 11.5 ±1.35, M weight = 41.7 kg ±7.85kg, and an experimental group (E.Gr.: M age = 11.7 ±0.82, M weight = 48.8 kg ±7.90kg. There was an initial testing (I.T. for the two groups with the OptoJump device (MicroGate, 2005 for 3 forms of speed: reaction rate (R.R., running speed (R.S. and motion speed (M.S.. The following 14 training sessions included, for the E.Gr., 13-15 min. speed development exercises; the C.Gr. performed their usual training. The final testing (F.T. was similar for the two groups. Results: The subjects who completed a specific speed training (E.Gr. showed an improvement of the forms of expression of speed compared to those who did not participate in the program (C.Gr.. Conclusions: Conducting a specific training program to develop manifestations of speed at the age of 11-12 is a solution for optimizing the training of young judoka.

  13. Management and follow-up survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in a university judo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of Trichophyton tonsurans infection of the scalp in members of a university judo club (combat sport) was investigated over a 3.5-year period using a questionnaire survey and an assay based on fungal culture by the hairbrush method. In November 2002, 11 (35%) of 31 athletes were found to be positive for T. tonsurans infection by the hairbrush method and provided treatment with oral and topical antifungal agents according to a prescribed protocol. All the infected subjects became culture-negative following this treatment. We continued to conduct screening examinations every year in the month of April, when new university enrolment occurs. During three-and-a-half years of follow-up, there have been no outbreaks of the infection among the members of the university judo club. There were some positive culture results among the newly enrolled students, but these cases also became culture-negative with treatment. No re-infection has been noted after graduation among the club members who had been educated about and treated for the infection. Our findings indicate that the spread of T. tonsurans infection in sports clubs can be controlled by regular mass screening examination, therapy and measures at regular intervals to prevent the infection.

  14. Chronic effects of different resistance training exercise orders on flexibility in elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Alam R; Reis, Victor M; Costa, Pablo B; Bentes, Claudio M; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirty-nine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

  15. Competitive level, recovery type and blood lactate removal after a judo combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Pedutti Dal'Molin Kiss

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if competitive level influences blood lactate [LA] removal during both AR and passive recovery (PR after a judo combat. Twenty-five male adult judo players (10 elite – medallists in Brazilian National or International competitions and 15 nonelite – non medallists in those competitions performed, in two different days, a 5-min judo combat, followed by 15-min PR or AR (70% of the AT velocity, ≅ 50% VO2peak, randomly determined. [LA] was measured at rest, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after each combat. VO2peak and anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv were measured in a treadmill test. The comparison between situations was done through a three way ANOVA (group, recovery type and time with repeated measures, followed by Tukey test. There was an effect of the three factors on [LA] and interactions time-competitive level and time-recovery type. [LA] was lower after combat in elite compared to nonelite judo players, during AR compared to PR and as expected decreased over time. The interactions showed that the differences in [LA] between elite and nonelite groups decreased over recovery time. The opposite was observed between AR and PR. The difference between elite and nonelite judo players could not be attributed to the aerobic power or capacity. RESUMO A possible explanation for this difference can be a lower glycolytic activation due to a higher technical level in elite compared to nonelite. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a influência do nível competitivo na remoção do lactato sangüíneo [La] durante a recuperação ativa (RA e a recuperação passiva (RP após uma luta de judô. Vinte e cinco judocas adultos do sexo masculino (10 atletas de elite – medalhistas em competições nacionais ou internacionais e 15 atletas não elite – não medalhistas nessas competições foram submetidos, em dias diferentes, a uma luta de judô de 5min, seguida por 15min de RP ou RA (70% da velocidade de LAn, ≅ 50

  16. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  17. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain...... different information is that the returns Morningstar uses as inputs when rating funds are highly volatile whereas the costs the atpRating uses as inputs when rating funds are highly persistent. In other words, a fund that has low costs one year will most likely also have low costs the following year......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atpRating...

  18. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...... information is that the returns Morningstar uses as inputs when rating funds are highly volatile whereas the costs the atpRating uses as inputs when rating funds are highly persistent. In other words, a fund that has low costs one year will most likely also have low costs the following year, whereas...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atpRating...

  19. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  20. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies...-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies,...

  1. Determination of feedback in judo by means of T-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Prieto Lage

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to propose methodological changes in the teaching-learning process of the judo technique Deashi-harai, pointing out the most frequent technical errors committed during its performance and also its action sequences. We carried out an observational study with the participation of fifty novice judokas at the University of Vigo. We recorded them while performing the Deashi-harai technique after a previous training of four months. Data obtained were evaluated using descriptive statistics and T-patterns analysis. Thus, we indentified: a some typical inaccuracies during the technique execution and b a number of chained errors affecting the imbalance of the body, the position of the right foot, the sweeping action and the action of the arms. These findings allowed us to suggest some motor tasks to correct the identified inaccuracies, the sequential actions to ensure the success of the execution and several recommendations for the proper use of the feedback.

  2. Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of salivary hormones and salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and anxiety in winners and losers during an international judo competition. Twenty-three trained, male, national-level judo athletes provided three saliva samples during a competition day: morning, in anticipation of competition after an overnight fast, mid-competition, and post-competition within 15 min post-fight for determination of salivary cortisol, salivary testosterone, salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio, SIgA absolute concentrations, SIgA secretion rate and saliva flow rate. The competitive state anxiety inventory questionnaire was completed by the athletes (n = 12) after the first saliva collection for determination of somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self-confidence. Winners were considered 1-3 ranking place (n = 12) and losers (n = 11) below third place in each weight category. Winners presented higher anticipatory salivary cortisol concentrations (p = 0.03) and a lower mid-competition salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.003) compared with losers with no differences for salivary testosterone. Winners tended to have higher SIgA secretion rates (p = 0.07) and higher saliva flow rates (p = 0.009) at mid-competition. Higher levels of cognitive anxiety (p = 0.02) were observed in the winners, without differences according to the outcome in somatic anxiety and self-confidence. The results suggest that winners experienced higher levels of physiological arousal and better psychological preparedness in the morning, and as the competition progressed, the winners were able to control their stress response better.

  3. Anger in Adolescent Boy Athletes: a Comparison among Judo, Karate, Swimming and Non Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sara; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Memari, Amir-Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Objective Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents’ behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70), karateka (n=66), swimmers (n=59), and non athletes (n=96). One stage cluster sampling method was used to select judoka, karateka, and swimmers from sport clubs in Tehran. Students of governmental schools at the same area were chosen as the non-athletes group. The “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” questionnaire was utilized to assess the anger rate. Findings The mean age of participants was 12.90(±2.06) years. The total anger rates were 45.40 (±5.61) in judoka, 41.53(±5.63) in karateka, 41.19(±5.33) in swimmers, and 45.44 (±8.58) in non athletes. In total anger scale karateka and swimmers had a significantly lower score compared to judoka and non athletes. In instrumental anger subscale the difference was significant just between karateka and non athletes. In reactive anger subscale judoka showed higher scores than swimmers. In anger control subscale the difference was significant between judoka and swimmers and also judoka and karateka. The difference of anger control between karateka and non athletes was significant. Conclusion The findings of this study propose a difference in the anger rate between judoka and karateka. In contrary to the results of previous studies, judo training may have no influence on anger control, while karate training could be beneficial. PMID:23056853

  4. Jumping Abilities and Power-Velocity Relationship in Judo Athletes: Comparative Analysis Among Age Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine age differences in the maximal power and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in spike jump (SPJ and counter-movement jump (CMJ, and power-velocity relationship of lower extremities between cadet and U23 age class judo athletes. Methods. Seven cadets (age 16.6 ± 0.7 years and eight U23 age class (21.3 ± 1.4 years Polish judoists took part in the study. The maximal power and height of jump were measured at SPJ and CMJ jumps. Power- velocity relations (P-v were determined from 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW. Results. Cadet judoists had a significantly smaller maximal power output (11.56 ± 1.21 W ・ kg-1 than U23 athletes (12.69 ± 0.67 W ・ kg-1. The optimal velocity was similar in both group (119.3 ± 16.0 rpm and 119.6 ± 15.5 rpm, respectively. Significant age differences were founded between the cadet and U23 athletes for power output at external load equal 12.5% BW. Cadet judoists generated insignificantly lower maximal power in CMJ and SPJ than U23 judo athletes with except of the absolute maximal power in SPJ. The age difference was observed in height of CMJ. Conclusions. Based on the characteristics of F-v curve we can see in which direction follow the effects of training. Application of CMJ and SPJ in jumping test allows to assess changes in neuromuscular coordination. The use of the both methods give better information to optimal training control.

  5. [Injuries in the Martial Arts Judo, Taekwondo and Wrestling - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, U; Joray, C P; Brülhart, Y; Luijckx, E; Rogan, S

    2015-12-01

    Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences. In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system. In contrast to the FIFA 11+ warm-up program, no preventive programs have been postulated for injury prevention in these martial arts. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo. To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar. The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review (CASP), and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type. It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality. Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention. Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Anger in Adolescent Boy Athletes: a Comparison among Judo, Karate, Swimming and Non Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sara; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Memari, Amir-Hossein

    2012-03-01

    Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents' behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70), karateka (n=66), swimmers (n=59), and non athletes (n=96). One stage cluster sampling method was used to select judoka, karateka, and swimmers from sport clubs in Tehran. Students of governmental schools at the same area were chosen as the non-athletes group. The "Adolescent Anger Rating Scale" questionnaire was utilized to assess the anger rate. The mean age of participants was 12.90(±2.06) years. The total anger rates were 45.40 (±5.61) in judoka, 41.53(±5.63) in karateka, 41.19(±5.33) in swimmers, and 45.44 (±8.58) in non athletes. In total anger scale karateka and swimmers had a significantly lower score compared to judoka and non athletes. In instrumental anger subscale the difference was significant just between karateka and non athletes. In reactive anger subscale judoka showed higher scores than swimmers. In anger control subscale the difference was significant between judoka and swimmers and also judoka and karateka. The difference of anger control between karateka and non athletes was significant. The findings of this study propose a difference in the anger rate between judoka and karateka. In contrary to the results of previous studies, judo training may have no influence on anger control, while karate training could be beneficial.

  7. MOOD PROFILING DURING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING JUDO COMPETITION: A CASE STUDY TESTING TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Stevens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated relationships between personality, mood states changes, coping strategies, self-set goals, and self-efficacy in an elite judo player. A transactional perspective of psychological responses over time was used to guide data analysis. The ambient mood is proposed to contribute to the interpretation of, and reaction to, events during competition, which lead to subsequent emotional responses. A male international Judo player completed a number of self-report measures before and during a 4-contest tournament. Measures included the EPQ, MCOPE, Brunel Mood Scale, self-set goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. State measures were completed after every contest. Results indicated high scores of self-efficacy to achieve performance goals and outcome goals. Pre-competition mood results indicated high scores on the Vigor and Anger subscales with moderate scores for Tension, and zero scores for Depressed mood, a mood profile that remained relatively stable after winning his first two contests. After losing his third contest, he reported symptoms of Depressed mood and indicated using self-blame as coping strategy during the contest. Before the fourth contest, he coped by using planning and increasing effort. These coping strategies were associated with reductions in Depressed mood and increases in Vigor. After finding out his next contest was against a former World Championship bronze medalist, self-set goals became performance and process with no outcome goal. On losing this contest, scores on the Anger and Depression subscales increased sharply, Fatigue scores increased slightly and Tension and Vigor reduced. Self-blame was used as a coping strategy when experiencing unpleasant emotions. Findings suggest that self-blame was associated with negative psychological states comprising depressed mood. Increasing effort and planning were associated with positive psychological states. Collectively, findings emphasize the value of

  8. Magnesium and phase angle: a prognostic tool for monitoring cellular integrity in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Monteiro, Cristina P; Santos, Diana A; Martins, Fátima; Silva, Analiza M; Laires, Maria J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2015-01-01

    Adequate magnesium (Mg) levels play a vital role in membrane excitability, cell contractility and metabolism, being a key nutrient for sustaining appropriate muscular contraction and performance levels in athletes. Phase angle (PhA), assessed by bioimpedance analysis (BIA), has been reported to be positively associated with most nutritional markers and is an indicator of membrane integrity and water distribution between intra- and extracellular spaces. The aim of the present study was to verify the association between Mg status and PhA as a predictor of cellular health, in a sample of judo athletes from a period of weight stability to prior to competition. Judo athletes (n = 20) from the national team were evaluated on two occasions: during a period when body weight was stable (M1), and prior to competition (M2). Changes between these occasions were calculated as M2-M1. PhA was obtained by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy at a frequency of 50 KHz. Mg was measured in serum and red blood cells (RBC) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and Mg in the diet was assessed from a 24-h diet record over a seven-day period, after an assessment of body composition. Mean PhA did not differ from M1 to M2. However, individual changes in PhA were positively associated with individual changes in serum (r = 0.62, p = 0.004) and RBC Mg (r = 0.45, p = 0.048). This association was independent of weight changes between assessments, but when adjusted for Mg intake changes, only the association between PhA and serum Mg remained significant. These results highlight that in elite athletes PhA may be an indirect indicator of muscular function.

  9. Anger in Adolescent Boy Athletes: a Comparison Among Judo, Karate, Swimming and Non Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Mansournia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents’ behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70, karateka (n=66, swimmers (n=59, and non athletes (n=96. One stage cluster sampling method was used to select judoka, karateka, and swimmers from sport clubs in Tehran. Students of governmental schools at the same area were chosen as the non-athletes group. The “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” questionnaire was utilized to assess the anger rate.Findings: The mean age of participants was 12.90(±2.06 years. The total anger rates were 45.40 (±5.61 in judoka, 41.53(±5.63 in karateka, 41.19(±5.33 in swimmers, and 45.44 (±8.58 in non athletes. In total anger scale karateka and swimmers had a significantly lower score compared to judoka and non athletes. In instrumental anger subscale the difference was significant just between karateka and non athletes. In reactive anger subscale judoka showed higher scores than swimmers. In anger control subscale the difference was significant between judoka and swimmers and also judoka and karateka. The difference of anger control between karateka and non athletes was significant.Conclusion: The findings of this study propose a difference in the anger rate between judoka and karateka. In contrary to the results of previous studies, judo training may have no influence on anger control, while karate training could be beneficial.

  10. Retesting the validity of a specific field test for judo training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, M Ángeles

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/- SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training.

  11. Trading public goods stabilizes interspecific mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2013-02-07

    The existence of cooperation between species raises a fundamental problem for evolutionary theory. Why provide costly services to another species if the feedback of this provision also happens to benefit intra-specific competitors that provide no service? Rewarding cooperators and punishing defectors can help maintain mutualism; this is not possible, however, when one can only respond to the collective action of one's partners, which is likely to be the case in many common symbioses. We show how the theory of public goods can explain the stability of mutualism when discrimination between cooperators and defectors is not possible: if two groups of individuals trade goods that are non-linear, increasing functions of the number of contributions, their mutualistic interaction is maintained by the exchange of these public goods, even when it is not possible to punish defectors, which can persist at relatively high frequencies. This provides a theoretical justification and testable predictions for the evolution of mutualism in the absence of discrimination mechanisms.

  12. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel. PMID:27509501

  13. Sportmedizinische Aspekte des Judo bei Kindern und Jugendlichen : Auswertung von Sportverletzungen mit Konsequenzen für Trainings- und Wettkampfbetreuung

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Ute

    2000-01-01

    In einer aktuell erhobenen Studie wurde das Auftreten von Sportverletzungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen im Judo auf Breitensportebene ausgewertet. Bei Wettkampf, Lehrgang und Training wurden 129 Verletzungen bei 107 Verletzten erfasst. Es ergab sich eine Verletzungsinzidenz von 9,6 % bei Wettkämpfen und 37,5 % bei Lehrgängen. Nur 4,7 % der 129 Verletzungen waren schwer, darunter keine Lehrgangsverletzung. In der Gesamtstatistik dominierten Verletzungen an den unteren Extremitäten mi...

  14. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  15. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-06

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  16. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  17. The effect of three days of judo training sessions on the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Radosław; Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert Antoni; Zembron-Lacny, Agnieszka

    2011-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate how extreme physical strain influences cytokine response and oxidative stress markers by examining professional judo athletes during a typical 3-day judo training session (randori combat training). Creatine kinase (CK) activity, a marker of muscle damage, was considerably elevated immediately after randori training. Pro- (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines were also increased. The strongest effect was seen in IL-1β concentration, which correlated with CK activity (r = 0.49, P correlated directly with IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of a 3-day judo training session on muscle damage by evaluating the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. It is also the first to demonstrate significant changes in the blood cytokine profile that correlate with lipid peroxide levels and muscle damage.

  18. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  19. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  20. Uncertainty relation for mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-12-01

    We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting that the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

  1. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  2. Mutual Benefit and Balance:Ethics, Welfare and Law of Experimental Animal%互利与平衡:实验动物的伦理、福利与法律∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任元鹏; 杨鸣; 姜柏生

    2016-01-01

    At present, the theory study of experimental animals' ethics and welfare tends to be unified and the practice tends to be standard. However, the development of the practice cannot meet the needs of the development of the theory. On the basis of the existing related theories, this article put forward two cognitions:one is recogniz-ing the reasons of giving ethical care and welfare benefits to experimental animals;the other is how to establish ef-fective specification system. Therefore, we should do as the following three points:acknowledging the basic interests priorities of human beings as the primary principle;realizing the boundary of experimental animal use that is reali-zing the limitations of human development;establishing effective and standardized system to strengthen the supervi-sion function of experimental animal ethics committee and to determine the appropriate legal responsibility.%实验动物伦理与福利的理论研究趋于统一,实践操作也趋于规范,然而实践的发展尚不能满足理论发展的需要。依据现有相关理论,提出两点认识,即要中肯的认清对实验动物予以伦理关怀和福利待遇的理由以及如何建立行之有效的规范体制。为此,应该做到以下三点:承认人类基本利益优先作为首要原则;认识到实验动物利用的边界,也就是说要认识到人类发展的有限性;建立行之有效的规范体制,加强实验动物伦理委员会的审查监督功能以及确定合适的法律责任。

  3. Modelos de enseñanza en la iniciación deportiva y el deporte escolar. Estudio comparativo en judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Álamo Mendoza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo pretendemos comparar tres modelos de enseñanza entre sí en la iniciación deportiva al judo. Los tres modelos de enseñanza son el Técnico Tradicional (Técnico, el modelo Vertical con especial incidencia en la técnica (Técnico – táctico y el Vertical Estructural (Táctico. Para ello, se han organizado tres grupos de alumnos y alumnas con los que se ha desarrollado un proceso de iniciación al judo durante cuatro meses utilizando los métodos de enseñanza mencionados. En los resultados de este estudio podemos comprobar que hay modelos de enseñanza, que pueden resultar más adecuados para la adquisición de aprendizajes en la iniciación al judo.

  4. Mutual Mobile Membranes with Timers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A feature of current membrane systems is the fact that objects and membranes are persistent. However, this is not true in the real world. In fact, cells and intracellular proteins have a well-defined lifetime. Inspired from these biological facts, we define a model of systems of mobile membranes in which each membrane and each object has a timer representing their lifetime. We show that systems of mutual mobile membranes with and without timers have the same computational power. An encoding of timed safe mobile ambients into systems of mutual mobile membranes with timers offers a relationship between two formalisms used in describing biological systems.

  5. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  6. Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduardo J; Timberlake, William

    2008-11-01

    Zoos focus on welfare, conservation, education, and research related to animals they keep. Academic institutions emphasize description, experimentation, modeling, and teaching of general and specific animal biology and behavior through work in both laboratory and field. The considerable overlap in concerns and methods has increased interest in collaborative projects, but there is ample room for closer and more extensive interactions. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of potential research collaborations in three areas: (1) control and analysis of behavior, (2) conservation and propagation of species, and (3) education of students and the general public. In each area, we outline (a) research in zoos, (b) research in academics, and (c) potential collaborative efforts. Zoo Biol 27:470-487, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Techniques frequently used during London Olympic judo tournaments: a biomechanical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sterkowicz, Stanislav; Sterkowicz_Przybycien, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Feedback between training and competition should be considered in athletic training.The aim of the study was contemporary coaching tendencies in women s and men s judo with particular focus on a biomechanical classification of throws and grappling actions. Throwing technique frequencies grouped in the seven biomechanical classes were dependent on gender. A significant difference was found between frequencies of variable arm of physical lever technique scored by males and females as compared to the techniques counts. Significant differences between men who competed in extra lightweight and heavy weight concerned the frequency of the techniques used with maximum arm or variable arm of physical lever and a couple of forces applied by trunk and legs.In females a tendency to higher frequency of techniques that used couple of forces applied by arm or arms and leg was observed in extra lightweight compared to the heavy weight. Because the technique preferred in the fight depends on a gender and weight category of a ...

  8. Relationships between recall of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration in a judo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Salvador, A; González-Bono, E G; Sanchís, C; Suay, F

    2001-06-01

    Relationships between perceived exertion and blood lactate have usually been studied in laboratory or training contexts but not in competition, the most important setting in which sports performance is evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and physiological indices of the physical effort in a competition setting, taking into account the duration of effort. For this, we employed two Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE and CR-10) and lactic acid plasma concentration as a biological marker of the effort performed. 13 male judo fighters who participated in a sports club competition provided capillary blood samples to assay lactate concentrations and indicated on scale their Recall of Perceived Exertion in the total competition and again in just the Last Fight to compare the usefulness of RPE and CR-10 in assessing discrete bouts of effort and a whole session. Analysis showed that perceived exertion or the effort made during the whole competition was positively and significantly related to maximal lactate concentration and lactate increase in competition, thus extending the validity of this scale to sports contests. The Recall of Perceived Exertion scores were not significantly correlated with the duration of effort.

  9. Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, U M; Taimela, S; Antti-Poika, I; Orava, S; Tuominen, R; Myllynen, P

    1995-12-02

    To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports. Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data. Finland during 1987-91. 621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate. Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors. 54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability. Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.

  10. Mutualism exploitation: predatory drosophilid larvae sugar-trap ants and jeopardize facultative ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mayra C; Sendoya, Sebastian F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2016-07-01

    An open question in the evolutionary ecology of ant-plant facultative mutualism is how other members of the associated community can affect the interaction to a point where reciprocal benefits are disrupted. While visiting Qualea grandiflora shrubs to collect sugary rewards at extrafloral nectaries, tropical savanna ants deter herbivores and reduce leaf damage. Here we show that larvae of the fly Rhinoleucophenga myrmecophaga, which develop on extrafloral nectaries, lure potentially mutualistic, nectar-feeding ants and prey on them. Foraging ants spend less time on fly-infested foliage. Field experiments showed that predation (or the threat of predation) on ants by fly larvae produces cascading effects through three trophic levels, resulting in fewer protective ants on leaves, increased numbers of chewing herbivores, and greater leaf damage. These results reveal an undocumented mode of mutualism exploitation by an opportunistic predator at a plant-provided food source, jeopardizing ant-derived protection services to the plant. Our study documents a rather unusual case of predation of adult ants by a dipteran species and demonstrates a top-down trophic cascade within a generalized ant-plant mutualism. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Parasitism and mutualism in Wolbachia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordenstein, Seth R; Paraskevopoulos, Charalampos; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C;

    2009-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theories predict that parasitism and mutualism are not fixed endpoints of the symbiotic spectrum. Rather, parasitism and mutualism may be host or environment dependent, induced by the same genetic machinery, and shifted due to selection. These models presume the existe......Ecological and evolutionary theories predict that parasitism and mutualism are not fixed endpoints of the symbiotic spectrum. Rather, parasitism and mutualism may be host or environment dependent, induced by the same genetic machinery, and shifted due to selection. These models presume...... the existence of genetic or environmental variation that can spur incipient changes in symbiotic lifestyle. However, for obligate intracellular bacteria whose genomes are highly reduced, studies specify that discrete symbiotic associations can be evolutionarily stable for hundreds of millions of years...... in symbiotic lifestyle with a comprehensive, phylogenomic analysis. Contrary to previous claims, we show unequivocally that the transition in lifestyle cannot be reconstructed with current methods due to long-branch attraction (LBA) artifacts of the distant Anaplasma and Ehrlichia outgroups. Despite the use...

  12. Mutual Respect and Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary theories of civic education frequently appeal to an ideal of mutual respect in the context of ethical, ethical and religious disagreement. This paper critically examines two recently popular criticisms of this ideal. The first, coming from a postmodern direction, charges that the ideal is hypocritical in its effort to be maximally…

  13. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R

    1997-02-01

    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  14. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  15. 柔道内股技术分析与运用%In Judo Stock Technology Analysis and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠红

    2011-01-01

    内股技术在柔道的训练与比赛中的运用是比较高的,通过对2009年女子柔道锦标赛3个级别的女子柔道队运动员为主要研究对象,依据她们在实战中动作技术的运用和成功率等实际情况来进行分析与研究。运用文献资料法、调查法、统计法对内股技术进行分析,将内股与其他动作相比较,如背负投,抱双腿等,更进一步的完善运用内股术的方法与时机。%Practicing the technique level of the woman judo of the certificate our country has already got into world high level of in the row or column,inside the technique is higher in training and the usage in the game of judo,passing to athletics university woman judo brigade athlete in Peking for the main research object,basis they act actual circumstances,such as technical usage and success rate…etc.to carry on analysis and research in the true war.Will inside the and other actins compare,if carry on the back hur1,greatly outside 刈 etc..Further perfect technical method of inside the usage and opportune moment.

  16. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterkowicz Stanislaw

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  17. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight. PMID:20441594

  18. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  19. Mutuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, E. J.; Rose, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The recently introduced construct of consumer sharing is represented as a nonreciprocal, pro-social distribution of resources given without expectation of reciprocity (Belk, 2010, ‘Sharing’, Journal of Consumer Research 36: 715–34). The approach adopted rests on shaky ontological and epistemologi......The recently introduced construct of consumer sharing is represented as a nonreciprocal, pro-social distribution of resources given without expectation of reciprocity (Belk, 2010, ‘Sharing’, Journal of Consumer Research 36: 715–34). The approach adopted rests on shaky ontological...

  20. Pluto-charon mutual events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binzel, R.P. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, planetary astronomers have been working to take advantage of a once-per-century apparent alignment between Pluto and its satellite, Charon, which has allowed mutual occultation and transit events to be observed. There events, which will cease in 1990, have permitted the first precise determinations of their individual radii, densities, and surface compositions. In addition, information on their surface albedo distributions can be obtained.

  1. São paulo judo team: study of competitive behavior tendency between athlets of differents groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Serassuelo Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to identify the competitive behavior tendency of Judo players according to personal tendencies of competing, winning and setting goals. The samples were separated by circumstantially being part (n=15 or not (n=37 of São Paulo State Team, in two different groups, A and B specifi cally, from different social background and between 14 and 21 years old. The evaluation tools were: Evaluation System ACS – 2 to collect information about competitive tendency; and a second one to obtain Sportive and Personal information about age, practice time and performance level. The Spearman Coeffi cient was used to analyze the intra-group relations between qualitative variables (tendencies of winning, competing and setting goals, and quantitative variables (age, practice time, performance level. The Q-Square was used to analyze the qualitative variables between groups and the test t for the quantitative variables. The results showed that there are signifi cant differences in the variables involved in this study between groups A and B, except for competing tendencies. In conclusion, no differences had been found between qualitative and quantitative variables, in the intra-group analyses but in inter-groups analyses there are signifi cant differences that showed the athletes with more age, practice time and performance level obtain best scores for the competitive tendencies analyzed, these elements can indicate possibilities to reach best results in sport competitions. The Evaluation System ACS – 2 was shown as a good and effi cient model to identify the different competitive behavior tendencies employed by male Judo players. RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal identifi car as tendências de comportamento competitivo de atletas masculinos de Judô, em relação às suas tendências pessoais em vencer, competir e estabelecer metas. Os dados foram coletados, utilizando o Sistema de Avaliação ACS – 2 e o

  2. Mutual information challenges entropy bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, H

    2006-01-01

    We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V U W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal th...

  3. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE CENTER OF MASS FOR THREE DIFFERENT JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney T. Imamura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Four black belt throwers (tori and one black belt faller (uke were filmed and analyzed in three-dimensions using two video cameras (JVC 60 Hz and motion analysis software. Average linear momentum in the anteroposterior (x, vertical (y, and mediolateral (z directions and average resultant impulse of uke's center of mass (COM were investigated for three different throwing techniques; harai-goshi (hip throw, seoi-nage (hand throw, and osoto-gari (leg throw. Each throw was broken down into three main phases; kuzushi (balance breaking, tsukuri (fit-in, and kake (throw. For the harai-goshi and osoto-gari throws, impulse measurements were the largest within kuzushi and tsukuri phases (where collision between tori and uke predominantly occurs. Both throws indicated an importance for tori to create large momentum prior to contact with uke. The seoi-nage throw demonstrated the lowest impulse and maintained forward momentum on the body of uke throughout the entire throw. The harai-goshi and osoto-gari are considered power throws well-suited for large and strong judo players. The seoi-nage throw is considered more technical and is considered well-suited for shorter players with good agility. A form of resistance by uke was found during the kuzushi phase for all throws. The resistance which can be initiated by tori's push or pull allows for the tsukuri phase to occur properly by freezing uke for a good fit-in. Strategies for initiating an effective resistance include initiating movement of uke so that their COM is shifted to their left (for right handed throw by incorporating an instantaneous "snap pull" with the pulling hand during kuzushi to create an opposite movement from uke

  4. ASSESSMENT OF FEAR OF NEGATIVE EVALUATION LEVELS AND EMPATHIC TENDENCY LEVELS OF NATIONAL JUNIOR JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted with a total of 63 junior judokas (32 female judokas and 31 male judokas who joined preparatory camp organized by Turkish Judo Federation at Çankırı Camping Training Center between the 7th and the 20th of June, 2012 and who were selected using random sampling method. Participation was voluntary. Two questionnaire forms were used in the study: “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” developed by Leary (1983 and adapted into Turkish by Çetin et al. (2010, and “Empathic Tendency Scale” designed by Dökmen (1988. For the data analysis, descriptive statistical methods such as frequency (n and percentages (% were used for the personal information. In order to explore differences, t test was employed for gender variable while such non-parametric tests as Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for the variables of sportive age and success in national and international competitions because the data did not follow normal distribution and homogeneity conditions were not met. Level of significance was set at 0.05. As the result of the study; it was found out that fear of negative evaluation and empathic tendency did not change in terms of gender and sportive age while the scores of the judokas who ranked among the top five judokas in national and international competitions were lower than those who did not rank among the top five judokas in national and international competitions and the difference between successful athletes and unsuccessful athletes in national competitions was statistically significant.

  5. [Anthropometry of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team - a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieser, Laura; Clijsen, Ron; Rucker, Alfred M L; Cabri, Jan; Clarys, Peter

    2012-12-01

    To establish the anthropometrical characteristics and the hand grip strength of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team. The measured values were compared with data from the literature. 24 members, 19 males (23.01 ± 4.91 years) and five females (19.95 ± 2.02 years), were measured. The following anthropometric measurements were made: body size, body weight, six skinfolds (SFT), two breadths, two circumferences, body fat (tanita scale, Durnin and Womersley method), BMI and determination of somatotypes. In addition, the hand grip strength was measured. The anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with ISAK guidelines. The literature search was done electronically using PubMed. The mean somatotype of male judoka was 2,2 ± 0,8 for the endomorphy, 6,0 ± 0,9 for the mesomorphy and 2,0 ± 0,7 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was balanced mesomorph. The mean hand grip strength of male judoka was 47,4 ± 6,7 kg. The mean somatotype of female judoka was 3.7 ± 1.2 for the endomorphy, 4,9 ± 0,7 for the mesomorphy and 1,5 ± 0,3 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was mesomorphic endomorph. The mean hand grip strength of the female judoka was 27,0 ± 3,1 kg. There were anthropometric differences between the Swiss juniors and elite judoka and between the Swiss athletes and the athletes of the reference studies. The anthropometric data and the results of the hand grip strength give information, which components Swiss judoka should improve. A judoka who does not match the ideal profile can still be successful with the help of other factors (technical, tactical, mental strength). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  7. Knowledge of Errors in the Teaching-Learning Process of Judo-Techniques: Osoto-Guruma as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Iván

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to suggest some changes in the teaching-learning process methodology of the judo osoto-guruma technique, establishing the action sequences and the most frequent technical errors committed when performing them. The study was carried out with the participation of 45 students with no experience regarding the fundamentals of judo (21 men and 24 women; age=24.02±3.98 years old from the Bachelor of Science of Physical Activity and Sport Science at the University of Vigo. The proceeding consisted of a systematic observation of a video recording registered during the technique execution. Data obtained were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and sequential analysis of T-Patterns (obtained with THEME v.5. Software, identifying: a the presence of typical inaccuracies during the technique performance; b a number of chained errors affecting body balance, the position of the supporting foot, the blocking action and the final action of the arms. Findings allowed to suggest some motor tasks to correct the identified inaccuracies, the proper sequential actions to make the execution more effective and some recommendations for the use of feedback. Moreover, these findings could be useful for other professionals in order to correct the key technical errors and prevent diverse injuries.

  8. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  9. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  10. The Ethical and Non Ethical Mutual Funds Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Adamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the astonishing new developments in the financial community is the rise of ethical investments during the last decade. Particularly, the recent financial crisis has determined a major attention towards an ethically oriented finance based on social investments and environmental benefits that can create greater corporate crisis prevention. Because of the sheer size and importance of the ethical mutual funds, we thought to compare the ethical and non ethical mutual funds. Approach: The aim of this study was to describe the ethical and non ethical mutual funds under Italian and foreign law highlighting how some factors, such as performance, typology (equity, balanced, fixed income, geographic location, management fees, characterize these funds in different way. Results: The analysis has been carried out collecting a data set of 219 mutual funds published on www.morningstar.com. The data set is subdivided in 109 ethical mutual funds and 110 non ethical mutual funds. The study uses a multi-disciplinary approach and it is led by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA which puts in evidence the principal characteristics of the mutual funds by their projection on a factorial plane. Later the multivariate analysis carries out typologies of mutual funds clusters with particular characteristics by a Cluster Analysis. The study confirmed the existence of different characteristics with reference to the ethical and non ethical mutual funds. Particularly, it puts in evidence three groups of funds which are inside homogeneous but heterogeneous between them by the characteristics considered. The first groups, defined “negative ethical performance”, is composed of 152 funds. The second groups, named “positive non ethical performance”, is characterized by non ethical fund (50.23% of them is present in this group. The third cluster is called “young funds” and it is composed of funds born in the period 2005

  11. Mentoring practices benefiting pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés.

  12. Waveguide mutually pumped phase conjugators

    OpenAIRE

    James, S. W.; Youden, K.E.; Jeffrey, P. M.; EASON, R. W.; Chandler, P.J.; Zhang, L.; Townsend, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of the Bridge Mutually Pumped Phase Conjugator is reported in a planar waveguide structure in photorefractive BaTiO3. The waveguide was fabricated by the technique of ion implantation. using 1.5 MeV H+ at a dose of 10^16 ions/cm^2. An order of magnitude decrease in response time is observed in the waveguide as compared to typical values obtained in bulk crystals, probably resulting from a combination of the optical confinement within the waveguide, and possibly modification of t...

  13. Mutual Coupling Compensation for Direction-of-Arrival Estimations Using the Receiving-Mutual-Impedance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Shun Lui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A short review of the receiving-mutual-impedance method (RMIM for mutual coupling compensation in direction finding applications using linear array is conducted. The differences between the conventional-mutual-impedance method (CMIM and RMIM, as well as the three different determination methods for receiving mutual impedance (RMI, will be discussed in details. As an example, direction finding with better accuracies is used for demonstrating the superiority of mutual coupling compensation using RMIM.

  14. Asymmetric Mutualism in Two- and Three-Dimensional Range Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Nelson, David R.

    2014-04-01

    Genetic drift at the frontiers of two-dimensional range expansions of microorganisms can frustrate local cooperation between different genetic variants, demixing the population into distinct sectors. In a biological context, mutualistic or antagonistic interactions will typically be asymmetric between variants. By taking into account both the asymmetry and the interaction strength, we show that the much weaker demixing in three dimensions allows for a mutualistic phase over a much wider range of asymmetric cooperative benefits, with mutualism prevailing for any positive, symmetric benefit. We also demonstrate that expansions with undulating fronts roughen dramatically at the boundaries of the mutualistic phase, with severe consequences for the population genetics along the transition lines.

  15. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  16. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN SUPLEMENTASI ASAM AMINOBERCABANG TERHADAP PRESTASI PEJUDO DI PUSLATNAS JUDO CILOTO, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Slamet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa faktor berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan prestasi olahragawan, antara lain bobot latihan fisik dan masukan zat gizi, terutama saat dan menjelang bertanding. Kebutuhan energi diharapkan bagi olahragawan lebih besar daripada bukan olahragawan. Bila energi dari karbohidrat dipakai terus menerus selama bertanding, kebutuhan energi diambil dari protein. Bila keadaan tersebut berlanjut dapat menurunkan prestasi olahragawan tersebut. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut dengan disuplementasi asam amino bercabang ke dalam makanan olahragawan akan digunakan pada waktu proses metabolisme protein sebagai sumber energi selama bertanding. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui bila ke dalam makanan olahragawan diberikan asam amino bercabang (BCAA akan meningkatkan prestasi olahragawan. Subyek diambil dari cabang olahraga judo sebanyak 15 orang pejudo yunior, umur antara 14-19 tahun, dibagi dalam 2 kelompok (A dan B masing-masing terdiri dari komposisi, berat badan dan jenis kelamin yang sama, tinggal di asrama dan mendapat makanan yang sama pula. Perlakuan ada 3 periode, masing-masing selama 12 hari. Periode I subyek diberi kapsul placebo ke dalam makanannya selama 12 hari. Hari ke 11 subyek diperiksa keadaan klinis, biokimia darah dan uji kebugaran jasmani. Setelah diistirahatkan selama 14 hari, dilakukan Periode II, subyek diberi kapsul placebo selama 12 hari, pada hari ke 11 dilakukan pemerlksaan klinis, biokimia darah menjelang uji kebugaran jasmani. subyek diberi kapsul asam amino bercabang (BCAA. Setelah diistirahatkan selama 14 hari, dilakukan Periode III, pemberian kapsul placebo diganti dengan kapsul yang berisi asam amino campuran selama 12 hari. Pada hari ke 11 diperiksa ulang klinis dan biokimia darah. Menjelang uji kebugaran jasmani subyek diberi kapsul BCAA. Parameter yang digunakan adalah masukan dan keluaran energi, zat gizi makanan yang dikonsumsi, biokimia darah dan uji kebugaran jasmani. Periode I, II, III, dengan melalui

  17. Selection for cheating across disparate environments in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie S; Simms, Ellen L

    2014-09-01

    The primary dilemma in evolutionarily stable mutualisms is that natural selection for cheating could overwhelm selection for cooperation. Cheating need not entail parasitism; selection favours cheating as a quantitative trait whenever less-cooperative partners are more fit than more-cooperative partners. Mutualisms might be stabilised by mechanisms that direct benefits to more-cooperative individuals, which counter selection for cheating; however, empirical evidence that natural selection favours cheating in mutualisms is sparse. We measured selection on cheating in single-partner pairings of wild legume and rhizobium lineages, which prevented legume choice. Across contrasting environments, selection consistently favoured cheating by rhizobia, but did not favour legumes that provided less benefit to rhizobium partners. This is the first simultaneous measurement of selection on cheating across both host and symbiont lineages from a natural population. We empirically confirm selection for cheating as a source of antagonistic coevolutionary pressure in mutualism and a biological dilemma for models of cooperation.

  18. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雪军; 杨晓兰

    2004-01-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  19. Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation and Dynamic Portfolio Strategy Design Using Value at Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongqiuZhao

    2004-01-01

    Traditional evaluation techniques for mutual funds are based on CAPM or APT. Propose a new measure benefiting from Value at Risk is proposed in this paper.We show how to apply the VAR dynamics to the evaluation of mutual funds. Meanwhile,we applied the idea to the design of dynamic portfolio construction strategies. As for the portfolio weight adjusting, this paper is focused on the optimal adjusting strategies with cost happens and those on concrete time points.

  20. A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Derek W.; Segar, Simon T; Jo Ridley; Ruth Chan; Crozier, Ross H.; Yu, Douglas W.; Cook, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their “fruits” (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segrega...

  1. Holographic Mutual Information is Monogamous

    CERN Document Server

    Hayden, Patrick; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A,B,C obey the inequality I(A:BC) >= I(A:B)+I(A:C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney, Linden, and Winter; this constitutes strong evidence in favour of its validity.

  2. Holographic mutual information is monogamous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Patrick; Headrick, Matthew; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A, B, C obey the inequality I(A∶B∪C)≥I(A∶B)+I(A∶C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney et al.; this constitutes strong evidence in favor of its validity.

  3. Features of muscular activity at carrying out body drop by female judo-wrestlers of highly qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elipkhanov S.B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluating muscles activity at carrying out body drop, lengths of muscles and velocity of changing their lengths. Was used 2D and 3D video analysis. Three participant of Russia female national judo team (age before 23 years took part in experiment. Has been established at carrying out reception to the right side greatest changes of length are observed at left and right muscle rectus abdominis and right muscle obliquus externus abdominis, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus, back parts of left and right muscle deltoideus. The highest velocity of contraction are noticed at muscle obliquus externus abdominis (especially at the right, middle and lower parts of left muscle gluteus maximus and middle part of left muscle deltoideus.

  4. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  5. [Screening examination of Trichophyton tonsurans among Judo practitioners at the All Japan Inter High School Championships, Saga 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Hidekazu; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an examination for Trichophyton tonsurans(T. tonsurans)performed by the hairbrush (HB; 90 bristles)method at the All Japan Inter High School Championships, Saga 2007. Samples were taken from 487 Judo practitioners (265 males and 222 females) out of a total of 951. The areas with the highest positive rates were: Kyushu 21%(15 participants out of 73 sampled), Tohoku 17% (13 out of 77), Kinki 16% (14 out of 89), and Chubu 13% (12 out of 89). Four participants from Kyushu, four from Tohoku, two from Kinki, and two from Chubu were strongly positive carriers, their samples developing more than 30 colonies per dish. This finding is in concordance with the high HB-positive rates in these areas. The results of a questionnaire distributed during sampling showed that 90% of the examinees had heard of T. tonsurans infection, 11% had been sampled by the HB method previously, and 37% declined to receive the results of the medical examination. The low percentage of participants who had experienced a HB sampling before could be explained by the insufficient penetration of this test among dermatologists, as well as by the fact that team trainers are reluctant to expose their athletes to sampling. Although trainers' education concerning T. tonsurans is also an important factor, we strongly recommend that dermatologists take the initiative to perform medical examinations such as HB sampling in schools or at other public organizations. As for the reason why so many practitioners refused to be informed about the diagnosis, many of them mentioned being afraid that it might be overheard by trainers or fellow practitioners. It can be easily inferred that this type of concern leads Judo practitioners to avoid participation in sampling. Therefore, we concluded that substantial care to protect personal information is essential when communicating the results of the examination.

  6. Evolutionary stability of mutualism: interspecific population regulation as an evolutionarily stable strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schultz, Stewart T.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are often vulnerable to instability because low benefit : cost ratios can rapidly lead to extinction or to the conversion of mutualism to parasite–host or predator–prey interactions. We hypothesize that the evolutionary stability of mutualism can depend on how benefits and costs to one mutualist vary with the population density of its partner, and that stability can be maintained if a mutualist can influence demographic rates and regulate the population density of its partner. We test this hypothesis in a model of mutualism with key features of senita cactus (Pachycereus schottii) – senita moth (Upiga virescens) interactions, in which benefits of pollination and costs of larval seed consumption to plant fitness depend on pollinator density. We show that plants can maximize their fitness by allocating resources to the production of excess flowers at the expense of fruit. Fruit abortion resulting from excess flower production reduces pre–adult survival of the pollinating seed–consumer, and maintains its density beneath a threshold that would destabilize the mutualism. Such a strategy of excess flower production and fruit abortion is convergent and evolutionarily stable against invasion by cheater plants that produce few flowers and abort few to no fruit. This novel mechanism of achieving evolutionarily stable mutualism, namely interspecific population regulation, is qualitatively different from other mechanisms invoking partner choice or selective rewards, and may be a general process that helps to preserve mutualistic interactions in nature.

  7. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regularly defecate into the pitchers when they visit them to feed. Feces represent a valuable source of nitrogen for these Nepenthes species, but there are many facets of the mutualism that are yet to be investigated. These include, but are not limited to, seasonal variation in exudate production rates by the plants, behavioral ecology of visiting tree shrews and the mechanism by which the plants signal to tree shrews that their pitchers represent a food source. Further research into this extraordinary animal-plant interaction is required to gain a better understanding of the benefits to the participating species. PMID:20861680

  8. Analysis of Physical Training of Juvenile Judo Athletes%少年柔道运动员身体素质训练浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃飞

    2015-01-01

    The physical quality training is an important part of sports training. Combining with training practice, the thesis analyzes the characteristics of Judo and the significance of the physical training for juvenile judo athletes and it also points out that training should pay attention to several issues. Besides, training methods and means are also discussed.%身体素质训练是运动训练的重要组成部分,结合训练实践,文章从柔道项目特点及身体素质训练的重要意义,身体素质训练中应注意的几个问题,身体素质训练安排等进行了论述。

  9. Práctica deportiva, convivencia intercultural y ciudadanía: Integración socio-educativa a través del Judo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Victoriano, José Manuel; Gómez Ferrer Cayrols, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta las dimensiones teóricas y metodológicas del 'Programa experimental de integración socioeducativa a través del judo' para jóvenes del barrio de Ruzafa en la ciudad de Valencia. El objetivo principal de dicho programa, que comenzó en octubre de 2008 y finalizó en junio de 2011, consistió en elaborar una guía didáctica para utilizar la práctica del judo como herramienta de socialización en el deporte y a través del deporte, prestando particular atención a la relaci...

  10. Qualitative teamwork issues and strategies: coordination through mutual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Long, Bonita; Bermbach, Nicole; Jordan, Sharalyn; Patterson, Kathryn

    2005-03-01

    Multidisciplinary research teams that include faculty, students, and volunteers can be challenging and enriching for all participants. Although such teams are becoming commonplace, minimal guidance is available about strategies to enhance team effectiveness. In this article, the authors highlight strategies to guide qualitative teamwork through coordination of team members and tasks based on mutual adjustment. Using a grounded theory exemplar, they focus on issues of (a) building the team, (b) developing reflexivity and theoretical sensitivity, (c) tackling analytic and methodological procedures, and (d) developing dissemination guidelines. Sharing information, articulating project goals and elements, acknowledging variation in individual goals, and engaging in reciprocity and respectful collaboration are key elements of mutual adjustment. The authors summarize conclusions about the costs and benefits of the process.

  11. Inquiry of the discomfort offered for different tatamis used in the practical of the judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2007-12-01

    was fastened to the athlete, first at the wrist and then at the hip, for the respective impact measures. For the field research, 63 judo fi ghters, performing the same fall projection, who inferred in a protocol the discomfort perception about each type of material, tested the same tatamis. The data were collected through the SAD 32 program and the experimental acceleration curves were imported for the MATLAB (version 5, 1999 software, which were parameterized and derived in order to obtain the a, q and jerk calculations, respectively. The results obtained for both the subjective perception, in the parameterization of curves (a and q and for the values of jerk, ended up by classifying the tatamis with regard to the discomfort characteristic, being this classifi cation in crescent order for the wrist segment: A, B, F, G, D, C, E; and for the hip: A, F, B, C, G, D, E. It is believed that the procedures here described for the attainment of the a, q and jerk indexes will be useful for the classifi cation of discomfort provided by other materials submitted to impact such as insoles and soles of sportive shoes.

  12. BASIC BIOMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECOND PHASE (TSUKURI OF JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUE OSOTO GARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Rexhepi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of a total of 11 judoists - one was the Tori (thrower, and the other ten were uke (those who were thrown during the performance of throwing technique, was analyzed the second phase of throwing (tsukuri judo technique osoto gari. Tori is an active athlete superior quality (master, body mass = 72 kg, and all the other, who were thrown (uke differ from each other as the weight and height of the body concerned. The average of their body weight was 73.8 kg, which means that it is almost even with body mass of tori. For data collection was used a three-dimensional motion analysis system APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System. Tsukuri is the phase where occur most actions of reaping leg. The second phase (tsukuri begins when tori detach his right foot and lasts until the beginning of reaping opponent's leg, on which was concentrated its weight (uke's weight. The parameters that describe the effect of the reaping leg in the second phase of technique osoto gari are crucial for the successful execution of this leg technique. For the analysis of the second phase of the throw were selected 14 variables that describe the position of the body and certain body parts of both athletes, velocity parameters of tori's reaping leg and the duration of this phase (time. The role of the tori's standing leg is to maintain a stable position during this phase, while the other leg quickly and in full force acts reaping. The smallest angle of the knee joint of standing leg during the second phase was 130.84 °. Before the moment of reaping, or detachment of uke`s feet from the mat, standing leg has a tendency to extension in the knee joint, which impacts positively on raising the tori's body center of mass. Height tori's body center of mass at the beginning phase was 87.79 cm. As a result of tori's action by pulling onto uke, but little to his left side, the uke`s center of mass at the end of this phase is moved laterally to 6.10 cm. The results show quite

  13. Athlete’s Retention of a Coach’s Instruction Before a Judo Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Rosado, Antonio; Januário, Nuno; Barroja, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the instruction of the Judo coach immediately before the competition, in the process of preparation for the fights, looking to (1) study the coherency between the information which the coach transmits and that which the athlete retains; (2) identify the correlation between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach; (3) determine if the retention varies in relation to variables such as the form and nature of the information, as well as the gender and practice category of the athletes. The participants were 11 coaches and 58 athletes of 3 categories: under- 15, under-17 and under-20, of both genders. One hundred and sixteen (116) instructional episodes were observed, which corresponds to four hundred and six (406) information units convoyed by the coaches. The coaches’ instructions given before the competition were recorded in an audio and video register. After the coaches’ instruction, the athletes were approached by the investigator and an interview was accomplished. To determine if the retention varies in relation to form and nature of the information and gender and practice category of the athletes, the non-parametric statistics, U de Mann-Whitney and Kruskal- Wallis, was used. Correlation of Spearman was applied to verify the degree of association between the coherency, the extension and the number of ideas conveyed by the coach. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes and the information coherency was inversely related to the number of transmitted ideas. The coaches were, mainly, prescriptive and the form of the information was not important for the retention of the information. Gender was a differentiated variable as the girls showed more coherency in the retained ideas in relation to the ideas transmitted by the coach. Key pointsThe instructions given by the coach are optimized if the athletes retain and understand them well

  14. On the Mutual Information in Hawking Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    We compute the mutual information of two Hawking particles emitted consecutively by an evaporating black hole. Following Page, we find that the mutual information is of order exp(-S) where S is the entropy of the black hole. We speculate on implications for black hole unitarity, in particular on a possible failure of locality at large distances.

  15. Mutual Influence Between Culture And Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓敏

    2016-01-01

    Science and culture are different concepts or areas, although they have different ways of development, but they have a complex relationship. Culture and science mutual influence and mutual restrict. The development of science has caused the change of culture, and promotes the development of human culture. At the same time, culture also influences the development of science in a certain extent.

  16. The Competitive Strategy of Mutual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Stephen P.; Slavin, Lois

    1998-01-01

    Defines and discusses mutual learning in organizations. Suggests that the idea of people and companies sharing knowledge is becoming a competitive strategy because mutual learning enables executives and employees to increase their capacity to work together, accelerate organizational learning, and avoid mistakes. (JOW)

  17. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  18. Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E

    2010-09-01

    Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.

  19. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  20. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  1. As origens do judô brasileiro: a árvore genealógica dos medalhistas olímpicos Las orígenes del judo brasileño: el árbol genealogica de los ganadores de medallas olímpicas The roots of Brazilian judo, the genealogic tree from olympic medalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Velly Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil participou de todas as edições dos Jogos Olímpicos (JO no judô, nos quais 12 atletas brasileiros conquistaram medalhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar uma "árvore genealógica judoística" do judô brasileiro a partir destes medalhistas. A metodologia utilizada foi História Oral de Vida Híbrida. Foram entrevistados os 12 medalhistas brasileiros em JO e seus professores. Identificamos todos os formadores dos professores destes medalhistas, até encontrar os "genearcas", aqueles que chegaram ao Brasil com condições de transmitir estes conhecimentos. As informações obtidas com os entrevistados foram analisadas juntamente com outros documentos. Maeda e Satake foram os primeiros japoneses a chegar e fazer demonstrações de judô no Brasil, a partir de 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, que fundou a Budokan em 1936, foi o genearca que influenciou o maior número destes atletas. O primeiro medalhista brasileiro, Chiaki Ishii, foi também um genearca, pois influenciou outros atletas e professores.Brasil ha participado en todas las ediciones de los Juegos Olímpicos (JO en judo, aunque 12 atletas brasileños ganaron medallas. El objetivo de este estudio fue preparar un árbol genealogica judoística de estos mismos medallistas olimpicos de judo. La historia oral de vida híbrida es la metodología utilizada. Entrevistamos a los 12 medallistas brasileños y sus entrenadores. Se identificaron todos los entrenadores formadores de estos medallistas también, hasta que encuentre los genearcas, que llegaran a Brasil y lograron hacer la transmisión de este conocimiento. La información obtenida de los encuestados fueron analizadas junto con otros documentos. Maeda y Satake fueron los primeros a llegar y dar demostraciones de judo en Brasil, desde 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, quien fundó Budokan en 1936, fue el genearca que influyó el mayor número de estos atletas. El primer medallista brasileño, Chiaki Ishii, fue también un genearca al influir otros

  2. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time on mutual exclusion lock in efficient manner has been discussed in detail.

  3. Teaming up for mutual learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Pedersen, Tanja Aabo; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    student collaboration. The paper is based on research activities carried out in the context of a 3rd semester project at the Industrial Design Msc. program at The School of Architecture, Design & Planning at Aalborg University. Here, the teaching style is Problem Based Learning (PBL). In PBL, student......The focus of this paper is two-folded within the theme of collaboration between education and industry. Firstly it unfolds how learning for design-engineer students can be established and facilitated in a dynamic setting with industrial partners and secondly how industrial partners can benefit from...

  4. Manager-Investor Conflicts in Mutual Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahoney, Paul G

    2004-01-01

    .... After providing some basic institutional details, it focuses on the cash flows from mutual fund investors to fund managers, brokers, and other third parties and the associated conflicts of interest...

  5. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  6. Comparing network covers using mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, Alcides Viamontes

    2012-01-01

    In network science, researchers often use mutual information to understand the difference between network partitions produced by community detection methods. Here we extend the use of mutual information to covers, that is, the cases where a node can belong to more than one module. In our proposed solution, the underlying stochastic process used to compare partitions is extended to deal with covers, and the random variables of the new process are simply fed into the usual definition of mutual information. With partitions, our extended process behaves exactly as the conventional approach for partitions, and thus, the mutual information values obtained are the same. We also describe how to perform sampling and do error estimation for our extended process, as both are necessary steps for a practical application of this measure. The stochastic process that we define here is not only applicable to networks, but can also be used to compare more general set-to-set binary relations.

  7. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  8. Population dynamics and the ecological stability of obligate pollination mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Mutualistic interactions almost always produce both costs and benefits for each of the interacting species. It is the difference between gross benefits and costs that determines the net benefit and the per-capita effect on each of the interacting populations. For example, the net benefit of obligate pollinators, such as yucca and senita moths, to plants is determined by the difference between the number of ovules fertilized from moth pollination and the number of ovules eaten by the pollinator's larvae. It is clear that if pollinator populations are large, then, because many eggs are laid, costs to plants are large, whereas, if pollinator populations are small, gross benefits are low due to lack of pollination. Even though the size and dynamics of the pollinator population are likely to be crucial, their importance has been neglected in the investigation of mechanisms, such as selective fruit abortion, that can limit costs and increase net benefits. Here, we suggest that both the population size and dynamics of pollinators are important in determining the net benefits to plants, and that fruit abortion can significantly affect these. We develop a model of mutualism between populations of plants and their pollinating seed-predators to explore the ecological consequences of fruit abortion on pollinator population dynamics and the net effect on plants. We demonstrate that the benefit to a plant population is unimodal as a function of pollinator abundance, relative to the abundance of flowers. Both selective abortion of fruit with eggs and random abortion of fruit, without reference to whether they have eggs or not, can limit pollinator population size. This can increase the net benefits to the plant population by limiting the number of eggs laid, if the pollination rate remains high. However, fruit abortion can possibly destabilize the pollinator population, with negative consequences for the plant population.

  9. Band Control of Mutual Proportional Reinsurance

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, John; Yuan, Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance --- a mutual reserve system that is intended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual insurance and reserve banks in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control $(a,A,B,b)$ with $a=0$ and $a

  10. Outbreak of tinea corporis gladiatorum, a fungal skin infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans, in a French high level judo team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, D M; Rousseau, D; Defo, Defo; Estève, E

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of 49 cases of tinea corporis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans infection occurred in a high level judo team of 131 members in Orleans, central France, between October 2004 and April 2005. The team was divided into 5 groups: cadet-junior boys (n=44), cadet-junior girls (n=33), male university students (n= 15), female university students (n=21), and a group called 'pole technique' made up of high level judokas who have finished academic study (n=18). The outbreak involved 86% of the cadet-junior boys, but only 6 men in the 'pole technique' (33%) and only 5 of the 69 other team members (7%) (cadet-junior girls and university students). We describe the outbreak and the results of a survey that found a known risk factor for the 'pole technique': sharing an electric hair shaver. Personal hygiene practices were found to be very good among the cadet-junior boys. The high attack rate in this group may be linked to the poor shower facilities in the gymnasium where they practiced that led them to have their showers several hours after the end of daily practice.

  11. Why Consumers Choose Managed Mutual Funds over Index Funds: Hypotheses from Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Kaufmann, Patrick J.; Bhagat, Sanjai

    1999-01-01

    Using the literature of psychology, consumer behavior, and behavioral finance, a series of hypotheses is presented that account for consumer choices of managed over index mutual funds. Results indicate a need for consumer education to increase awareness of the benefits of index investing. (SK)

  12. Why Consumers Choose Managed Mutual Funds over Index Funds: Hypotheses from Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Kaufmann, Patrick J.; Bhagat, Sanjai

    1999-01-01

    Using the literature of psychology, consumer behavior, and behavioral finance, a series of hypotheses is presented that account for consumer choices of managed over index mutual funds. Results indicate a need for consumer education to increase awareness of the benefits of index investing. (SK)

  13. Three-Phase Modulated Pole Machine Topologies Utilizing Mutual Flux Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Washington, Jamie G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.; Baker, Nick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses three-phase topologies for modulated pole machines (MPMs). The authors introduce a new threephase topology, which takes advantage of mutual flux paths; this is analyzed using 3-D finite-element methods and compared to a three-phase topology using three single-phase units...... both performance and constructional benefits over prior MPM topologies....

  14. Core benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    This SPEC Kit explores the core employment benefits of retirement, and life, health, and other insurance -benefits that are typically decided by the parent institution and often have significant governmental regulation...

  15. El Judo a través del Juego en la Educación Física en Ed. Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Basterra, Miriam B

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado, en adelante llamado TFG, trata de una propuesta de innovación pedagógica mediante la enseñanza del judo gracias a la incuestionable eficacia del juego en el desarrollo motriz del niño. En primer lugar tenemos la Educación Física que proporciona a los menores las habilidades y destrezas psicomotrices necesarias para un buen desarrollo, además de servirle de distracción y relajación en el entorno educativo y fuera de él. En segundo lugar contamos con...

  16. The Analysis of Mutual Fund Performance: Evidence from U.S. Equity Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Budiono (Diana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the mutual fund performance for about 45 years. There are several key points that we can withdraw from this dissertation. First, to study the persistence of mutual fund performance, it is important to consider time-varying exposures because when they are ignored, the persistence

  17. Holographic Mutual Information for Singular Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mozaffar, M Reza Mohammadi; Omidi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in three-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.

  18. Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  19. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S Baptista

    Full Text Available The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR, is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic, and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  20. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  1. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  2. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard......This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...

  3. MISTIC: mutual information server to infer coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, Franco L.; Teppa, Elin; Chernomoretz, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    MISTIC (mutual information server to infer coevolution) is a web server for graphical representation of the information contained within a MSA (multiple sequence alignment) and a complete analysis tool for Mutual Information networks in protein families. The server outputs a graphical visualization...... of several information-related quantities using a circos representation. This provides an integrated view of the MSA in terms of (i) the mutual information (MI) between residue pairs, (ii) sequence conservation and (iii) the residue cumulative and proximity MI scores. Further, an interactive interface...... containing all results can be downloaded. The server is available at http://mistic.leloir.org.ar. In summary, MISTIC allows for a comprehensive, compact, visually rich view of the information contained within an MSA in a manner unique to any other publicly available web server. In particular, the use...

  4. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  5. Indian mutual fund industry: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant R. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the mutual fund industry in India and the reasons for its poor penetration, which includes lack of objective research. It benchmarks the industry globally, and raises key issues regarding the ownership and performance of mutual funds, the sensitivity of fund flows to performance, and the importance of regulation to its growth, all of which have been largely under researched in India. It then captures the views of leading practitioners on these and other issues, including the challenges posed by poor financial literacy, the equity culture in the country, and the weakly supportive regulatory environment.

  6. Ranking mutual funds using Sortino method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Faghani Makrani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on most business activities is to determine an efficient method for ranking mutual funds. This paper performs an empirical investigation to rank 42 mutual funds listed on Tehran Stock Exchange using Sortino method over the period 2011-2012. The results of survey have been compared with market return and the results have confirmed that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between Sortino return and market return. In addition, there were some positive and meaningful relationship between two Sortino methods.

  7. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies. (a) All insurance companies, other than life or mutual or foreign... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life...

  8. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  9. The Genogram: From Diagnostics to Mutual Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adriana Balaguer; Levitt, Mary Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents the need for integration of mutual client-therapist collaboration into the process of genogram construction and demonstrates through case examples how such integration enhances the therapeutic power of the genogram. Suggests possible changes in the training of marriage and family therapists in order for such integration to become more…

  10. Mutual Excitation in Eurozone Sovereign CDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aït-Sahalia, Y.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Pelizzon, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study self- and cross-excitation of shocks in the sovereign CDS market, on the basis of a large database of Eurozone sovereign CDS spreads. We adopt a multivariate setting with credit default intensities driven by mutually exciting jump processes, to capture the salient features observed in the d

  11. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features. Th

  12. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...

  13. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.

  14. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  15. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  16. The ECJ and the Mutual Assistance Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In 1977 the European Council adopted the ‘Directive Concerning Mutual Assistance by the competent Authorities of the Member States in the Field of Direct Taxation’.3 The implementation deadline of this Directive was 1 January 1979. On 6 December 1979 the Council adopted an

  17. Management of mutual health organizations in Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features. Th

  18. Mutual excitation in Eurozone sovereign CDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aït-Sahalia, Y.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Pelizzon, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study self- and cross-excitation of shocks in the Eurozone sovereign CDS market. We adopt a multivariate setting with credit default intensities driven by mutually exciting jump processes, to capture the salient features observed in the data, in particular, the clustering of high default probabil

  19. Do Mutual Children Cement Bonds in Stepfamilies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 105 midwestern stepfamilies, 39 of whom had reproduced together. Found no significant differences between families with mutual children and those without in terms of marital adjustment, stepparent- and parent-child relationships, and stepfamily affect. It was not possible to predict which families were most likely to reproduce together…

  20. Information Content of Mutual Fund Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAcademic financial economists have been keenly interested in the value of active portfolio management since the seminal paper of Jensen (1968). This book examines the information advantages that active mutual fund managers attain in financial markets through an analysis of disclosed fund

  1. The ECJ and the Mutual Assistance Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C. Hemels (Sigrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In 1977 the European Council adopted the ‘Directive Concerning Mutual Assistance by the competent Authorities of the Member States in the Field of Direct Taxation’.3 The implementation deadline of this Directive was 1 January 1979. On 6 December 1979 the Council adopted an

  2. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  3. Do Mutual Children Cement Bonds in Stepfamilies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 105 midwestern stepfamilies, 39 of whom had reproduced together. Found no significant differences between families with mutual children and those without in terms of marital adjustment, stepparent- and parent-child relationships, and stepfamily affect. It was not possible to predict which families were most likely to reproduce together…

  4. Influence of judo new rules on skills and tactics training%柔道新规则对技战术训练的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成娣

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料、专家访谈、录像观察等方法,对修订后的柔道规则和近两年国际国内柔道比赛进行了研究分析,提出了适应新规则的应对措施和建议,强调针对新规则,创新技术训练、战术训练;强化体能训练和心理训练是提高运动员竞技能力和竞赛成绩的重要途径.%This article puts forward measures and recommendations to adapt to the new rules on the analysis of the revised Judo rules,the international and domestic judo competitions in the past two years by the method of literature,expert interviews,and video observation and so on.The article emphasizes that innovative technology and tactical training,strengthening the physical and psychological training aim at the new rules is important ways to improve the sportsman's athletic ability and competition results.

  5. 我国女子柔道训练创新的思考%Innovative Thinking of Chinese Women's Judo Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成娣

    2011-01-01

    With the methods of documents and materials, interviews and observation, this article summarizes and an- alyzes current situation and problems on Chinese women' s judo training of physical quality, technology, tactics and mentality, puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions. It emphasizes that highlighting the comprehensive physical training, strengthening psychological tactics training, and innovating training concept are important measures and means to advance competitive level of women' s judo training.%通过文献资料、访谈、观察等方法,对我国女子柔道在身体素质训练、技术训练、战术训练、心理训练等方面存在的问题进行了总结分析,并提出对策及建议,强调突出全面身体素质训练,强化心理战术训练,创新树立“得意连络技”训练理念.

  6. Impact of Martial Arts (Judo, Karate, and Kung Fu) on Bone Mineral Density Gains in Adolescents of Both Genders: 9-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor H; Kemper, Han C G; Agostinete, Ricardo R; Lynch, Kyle R; Christofaro, Diego G D; Ronque, Enio R; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2017-09-22

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into a control group (not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (kung fu/karate, n = 29; judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length, and height set) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (BMD, in g/cm(2)) at 2 moments, baseline and 9 months later. Maturity offset (age at peak height velocity), lean soft tissue, chronological age, and resistance training were treated as covariates. Male judoists presented higher gains in BMD-spine [0.098 g/cm(2) (95% confidence interval, 0.068-0.128)] than control group [0.040 g/cm(2) (95% confidence interval, 0.011-0.069)] (post hoc test with P  = .030). There was no effect of martial art on BMD gains among girls. Independently of gender, in all multivariate models, lean soft tissue constituted the most relevant covariate. Judo practice in adolescents affected the bone accrual significantly after 9-month follow-up compared with controls, mainly in boys.

  7. Tentative Study On Formation Process And Characteristics Of Pround Skill In Judo%浅析柔道投技中得意技形成的过程及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毓华

    2012-01-01

    Judo is a kind of strong offensive and defensive sport for two unarmed athletes both aim to fall over the other one by direct body contact. Among many skills for judo, pround skill is a widely chosen skill for ex- cellent athletes both from domestic and foreign in Judo competition, and any tactical change is always con- eemed with pround skill, meanwhile pround skill is treated as main path and basis for scoring in Judo. Due to its vital role, athletes have to improve such skill during their daily exercise and competition, with the purpose to get good preparation for being a winner. This thesis focuses on analysis of pround skill of outstanding female athletes in Judo Team of Training Center for Heavy Athletics Sports in Guangdong Province.%柔道是2人徒手,身体直接接触的,要把对手摔倒为目的对抗性很强的竞技运动项目,其中得意技是在柔道比赛中被国内外许多优秀选手广泛使用的技术,战术变化也是围绕着个人得意技进行的,也是在比赛中得分的主要手段和基础。在比赛中实用价值是很大的,运动员要在比赛和训练中反复练习,使得意技愈加熟练,以达到取胜之目的。

  8. Lactobacilli-Host mutualism: "learning on the fly".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Renata C; Leulier, François

    2014-08-29

    Metazoans establish with microorganisms complex interactions for their mutual benefits. Drosophila, which has already proven useful host model to study several aspects of innate immunity and host-bacteria pathogenic associations has become a powerful model to dissect the mechanisms behind mutualistic host-microbe interactions. Drosophila microbiota is composed of simple and aerotolerant bacterial communities mostly composed of Lactobacillaceae and Acetobactereaceae. Drosophila mono- or poly-associated with lactobacilli strains constitutes a powerful model to dissect the complex interplay between lactobacilli and host biologic traits. Thanks to the genetic tractability of both Drosophila and lactobacilli this association model offers a great opportunity to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we review our current knowledge about how the Drosophila model is helping our understanding of how lactobacilli shapes host biology.

  9. Geographic variation in a facultative mutualism: consequences for local arthropod composition and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Savage, Amy M; Rúa, Megan A

    2010-08-01

    Geographic variation in the outcome of interspecific interactions may influence not only the evolutionary trajectories of species but also the structure of local communities. We investigated this community consequence of geographic variation for a facultative mutualism between ants and wild cotton (Gossypium thurberi). Ants consume wild cotton extrafloral nectar and can protect plants from herbivores. We chose three sites that differed in interaction outcome, including a mutualism (ants provided the greatest benefits to plant fitness and responded to manipulations of extrafloral nectar), a potential commensalism (ants increased plant fitness but were unresponsive to extrafloral nectar), and a neutral interaction (ants neither affected plant fitness nor responded to extrafloral nectar). At all sites, we manipulated ants and extrafloral nectar in a factorial design and monitored the abundance, diversity, and composition of other arthropods occurring on wild cotton plants. We predicted that the effects of ants and extrafloral nectar on arthropods would be largest in the location with the mutualism and weakest where the interaction was neutral. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the presence of ants altered arthropod composition, but only at the two sites in which ants increased plant fitness. At the site with the mutualism, ants also suppressed detritivore/scavenger abundance and increased aphids. The presence of extrafloral nectar increased arthropod abundance where mutual benefits were the strongest, whereas both arthropod abundance and morphospecies richness declined with extrafloral nectar availability at the site with the weakest ant-plant interaction. Some responses were geographically invariable: total arthropod richness and evenness declined by approximately 20% on plants with ants, and extrafloral nectar reduced carnivore abundance when ants were excluded from plants. These results demonstrate that a facultative ant-plant mutualism

  10. 教育体系下日本柔道的现代改革历程--兼论嘉纳治五郎的重要贡献%The course of modern reform of Japan Judo under the education system--Also on Jigoro Kano important contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正龙; 赵岷

    2013-01-01

    Judo is developed from Jujitsu, a traditional Japanese sports event. Looking back in time, Jigoro Kano played a crucial role in the process of transformation of Judo. He implanted education conceptions into Judo, enabled it to go into schools from dojos, established a solid social foundation for the development of Judo;at the same time, he injected modern rational conceptions into Judo, attracted the extensive participation of a lot of social elites;he used modern sports modes to reform traditional Judo techniques, so that Judo became a worldwide popular sport;moreover, the revisions and reforms he made on doboks, rituals and the rank system enabled Judo to have distinctive national features and brand signature.%  柔道是由日本民族传统体育项目柔术发展而来的,纵观柔道转变过程,嘉纳治五郎在其中起到了至关重要的作用。他将教育理念植入柔道当中,使柔道从道场进入学校,为柔道的发展奠定了坚实的社会基础;同时他为柔道注入现代理性观念,吸引了社会诸多精英人物的广泛参与;他用现代体育模式改造柔道传统技法,使其成为一项全世界流行的体育运动;他对道服、仪式、段位制的修正与改造,又使得柔道具有鲜明的民族特色与品牌标志。

  11. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Plant invasions--the role of mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D M; Allsopp, N; D'Antonio, C M; Milton, S J; Rejmánek, M

    2000-02-01

    Many introduced plant species rely on mutualisms in their new habitats to overcome barriers to establishment and to become naturalized and, in some cases, invasive. Mutualisms involving animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal, and symbioses between plant roots and microbiota often facilitate invasions. The spread of many alien plants, particularly woody ones, depends on pollinator mutualisms. Most alien plants are well served by generalist pollinators (insects and birds), and pollinator limitation does not appear to be a major barrier for the spread of introduced plants (special conditions relating to Ficus and orchids are described). Seeds of many of the most notorious plant invaders are dispersed by animals, mainly birds and mammals. Our review supports the view that tightly coevolved, plant-vertebrate seed dispersal systems are extremely rare. Vertebrate-dispersed plants are generally not limited reproductively by the lack of dispersers. Most mycorrhizal plants form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which, because of their low specificity, do not seem to play a major role in facilitating or hindering plant invasions (except possibly on remote islands such as the Galapagos which are poor in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The lack of symbionts has, however, been a major barrier for many ectomycorrhizal plants, notably for Pinus spp. in parts of the southern hemisphere. The roles of nitrogen-fixing associations between legumes and rhizobia and between actinorhizal plants and Frankia spp. in promoting or hindering invasions have been virtually ignored in the invasions literature. Symbionts required to induce nitrogen fixation in many plants are extremely widespread, but intentional introductions of symbionts have altered the invasibility of many, if not most, systems. Some of the world's worst invasive alien species only invaded after the introduction of symbionts. Mutualisms in the new environment sometimes re-unite the same species that form

  13. Bad guys turned nice? A critical assessment of Wolbachia mutualisms in arthropod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Roman; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Wolbachia are the most abundant bacterial endosymbionts among arthropods. Although maternally inherited, they do not conform to the widespread view that vertical transmission inevitably selects for beneficial symbionts. Instead, Wolbachia are notorious for their reproductive parasitism which, although lowering host fitness, ensures their spread. However, even for reproductive parasites it can pay to enhance host fitness. Indeed, there is a recent upsurge of reports on Wolbachia-associated fitness benefits. Therefore, the question arises how such instances of mutualism are related to the phenotypes of reproductive parasitism. Here, we review the evidence of Wolbachia mutualisms in arthropods, including both facultative and obligate relationships, and critically assess their biological relevance. Although many studies report anti-pathogenic effects of Wolbachia, few actually prove these effects to be relevant to field conditions. We further show that Wolbachia frequently have beneficial and detrimental effects at the same time, and that reproductive manipulations and obligate mutualisms may share common mechanisms. These findings undermine the idea of a clear-cut distinction between Wolbachia mutualism and parasitism. In general, both facultative and obligate mutualisms can have a strong, and sometimes unforeseen, impact on the ecology and evolution of Wolbachia and their arthropod hosts. Acknowledging this mutualistic potential might be the key to a better understanding of some unresolved issues in the study of Wolbachia-host interactions.

  14. A mutualism-parasitism system modeling host and parasite with mutualism at low density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Deangelis, Donald L

    2012-04-01

    A mutualism-parasitism system of two species is considered, where mutualism is the dominant interaction when the predators (parasites) are at low density while parasitism is dominant when the predators are at high density. Our aim is to show that mutualism at low density promotes coexistence of the species and leads to high production of the prey (host). The mutualism-parasitism system presented here is a combination of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. By comparing dynamics of this system with those of the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we present the mechanisms by which the mutualism improves the coexistence of the species and production of the prey. Then the parameter space is divided into six regions, which correspond to the four outcomes of mutualism, commensalism, predation/parasitism and neutralism, respectively. When the parameters are varied continuously among the six regions, it is shown that the interaction outcomes of the system transition smoothly among the four outcomes. By comparing the dynamics of the specific system with those of the Lotka-Volterra cooperative model, we show that the parasitism at high density promotes stability of the system. A novel aspect of this paper is the simplicity of the model, which allows rigorous and thorough analysis and transparency of the results.

  15. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree–fig wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandér, K. Charlotte; Herre, Edward Allen

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that mutualisms should be vulnerable to invasion by cheaters, yet mutualistic interactions are both ancient and diverse. What prevents one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the costs? Using field experiments and observations, we examined factors affecting mutualism stability in six fig tree–fig wasp species pairs. We experimentally compared the fitness of wasps that did or did not perform their most basic mutualistic service, pollination. We found host sanctions that reduced the fitness of non-pollinating wasps in all derived, actively pollinated fig species (where wasps expend time and energy pollinating), but not in the basal, passively pollinated fig species (where wasps do not). We further screened natural populations of pollinators for wasp individuals that did not carry pollen (‘cheaters’). Pollen-free wasps occurred only in actively pollinating wasp species, and their prevalence was negatively correlated with the sanction strength of their host species. Combined with previous studies, our findings suggest that (i) mutualisms can show coevolutionary dynamics analogous to those of ‘arms races’ in overtly antagonistic interactions; (ii) sanctions are critical for long-term mutualism stability when providing benefits to a host is costly, and (iii) there are general principles that help maintain cooperation both within and among species. PMID:20071379

  16. Estimating Mutual Information by Local Gaussian Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Estimating mutual information (MI) from samples is a fundamental problem in statistics, machine learning, and data analysis. Recently it was shown that a popular class of non-parametric MI estimators perform very poorly for strongly dependent variables and have sample complexity that scales exponentially with the true MI. This undesired behavior was attributed to the reliance of those estimators on local uniformity of the underlying (and unknown) probability density function. Here we present a novel semi-parametric estimator of mutual information, where at each sample point, densities are {\\em locally} approximated by a Gaussians distribution. We demonstrate that the estimator is asymptotically unbiased. We also show that the proposed estimator has a superior performance compared to several baselines, and is able to accurately measure relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude.

  17. Partner manipulation stabilises a horizontally transmitted mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Barajas-Barron, Alejandro; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Svatos, Ales

    2014-02-01

    Mutualisms require protection from non-reciprocating exploiters. Pseudomyrmex workers that engage in an obligate defensive mutualism with Acacia hosts feed exclusively on the sucrose-free extrafloral nectar (EFN) that is secreted by their hosts, a behaviour linking ant energy supply directly to host performance and thus favouring reciprocating behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that Acacia hosts manipulate this digestive specialisation of their ant mutualists. Invertase (sucrose hydrolytic) activity in the ant midguts was inhibited by chitinase, a dominant EFN protein. The inhibition occurred quickly in cell-free gut liquids and in native gels and thus likely results from an enzyme-enzyme interaction. Once a freshly eclosed worker ingests EFN as the first diet available, her invertase becomes inhibited and she, thus, continues feeding on host-derived EFN. Partner manipulation acts at the phenotypic level and means that one partner actively controls the phenotype of the other partner to enhance its dependency on host-derived rewards.

  18. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  19. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  20. Automotive radar - investigation of mutual interference mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goppelt, M.; Blöcher, H.-L.; Menzel, W.

    2010-09-01

    In the past mutual interference between automotive radar sensors has not been regarded as a major problem. With an increasing number of such systems, however, this topic is receiving more and more attention. The investigation of mutual interference and countermeasures is therefore one topic of the joint project "Radar on Chip for Cars" (RoCC) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). RoCC's goal is to pave the way for the development of high-performance, low-cost 79 GHz radar sensors based on Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs). This paper will present some generic interference scenarios and report on the current status of the analysis of interference mechanisms.

  1. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  2. Evaluating and Investing in Equity Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Our framework for evaluating and investing in mutual funds combines observed returns on funds and passive assets with prior beliefs that distinguish pricing-model inaccuracy from managerial skill. A fund's alpha' is defined using passive benchmarks. We show that returns on non-benchmark passive assets help estimate that alpha more precisely for most funds. The resulting estimates generally vary less than standard estimates across alternative benchmark specifications. Optimal portfolios constr...

  3. Mutual information in the Tangled Nature Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Dominic; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik; Sibani, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We consider the concept of mutual information in ecological networks, and use this idea to analyse the Tangled Nature model of co-evolution. We show that this measure of correlation has two distinct behaviours depending on how we define the network in question: if we consider only the network...... of viable species this measure increases, whereas for the whole system it decreases. It is suggested that these are complimentary behaviours that show how ecosystems can become both more stable and better adapted....

  4. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  5. Tourism versus spatial order: mutual relations

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The relation between tourism and the spatial environment is characterized by mutual interaction. The proliferation of tourism and massive tourism development intensifies its impact on the spatial environment, yet the focus is usually placed on environmental degradation and the resulting distortion of spatial order. Concurrently, the significance of the spatial environment, and spatial order in particular, as one of the determinants of tourism development is understated. On a theoretical plane...

  6. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  7. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern part of Ethiopia. ... with growing coffee without shade tree plants that included stunted growth which ultimately ...... coffee producers' price risk. J. Inter.

  8. Medicaid Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benefits Close About Us Messages from CMCS Program History Leadership Organization Visit CMS Contact Us Close Home > Medicaid > ... for Coverage LTSS Prescription Drugs About Us Program History Leadership Organization Visit CMS Contact Us State Medicaid & CHIP ...

  9. Implant positioning system using mutual inductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, You; O'Driscoll, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Surgical placement of implantable medical devices (IMDs) has limited precision and post-implantation the device can move over time. Accurate knowledge of the position of IMDs allows better interpretation of data gathered by the devices and may allow wireless power to be focused on the IMD thereby increasing power transfer efficiency. Existing positioning methods require device sizes and/or power consumptions which exceed the limits of in-vivo mm-sized IMDs applications. This paper describes a novel implant positioning system which replaces the external transmitting (TX) coil of a wireless power transfer link by an array of smaller coils, measures the mutual inductance between each coil in the TX array and the implanted receiving (RX) coil, and uses the spatial variation in those mutual inductances to estimate the location of the implanted device. This method does not increase the hardware or power consumption in the IMD. Mathematical analysis and electromagnetic simulations are presented which explain the theory underlying this scheme and show its feasibility. A particle swarm based algorithm is used to estimate the position of the RX coil from the measured mutual inductance values. MATLAB simulations show the positioning estimation accuracy on the order of 1 mm.

  10. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W. (Catania Universita (Italy); Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin (Italy))

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Investment (Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Vyšniauskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an investment fund is one of the main components in evaluating the performance of the fund. This study seeks for introducing and comparing risk and performance evaluation ratios. The paper is aimed at testing the worked out ratios and at distinguishing between the best ones for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Lithuanian mutual funds. Scientific studies show that a standard deviation, alpha, beta, Sharpe and Treynor ratios are mostly employed for identifying the performance of mutual funds that are also compared with their benchmark index to establish if these funds are outperformed and if is it worth paying management fees to investment banks for managing mutual funds. Historical data were selected for the period from 2012-01-02 to 2013-10-15 analysing the prices of monthly funds. The paper points out the areas of a practical application of the proposed model for investment fund valuation, which may not only provide valuable outcomes for practitioners but also may inspire further research on this article.

  12. Dependence of Mutual Information of Big Protein Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Feng; Huang Jing; Li Yuan- xiang; Zhou Huai-bei

    2003-01-01

    The mutual information function is used to describe the auto-correlation of amino acids in protein. We find two interesting phenomenon: (1) for any given big protein,the mutual information function I(k) is almost a const, wherek is the length of gap. (2) for any two sequence similar proteins, the mutual information are nearly the same. As a consequent, we may use mutual information of protein as a character for sequences comparison.

  13. STUDY ON THE ORGANIZATION AND HABITAT OF THE HUMAN POTENTIAL IN PERFORMANCE JUDO INSIDE ROMANIA, WITH A VIEW TO PREPARYING THE NEXT OLYMPIC CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study underlines the strategic approaches used by the Romanian sportive units with a viewto sustaining the basic high performance competition pattern at the beginning of an Olympic cycle (2009-2012,as well as the geographical diffusion of the potential human resources, with the purpose of improving theorganization of the representative Romanian judo lots.The strategic approaches used for the last past years inside the Romanian sportive units had thetendency of encouraging more and more numerous collaborations. In 2009 the Romanian junior, teens and seniorjudoka participated in the Individual National Championship, by reuniting groups of 1-4 sections sometimesquite geographically distant. This approach characteristic to the entire Romanian sport system started about 5-6years ago, but begins to show uncontrolled dimensions. Our research emphasizes the fact that strategicapproaches based on the collaboration of sportive units is at this very moment a “necessary evil”, but thephenomenon must be controlled or standardized at the level of each sport federation. As far as judo is concerned,the collaborations between different sportive units show a decrease of the section representation efficiency, oncethe number of participant increases, also suggesting other hidden anomalies.The statistic calculus of the results registered by the sport structures involved in the Romanianperformance sport, shows that the combined sportive structures generally obtain the most medals. There arehowever individual sections that register high performances, and the comparison between the individual sportivestructures and the combined ones can only lead to useful and objective conclusions.This paper also underlines the differences between the best performances of the most efficient sportivestructures opting for the collaboration, if compared to the best individual results. Thus, one notices theimportance of the statistic calculus of the sportive structures

  14. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in section 593(a)....

  15. The Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale: evidence for the cultural equivalence of mutuality in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Janice D; Escandón, Socorro; Stewart, Barbara J; Archbold, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Mutuality, the positive quality of the relationship between the family caregiver and care receiver, is an important variable in family care for frail older adults. It has been shown to be associated with lower levels of caregiver strain and higher levels of caregiving rewards. However, the concept and measure of mutuality were developed with non-Hispanic White samples. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of an instrument-the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. We determined for Mexican American families: (a) the functional equivalence of mutuality, (b) a comparative descriptive framework for mutuality, and (c) the language equivalence of the Mutuality Scale and the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. Evaluating mutuality levels for Mexican American older adults and caregivers, especially in view of their strong cultural norm of familism, is essential.

  16. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  17. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  18. Influences of Intermittent Anaerobic Exercise Program on Physical Fitness and Plasma Lactate, Oxidant and Anti-oxidant Status in Smokers and Non-smokers Judo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra H. El-Zawahry*; Gamal A. Shawer**

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence of smoking's negative impact and physical activity's positive impact on long-term health. However, evidences regarding the association between smoking and exercise activity and the independent effects of these factors on antioxidant defense are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between smoking and the intermittent anaerobic exercise on the physical fitness, oxidant and antioxidant status in Judo player. Methods: Twenty male Judo player student from Department of Physical Education Al-Azhar University were enrolled in the study. They were of 2 groups, Non-smokers (NS and smokers (SM. Both groups were subjected to regular Judo training program (2 hours/day, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks. Also, both groups were subjected to an effort test (running of submaximal intensity until exhaustion and record of the maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max using an ergometric bicycle. Heart rate (HR, mean arterial blood pressure (MBP were recorded and blood samples were taken pre and post-effort test for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA,total antioxidant capacity (TAC, uric acid (Ua and lactate (La in the plasma. Also the time to exhaustion was recorded during the effort test. These measures were performed pre and post the training program. Results: At rest the pre-program data of SM showed significantly higher H.R., and plasma MDA ,and significantly lower TAC with tendency to increase in MBP and La levels, and decrease in VO2max, and Ua levels compared to NS. Before program and in response to acute exercise SM showed significantly higher H.R, MDA and La levels with significantly lower TAC, Ua and time to exhaustion compared to NS. On the other hand, after the program and in response to acute exercise, SM showed more pronounced significantly higher HR, MBP, MDA and La with significantly lower VO2max, time to exhaustion and TAC with insignificant changes in the Ua compared to the NS that showed

  19. The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (mutualism) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal mutualism between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Judocas olímpicos Brasileiros: fatores de apoio psicossocial para o desenvolvimento do talento esportivo Olympic judo athletes: psychosocial support elements to sports talent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Massa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o judô possua tradição olímpica, pouco se conhece sobre os aspectos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do talento no cenário nacional. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os fatores de apoio psicossocial presentes no desenvolvimento de judocas brasileiros talentosos do sexo masculino. Para tanto, se utilizou uma amostra de seis judocas, pertencentes à seleção brasileira nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas, 2004. A pesquisa foi constituída através de um delineamento qualitativo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista composta por três perguntas abertas. Para a análise dos resultados foi utilizado o "Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo". Os discursos indicaram a importância dos fatores relacionados : a ao apoio da família; b ao prazer pela prática; e c a determinação dos judocas, corroborando com a literatura internacional no que tange a relevância dos fatores psicossociais para o desenvolvimento do talento em diferentes domínios do conhecimento.Although judo is a traditional Olympic Sport in Brazil, little is known regarding the key aspects to develop talents at the national scenario. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychosocial supporting factors that are seen in the development of talented male Brazilian Judo athletes. A sample of 6 athletes that were in the Athens Olympic Games of 2004 was studied. Research was designed on qualitative basis and used a three open questions interview as investigative tool. Results were analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject. Discourses indicated as important, factors related to: a family support; b pleasure in practice; and c athletes determination, reinforcing the international scientific literature regarding the importance of psychosocial factors to talent development in several knowledge domains.

  1. On the Training and Application of Continuous Technique in Judo%柔道运动连络技的训练及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建奇; 梁攀攀

    2012-01-01

    文章通过对北京体育大学男子柔道队优秀运动员的训练与比赛进行观察,并且对运动员训练比赛中使用连络技动作的成功率进行统计分析,总结出连络技动作的成功率和有效性要高于其他单一动作,说明连络技技术在柔道运动中的重要性。运动员在平时的训练过程中需要进行科学的、系统的训练,通过平时有针对性的训练使运动员在比赛中能更加自如的应用连络技动作进攻的技战术,并希望能对教练员及运动员有所帮助和提高。%This article through observing men's judo team training and competitions of Beijing Sport University, analyzes the application and the sucess rate of athletes' continuous technique using in competitions, finds the success rate of continous technique is higher than other single techique, which shows that the continous technique is important in Judo movement. So it is needed to require ahtletes receive scientific, systematic training, usually through targeted training to improve the application of athletes' continous techniques attacking in games, and hopes to provide helps and references for coaches and athletes improvement.

  2. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  3. Creating a culture of mutual respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kathryn; Mestel, Pamela; Feldman, David L

    2010-04-01

    The Joint Commission mandates that hospitals seeking accreditation have a process to define and address disruptive behavior. Leaders at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, took the initiative to create a code of mutual respect that not only requires respectful behavior, but also encourages sensitivity and awareness to the causes of frustration that often lead to inappropriate behavior. Steps to implementing the code included selecting code advocates, setting up a system for mediating disputes, tracking and addressing operational system issues, providing training for personnel, developing a formal accountability process, and measuring the results.

  4. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  5. The Belief That Market Transactions Are Mutually Beneficial: A Comparison of the Views of Students in Economics and Other Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Amélie; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Using a survey of a large group of first- and final-year students of different disciplines to study their beliefs in the existence of mutual benefits of market transactions, the authors observe significant differences between economics and business students versus students of other disciplines. These differences increase over time, due partly to…

  6. The Belief That Market Transactions Are Mutually Beneficial: A Comparison of the Views of Students in Economics and Other Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Amélie; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Using a survey of a large group of first- and final-year students of different disciplines to study their beliefs in the existence of mutual benefits of market transactions, the authors observe significant differences between economics and business students versus students of other disciplines. These differences increase over time, due partly to…

  7. Mutual Support: Give and Take in Canada's Aging Society = Donnant-Donnant: Soutien Mutuel Dans Une Societe Canadienne Vieillissante.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Canadian quarterly "Transition", in French and English language versions, examines issues related to the demographic shift Canada will experience as the baby boom generation enters "old age." Major articles in this issue are: (1) "Of Mutual Benefit," which outlines some of the challenges Canada faces…

  8. Las claves en el proceso de enseñanza‐aprendizaje de la técnica de judo desde la perspectiva del error: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma The process of teaching‐learning the especific judo technique from the error perspective is the key: O Soto Gari vs. O Soto Guruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gutiérrez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los errores más frecuentes de las técnicas de judo O Soto Gari y O Soto Guruma, así como clarificar las diferencias existentes entre ambas proyecciones con el fin de mejorar su proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis videográfico -mediante el uso de la metodología observacional- de la ejecución de las técnicas señaladas, siendo éstas efectuadas por alumnos de la Universidad de Vigo que cursaron la asignatura “Deportes de adversario con fines recreativos” durante aproximadamente 4 meses. Los resultados, analizados mediante estadísticos descriptivos con el paquete de software SPSS 12.0.1, muestran, en primer lugar, que O Soto Gari es una técnica donde los sujetos investigados alcanzan una mayor frecuencia y diversidad de errores que en O Soto Guruma, lo cual permite afirmar que esta última, debido a su mayor sencillez técnica, debería utilizarse antes que O Soto Gari en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En segundo lugar, también se ha concluido que, en contra de lo que cabría esperar, no son tantos los errores comunes en ambas proyecciones, y, de éstos, ninguno de ellos corresponde a los más habituales de cada técnica.
    Palabras clave:
    judo, técnica, error, iniciación, O Soto Gari, O Soto Guruma.

    The present study must know the most frequent errors of the O Soto Gari and O Soto Guruma judo techniques, and clarify the existing differences between both projections in order to improve their process of education. An analysis using video-graphics is applied. It is used as observation and recording method for the mentioned judo techniques being exercised. The analysis is carried out by students of the University of Vigo. They attended

  9. Paradigma experto-novato: Análisis diferencial de la pérdida de consistencia del Tokui Waza en Judo bajo situación específica de fatiga. Expert-Novice paradigm: Differential analysis of the loss of consistency in the Tokui-Waza of Judo under a specif situation of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García, José Manuel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste estudio pretende analizar si existe pérdida en la consistencia de la técnica especial en Judo cuando se ven comprometidas las reservas energéticas del judoka, y si existen, conocer cuáles son los elementos más significativos que pudieran condicionar la óptima ejecución del mismo. Los combates de Judo suelen terminar con una tasa de acumulación lactácida de entre 14 a 20 mmol/l en sangre. El test utilizado (COPTEST© reproduce un combate de Judo con altos niveles de solicitación anaeróbica que asemejan los requerimientos energéticos de un combate en el contexto de la alta competición. En los últimos años, varios estudios científicos (Sterkowicz,1999,2002, (García 1996,1999,2004, (Monteiro, 2003, (Francini, 2003 han intentado enumerar los posibles aspectos tanto condicionales como técnicos y cognitivos que diferencian a un judoka campeón de otro que no lo es. Método: Utilizando el modelo de investigación del paradigma Experto-Novato de Shulman (1986 se evaluaron 110 judokas de alto rendimiento. Todos realizaron el Coptest (García, 1995. Se consideraron “expertos” a los judokas que habían obtenido medalla en unos JJOO, cto mundial o cto continental. Eran “novatos” los judokas de alto rendimiento que no habían conseguido tal resultado. Se evaluaron las siguientes variables: a Desequilibrio b adecuación secuencial c ángulo requerido para la correcta construcción de la técnica y d elementos determinantes para que exista proyección Se tomaron datos de todas la ejecuciones del Tokui waza durante la ejecución del Coptest (total 4950 proyecciones. El análisis de los datos reveló que existen diferencias significativas en la ejecución del tokui waza realizado por un judoka “experto” al realizado por uno “novato.AbstractThe aim of this study tries to analyze if loss in the consistency of the special technique in Judo exists when are seen it jeopardize the power reserves of judoka and know which are

  10. 柔道项目后备人才“一条龙”培养规划的可行性研究%A Feasibility Study on the Coordinated -Process Training Plan for Talents in Reserve of Judo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰

    2015-01-01

    The coordinated -process training plan in schools and colleges is the new orientation of our sports talents training in the new century.The cultivation of reserve talents of judo also need to be planned from macro -level,which should be based on the judo teaching of different levels in institutes of the nation.It means that judo teaching in different educational phase should be designed,planned and implemented as a whole.This paper discusses the necessity,main contents and problem concerned of the coordinated -process training plan,hoping to provide some new thoughts and suggestions for the implementation of judo teaching in schools and colleges.%大中小学体育后备人才“一条龙”的培养规划,是我国体育人才培养在新世纪发展的新定位,具有科学性和前瞻性。柔道项目的发展也需从宏观入手,站在结合大中小学柔道教学的层面上,来规划我国各阶段柔道人才培养的路径,即将全国大中小学的柔道教学作为一个连贯的整体进行统一的设计、规划与运作。文章主要探讨了柔道项目后备人才"一条龙"培养规划的必要性、主要内容以及应注意的问题,以期为将来大中小学"一条龙"柔道教学的实施提供一些新的思路和建议。

  11. A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Derek W; Segar, Simon T; Ridley, Jo; Chan, Ruth; Crozier, Ross H; Yu, Douglas W; Cook, James M

    2008-03-11

    Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their "fruits" (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.

  12. A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek W Dunn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae, whose larvae gall ovules in their "fruits" (syconia. Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.

  13. 略论柔道教练员与运动员沟通的重要性%Synopsis Analysis Judo Coach Member and the Importance of the Athlete Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠红

    2011-01-01

    柔道运动员是属于技能主导类格斗对抗项群,随着柔道运动水平的提高,教练员和运动员的关系也越来越受到了重视,他们之间关系的好坏直接影响着运动员正常的、系统的训练。通过对教练员和运动员之间关系的研究,期望可以为柔道教练员、运动员提供参考。%Judo sport is belong to technical ability predominance type the brawl resist face cluster.Exercise the horizontal exaltation along with the judo,coach member with The relation of the athlete too more andmore under the influence of valuing,they relation of quality directly the athlete is normal.The training of the system.Now this text passes to the coach member and the research of the athlete a relation,expectation can for judo coach member,the athlete offering consults.

  14. Influence of inhomogeneities on holographic mutual information and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneity, which is induced by the graviton mass in massive gravity, on the mutual information and the chaotic behavior of a 2+1-dimensional field theory from the gauge/gravity duality. When the system is near-homogeneous, the mutual information increases as the graviton mass grows. However, when the system is far from homogeneity, the mutual information decreases as the graviton mass increases. By adding the perturbations of energy into the system, we investigate the dynamical mutual information in the shock wave geometry. We find that the greater perturbations disrupt the mutual information more rapidly, which resembles the butterfly effect in chaos theory. Besides, the greater inhomogeneity reduces the dynamical mutual information more quickly just as in the static case.

  15. Market timing and selectivity performance of mutual funds in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Musah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in mutual funds in Ghana has been tremendous over the last decade as evidenced by the continuous increases in number and total funds under management. However, no empirical work has been done on the selectivity and timing ability of the mutual fund managers. Using monthly returns data hand-collected from the reports of the mutual fund managers for the period January 2007-December 2012, this paper examines the market timing and selectivity ability of mutual fund managers in Ghana using the classic Treynor-Mazuy (1966 model and Henriksson- Merton (1981 model. The results suggest that, in general mutual fund managers in Ghana are not able to effectively select stocks and also are not able to predict both the magnitude and direction of future market returns. More specifically, all of the sample mutual fund managers attain significant negative selectivity coefficients and also most of them attain insignificant negative timing coefficients.

  16. The macroecology of marine cleaning mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, Sergio R; Vázquez, Diego P; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2007-01-01

    1. Marine cleaning mutualisms generally involve small fish or shrimps removing ectoparasites and other material from cooperating 'client' fish. We evaluate the role of fish abundance, body size and behaviour as determinants of interactions with cleaning mutualists. 2. Data come from eight reef locations in Brazil, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and Australia. 3. We conducted a meta-analysis of client-cleaner interactions involving 11 cleaner and 221 client species. 4. There was a strong, positive effect of client abundance on cleaning frequency, but only a weak, negative effect of client body size. These effects were modulated by client trophic group and social behaviour. 5. This study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting a central role of species abundance in structuring species interactions.

  17. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  18. Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward, however the minimisation of correlations displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides, and find a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with re...

  19. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  20. Pseudomyrmex nigropilosa: A Parasite of a Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, D H

    1975-05-30

    Pseudomyrmex nigropilosa is a parasite ofthe ant-acacia mutualism in Central America in that it harvests the resources of swollen-thorn acacias but does not protect the acacias. In the process, it also lowers the rate of occupation by the obligate acacia-ants, species of ants that do protect swollen-thorn acacias. Tenancy ofan acacia by P. nigropilosa must be temporary, since the unoccupied plant is shortly killed by herbivores or competing plants, or is taken over by obligate acacia-ants. As expected of a species of short-lived ant, a P. nigropilosa colony produces reproductives earlier in the life of the colony and maintains fewer grams of workers per gram of brood than does a colony of the long-lived obligate acacia-ants.

  1. Document summarization using positive pointwise mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    S, Aji

    2012-01-01

    The degree of success in document summarization processes depends on the performance of the method used in identifying significant sentences in the documents. The collection of unique words characterizes the major signature of the document, and forms the basis for Term-Sentence-Matrix (TSM). The Positive Pointwise Mutual Information, which works well for measuring semantic similarity in the Term-Sentence-Matrix, is used in our method to assign weights for each entry in the Term-Sentence-Matrix. The Sentence-Rank-Matrix generated from this weighted TSM, is then used to extract a summary from the document. Our experiments show that such a method would outperform most of the existing methods in producing summaries from large documents.

  2. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  3. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  4. Balancing former opposites as mutual preconditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmström, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    structurally determined (in)sensitivity to life and nature reaches a critical mass, it provokes new ideals of balancing society’s logics on the one hand with considerations of life and nature on the other, as in the triple bottom line concept (Luhmann 1989). Third, the increasing diversity and speciali......). An intersubjective and a social systemic public relations paradigm. Journal of Com-munications Management, 2(1), 24–39. Holmström, S. (2002). Public relations reconstructed as part of society’s evolutionary learning processes. In D. Vercic, B. van Ruler, I. Jensen, D. Moss, & J. White (Eds.), The status of public......Focus of this chapter is society’s megatrends as they transform the frames for organisational legitimacy in a way which implies that decision-making paradoxically should balance as mutual preconditions what was formerly seen as opposites. Society’s turbulence strikes in organisations. As society...

  5. Speech Intelligibility Prediction Based on Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, Cees H.

    2014-01-01

    to the mutual information between critical-band amplitude envelopes of the clean signal and the corresponding noisy/processed signal. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the mean-square error (mse) that arises when estimating a clean critical-band amplitude using......This paper deals with the problem of predicting the average intelligibility of noisy and potentially processed speech signals, as observed by a group of normal hearing listeners. We propose a model which performs this prediction based on the hypothesis that intelligibility is monotonically related...... the intelligibility of speech signals contaminated by additive noise and potentially non-linearly processed using time-frequency weighting....

  6. A novel mutualism between an ant-plant and its resident pollinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Megha; Borges, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Pollination systems in which the host plant provides breeding sites for pollinators, invariably within flowers, are usually highly specialized mutualisms. We found that the pollinating bee Braunsapis puangensis breeds within the caulinary domatia of the semi-myrmecophyte Humboldtia brunonis (Fabaceae), an unusual ant-plant that is polymorphic for the presence of domatia and harbours a diverse invertebrate fauna including protective and non-protective ants in its domatia. B. puangensis is the most common flower visitor that carries the highest proportion of H. brunonis pollen. This myrmecophyte is pollen limited and cross-pollinated by bees in the daytime. Hence, the symbiotic pollinator could provide a benefit to trees bearing domatia by alleviating this limitation. We therefore report for the first time an unspecialised mutualism in which a pollinator is housed in a plant structure other than flowers. Here, the cost to the plant is lower than for conventional brood-site pollination mutualisms where the pollinator develops at the expense of plant reproductive structures. Myrmecophytes housing resident pollinators are unusual, as ants are known to be enemies of pollinators, and housing them together may decrease the benefits that these residents could individually provide to the host plant.

  7. Reciprocity and mutual impedance formulas within lossy cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gronwald

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the validity of reciprocity and mutual impedance formulas within lossy cavities. Mutual impedance formulas are well-known from antenna theory and useful to describe the electromagnetic coupling between electromagnetic interference sources and victims. As an example the mutual impedance between two dipole antennas within a lossy rectangular cavity is calculated from a system of coupled Hallén's equations that efficiently is solved by the method of moments.

  8. Periodic Solutions of Multispecies Mutualism System with Infinite Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the delayed periodic mutualism system with Gilpin-Ayala effect. Some new and interesting sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the existence of periodic solution for the multispecies mutualism system with infinite delays. Our method is based on Mawhin's coincidence degree. To the best knowledge of the authors, there is no paper considering the existence of periodic solutions for n-species mutualism system with infinite delays.

  9. Modeling the Substrate Skin Effects in Mutual RL Characteristics.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Roest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to model the influence of the substrateskin effects on the distributed mutual impedance per unit lengthparameters of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects. The proposedanalytic model is based on the frequency-dependent distribution of thecurrent in the silicon substrate and the closed form integrationapproach. It is shown that the calculated frequency-dependentdistributed mutual inductance and the associated mutual resistance arein good agreement with the results obtained from CAD-oriented circuitmodeling technique.

  10. Effect of mutual inductance coupling on superconducting flux qubit decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan Jiang; Hualan Xu; Yinghua Ji

    2009-01-01

    In the Born-Markov approximation and two-level approximation, and using the Bloch-Redfield equation, the decoherence property of superconducting quantum circuit with a flux qubit is investigated. The influence on decoherence of the mutual inductance coupling between the circuit components is complicated. The mutual inductance coupling between different loops will decrease the decoherence time. However, the mutual inductance coupling of the same loop, in a certain interval, will increase the decoherence time. Therefore, we can control the decoherence time by changing the mutual inductance parameters such as the strength and direction of coupling.

  11. Mutual couling reduction using a lumped LC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency.......A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency....

  12. A syndrome of mutualism reinforces the lifestyle of a sloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Steffan, Shawn A; Carey, Cayelan C; Weimer, Paul J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2014-03-07

    Arboreal herbivory is rare among mammals. The few species with this lifestyle possess unique adaptions to overcome size-related constraints on nutritional energetics. Sloths are folivores that spend most of their time resting or eating in the forest canopy. A three-toed sloth will, however, descend its tree weekly to defecate, which is risky, energetically costly and, until now, inexplicable. We hypothesized that this behaviour sustains an ecosystem in the fur of sloths, which confers cryptic nutritional benefits to sloths. We found that the more specialized three-toed sloths harboured more phoretic moths, greater concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and higher algal biomass than the generalist two-toed sloths. Moth density was positively related to inorganic nitrogen concentration and algal biomass in the fur. We discovered that sloths consumed algae from their fur, which was highly digestible and lipid-rich. By descending a tree to defecate, sloths transport moths to their oviposition sites in sloth dung, which facilitates moth colonization of sloth fur. Moths are portals for nutrients, increasing nitrogen levels in sloth fur, which fuels algal growth. Sloths consume these algae-gardens, presumably to augment their limited diet. These linked mutualisms between moths, sloths and algae appear to aid the sloth in overcoming a highly constrained lifestyle.

  13. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about...... beneficiaries of cross-border welfare. We present results from an original large-scale survey experiment (N=2525) among Swedish voters, randomizing exposure to cues about recipients' country of origin and family size. Consistent with a model emphasizing the role of stereotypes, respondents react to cues about...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  14. A ingestão de bicarbonato de sódio pode contribuir para o desempenho em lutas de judô? ¿Ingerir bicarbonato de sodio puede contribuir en el mejor desempeño de competiciones de judo? Can sodium bicarbonate intake contribute to judo fights performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giannini Artioli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da ingestão de NaHCO3 sobre o desempenho no judô. Seis atletas do sexo masculino ingeriram 0,3g x kg¹ de peso corporal de NaHCO3 ou CaCO3 (placebo 2h antes de três lutas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperação. Imediatamente após e 15 min após cada luta, os atletas relataram a percepção subjetiva de esforço. A concentração sanguínea de lactato foi verificada em repouso, após o aquecimento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 e 15 min após cada luta. O mesmo protocolo experimental foi repetido duas vezes por cada atleta, com exceção da substância ingerida. O estudo adotou o modelo duplo-cego contrabalançado. Não houve diferença significativa para as variáveis de desempenho. A percepção subjetiva de esforço não diferiu entre os tratamentos e a concentração sanguínea de lactato foi significativamente maior (p El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de investigar el efecto sobre el desempeño en judo al ingerir NaHCO3. Seis deportistas del sexo masculino ingirieron 0,3 g x kg-1 de peso corporal de NaHCO3 o CaCO3 (placebo 2 h antes de 3 luchas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperación. Inmediatamente después, y 15 min después de cada lucha, los deportistas relataron la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo. La concentración sanguínea de lactato fue verificada en reposo, después del precalentamiento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 y 15 min después de cada lucha. El mismo protocolo experimental fue repetido dos veces en cada deportista, con excepción de la sustancia ingerida. El estudio adoptó el modelo doble-ciego contrabalanceado. No hubo diferencia significativa para las variables de desempeño. La percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo no difirió entre los tratamientos, y la concentración sanguínea de lactato fue significativamente mayor (p The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the NaHCO3 ingestion on the judo performance. Six male athletes ingested 0.3 g x kg

  15. The Development of Mutuality in Natural Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the development of mutuality of attraction in natural small groups, and tests the hypothesis of the acquaintance process in 41 female residents of three floors of a university dormitory over the course of a year. Two floors showed definite increases in dyadic mutuality over time. (JAC)

  16. Style Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Dutch Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how style analysis of mutual funds can be used to circumvent the problem of self-reported investment styles, and to improve relative performance evaluation. Subsequently, we relate style analysis to performance evaluation and present results on the performance of Dutch mutual f

  17. Verifying Mutual Exclusion and Liveness Properties with Split Preconditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh; Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    This work is focused on presenting a split precondition approach for the modeling and proving the correctness of distributed algorithms. Formal specification and precise analysis of Peterson's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for two process has been considered. The proof of properties like, mutual exclusion, liveness, and lockout-freedom have also been presented.

  18. Mutually singular functions and computation of the lengths of curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgoshei, A A [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine); Martio, O [Department of Mathematics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-31

    We study rectifiable curves given by mutually singular coordinate functions in finite-dimensional normed spaces. We describe these curves in terms of the behaviour of approximative tangents and find a simple formula for their lengths. We deduce from these results new necessary and sufficient conditions for the mutual singularity of finitely many functions of bounded variation.

  19. A Unified Mutual Coupling Model for Multiple Antenna Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu-jiang; NIE Zai-ping

    2006-01-01

    A unified mutual coupling model for multiple antenna communication systems based on moment methods is proposed. This model combines antenna coupling and RF front-end circuit coupling, thus providing a more accurate and complete analysis of the mutual coupling effect on multiple antenna systems.

  20. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...

  1. Economic game theory for mutualism and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István; Hoffman, Moshe; Frederickson, Megan E; Pierce, Naomi E; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-12-01

    We review recent work at the interface of economic game theory and evolutionary biology that provides new insights into the evolution of partner choice, host sanctions, partner fidelity feedback and public goods. (1) The theory of games with asymmetrical information shows that the right incentives allow hosts to screen-out parasites and screen-in mutualists, explaining successful partner choice in the absence of signalling. Applications range from ant-plants to microbiomes. (2) Contract theory distinguishes two longstanding but weakly differentiated explanations of host response to defectors: host sanctions and partner fidelity feedback. Host traits that selectively punish misbehaving symbionts are parsimoniously interpreted as pre-adaptations. Yucca-moth and legume-rhizobia mutualisms are argued to be examples of partner fidelity feedback. (3) The theory of public goods shows that cooperation in multi-player interactions can evolve in the absence of assortment, in one-shot social dilemmas among non-kin. Applications include alarm calls in vertebrates and exoenzymes in microbes.

  2. Partial order similarity based on mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the ranking of candidates by different voters is an important topic in social and information science with a high relevance from the point of view of practical applications. In general, ties and pairs of incomparable candidates may occur, thus, the alternative rankings are described by partial orders. Various distance measures between partial orders have already been introduced, where zero distance is corresponding to a perfect match between a pair of partial orders, and larger values signal greater differences. Here we take a different approach and propose a similarity measure based on adjusted mutual information. In general, the similarity value of unity is corresponding to exactly matching partial orders, while a low similarity is associated to a pair of independent partial orders. The time complexity of the computation of this similarity measure is $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^3)$ in the worst case, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^2\\ln \\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|)$ in the typi...

  3. DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration with the SAGE algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Kunlai; Liu Zhangmeng; Liu Zheng; Jiang Wenli

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation and array self-calibration in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. In order to highlight the relationship between the array output and mutual coupling coefficients, we present a novel model of the array output with the unknown mutual coupling coefficients. Based on this model, we use the space alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm to jointly estimate the DOA parameters and the mutual coupling coefficients. Unlike many existing counterparts, our method requires neither calibration sources nor initial calibration information. At the same time, our proposed method inherits the characteristics of good convergence and high estimation precision of the SAGE algorithm. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the existing method for DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration.

  4. DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration with the SAGE algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Kunlai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented for direction of arrival (DOA estimation and array self-calibration in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. In order to highlight the relationship between the array output and mutual coupling coefficients, we present a novel model of the array output with the unknown mutual coupling coefficients. Based on this model, we use the space alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE algorithm to jointly estimate the DOA parameters and the mutual coupling coefficients. Unlike many existing counterparts, our method requires neither calibration sources nor initial calibration information. At the same time, our proposed method inherits the characteristics of good convergence and high estimation precision of the SAGE algorithm. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the existing method for DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration.

  5. Reducing Deviance Through Youths' Mutual Aid Group Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    The mutual aid group, as supported by the social worker, emerges to play a vital role in helping group members reduce their deviance or behavioral problem. However, how the collaboration of the group and social worker accomplishes the reduction has remained uncharted. Based on social capital theory, mutual aid and cohesion within the group and social workers' specific aid for the group are likely responsible for the reduction. The test of such hypotheses relies on a two-wave panel survey of the members of 60 mutual aid groups who had deviant behavioral problems, located in Hong Kong, China. These groups had 241 youths completing both initial and 1-year follow-up surveys. Results manifested the direct or unconditional contributions of mutual aid, group cohesion, and social workers' specific aid to reducing deviance. Hence, social workers can enhance the effectiveness of the mutual aid group in reducing youths' deviance.

  6. The modified Poynting theorem and the concept of mutual energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuang-ren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xingang; Yang, Xintie

    2015-01-01

    The Poynting theorem is generalized to the modified Poynting theorem. In the modified Poynting theorem the electromagnetic field is superimposition of different electromagnetic fields including the field of retarded potential and advanced potential. The media epsilon (permittivity) and mu (permeability) can also be different in the different fields. The concept of mutual energy is introduced which is the difference between the total energy and self-energy. Using the modified Poynting theorem with the concept of the mutual energy the modified mutual energy theorem is derived. Applying time-offset transform and time integral to the modified mutual energy theorem, the time-correlation modified mutual energy theorem is obtained. Assume there are only two fields which are retarded potential, and there is only one media, the modified time-correlation energy theorem becomes the time-correlation energy theorem, which is also referred as the time-correlation reciprocity theorem. Assume there are two electromagnetic fi...

  7. The Tradeoff Between Mutual Fund and Direct Stock Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Steininger, Bertram I.

    2014-01-01

    We study the tradeoff between direct and indirect stock investments through equity mutual funds for a utility-maximizing investor. Whereas direct investments impose higher transaction costs on the formation of a well-diversified portfolio, mutual funds charge fees for their services. Our results...... show that the fee levels that make private investors indifferent between direct and indirect stock investments vary heavily according to risk aversion, the amounts invested, correlations between assets, transaction costs, and the length of investment horizon. In particular, our results suggest...... that for a wide range of actively managed mutual funds, the fees charged are too high for these mutual funds to appeal to a wide range of informed investors. However, accounting for search costs, such as costs for financial advice, can facilitate an understanding of the levels of management fees charged by mutual...

  8. How to Structure University/Industry Cooperation for Maximum Mutual Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Klaus H.

    2000-03-01

    Research in the technical industries has changed dramatically in the past twenty years. As part of the change, many companies have shifted their long-term research from within company labs to university labs using a variety of mechanisms for such "cooperations." This talk focuses on how Bayer Corporation uses contract research, unrestricted funds, consortia, and government contracts to supplement in-house research programs. The talk emphasizes the importance of careful tailoring of these mechanisms in order to achieve maximum success for both the company and its university partners.

  9. Balancing individual and organizational goals in global talent management : A mutual-benefits perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Pai, A.; Sparrow, P.; Scullion, H.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the talent management and global mobility literatures, there is simultaneous pressure to address both organizational goals to place talent internationally, and individual goals of self-initiated expatriation. This raises important questions for the future of global talent management

  10. To Build the Sino-Japanese Security Cooperation Featuring Strategically Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past forty years, even with frictions and conflicts, friendship and cooperation remain the main theme in the development of Sino-Japanese relations, which has been especially reflected in the economic domain with significant increase of economic interdependence between the two countries. Nevertheless, no one can deny the fact that the Sino-Japanese security cooperation has far lagged behind their economic cooperation. Therefore, enhancing the cooperation in security area has become a major issue that the Chinese and the Japanese governments have to face up to.

  11. Mutual benefits of B-ALL and HLDA/HCDM HLDA 9th Barcelona 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Gilbert C; Amsellem, Sophie; Arnoulet, Christine; Bardet, Valérie; Campos, Lydia; De Carvalho-Bittencourt, Marcelo; de Labarthe, Adrienne; Eischen, Alice; Feuillard, Jean; Fossat, Chantal; Ottou, Francine Garnache; Guérin, Estelle; Guy, Julien; Jouault, Hélène; Kuhlein, Emilienne; Lacombe, Francis; Lainey, Elodie; Maynadié, Marc; Noguera, Maria Elena; Roussel, Mikael; Solly, Françoise; Ballon, Orianne Wagner; Béné, Marie C

    2011-01-30

    The B-cell panel of the ninth HLDA was applied in a multicentre fashion to cryopreserved cells from 46 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The reagents were aliquoted and shipped to volunteer participants from the French Groupe d'Etude Immunologique des Leucémies (GEIL). All samples were tested in flow cytometry, and the results collected as of the strength of labeling of the leukemic clone as negative, weak or strong. Among the 64 antibodies tested, the strongest and most frequent staining was observed for CD305 (LAIR), CD229 (Ly9), CD200 (OX-2) and, to a lesser extent, CD361 (EVI2b). Details of the observations, and information about the molecules tested are provided in the manuscript as well as a summary table. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerative patterning in Swarm Robots: mutual benefits of research in robotics and stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Michael; Sai, Ying; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Shen, Wei-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel perspective of Robotic Stem Cells (RSCs), defined as the basic non-biological elements with stem cell like properties that can self-reorganize to repair damage to their swarming organization. Self here means that the elements can autonomously decide and execute their actions without requiring any preset triggers, commands, or help from external sources. We develop this concept for two purposes. One is to develop a new theory for self-organization and self-assembly of multi-robots systems that can detect and recover from unforeseen errors or attacks. This self-healing and self-regeneration is used to minimize the compromise of overall function for the robot team. The other is to decipher the basic algorithms of regenerative behaviors in multi-cellular animal models, so that we can understand the fundamental principles used in the regeneration of biological systems. RSCs are envisioned to be basic building elements for future systems that are capable of self-organization, self-assembly, self-healing and self-regeneration. We first discuss the essential features of biological stem cells for such a purpose, and then propose the functional requirements of robotic stem cells with properties equivalent to gene controller, program selector and executor. We show that RSCs are a novel robotic model for scalable self-organization and self-healing in computer simulations and physical implementation. As our understanding of stem cells advances, we expect that future robots will be more versatile, resilient and complex, and such new robotic systems may also demand and inspire new knowledge from stem cell biology and related fields, such as artificial intelligence and tissue engineering.

  13. Radiofrequency fields in hyperthermia and MRI : Exploiting their similarities for mutual benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.A.T. van den

    2006-01-01

    Hyperthermia treatment planning aims to calculate and optimize the thermal dose of hyperthermia treatments for individual patient cases. For this purpose extensive electromagnetic and thermal modelling techniques have been successfully developed over the last years. Unfortunately, means to monitor a

  14. The Historical Connotation and Contemporary Enlightenment of the Silk Road Featuring Peace and Mutual Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Liming

    2014-01-01

    <正>Part One,the Silk Road and the Spirit of the Silk Road The traditional sense of the Silk Road(SR)refers to the Chinese land trade routes through Central Asia to South Asia,West Asia,Europe and North Africa.This ancient channel connects European and Asian continents,having two to three thousand years history,spanning seven thousand kilometers long,evolving the

  15. Analysis and Critique of the Opportunities, Challenges and Mutual Benefits of Social-Private Sector Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Marwa

    2010-01-01

    With increased pressures on all three sectors in the economy and the blurring of roles and responsibilities, cross-sector collaboration is a growing trend. This management project researches the topic of social-private sector partnerships. Through analysis of various forms to partnerships between organizations and their motivations as well as capturing the learning from partnership experiences, the research aims to provide recommendations on practical approaches to the successful management o...

  16. Toward Win-win Cooperation Through Amity, Sincerity, Mutual Benefit and Inclusiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We will work with other members of the international community to boost green development, advocate low-carbon way of life, emphasize sharing of energy-saving and environmental protection technologies, and foster a global climate governance system that is fair, reasonable, and focused on win-win cooperation.

  17. Scientific Symbiosis Represents the Mutual Benefit of Iteratively Adopting the Perspective of Realism and Instrumentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Semin, Gu R.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Psychology Needs Realism not Instrumentalism" by B. Haig, "Ontological and Epistemic Claims of Realism and Instrumentalism" by Lau and "The Scientific Denial of the Real and the Dialectic of Scientism and Humanism" by Ramey and Chrysikou which were all comments on the original article "Realism, Instrumentalism,…

  18. Mutual recombination in slow Si+ + H- collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian-Guo; Liu Chun-Lei; Janev R. K.; Yan Jun; Shi Jian-Rong

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the process of mutual neutralization of Si+ and H- ions in slow collisions within the multichannel Landau-Zener model. All important ionic-covalent couplings in this collision system are included in the collision dynamics. The cross sections for population of specific final states of product Si atom are calculated in the CM energy range 0.05 eV/u-5 keV/u. Both singlet and triplet states are considered. At collision energies below ~10 eV/u, the most populated singlet state is Si(3p4p, 1S0), while for energies above ~150eV/u it is the Si(3p, 4p, 1P1) state. In the case of triplet states, the mixed 3p4p(3 S1 +3P0) states are the most populated in the entire collision energy range investigated. The total cross section exhibits a broad maximum around 200-300 eV/u and for ECM ≤ 10eV/u it monotonically increases with decreasing the collision energy, reaching a value of 8 × 10-13 cm2 at ECM = 0.05 eV/u. The ion-pair formation process in Si(3p2 3PJ)+H(1s) collisions has also been considered and its cross section in the considered energy range is very small (smaller than 10-20 cm2 in the energy region below 1 keV/u).

  19. From parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Daniela; Bolopo, Diana; Turlings, Ted C J; Röder, Gregory; Marcos, José M; Baglione, Vittorio

    2014-03-21

    Avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. However, carrion crows Corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius. Parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows. The outcome of these counterbalancing effects fluctuates between parasitism and mutualism each season, depending on the intensity of predation pressure.

  20. The Determinants of Cash Flows in Greek Bond Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Grose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors that affect inflows – outflows of capital in bond mutual funds that operated in the Greek market during the period 1997-2005. Investors in bond mutual funds do not seek for high gross returns in order to determine their investment decisions incontrast with investors in the stock market. The risk weighted returns however represent a crucial factor in investment decision making. Bond mutual funds that invest primarily in government bonds, appear to be more affected by commissions charged by mutual fundmanagers, since investors avoid mutual funds charging high commissions, while on the other hand investors that prefer corporate bonds show reduced sensitivity in the commissions charged by mutual funds. Investors in government bonds increase their investment positions when stock markets experience small or negative returns, a clue that shows they seek for safe heavens for their investments. This phenomenon is more evident when investors face a temporary period of low stock market returns and is not as strong when low returns in the stock markets are extended to a period of years. In these cases investment positions in bond mutual funds appear to be part of a more permanent investment policy where bond investments are considered to be an integral part of a diversified portfolio.

  1. The demographic consequences of mutualism: ants increase host-plant fruit production but not population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Ness, Joshua H; Bronstein, Judith L; Morris, William F

    2015-10-01

    The impact of mutualists on a partner's demography depends on how they affect the partner's multiple vital rates and how those vital rates, in turn, affect population growth. However, mutualism studies rarely measure effects on multiple vital rates or integrate them to assess the ultimate impact on population growth. We used vital rate data, population models and simulations of long-term population dynamics to quantify the demographic impact of a guild of ant species on the plant Ferocactus wislizeni. The ants feed at the plant's extrafloral nectaries and attack herbivores attempting to consume reproductive organs. Ant-guarded plants produced significantly more fruit, but ants had no significant effect on individual growth or survival. After integrating ant effects across these vital rates, we found that projected population growth was not significantly different between unguarded and ant-guarded plants because population growth was only weakly influenced by differences in fruit production (though strongly influenced by differences in individual growth and survival). However, simulations showed that ants could positively affect long-term plant population dynamics through services provided during rare but important events (herbivore outbreaks that reduce survival or years of high seedling recruitment associated with abundant precipitation). Thus, in this seemingly clear example of mutualism, the interaction may actually yield no clear benefit to plant population growth, or if it does, may only do so through the actions of the ants during rare events. These insights demonstrate the value of taking a demographic approach to studying the consequences of mutualism.

  2. An ant-plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Turner, Kyle M; Doha, Manjima; Anreiter, Ina; Allen, Aaron M; Sokolowski, Marla B; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-09-13

    In plant-animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant-animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant-plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores. Some ant colonies are better 'bodyguards' than others. Working in the field in Peru, we found that colonies fed with a PKG activator recruited more workers to attack herbivores than control colonies. This resulted in less herbivore damage. PKG gene expression in ant workers correlated with whether an ant colony discovered an herbivore and how much damage herbivores inflicted on leaves in a complex way; natural variation in expression levels of the two genes had significant interaction effects on ant behaviour and herbivory. Our results suggest a molecular basis for ant protection of plants in this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Mutual Entropy in Quantum Information and Information Genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, M

    2004-01-01

    After Shannon, entropy becomes a fundamental quantity to describe not only uncertainity or chaos of a system but also information carried by the system. Shannon's important discovery is to give a mathematical expression of the mutual entropy (information), information transmitted from an input system to an output system, by which communication processes could be analyzed on the stage of mathematical science. In this paper, first we review the quantum mutual entropy and discuss its uses in quantum information theory, and secondly we show how the classical mutual entropy can be used to analyze genomes, in particular, those of HIV.

  4. Mutually orthogonal Latin squares from the inner products of vectors in mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Joanne L; Rao, Asha [School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)], E-mail: joanne.hall@rmit.edu.au, E-mail: asha@rmit.edu.au

    2010-04-02

    Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are important in quantum information theory. While constructions of complete sets of d + 1 MUBs in C{sup d} are known when d is a prime power, it is unknown if such complete sets exist in non-prime power dimensions. It has been conjectured that complete sets of MUBs only exist in C{sup d} if a maximal set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS) of side length d also exists. There are several constructions (Roy and Scott 2007 J. Math. Phys. 48 072110; Paterek, Dakic and Brukner 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 012109) of complete sets of MUBs from specific types of MOLS, which use Galois fields to construct the vectors of the MUBs. In this paper, two known constructions of MUBs (Alltop 1980 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26 350-354; Wootters and Fields 1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363-381), both of which use polynomials over a Galois field, are used to construct complete sets of MOLS in the odd prime case. The MOLS come from the inner products of pairs of vectors in the MUBs.

  5. Mutual coupling in MIMO antennas with transceiver separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Miakel B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...

  6. Constructing an inclusive speech community from two mutually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructing an inclusive speech community from two mutually excluding ones: The third ... which meaningfully includes all its speakers as members, referred to as a “speech community”. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  8. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Dai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that (1 reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior; (2 relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and (3 by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  9. Quantum correlation in degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections

    CERN Document Server

    Takata, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically study the quantum dynamics of two degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections. The cavity mode in the optical coupling path between the two oscillator facets is explicitly considered. Stochastic equations for the oscillators and mutual injection path based on the positive $P$ representation are derived. The system of two gradually pumped oscillators with out-of-phase mutual injections are simulated, and their quantum states are investigated. When the incoherent loss of the oscillators other than the mutual injections is small, the squeezed quadratic amplitudes $\\hat{p}$ in the oscillators are positively correlated near the oscillation threshold. It indicates finite quantum correlation, and the entanglement between the intracavity subharmonic fields. When with a small loss of the injection path, each oscillator around the phase transition point forms macroscopic superposition for a small pump noise. It suggests that the low-loss injection path works as a sq...

  10. Spatial Information Based Medical Image Registration using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzheng Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is a valuable technique for medical diagnosis and treatment. Due to the inferiority of image registration using maximum mutual information, a new hybrid method of multimodality medical image registration based on mutual information of spatial information is proposed. The new measure that combines mutual information, spatial information and feature characteristics, is proposed. Edge points are used as features, obtained from a morphology gradient detector. Feature characteristics like location, edge strength and orientation are taken into account to compute a joint probability distribution of corresponding edge points in two images. Mutual information based on this function is minimized to find the best alignment parameters. Finally, the translation parameters are calculated by using a modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed registration scheme.

  11. Information asymmetry, mutual funds and earnings management: Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunhao; Dai; Dongmin; Kong; Li; Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how information asymmetry and mutual fund ownership affect listed companies’ earnings management. We show that(1) reducing information asymmetry improves firms’ earnings management behavior;(2)relative to short-term mutual funds, long-term mutual funds promote earnings quality by adopting a monitoring role; and(3) by dividing firms into high/low information asymmetry groups, we find that the information environment significantly increases the effect of long-term mutual funds on firms’ earnings management. In this paper, we provide new evidence for the role that institutional investors play in a typical emerging capital market. Our results have clear policy implications: to increase earnings quality, it is essential to improve information transparency and develop long-term institutional investors.

  12. Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W.; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-ping; Yu, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few...

  13. Equine and human mutual welfare: a whole subject? Critical aspects and possible strategies in equine-assisted activities and therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Li Destri Nicosia, Dora

    2011-01-01

    General aim of the study is equine welfare, particularly concerning different husbandry methodic and inter-specific relational factors. Specific aim is the evaluation of possible mutual (to humans and to equines) benefits and the analysis of critical factors/strength points, of human-horse relationship within Therapeutic Riding context (TR). The peculiarities of human-horse relationship (compared to the bond with “Pet”) are analyzed, concerning their socio-anthropological, psychological, p...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  15. Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bastea, S

    2005-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric binary ionic mixture (BIM). We compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. For the case of viscosity we propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion we discuss some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.

  16. Retrofitting mutual authentication to GSM using RAND hijacking

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammed Shafiul Alam; MITCHELL, CHRIS J.

    2016-01-01

    As has been widely discussed, the GSM mobile telephony system only offers unilateral authentication of the mobile phone to the network; this limitation permits a range of attacks. While adding support for mutual authentication would be highly beneficial, changing the way GSM serving networks operate is not practical. This paper proposes a novel modification to the relationship between a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) and its home network which allows mutual authentication without changing a...

  17. Liquidity risk and the performance of UK mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Foran, Jason; O'Sullivan, Niall

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of liquidity risk, both as a stock characteristic as well as systematic liquidity risk, in UK mutual fund performance for the first time. Using four alternative measures of stock liquidity we extract principal components across stocks in order to construct systematic or market liquidity factors. We find that on average UK mutual funds are tilted towards liquid stocks (except for small stock funds as might be expected) but that, counter-intuitively, liquidity as a stock cha...

  18. Mutual Interference Models for CDMA Mobile Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hrudkay, K.; Wieser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays we are witnesses of a huge development one of the most progressive communication technology - mobile networks. The main problem in these networks is an elimination of the mutual interference, which, mainly in non-orthogonal CDMA networks, is the principal obstacle for reaching high transmission rates The aim of this contribution is to give simplified view to mutual interference models for orthogonal and non-orthogonal CDMA networks. The contribution is intended mainly for PhD. studen...

  19. Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.

  20. Portfolio Optimization of Equity Mutual Funds—Malaysian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Jaisree Sivalingam

    2010-01-01

    We focus on the equity mutual funds offered by three Malaysian banks, namely Public Bank Berhad, CIMB, and Malayan Banking Berhad. The equity mutual funds or equity trust is grouped into four clusters based on their characteristics and categorized as inferior, stable, good performing, and aggressive funds based on their return rates, variance and treynor index. Based on the cluster analysis, the return rates and variance of clusters are represented as triangular fuzzy numbers in order to refl...

  1. Mutual Exclusion in a Token Ring in CC++

    OpenAIRE

    Binau, Ulla

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a first attempt at using UNITY to verify reactive Compositional C++ (CC++) programs. We propose a distributed solution to the mutual exclusion problem using partially synchronous communication channels. The solution is described as a CC++ program, from which a small set of "basic" properties is derived. Using UNITY, we proof mutual exclusion and progress of the solution based on the set of properties derived from the code.

  2. Automotive radar – investigation of mutual interference mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the past mutual interference between automotive radar sensors has not been regarded as a major problem. With an increasing number of such systems, however, this topic is receiving more and more attention. The investigation of mutual interference and countermeasures is therefore one topic of the joint project "Radar on Chip for Cars" (RoCC) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). RoCC's goal is to pave the way for the development of high-per...

  3. Viscosity and mutual diffusion in strongly asymmetric plasma mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2004-09-07

    The authors present molecular dynamics simulation results for the viscosity and mutual diffusion constant of a strongly asymmetric two-component plasma (TCP). They compare the results with available theoretical models previously tested for much smaller asymmetries. for the case of viscosity they propose a new predictive framework based on the linear mixing rule, while for mutual diffusion they point out some consistency problems of widely used Boltzmann equation based models.

  4. Spectral image analysis of mutual illumination between florescent objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Kato, Keiji; Hirai, Keita; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a method for modeling and component estimation of the spectral images of the mutual illumination phenomenon between two fluorescent objects. First, we briefly describe the bispectral characteristics of a single fluorescent object, which are summarized as a Donaldson matrix. We suppose that two fluorescent objects with different bispectral characteristics are located close together under a uniform illumination. Second, we model the mutual illumination between two objects. It is shown that the spectral composition of the mutual illumination is summarized with four components: (1) diffuse reflection, (2) diffuse-diffuse interreflection, (3) fluorescent self-luminescence, and (4) interreflection by mutual fluorescent illumination. Third, we develop algorithms for estimating the spectral image components from the observed images influenced by the mutual illumination. When the exact Donaldson matrices caused by the mutual illumination influence are unknown, we have to solve a non-linear estimation problem to estimate both the spectral functions and the location weights. An iterative algorithm is then proposed to solve the problem based on the alternate estimation of the spectral functions and the location weights. In our experiments, the feasibility of the proposed method is shown in three cases: the known Donaldson matrices, weak interreflection, and strong interreflection.

  5. Non-rigid registration using higher-order mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckert, D.; Clarkson, M. J.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Non-rigid registration of multi-modality images is an important tool for assessing temporal and structural changesbetween images. For rigid registration, voxel similarity measures like mutual information have been shown to alignimages from different modalities accurately and robustly. For non-rigid registration, mutual information can besensitive to local variations of intensity which in MR images may be caused by RF inhomogeneity. The reasonfor the sensitivity of mutual information towards intensity variations stems from the fact that mutual informationignores any spatial information. In this paper we propose an extension of the mutual information framework whichincorporates spatial information about higher-order image structure into the registration process and has the potentialto improve the accuracy and robustness of non-rigid registration in the presence of intensity variations. We haveapplied the non-rigid registration algorithm to a number of simulated MR brain images of a digital phantom whichhave been degraded by a simulated intensity shading and a known deformation. In addition, we have applied thealgorithm for the non-rigid registration of eight pre- and post-operative brain MR images which were acquired withan interventional MR scanner and therefore have substantial intensity shading due to RF field inhomogeneities. Inall cases the second-order estimate of mutual information leads to robust and accurate registration.

  6. Mutualism and adaptive divergence: co-invasion of a heterogeneous grassland by an exotic legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S Porter

    Full Text Available Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion.

  7. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Zimmer, Cédric; Rivault, Colette

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  8. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Doak, Daniel F; Stanton, Maureen L; Bronstein, Judith L; Kiers, E Toby; Young, Truman P; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2010-10-05

    Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selection should favor "free-loaders" that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism), most approaches to this paradox focus on costs and benefits of individual partners and the strategies mutualists use to associate with beneficial partners. However, natural selection acts on lifetime fitness, and most mutualists, particularly longer-lived species interacting with shorter-lived partners (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, tropical trees and mycorrhizae) interact with multiple partner species throughout ontogeny. Determining how multiple partnerships might interactively affect lifetime fitness is a crucial unexplored link in understanding the evolution and maintenance of cooperation. The tropical tree Acacia drepanolobium associates with four symbiotic ant species whose short-term individual effects range from mutualistic to parasitic. Using a long-term dataset, we show that tree fitness is enhanced by partnering sequentially with sets of different ant symbionts over the ontogeny of a tree. These sets include a "sterilization parasite" that prevents reproduction and another that reduces tree survivorship. Trees associating with partner sets that include these "parasites" enhance lifetime fitness by trading off survivorship and fecundity at different life stages. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating mutualism within a community context and suggest that lifespan inequalities among mutualists may help cooperation persist in the face of exploitation.

  9. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.. We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  10. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  11. 长春市青少年摔跤、柔道选材测试结果分析%The Selecting Talent Test Results of Youth Wrestling, Judo in Changchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韵博; 梁广雷

    2011-01-01

    根据长春市青少年摔跤、柔道选材测试的结果,通过分析形态、机能、素质三大类指标,得出相应结论,并根据具体数据提出青少年摔跤、柔道运动员选材的合理化建议,希望可以对青少年摔跤、柔道的选材工作提供借鉴和帮助。%On the basis of the selecting talent test results of youth wrestling,judo, weightlifting in Changchun, this article draw appropriate conclusions by analyzing three indicator of form, function, quality, and made rationalization proposals depending on the data. It is believed that this paper would have a the sig- nificance of the selection of talents for youth wrestling and judo in Changchun city.

  12. Jigoro Kano's key thoughts on educational transformation of judo and enlightenment%嘉纳治五郎对柔道教育化改造的关键思路及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晨; 赵光圣; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    日本武技的教育化改造是其近现代转型的主要方向之一,嘉纳治五郎对柔道的教育化改造是一个成功典型。梳理发现:嘉纳对柔术技术体系基于教育目的的体育化;传统规训手段的具体化;柔道哲学理念的社会化;学习激励措施的科学化是其对柔道教育化成功改造的关键思路,思路的实施让柔道成为了教育性十足的教育手段。基于启示,认为武术的体育化以及学校武术的内容构建上存在教育性不足;事关礼仪和道德培养的武术传统规训手段亟待重构;武术教育激励措施的制定与实施要考虑到文化哲学的强大张力;挖掘与光大武术思想为武术教育的开展营造良好的社会认同,以期为学校武术教育体系的重构提供借鉴。%The educational transformation of Japanese martial arts is one of the main directions in modern transformation,and Jigoro Kano's educational transformation of judo is a successful example. It is concluded that Kano's judo technological system is based on the physicalization of educational aim,the materialization of traditional discipline method,the socialization of judo'philosophical idea;the scientification of study stimulus methods is the key road to success of educational transformation in judo,the implementation of which will make judo the most educational method.In view of this,it is believed that there are deficiencies in the physicalization of martial arts and the establishment of martial arts contents at school;manners and moral development of traditional martial arts discipline need to be reestablished;development and implementation of incentive system of martial arts educa-tion should take account of the strong force of cultural philosophy;exploiting and carrying forward martial arts thought are about to create good social identity for carrying out martial arts education, which is used as reference for the reformation of school martial arts

  13. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  14. Persistence of pollination mutualisms in the presence of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wang, Shikun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers plant-pollinator-ant systems in which the plant-pollinator interaction is mutualistic but ants have both positive and negative effects on plants. The ants also interfere with pollinators by preventing them from accessing plants. While a Beddington-DeAngelis (BD) formula can describe the plant-pollinator interaction, the formula is extended in this paper to characterize the pollination mutualism under the ant interference. Then, a plant-pollinator-ant system with the extended BD functional response is discussed, and global dynamics of the model demonstrate the mechanisms by which pollination mutualism can persist in the presence of ants. When the ant interference is strong, it can result in extinction of pollinators. Moreover, if the ants depend on pollination mutualism for survival, the strong interference could drive pollinators into extinction, which consequently lead to extinction of the ants themselves. When the ant interference is weak, a cooperation between plant-ant and plant-pollinator mutualisms could occur, which promotes survival of both ants and pollinators, especially in the case that ants (respectively, pollinators) cannot survive in the absence of pollinators (respectively, ants). Even when the level of ant interference remains invariant, varying ants' negative effect on plants can result in survival/extinction of both ants and pollinators. Therefore, our results provide an explanation for the persistence of pollination mutualism when there exist ants.

  15. Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Eric M; Stireman, John O; Singer, Michael S; Abbot, Patrick

    2008-05-01

    Adaptive diversification is a process intrinsically tied to species interactions. Yet, the influence of most types of interspecific interactions on adaptive evolutionary diversification remains poorly understood. In particular, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping adaptive radiations has been largely unexplored, despite the ubiquity of mutualisms and increasing evidence of their ecological and evolutionary importance. Our aim here is to encourage empirical inquiry into the relationship between mutualism and evolutionary diversification, using herbivorous insects and their microbial mutualists as exemplars. Phytophagous insects have long been used to test theories of evolutionary diversification; moreover, the diversification of a number of phytophagous insect lineages has been linked to mutualisms with microbes. In this perspective, we examine microbial mutualist mediation of ecological opportunity and ecologically based divergent natural selection for their insect hosts. We also explore the conditions and mechanisms by which microbial mutualists may either facilitate or impede adaptive evolutionary diversification. These include effects on the availability of novel host plants or adaptive zones, modifying host-associated fitness trade-offs during host shifts, creating or reducing enemy-free space, and, overall, shaping the evolution of ecological (host plant) specialization. Although the conceptual framework presented here is built on phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms, many of the processes and predictions are broadly applicable to other mutualisms in which host ecology is altered by mutualistic interactions.

  16. On the mutual information in conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Lin; Hao, Peng-xiang; Long, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we study the universal behaviors in the mutual information of two disjoint spheres in a conformal field theory (CFT). By using the operator product expansion of the spherical twist operator in terms of the conformal family, we show that the large distance expansion of the mutual information can be cast in terms of the conformal blocks. We develop the 1 /n prescription to compute the coefficients before the conformal blocks. For a single conformal family, the leading nonvanishing contribution to the mutual information comes from the bilinear operators. We show that the coefficients of these operators take universal forms and such universal behavior persists in the bilinear operators with derivatives as well. Consequently the first few leading order contributions to the mutual information in CFT take universal forms. To illustrate our framework, we discuss the free scalars and free fermions in various dimensions. For the free scalars, we compute the mutual information to the next-to-leading order and find good agreement with the improved numerical lattice result. For the free fermion, we compute the leading order result, which is of universal form, and find the good match with the numerical study. Our formalism could be applied to any CFT potentially.

  17. Mutualism breakdown by amplification of Wolbachia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostek, Ewa; Teixeira, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Most insect species are associated with vertically transmitted endosymbionts. Because of the mode of transmission, the fitness of these symbionts is dependent on the fitness of the hosts. Therefore, these endosymbionts need to control their proliferation in order to minimize their cost for the host. The genetic bases and mechanisms of this regulation remain largely undetermined. The maternally inherited bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts of insects, providing some of them with fitness benefits. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia wMelPop is a unique virulent variant that proliferates massively in the hosts and shortens their lifespan. The genetic bases of wMelPop virulence are unknown, and their identification would allow a better understanding of how Wolbachia levels are regulated. Here we show that amplification of a region containing eight Wolbachia genes, called Octomom, is responsible for wMelPop virulence. Using Drosophila lines selected for carrying Wolbachia with different Octomom copy numbers, we demonstrate that the number of Octomom copies determines Wolbachia titers and the strength of the lethal phenotype. Octomom amplification is unstable, and reversion of copy number to one reverts all the phenotypes. Our results provide a link between genotype and phenotype in Wolbachia and identify a genomic region regulating Wolbachia proliferation. We also prove that these bacteria can evolve rapidly. Rapid evolution by changes in gene copy number may be common in endosymbionts with a high number of mobile elements and other repeated regions. Understanding wMelPop pathogenicity and variability also allows researchers to better control and predict the outcome of releasing mosquitoes transinfected with this variant to block human vector-borne diseases. Our results show that transition from a mutualist to a pathogen may occur because of a single genomic change in the endosymbiont. This implies that there must be constant selection on

  18. Subsumption Checking between Concept Queries in Different Ontologies Based on Mutual Instances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a checking method based on mutual instances and discusses three key problems in the method: how to deal with mistakes in the mutual instances and how to deal with too many or too few mutual instances. It provides the checking based on the weighted mutual instances considering fault tolerance, gives a way to partition the large-scale mutual instances, and proposes a process greatly reducing the manual annotation work to get more mutual instances. Intension annotation that improves the checking method is also discussed. The method is practical and effective to check subsumption relations between concept queries in different ontologies based on mutual instances.

  19. Last-passage Monte Carlo algorithm for mutual capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Ok; Given, James A

    2006-08-01

    We develop and test the last-passage diffusion algorithm, a charge-based Monte Carlo algorithm, for the mutual capacitance of a system of conductors. The first-passage algorithm is highly efficient because it is charge based and incorporates importance sampling; it averages over the properties of Brownian paths that initiate outside the conductor and terminate on its surface. However, this algorithm does not seem to generalize to mutual capacitance problems. The last-passage algorithm, in a sense, is the time reversal of the first-passage algorithm; it involves averages over particles that initiate on an absorbing surface, leave that surface, and diffuse away to infinity. To validate this algorithm, we calculate the mutual capacitance matrix of the circular-disk parallel-plate capacitor and compare with the known numerical results. Good agreement is obtained.

  20. Solving Reality Problems by Using Mutual Information Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ju Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-mutual information (CMI can calculate to time series for thousands of sampled points from corticocortical connection among different functional states of brain in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. The aim of this study was to use mutual information analysis in the multichannel EEG to predict the probability of AD disease. Considering the correlation between AD disease and ageing effect, the participants were 9 AD patients and 45 normal cases involving teenagers, young people and elders. This data revealed that both right frontal and temporo-parietal are differences between normal and AD participants. Besides, this study found the theta band is the main frequency to separate AD patients from all participants. Furthermore, this study suggested a higher distinguishable method by mutual information to predict the possibility AD patients.

  1. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  2. Sparse Bayesian learning for DOA estimation with mutual coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-10-16

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  3. Thermalization of Mutual Information in Hyperscaling Violating Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tanhayi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    We study certain features of scaling behaviors of the mutual information during a process of thermalization, more precisely we extend the time scaling behavior of mutual information which has been discussed in \\cite{Alishahiha:2014jxa} to time-dependent hyperscaling violating geometries. We use the holographic description for entanglement entropy for two disjoint system consisting of two parallel strips whose widths are much larger than the separation between them. We find that in hyperscaling violating backgrounds the dynamical exponent plays a crucial rule in reading the general time scaling behavior (\\emph{e.g.,} at the pre-local-equilibration regime) of the mutual information during the thermalization process. While the scaling violating parameter appears in redefinition of the dimension of the theory.

  4. Production rate of the system-bath mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Wen

    2017-07-01

    When an open system comes into contact with several thermal baths, the entropy produced by the irreversible processes (d Si=d S -∑α đQα/Tα ) keeps increasing, and this entropy production rate is always non-negative. However, when the system comes into contact with nonthermal baths containing quantum coherence or squeezing, this entropy production formula does not apply. In this paper, we study the increasing rate of mutual information between an open system and its environment. In the case of canonical thermal baths, we prove that this mutual information production rate could return exactly to the previous entropy production rate. Furthermore, we study an example of a single boson mode that comes into contact with multiple squeezed thermal baths, where the conventional entropy production rate does not apply, and we find that this mutual information production rate remains non-negative, which indicates a monotonic increase in the correlation between the system and its environment.

  5. Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, R

    The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration.

  6. MUTUAL COUPLING REDUCTION BETWEEN MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS USING ELECTROMAGNETIC BANDGAP STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Gaikwad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When the number of antenna elements is placed in forming the arrays, mutual coupling between the antenna elements is a critical issue. This is particularly concern in phase array antennas. Mutual coupling is a potential source of performance degradation in the form of deviation of the radiation pattern from the desired one, gain reduction due to excitation of surface wave, increased side lobe levels etc. EBG (Electromagnetic Band Gap structure (also called as Photonic Bandgap Structure PBG not only enhances the performance of the patch antennas but also provides greater amount of isolation when placed between the microstrip arrays. This greatly reduces the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. The radiation efficiency, gain, antenna efficiency, VSWR, frequency, directivity etc greatly improves over the conventional patch antennas using EBG. The EBG structure and normal patch antenna is simulated using IE3D antenna simulation software.

  7. Mutual information after a local quench in conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Asplund, Curtis T

    2013-01-01

    We compute the entanglement entropy and mutual information for two disjoint intervals in two-dimensional conformal field theories as a function of time after a local quench, using the replica trick and boundary conformal field theory. We obtain explicit formulae for the universal contributions, which are leading in the regimes of, for example, close or well-separated intervals of fixed length. The results are largely consistent with the quasiparticle picture, in which entanglement above that present in the ground state is carried by pairs of entangled, freely propagating excitations. We also calculate the mutual information for two disjoint intervals in a proposed holographic local quench, whose holographic energy-momentum tensor matches the conformal field theory one. We find that the holographic mutual information shows qualitative differences from the conformal field theory results and we discuss possible interpretations of this.

  8. Measuring causality by taking the directional symbolic mutual information approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gui; Xie Lei; Chu Jian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel measure to assess causality through the comparison of symbolic mutual information between the future of one random quantity and the past of the other.This provides a new perspective that is different from the conventional conceptions.Based on this point of view,a new causality index is derived that uses the definition of directional symbolic mutual information.This measure presents properties that are different from the time delayed mutual information since the symbolization captures the dynamic features of the analyzed time series.In addition to characterizing the direction and the amplitude of the information flow,it can also detect coupling delays.This method has the property of robustness,conceptual simplicity,and fast computational speed.

  9. Mutual Information of Pauli Channels with Correlated Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-zhen; FANG Mao-Fa

    2007-01-01

    A general formula for the mutual information of the Pauli channels with memory modelled by correlated noise is derived.It is shown that the mutual information depends on the channel shrinking factor,the input state parameter and the channel memory coefficient.The analyses based on the general formula reveal that the entanglement is always a useful resource to enhance the mutual information of some.Pauli channels,such as the bit flip channel and the bit-phase flip channel.Our analyses also show that the entanglement is not advantageous to the reliable transmission of classical information for Borne Pauli channels at any time,such as the phase flip channel and the phase damping channel.

  10. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs. Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  11. The relationship between Turkish junior national judo team athletes’ social values beliefs and self-esteem levelsTürk genç milli judo takım sporcularının sosyal değer inançları ile özsaygı seviyeleri arasındaki ilişki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Baba Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the self-esteem and the social value size of national youth judo team athletes. Data were collected by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory adapted to Turkish by Özoğlu (1988 and Multidimensional Social Values Scale developed by Yavuz Bolat (2013 with a questionnaire developed by the researchers to gather personal information. Working group of the research consist of Turkish youths (15-19 years old are struggling in national judo team between 2015-2016 year in a total 118 athletes including 58 women and 60 men. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20 statistical programme, with oneway anova test. Results showed that there is a positive relation between the selfesteem and the social value size that family values, religious values, traditional values, scientific values but political values  have not found a significant relationship between self-esteem. As a result of that social value perceptions effect on self-esteem levels of young national judoka and that correlates positively with each other.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı genç milli judo takım sporcularının sahip oldukları sosyal değer boyutları ile özsaygı düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Katılımcıların sosyal değer boyutlarının ve özsaygı düzeylerini belirlemek için araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen Kişisel Bilgi Formu ve Coopersmith (1959 tarafından geliştirilen, ülkemizde Özoğlu (1988 tarafından geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması yapılan ‘Benlik Saygısı Envanteri (Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory ve Yavuz Bolat (2013 tarafından geliştirilen Çok Boyutlu Sosyal Değerler Ölçeği (Multidimensional Social Values Scale uygulanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2015-2016 yılları arasında Türk genç (15-19 yaş arası milli judo takımında mücadele eden 58 kadın 60 erkek olmak üzere toplam 118 sporcu oluşturmaktadır. Ara

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  13. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  14. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  15. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seshadreesan, Kaushik P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  16. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual...... exclusivity in such indirect word learning has been questioned because: (1) it comes mostly from 2 and 3-year-olds and (2) the findings might be accounted for, not by children avoiding second labels, but by the novel object which creates a lexical gap children are motivated to fill. Three studies addressed...

  17. Biochemical Machines for the Interconversion of Mutual Information and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas; Jones, Nick S.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a physically realizable information-driven device consisting of an enzyme in a chemical bath, interacting with pairs of molecules prepared in correlated states. These correlations persist without direct interaction and thus store free energy equal to the mutual information. The enzyme can harness this free energy, and that stored in the individual molecular states, to do chemical work. Alternatively, the enzyme can use the chemical driving to create mutual information. A modified system can function without external intervention, approaching biological systems more closely.

  18. Evaluating Selection and Timing Ability of a Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and a case study to evaluate the performance of a mutual fund by taking a look at the timing and selection abilities of a portfolio manager. Separating the timing and selection abilities of the fund manager is taken into consideration by two major models. The data about the mutual fund chosen for study is the German blue chip fund “DWS Deutsche Aktien Typ O”, which includes most of the DAX 30 companies. The data consists of 117 monthly observations of the fund returns from January 1999 to September 2008. We used EViews to analyse the data.

  19. Mutual Interference Models for CDMA Mobile Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hrudkay

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we are witnesses of a huge development one of the mostprogressive communication technology - mobile networks. The mainproblem in these networks is an elimination of the mutual interference,which, mainly in non-orthogonal CDMA networks, is the principalobstacle for reaching high transmission rates The aim of thiscontribution is to give simplified view to mutual interference modelsfor orthogonal and non-orthogonal CDMA networks. The contribution isintended mainly for PhD. students to help them to obtain an orientationin such a complicated areas, as the interference models for CDMAnetworks are.

  20. Dimensionality Reduction by Mutual Information for Text Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-zhen; SONG Han-tao; LU Yu-chang

    2005-01-01

    The frame of text classification system was presented. The high dimensionality in feature space for text classification was studied. The mutual information is a widely used information theoretic measure, in a descriptive way, to measure the stochastic dependency of discrete random variables. The measure method was used as a criterion to reduce high dimensionality of feature vectors in text classification on Web. Feature selections or conversions were performed by using maximum mutual information including linear and non-linear feature conversions. Entropy was used and extended to find right features commendably in pattern recognition systems. Favorable foundation would be established for text classification mining.

  1. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  2. Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yan Lin; Wang, Li Xia; Chen, Ming Ting

    2017-05-01

    China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Investor Attrition and Fund Flows in Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Xu, Haoyu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the properties of equity mutual funds that experience a loss of assets after poor performance. We document that both inflows and outflows are less sensitive to performance, because performance-sensitive investors leave or decide not to invest after bad performance. Consistent with the ......We explore the properties of equity mutual funds that experience a loss of assets after poor performance. We document that both inflows and outflows are less sensitive to performance, because performance-sensitive investors leave or decide not to invest after bad performance. Consistent......–performance sensitivity when attrition arises after good performance or investors invest for nonperformance reasons....

  4. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  5. Sarcocystosis of chital-dhole: conditions for evolutionary stability of a predator parasite mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with a predator-prey life cycle, the completion of the life cycle often depends on consumption of parasitized prey by the predator. In the case of such parasite species the predator and the parasite have common interests and therefore a mutualistic relationship is possible. Some evidence of a predator-parasite mutualism was reported from spotted deer or chital (Axix axis as a prey species, dhole or Indian wild-dog (Cuon alpinus as the predator and a protozoan (Sarcocystis axicuonis as the parasite. We examine here, with the help of a model, the ecological conditions necessary for the evolution and stability of such a mutualistic relationship. A two – level game theory model was designed in which the payoff of a parasite is decided not only by alternative parasite strategies but also by alternative host strategies and vice versa. Conditions for ESS were examined. Results A tolerant predator strategy and a low or moderately virulent parasite strategy which together constitute mutualism are stable only at a high frequency of recycling of parasite and a substantial prey – capture benefit to the predator. Unlike the preliminary expectation, parasite will not evolve towards reduced virulence, but reach an optimum moderate level of virulence. Conclusion The available data on the behavioral ecology of dhole and chital suggest that they are likely to meet the stability criteria and therefore a predator-parasite mutualism can be stable in this system. The model also points out the gaps in the current data and could help directing further empirical work.

  6. Modeling financial contagion using mutually exciting jump processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aït-Sahalia, Y.; Cacho-Diaz, J.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a model designed to capture the dynamics of asset returns, with periods of crises that are characterized by contagion. In the model, a jump in one region of the world increases the intensity of jumps both in the same region (self-excitation) as well as in other regions (mutual

  7. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  8. Gene Regulatory Network Reconstruction Using Conditional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory network from expression data is an important area of research that provides insight to the inner workings of a biological system. The relevance-network-based approaches provide a simple and easily-scalable solution to the understanding of interaction between genes. Up until now, most works based on relevance network focus on the discovery of direct regulation using correlation coefficient or mutual information. However, some of the more complicated interactions such as interactive regulation and coregulation are not easily detected. In this work, we propose a relevance network model for gene regulatory network inference which employs both mutual information and conditional mutual information to determine the interactions between genes. For this purpose, we propose a conditional mutual information estimator based on adaptive partitioning which allows us to condition on both discrete and continuous random variables. We provide experimental results that demonstrate that the proposed regulatory network inference algorithm can provide better performance when the target network contains coregulated and interactively regulated genes.

  9. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  10. Market timing: A decomposition of mutual fund returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); P.J. van der Sluis; M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in five parts. Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well. The dynamic model that we use to estim

  11. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John

    2016-01-01

    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  12. Synchronization in a ring of mutually coupled electromechanical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yolong, V Y Taffoti [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34100 Trieste (Italy); Woafo, P [Laboratory of Mechanics, Faculty of Sciences, P O Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2006-11-15

    We study the synchronization in a ring of mutually coupled electromechanical devices. Each device consists of an electrical Duffing oscillator coupled magnetically with a linear mechanical oscillator. By varying the coupling coefficient, we find the ranges for cluster and complete synchronization, either in the regular state or in the chaotic one. Effects of this coupling parameter show various types of bifurcation sequences.

  13. Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Dicke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plants and carnivorous arthropods can interact mutualistically. A recent discovery is that such mutualisms can be mediated by volatile compounds — produced by plants in response to herbivore damage — that attract carnivores. However, after emission of these attractants, the plant has no control over

  14. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  15. Mutual Radiation Impedance of Uncollapsed CMUT Cells with Different Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Ozgurluk, Alper; Atalar, Abdullah; Koymen, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial approximation is proposed for the mutual acoustic impedance between uncollapsed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) cells with different radii in an infinite rigid baffle. The resulting approximation is employed in simulating CMUTs with a circuit model. A very good agreement is obtained with the corresponding finite element simulation (FEM) result.

  16. Mutual information area laws for thermal free fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernigau, H.; Kastoryano, M. J.; Eisert, J.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a rigorous and asymptotically exact expression of the mutual information of translationally invariant free fermionic lattice systems in a Gibbs state. In order to arrive at this result, we introduce a novel framework for computing determinants of Töplitz operators with smooth symbols, and for treating Töplitz matrices with system size dependent entries. The asymptotically exact mutual information for a partition of the 1D lattice satisfies an area law, with a prefactor which we compute explicitly. As examples, we discuss the fermionic XX model in one dimension and free fermionic models on the torus in higher dimensions in detail. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the temperature dependence of the mutual information, scaling like the logarithm of the inverse temperature, hence confirming an expression suggested by conformal field theory. We also comment on the applicability of the formalism to treat open systems driven by quantum noise. In the appendix, we derive useful bounds to the mutual information in terms of purities. Finally, we provide a detailed error analysis for finite system sizes. This analysis is valuable in its own right for the abstract theory of Töplitz determinants.

  17. Renyi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    The conditional quantum mutual information $I(A;B|C)$ of a tripartite state $\\rho_{ABC}$ is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems $A$ and $B$, and that it obeys the duality relation $I(A;B|C)=I(A;B|D)$ for a four-party pure state on systems $ABCD$. It has been an open question to find Renyi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different $\\alpha$-Renyi generalizations $I_{\\alpha}(A;B|C)$ of the conditional mutual information that all converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit $\\alpha \\to 1$. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy the afo...

  18. Mutual recognition and the right to damages for criminal investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how the citizen who has been surrendered on an EAW in a case ending with acquittal or non-prosecution may achieve compensation for the loss of freedom and the surrender to another Member State. The analysis shows how the EAW and the principle of mutual recognition have been...

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of fluctuating populations with strong mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory with finite interacting populations is receiving increased attention, including subtle phenomena associated with number fluctuations, i.e., ``genetic drift.'' Models of cooperation and competition often utilize a simplified Moran model, with a strictly fixed total population size. We explore a more general evolutionary model with independent fluctuations in the numbers of two distinct species, in a regime characterized by ``strong mutualism.'' The model has two absorbing states, each corresponding to fixation of one of the two species, and allows exploration of the interplay between growth, competition, and mutualism. When mutualism is favored, number fluctuations eventually drive the system away from a stable fixed point, characterized by cooperation, to one of the absorbing states. Well-mixed populations will thus be taken over by a single species in a finite time, despite the bias towards cooperation. We calculate both the fixation probability and the mean fixation time as a function of the initial conditions and carrying capacities in the strong mutualism regime, using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results are compared to computer simulations.

  20. On the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates empirically and theoretically the behavior of mutual fund investors and managers. These two aspects are closely related to each other. Investors try to select funds that follow an optimal investment policy from their point of view, while fund managers are typically intereste

  1. Mutual Coupling Compensation Applied to a Uniform Circular Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Stefania, M.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches for compensation of mutual coupling and phase shifts in a passive radar system based on a circular array are compared. The first method is based on the measurement of the antenna scattering parameters and of further relative phase and amplitude variations between the ch

  2. The Development Of Mutual Trust In British Workplaces Through ?Partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Dietz (Graham)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the alleged links between 'partnership' forms of managing workplace relationships in Britain, and the development of intra-organisational 'trust'. The potential for mutually complementary linkages between the two are clear, in theory at least: partnership, as define

  3. The Development Of Mutual Trust In British Workplaces Through ?Partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Dietz (Graham)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the alleged links between 'partnership' forms of managing workplace relationships in Britain, and the development of intra-organisational 'trust'. The potential for mutually complementary linkages between the two are clear, in theory at least: partnership, as

  4. The Development Of Mutual Trust In British Workplaces Through ?Partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Dietz (Graham)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the alleged links between 'partnership' forms of managing workplace relationships in Britain, and the development of intra-organisational 'trust'. The potential for mutually complementary linkages between the two are clear, in theory at least: partnership, as define

  5. Mutual information in a dilute, asymmetric neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Elliot

    We study the computational properties of a neural network consisting of binary neurons with dilute asymmetric synaptic connections. This simple model allows us to simulate large networks which can reflect more of the architecture and dynamics of real neural networks. Our main goal is to determine the dynamical behavior that maximizes the network's ability to perform computations. To this end, we apply information theory, measuring the average mutual information between pairs of pre- and post-synaptic neurons. Communication of information between neurons is an essential requirement for collective computation. Previous workers have demonstrated that neural networks with asymmetric connections undergo a transition from ordered to chaotic behavior as certain network parameters, such as the connectivity, are changed. We find that the average mutual information has a peak near the order-chaos transition, implying that the network can most efficiently communicate information between cells in this region. The mutual information peak becomes increasingly pronounced when the basic model is extended to incorporate more biologically realistic features, such as a variable threshold and nonlinear summation of inputs. We find that the peak in mutual information near the phase transition is a robust feature of the system for a wide range of assumptions about post-synaptic integration.

  6. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  7. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  8. Antagonists in Mutual Antipathies: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guroglu, Berna; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneity of mutual antipathy relationships. Separate cluster analyses of peer interactions of early adolescents (mean age 11 years) and adolescents (mean age of 14) yielded 3 "types of individuals" in each age group, namely Prosocial, Antisocial, and Withdrawn. Prevalence analysis of the 6 possible combinations of…

  9. The Ethical Mutual Fund Performance Debate: New Evidence from Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bauer (Rob); J. Derwall (Jeroen); R. Otten (Roger)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the academic interest in ethical mutual fund performance has developed steadily, the evidence to date is mainly sample-specific. To tackle this critique, new research should extend to unexplored countries. Using this as a motivation, we examine the performance and risk sensitivi

  10. Market Timing : A Decomposition of Mutual Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, L.A.P.; van der Sluis, P.J.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in ve parts.Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well.The dynamic model that we use to estimate the relative

  11. Danish Mutual Fund Performance - Selectivity, Market Timing and Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    applying a single index model and a multi-factor model, respectively. Furthermore, we analyse the timing ability of the Danish mutual funds pursuing both the quadratic regressions of Treynor and Mazuy (1966) and the option approach suggested by Henriksson and Merton (1981). Finally, we analyse performance...

  12. Danish Mutual Fund Performance - Selectivity, Market Timing and Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    applying a single index model and a multi-factor model, respectively. Furthermore, we analyse the timing ability of the Danish mutual funds pursuing both the quadratic regressions of Treynor and Mazuy (1966) and the option approach suggested by Henriksson and Merton (1981). Finally, we analyse performance...

  13. Dynamics of chaotic oscillations in mutually coupled microchip lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, A; Kinugawa, S; Yoshimori, S

    2003-01-01

    We have numerically and experimentally investigated the dynamics of mutually coupled microchip lasers. Chaotic oscillations are observed in the vicinity of the boundary of the injection-locking range when the coupling strength and the difference of the optical frequencies are varied. Synchronization of chaos is always achieved under the condition to generate chaos.

  14. Mutual Exclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Testing the Pragmatic Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marchena, Ashley; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Worek, Amanda; Ono, Kim Emiko; Snedeker, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that children treat words as mutually exclusive, the cognitive basis of this bias is widely debated. We focus on the distinction between pragmatic and lexical constraints accounts. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer a unique perspective on this debate, as they acquire substantial…

  15. Application of Joint Error Maximal Mutual Compensation to hexapod robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veryha, Yauheni; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2008-01-01

    A good practice to ensure high-positioning accuracy in industrial robots is to use joint error maximum mutual compensation (JEMMC). This paper presents an application of JEMMC for positioning of hexapod robots to improve end-effector positioning accuracy. We developed an algorithm and simulation ...

  16. Mutual Coupling Between Identical Planar Inverted-F Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Mutual coupling between two identical planar inverted-F antennas (PIFA) located on an infinite ground plane is studied numerically. Several arrangements of side-by-side, collinear, parallel-in-echelon, and orthogonal PIFA antennas with element spacing varying from 0.06λ to 1.20λ are investigated...

  17. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John

    2016-01-01

    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  18. Ecological genomics of mutualism decline in nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christie R; Lau, Jennifer A; Heath, Katy D

    2016-03-16

    Anthropogenic changes can influence mutualism evolution; however, the genomic regions underpinning mutualism that are most affected by environmental change are generally unknown, even in well-studied model mutualisms like the interaction between legumes and their nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Such genomic information can shed light on the agents and targets of selection maintaining cooperation in nature. We recently demonstrated that N-fertilization has caused an evolutionary decline in mutualistic partner quality in the rhizobia that form symbiosis with clover. Here, population genomic analyses of N-fertilized versus control rhizobium populations indicate that evolutionary differentiation at a key symbiosis gene region on the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) contributes to partner quality decline. Moreover, patterns of genetic variation at selected loci were consistent with recent positive selection within N-fertilized environments, suggesting that N-rich environments might select for less beneficial rhizobia. By studying the molecular population genomics of a natural bacterial population within a long-term ecological field experiment, we find that: (i) the N environment is indeed a potent selective force mediating mutualism evolution in this symbiosis, (ii) natural variation in rhizobium partner quality is mediated in part by key symbiosis genes on the symbiotic plasmid, and (iii) differentiation at selected genes occurred in the context of otherwise recombining genomes, resembling eukaryotic models of adaptation.

  19. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  20. 心率指标在青少年柔道运动员训练中的应用研究%Research on Application of Heart Rate Index in Jun-ior Judo Athletes Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永军

    2014-01-01

    In our country,the development of judo move-ment in youth sports school is faster and faster. The youth is in the peak period of human development,physical de-velopment accelerated obviously. It is of great significance for the development of the movement and adolescent judo athlete’s own development, that to know how to monitor training in sports at this stage better,how to improve their performance,how to prevent damage. Heart rate is an im-portant physiological index, in this paper, discusses the application characteristics of heart rate index in the move-ment practice. To illuminates the important application value of heart rate index in exercise training method of material selection,load control,training,medical supervi-sion. To provide theoretical reference for heart rate index is more scientific,economic and efficient use of to adoles-cent judo athletes in training.%在我国,柔道运动在青少年体校发展越来越快。青少年正处在人体发育高峰期,身体发育明显加速。如何在这一阶段更好的监测运动训练,提高成绩,预防损伤,对于这项运动的发展及青少年柔道运动员的自身发展都有着重要的意义。心率指标是一项重要的生理指标,对运动训练中,心率指标的应用特点进行了论述,阐明了心率指标在运动训练中的选材、负荷控制、训练方法、医务监督等方面均有着重要的应用价值,为心率指标更加科学、经济、高效地运用到青少年柔道运动员训练中提供理论参考。

  1. 黄芪建中汤对柔道选手血液及生化指标效应之研究%Effects of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang on hematological and biochemical parameters in judo athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏奕彰; 林健蓉; 陈洸艟; 李铭; 林睿珊; 蔡真真; 周玉; 林昭庚

    2001-01-01

    目的:本研究在探讨黄芪建中汤对柔道选手血球及血清生化值的影响.方法:实验中以新民商工高中组柔道选手为对象,男生16名女生8名,采用分层分组的方法,分为实验组与对照组,分别服用黄芪建中汤与安慰剂.实验期间为五周,分前、后二次测量,检验选手血液中血球及血清生化值.结果以配对t检定、变异数分析法、单纯主要效果比较进行分析.结果:研究结果显示,血液中血球(RBC、Hb、Hct)指数于实验前后有显著降低,血清生化值(GOT、GPT、BUN、CK)于实验前后有显著升高,证实训练对血球及血清生化值有影响.结论:黄芪建中汤对柔道选手血球及血液生化值无显著效果,亦无不良之副作用.%AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZT) on hematological and biochemical parameters in judo athletes. METHODS: Sixteen male and eight female judo athletes in Hsin-Ming senior high school were randomly and stratified divided into control and experimental group, which received placebo and HQJZT respectively during the five-week training program. The measurement of the hematological and biochemical parameters was performed twice, just before and after the training. The data was analyzed with paired-t test and ANOVA. RESULTS: The values of RBC, Hb, and Hct were obvious decreased after intervention, while the value of GOT, GPT, BUN, and CK was elevated. CONCLUSION: The results indicated the hematological and biochemical changes were caused by the physical training but not the effects of HQJZT. The HQJZT had no adverse effects on the judo athletes in our study.

  2. Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Richard Edward

    The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an

  3. Evolutionary origin of insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Moriyama, Minoru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-07-15

    Obligate insect-bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership. Originally, however, such obligate symbiotic bacteria must have been derived from free-living bacteria. How highly specialized obligate mutualisms have arisen from less specialized associations is of interest. Here we address this evolutionary issue by focusing on an exceptional insect-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism. Although Wolbachia endosymbionts are ubiquitously found in diverse insects and generally regarded as facultative/parasitic associates for their insect hosts, a Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimex lectularius, designated as wCle, was shown to be essential for host's growth and reproduction via provisioning of B vitamins. We determined the 1,250,060-bp genome of wCle, which was generally similar to the genomes of insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains, except for the presence of an operon encoding the complete biotin synthetic pathway that was acquired via lateral gene transfer presumably from a coinfecting endosymbiont Cardinium or Rickettsia. Nutritional and physiological experiments, in which wCle-infected and wCle-cured bedbugs of the same genetic background were fed on B-vitamin-manipulated blood meals via an artificial feeding system, demonstrated that wCle certainly synthesizes biotin, and the wCle-provisioned biotin significantly contributes to the host fitness. These findings strongly suggest that acquisition of a single gene cluster consisting of biotin synthesis genes underlies the bedbug-Wolbachia nutritional mutualism, uncovering an evolutionary transition from facultative symbiosis to obligate mutualism facilitated by lateral gene transfer in an endosymbiont lineage.

  4. Building strong relationships between conservation genetics and primary industry leads to mutually beneficial genomic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Stephanie J; Buckley, Thomas R; Elshire, Rob; Hale, Marie L; Knapp, Michael; McCallum, John; Moraga, Roger; Santure, Anna W; Wilcox, Phillip; Steeves, Tammy E

    2016-11-01

    Several reviews in the past decade have heralded the benefits of embracing high-throughput sequencing technologies to inform conservation policy and the management of threatened species, but few have offered practical advice on how to expedite the transition from conservation genetics to conservation genomics. Here, we argue that an effective and efficient way to navigate this transition is to capitalize on emerging synergies between conservation genetics and primary industry (e.g., agriculture, fisheries, forestry and horticulture). Here, we demonstrate how building strong relationships between conservation geneticists and primary industry scientists is leading to mutually-beneficial outcomes for both disciplines. Based on our collective experience as collaborative New Zealand-based scientists, we also provide insight for forging these cross-sector relationships.

  5. More data trumps smarter algorithms: comparing pointwise mutual information with latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N

    2009-08-01

    Computational models of lexical semantics, such as latent semantic analysis, can automatically generate semantic similarity measures between words from statistical redundancies in text. These measures are useful for experimental stimulus selection and for evaluating a model's cognitive plausibility as a mechanism that people might use to organize meaning in memory. Although humans are exposed to enormous quantities of speech, practical constraints limit the amount of data that many current computational models can learn from. We follow up on previous work evaluating a simple metric of pointwise mutual information. Controlling for confounds in previous work, we demonstrate that this metric benefits from training on extremely large amounts of data and correlates more closely with human semantic similarity ratings than do publicly available implementations of several more complex models. We also present a simple tool for building simple and scalable models from large corpora quickly and efficiently.

  6. Direct and interactive effects of light and nutrients on the legume-rhizobia mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer A.; Bowling, Evan James; Gentry, Lowell E.; Glasser, Paul A.; Monarch, Elizabeth A.; Olesen, Whitney M.; Waxmonsky, Jillian; Young, Ryan Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The relative abundance of traded resources can alter the outcomes of symbioses, potentially shifting mutually-beneficial interactions into interactions that are detrimental to one or both partners. We manipulated the legume-rhizobia symbiosis and light and nutrient levels to investigate how the net growth benefits to both partners shift across environments differing in the availability of both traded resources. In low nutrient, high light environments, rhizobia increased mean plant biomass by 62%. In contrast, when plants were light-limited, rhizobia did not increase above-ground biomass and reduced mean below-ground biomass by 46%. Similarly, rhizobia only increased plant biomass under low nutrient conditions. Resource availability also affected nodule traits correlated with rhizobia fitness, with light-limited plants producing fewer and smaller nodules. Our results suggest that the growth benefits to both partners in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis depend on the availability of both traded resources. We also detected evidence, however, that plants may reduce investment in symbionts as the net benefits of association decrease, potentially limiting how far this interaction shifts toward parasitism in low-light, high nutrient environments.

  7. The Relationship between Substance Abuse Performance Measures and Mutual Help Group Participation after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Gail K; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between treatment quality, using during-treatment process measures, and mutual help group (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous) attendance after outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment for 739 clients in the Alcohol and Drug Services Study. Logistic regression models estimated any and regular mutual help attendance after treatment. Clients referred to mutual help groups were significantly more likely to attend any mutual help after treatment. Results were mixed for facility offered mutual help groups; treatment engagement and retention were not significant. These findings offer treatment providers further evidence of the importance of referring clients to post-treatment mutual help groups, an effective, low-cost option.

  8. A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE ON MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE AND EXTRADITION IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch Watney

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the modalities of mutual legal assistance and extradition from a South African perspective. The question is posed whether South Africa has succeeded to establish the required framework as a fully fledged member of the international community to make a positive contribution in the fields of mutual legal assistance and extradition subsequent to its international political isolation during the apartheid era. Although the international community derives substantial benefit from a borderless global world, it has as a result also to deal with the negative impact of globalization on international crime. Physical and/or electronic crimes are increasingly committed across borders and may be described as borderless, but law enforcement (combating, investigation and prosecution of crime is still very much confined to the borders of a state. Criminal networks have taken advantage of the opportunities resulting from the dramatic changes in world politics, business, technology, communications and the explosion in international travel and effectively utilize these opportunities to avoid and hamper law enforcement investigations. As a sovereign state has control over its own territory it also implies that states should not interfere with each other’s domestic affairs. The correct and acceptable procedure would be for a state (requesting state to apply to another state (requested state for co-operation in the form of mutual legal assistance regarding the gathering of evidence and/or extradition of the perpetrator. Co-operation between states are governed by public international law between the requesting and requested state and the domestic law of the requested state. The South African legislature has increasingly provided for extraterritorial jurisdiction of South African courts in respect of organized crime and terrorism. It does however appear that existing criminal justice responses are experiencing challenges to meet the

  9. 广西省女子柔道后备人才培养现状与分析%Analysis on Talent Reserved Cultivation of Woman Judo Athletes in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫艳华

    2011-01-01

    本文采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法、综合分析法等研究方法,对广西省柔道后备人才培养现状展开调查,并提出相应对策,从而为广西省柔道后备人才的培养提供真实而详尽的参考资料,为进一步推动广西省柔道运动的发展提供理论和实践依据。%Through using the method of literature review, questionnaire, mathematical statistics and comprehen- sive analysis, this paper makes investigation on talent reserved cultivation of judo athletes in Guangxi province and puts forward corresponding measureme

  10. apılan Sporun Karakteristiği Solunum Fonksiyonlarını Etkiler mi? Voleybol ve Judo Sporcularının Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba KOCAHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporcular yapılan spora bağlı olarak farklı fizyolojik adaptasyonlar geliştirirler. Solunum fonksiyonları da bu adaptasyonlardan etkilenir. Çalışmamızın amacı karakteristiği birbirinden oldukça farklı olan voleybol ve judo sporunun solunum fonksiyonları üzerindeki etkisini karşılaştırmaktır. Çalışmaya ortalama yaşı 15,50±1,08 yıl olan 12 erkek voleybol sporcusu ile ortalama yaşı 15,10±1.37 yıl olan 10 erkek judo sporcusu dahil edildi. Sporcuların solunum fonksiyonları spirometre ile test edildi. Sporcuların forced expiratory volume-zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV, forced expiratory volume in one second-bir saniyedeki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV1, forced vital capasity- zorlu vital kapasite (FVC, forced ekspiratuary volume-zorlu ekspiraturar volüm/ forced vital capasity-zorlu vital kapasite yüzdesi (FEV1/FVC%, peak expiratory flow- tepe akım hızı (PEF, forced expiratory volume at %25- %25’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV25, forced expiratory volume at %50- %50’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV50, forced expiratory volume at %75- %75’deki zorlu ekspiratuar hacim (FEV75 değerleri kaydedildi ve SPSS istatistiksel analiz programı kullanılarak veriler karşılaştırıldı. Sporcuların yaşları arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır (p>0,05. Boy ve kilo değerleri arasında anlamlı bir fark mevcut olsa da söz konusu bu fark BKI (Beden Kitle İndeksi için geçerli değildir (p>0,05. Spirometrik değişkenlerden FEV1/FVC% haricindeki tüm değerler voleybol sporcularında daha yüksek belirlenmiştir ve iki grup arasındaki değişkenler arasındaki farkın tamamı anlamlılık düzeyine ulaşmıştır (p<0,05. Voleybol sporunda, judo sporuna kıyasla solunum sistemi üzerine düşen yükün daha fazla olması bu sporcuların solunum fonksiyonlarının judo sporcularından yüksek çıkmasına sebep olmuştur. Bu çalışma ile yapılan sporun karakteristiğinin solunum sistemi

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  13. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice ...

  14. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... start slowly, and find ways to fit more physical activity into your life. To get the most benefit, ... the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may Help you control your weight. Along with ...

  15. Least Dependent Component Analysis Based on Mutual Information

    CERN Document Server

    Stögbauer, H; Astakhov, S A; Grassberger, P; St\\"ogbauer, Harald; Kraskov, Alexander; Astakhov, Sergey A.; Grassberger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We propose to use precise estimators of mutual information (MI) to find least dependent components in a linearly mixed signal. On the one hand this seems to lead to better blind source separation than with any other presently available algorithm. On the other hand it has the advantage, compared to other implementations of `independent' component analysis (ICA) some of which are based on crude approximations for MI, that the numerical values of the MI can be used for: (i) estimating residual dependencies between the output components; (ii) estimating the reliability of the output, by comparing the pairwise MIs with those of re-mixed components; (iii) clustering the output according to the residual interdependencies. For the MI estimator we use a recently proposed k-nearest neighbor based algorithm. For time sequences we combine this with delay embedding, in order to take into account non-trivial time correlations. After several tests with artificial data, we apply the resulting MILCA (Mutual Information based ...

  16. Portfolio Optimization of Equity Mutual Funds—Malaysian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the equity mutual funds offered by three Malaysian banks, namely Public Bank Berhad, CIMB, and Malayan Banking Berhad. The equity mutual funds or equity trust is grouped into four clusters based on their characteristics and categorized as inferior, stable, good performing, and aggressive funds based on their return rates, variance and treynor index. Based on the cluster analysis, the return rates and variance of clusters are represented as triangular fuzzy numbers in order to reflect the uncertainty of financial market. To find the optimal asset allocation in each cluster we develop a hybrid model of optimization and fuzzy based on return rates, variance. This was done by maximizing the fuzzy return for a tolerable fuzzy risk and minimizing the fuzzy risk for a desirable fuzzy return separately at different confidence levels.

  17. Approximated mutual information training for speech recognition using myoelectric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua J; Chan, A D C

    2006-01-01

    A new training algorithm called the approximated maximum mutual information (AMMI) is proposed to improve the accuracy of myoelectric speech recognition using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic speech recognition can be performed using myoelectric signals from articulatory muscles of the face. Classification of facial myoelectric signals can be performed using HMMs that are trained using the maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm; however, this algorithm maximizes the likelihood of the observations in the training sequence, which is not directly associated with optimal classification accuracy. The AMMI training algorithm attempts to maximize the mutual information, thereby training the HMMs to optimize their parameters for discrimination. Our results show that AMMI training consistently reduces the error rates compared to these by the ML training, increasing the accuracy by approximately 3% on average.

  18. Complete chaotic synchronization in mutually coupled time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Alexandra S; Schwartz, Ira B

    2007-02-01

    Complete chaotic synchronization of end lasers has been observed in a line of mutually coupled, time-delayed system of three lasers, with no direct communication between the end lasers. The present paper uses ideas from generalized synchronization to explain the complete synchronization in the presence of long coupling delays, applied to a model of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers in a line. These ideas significantly simplify the analysis by casting the stability in terms of the local dynamics of each laser. The variational equations near the synchronization manifold are analyzed, and used to derive the synchronization condition that is a function of parameters. The results explain and predict the dependence of synchronization on various parameters, such as time delays, strength of coupling and dissipation. The ideas can be applied to understand complete synchronization in other chaotic systems with coupling delays and no direct communication between synchronized subsystems.

  19. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  20. Breakdown and delayed cospeciation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2008-05-01

    The ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal association between the vast majority of plants and the fungal phylum Glomeromycota is a dominant nutritional mutualism worldwide. In the mycorrhizal mutualism, plants exchange photosynthesized carbohydrates for mineral nutrients acquired by fungi from the soil. This widespread cooperative arrangement is broken by 'cheater' plant species that lack the ability to photosynthesize and thus become dependent upon three-partite linkages (cheater-fungus-photosynthetic plant). Using the first fine-level coevolutionary analysis of mycorrhizas, we show that extreme fidelity towards fungi has led cheater plants to lengthy evolutionary codiversification. Remarkably, the plants' evolutionary history closely mirrors that of their considerably older mycorrhizal fungi. This demonstrates that one of the most diffuse mutualistic networks is vulnerable to the emergence, persistence and speciation of highly specific cheaters.

  1. Self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Sun, Liqun

    2016-02-15

    A self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light is introduced. Its most important feature is that two mutual independent orthogonal lights are used as measuring and reference light. Frequency shifting and polarization multiplexing technologies are used in the proposed optical system. Phase variation of the two orthogonal polarized beams is simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with a lock-in amplifier. The phase difference of the orthogonal polarized light accurately reflects the target displacement. The target in this system is a non-cooperative object which is different from a traditional Michelson interferometer. The primary experimental results show that this kind of self-mixing interferometry is very feasible. Under typical room conditions, the system's short-term resolution is better than 2 nm.

  2. Series expansions for the mutual coupling in microstrip patch arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David R.; Richards, William F.; Ali-Khan, Ajaz

    1989-03-01

    A dominant-mode mutual coupling theory is developed for an array of microstrip patches. One of the key features of the formulation is that only values for isolated self- and mutual impedance are needed in the formulation, making the method suitable for either a cavity model or spectral-domain analysis, or compatible with experimental measurements. The formulation is equivalent with Pozar's (1982) moment-method formulation. A series expansion of the solution is derived, allowing for approximate formulas accurate to any specified order. These formulas do not require matrix inversion. Formulas up to third order require less computation time than the exact solution, for single elements of the impedance, admittance, and scattering matrices. These expansions are computationally efficient for large sparse arrays.

  3. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  4. Mutualism supports biodiversity when the direct competition is weak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-García, Alberto; Bastolla, Ugo

    2017-02-01

    A key question of theoretical ecology is which properties of ecosystems favour their stability and help maintaining biodiversity. This question recently reconsidered mutualistic systems, generating intense controversy about the role of mutualistic interactions and their network architecture. Here we show analytically and verify with simulations that reducing the effective interspecific competition and the propagation of perturbations positively influences structural stability against environmental perturbations, enhancing persistence. Noteworthy, mutualism reduces the effective interspecific competition only when the direct interspecific competition is weaker than a critical value. This critical competition is in almost all cases larger in pollinator networks than in random networks with the same connectance. Highly connected mutualistic networks reduce the propagation of environmental perturbations, a mechanism reminiscent of MacArthur's proposal that ecosystem complexity enhances stability. Our analytic framework rationalizes previous contradictory results, and it gives valuable insight on the complex relationship between mutualism and biodiversity.

  5. Improving quantum state estimation with mutually unbiased bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, R B A; Steinberg, A M

    2010-07-16

    When used in quantum state estimation, projections onto mutually unbiased bases have the ability to maximize information extraction per measurement and to minimize redundancy. We present the first experimental demonstration of quantum state tomography of two-qubit polarization states to take advantage of mutually unbiased bases. We demonstrate improved state estimation as compared to standard measurement strategies and discuss how this can be understood from the structure of the measurements we use. We experimentally compared our method to the standard state estimation method for three different states and observe that the infidelity was up to 1.84 ± 0.06 times lower by using our technique than it was by using standard state estimation methods.

  6. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  7. AdS plane waves, entanglement and mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Debangshu

    2014-01-01

    $AdS$ plane wave backgrounds are dual to CFT excited states with energy momentum density $T_{++}=Q$. Building on previous work on entanglement entropy in these and nonconformal brane plane wave backgrounds, we first describe a phenomenological scaling picture for entanglement in terms of "entangling partons". We then study aspects of holographic mutual information in these backgrounds for two strip shaped subsystems, aligned parallel or orthogonal to the flux. We focus on the wide ($Ql^d\\gg 1$) and narrow ($Ql^d\\ll 1$) strip regimes. In the wide strip regime, mutual information exhibits growth with the individual strip sizes and a disentangling transition as the separation between the strips increases, whose behaviour is distinct from the ground and thermal states. In the narrow strip case, our calculations have parallels with "entanglement thermodynamics" for these $AdS$ plane wave deformations. We also discuss some numerical analysis.

  8. Networks in financial markets based on the mutual information rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years there have been many efforts in econophysics studying how network theory can facilitate understanding of complex financial markets. These efforts consist mainly of the study of correlation-based hierarchical networks. This is somewhat surprising as the underlying assumptions of research looking at financial markets are that they are complex systems and thus behave in a nonlinear manner, which is confirmed by numerous studies, making the use of correlations which are inherently dealing with linear dependencies only baffling. In this paper we introduce a way to incorporate nonlinear dynamics and dependencies into hierarchical networks to study financial markets using mutual information and its dynamical extension: the mutual information rate. We show that this approach leads to different results than the correlation-based approach used in most studies, on the basis of 91 companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange 100 between 2003 and 2013, using minimal spanning trees and planar maximally filtered graphs.

  9. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Mandal

    2013-09-01

    Following the generalized definition of exclusion statistics to infinite-dimensional Hilbert space [Murthy and Shankar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3629 (1994)] for a single-component anyonic system, we derive a simple relation between second mixed virial coefficient and the mutual exclusion statistics parameters using high-temperature expansion method for multicomponent anyonic system. The above result is derived without working in a specific model and is valid in any spatial dimensions.

  10. Extracting an entanglement signature from only classical mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starling, David J.; Howell, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Broadbent, Curtis J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Rochester Theory Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We introduce a quantity which is formed using classical notions of mutual information and which is computed using the results of projective measurements. This quantity constitutes a sufficient condition for entanglement and represents the amount of information that can be extracted from a bipartite system for spacelike separated observers. In addition to discussion, we provide simulations as well as experimental results for the singlet and maximally correlated mixed states.

  11. Mutual Accountability and Its Influence on Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Faaiza

    2015-01-01

    Many teams, especially in dynamic knowledge-intensive environments, face interdependent tasks with unscripted responsibilities. The centrality of this challenge to the team process notwithstanding, theories of how team members hold one another accountable for accomplishing interdependent work are underdeveloped. I integrate theory and research on accountability and teams to advance the construct of team mutual accountability – a reciprocally authorized behavior among team members of evaluatin...

  12. Determination of Optimal Cash Position of Mutual Fund

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭新; 张世英

    2003-01-01

    Cash position, held by mutual fund with purpose to satisfy investors′ redemption, will inevitably generate certain amount of cost. In this paper, the total cost caused by cash position is divided into opportunity cost and shortage cost, and a model is constructed to describe the relationship between total cost and cash position along with investors′ purchase and redemption, from which the formula of optimal cash position is deduced. Finally, the adjustment of optimal cash position in different market situations is discussed.

  13. Simulation Research in Mutualism Behavior ofAutomobile Industry Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Guangle Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper adopts the concept and mechanism of mathematical ecology theory, researches the revolutionary of automobile industry chain by setting up mutualism model of two species. Results of simulation show that automakers are more sensitive to the change of environmental resource. Automakers depending on suppliers excessively will increase the structural risk of the industry. Suppliers must make efficient utilization of the system resources; otherwise they inhibit the growth of automakers.

  14. Finite Algebraic Geometrical Structures Underlying Mutually Unbiased Quantum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, M R P; Perrine, S; Saniga, M; Planat, Michel R. P.; Rosu, Haret; Perrine, Serge; Saniga, Metod

    2004-01-01

    The basic methods of constructing the sets of mutually unbiased bases in the Hilbert space of an arbitrary finite dimension are discussed and an emerging link between them is outlined. It is shown that these methods employ a wide range of important mathematical concepts like, e.g., Fourier transforms, Galois fields and rings, finite and related projective geometries, and entanglement, to mention a few. Some applications of the theory to quantum information tasks are also mentioned.

  15. Lateral heat transfer in conducting and mutually irradiating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaprakas, C.K.; Badari Narayana, K. [Thermal Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2004-05-01

    Lateral heat transfer effect in conducting and mutually irradiating parallel plates has been investigated. The effect of reflection in the diffuse-specular regime has been included. The governing equation of this problem is a complicated integro-differential equation, and this has been solved using the accurate Gauss-Jacobi orthogonal collocation method. The effective thermal conductivity along the lateral direction increases with decreasing conduction-radiation number, increasing emittance of the plates and increasing spacing. Specular reflection effects are insignificant. (orig.)

  16. The Development Of Mutual Trust In British Workplaces Through ?Partnership?

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Graham

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the alleged links between 'partnership' forms of managing workplace relationships in Britain, and the development of intra-organisational 'trust'. The potential for mutually complementary linkages between the two are clear, in theory at least: partnership, as defined here, should produce, nurture and enhance levels of interpersonal trust inside organisations, while in turn trust, as defined here, legitimates and helps reinforce an organisation's 'partnership'...

  17. Promote Mutual Exchanges and Learning between Various Civilizations and Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra; Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    <正>It is an honor for me and my organization to join commemoration of international peace day and the exchange programs among NGO leaders on the invitation of Chinese Peoples’Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD).The exchange forums have been always proved beneficial in terms of promoting mutual harmony and peace as it provides opportunity to understand various perspectives,history,culture

  18. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann;

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework...... is based on a rate equation model obtained under weak coupling conditions. In both experiments and simulations, we find (achronal) synchronization of subnanosecond intensity fluctuations in concurrence with asymmetric physical roles between the lasers, even under symmetric operating conditions. We explore...

  19. Extracting an entanglement signature from only classical mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, David J.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a quantity which is formed using classical notions of mutual information and which is computed using the results of projective measurements. This quantity constitutes a sufficient condition for entanglement and represents the amount of information that can be extracted from a bipartite system for spacelike separated observers. In addition to discussion, we provide simulations as well as experimental results for the singlet and maximally correlated mixed states.

  20. Night shift working mothers: mutual perceptions with adolescent children

    OpenAIRE

    Sizane, Nongazi Florinah; Van Rensburg, Esme

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the mutual perception of relationships between mothers with day and night shift work and their teenage children. A cross-sectional survey using purposeful sampling was used. Two groups of 35 mothers and their adolescent children completed a Parent-Adolescent Relationship-Questionnaire (Robin, Koepke, Moye & Gerhardstein, 20(19). Data was analysed by means of SAS and SPSS programmes. Findings show that adolescent children of day shift working mothers perceive communicati...