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Sample records for judicially authorized cesarean

  1. 5 CFR 837.803 - Cancellation of retirement by judicial or administrative authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of retirement by judicial or administrative authority. 837.803 Section 837.803 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Canceled Retirements § 837.803 Cancellation of retirement by judicial or administrative authority....

  2. Judicial processes and legal authority in pre-colonial Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Creese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Law codes with their origins in Indic-influenced Old Javanese systems of knowledge comprise an important genre in the Balinese textual record. Written in Kawi – a term encompassing Old Javanese, Middle Javanese and High Balinese – the legal corpus forms a complex and overlapping web of indigenous legal texts and traditions that encompass the codification and administration of civil and criminal justice as well as concepts of morality and right conduct. The most significant codes include the Adhigama, Ku??ram?nawa, P?rw?dhigama, S?rasamuccaya, Swarajambu, Dew?gama (also called Kr?topapati and Dewadanda. Each of these law codes belongs to a shared tradition of legal thought and practice that is linked to Sanskrit M?navadharma??stra traditions. Manu’s code, most notably the a??ada?awyawah?ra section detailing the eighteen grounds for litigation, was adopted as the model of legal textual principle in the early stages of contact between ancient India and the Indonesian archipelago. Over the course of many centuries, this model informed legal and juridical practice and was adapted and modified to suit indigenous needs. The law codes remained in use in Java until the advent of Islam towards the end of the fifteenth century, and in Bali until the colonial period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Balinese legal textual corpus comprises dozens of interrelated manuscripts, some complete and some fragmentary. They provide significant insights in to pre-colonial judicial practices and forms of government. This article provides a survey of the corpus of legal texts and explores the nature of law in pre-colonial Bali.

  3. Execution of the European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented development of criminality at the social and economical levels, the tendency toglobalize some categories of crimes, of maximum gravity, as terrorism, armament traffic, drug traffic orhuman traffic, have determined the world states to undertake specific measures to prevent, combat and finallyreduce it. The first and most important measure taken by the Europe’s Council, regarding the intensificationof judicial cooperation in criminal matters was the adoption of the European Convention on extradition, inParis on 13 December 1957, completed by the two Additional Protocols in Strasbourg, on 15 October 1975and 17 March 1978. In this context, the release of the Council’s Framework Decision on 13 June 2002 on theEuropean arrest warrant and the procedures of delivery among the member states (2002/584/JAI representeda natural decision, with the purpose of contributing at ensuring a free, secure and just European space. TheEuropean arrest warrant is a judicial decision through which a competent judicial authority of a EuropeanUnion member state solicits the arrest and delivery by another member state, in order to proceed to theprosecution, trial or execution of a penalty or safety measure that is privative of freedom.

  4. The Issuance and Transmission of a European Arrest Warrant by the Romanian Judicial Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The European arrest warrant is the most important form of judicial cooperation in penal matters within the European Union, which is based on the mutual recognition of criminal judgments. The Europeanlegislative act that governs the institution is the Framework Decision no. 2002/584/JHA of 13 July 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States, amended and supplemented by the Council Framework Decision of 2009/299/JAI February 26, 2009. Although the first piece of the European legislative act has been transposed into our legislation by the Law no. 302/2004 on international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, with subsequent amendments, the modifying normativeact has not been transposed into national law. The research conducted on the depositions of special law and of the European legislative act, and especially on their implications in the internal and European judiciary practice, demonstrates the existence of some incomplete stipulations, secures the workability of the issuing,transmission and identification, pursuing and handing over the persons wanted by the Romanian judicial authorities in the Member States. A very special situation which is determined by the omission of national and EU legislator, in order to include the category of the persons submitted to the handing over and the minors against whom it was applied an educational and a deprivation of liberty measure, a situation which leads directly to the non execution of such sanctions of the minors. The originality of the work consists of the critical observation and also the proposals of lege ferenda which covers both the Romanian special law and also the European legislative act. At the same time the critical observations are useful not only for Romanian legislator who intends to supplement and modify the special law, but also for our doctrine.

  5. Gêmeos unidos e autorização judicial para o aborto Conjoined twins and legal authorization for abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever casos de gravidez de gêmeos unidos de acordo com a solicitação de autorização judicial para interrupção gravidez. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva das gestações de gêmeos unidos, sem possibilidade de sobrevida extrauterina ou de separação cirúrgica pós-natal, atendidos em um hospital terciário, entre 1998 e 2010. RESULTADOS: Entre 30 casos observados durante o período do estudo, seis (20,0% casais decidiram continuar com a gravidez, e, em cinco (16,7% casos, a autorização para interrupção da gestação não foi solicitada devido à idade gestacional avançada (> 25 semanas. A autorização para interromper a gravidez foi solicitada em 19 (63,3% casos: a permissão foi concedida em 12 (63,2%, indeferida em cinco (26,3%, e não se teve a informação do resultado em dois (10,5% casos. Nos casos submetidos à interrupção legal da gestação, o parto vaginal foi realizado em 83,3%, e no grupo em que a autorização não foi concedida, a cesárea foi realizada em todos os casos (p OBJECTIVE: To describe pregnancies with conjoined twins according to the request for legal termination of pregnancy. METHODS: Retrospective review of pregnancies with conjoined twins, with no possibility of extrauterine survival or postnatal surgical separation, observed at a tertiary teaching hospital, between 1998 and 2010. RESULTS: Amongst 30 cases seen during the study period, six (20.0% couples decided to continue with the pregnancy, termination of pregnancy was not requested due to advanced gestational age (> 25weeks in 5 cases (16.7%. Legal authorization to terminate the pregnancy was requested in 19 (63.3% cases: permission was granted in 12 (63.2%, denied in five (26.3% and information was missing in two (10.5% cases. A successful vaginal delivery was performed in 83.3% of the cases undergoing termination of pregnancy and a cesarean section was performed in all the remaining cases (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In pregnancies with

  6. 论司法权威的权力保障%On the Jurisdiction Guarantee of Judicial Authority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂林

    2016-01-01

    司法权威的形成需要司法机关有权力抵御其他权力的干涉,保证其依法独立行使职权。司法改革的核心就是司法权的重新配置,以塑造现代司法的独立性、被动性和终局性,实现司法公正。法院在国家权力体系中的地位,在各国由于政治、历史传统和法律意识形态的影响而有所不同。在我国,法院在司法审判中尚难以排除其他政治权力机构的干涉。同时,在能动司法的政策影响下,法院在纠纷解决领域的地位还受到社会权力的威胁,其管辖权和审判权受到侵蚀。因此,要树立司法权威,就要在司法权配置方面进行理念更新和制度改革。司法权配置应该遵循三项原则:人民法院服从法律,且只服从法律;司法以实现个案公正为首要价值;维护人民法院在社会纠纷解决中的权威地位。%The formation of the judicial authority requires that the judiciary has the power to resist the in⁃terference of other powers to ensure its independent exercise of powers. The core of the judicial reform is recon⁃figuring the jurisdiction, for the purpose of achieving judicial justice, shaping three qualities of the modern ju⁃dicial such as independence, passivity and finality. The Court in the national power system is usually in a weak position, but in different countries the court is in different positions because of the influences of the politics, historical traditions and legal ideologies. In China, the court is in a weak position in the relationship with the people's congresses, governments, supervisory authorities and the ruling party, so the court in the judicial trial is difficult to exclude the interference of other political authorities. Meanwhile, under the impact of judicial ac⁃tivism policy, the court's position in the field of dispute resolution is threatened by social power, and the juris⁃diction and adjudicative power of the court is eroded

  7. RESTRICTIONS ON THE RELIGIOUS JUDICIARYS’ AUTHORITY AS A RESULT OF JUDICIAL POWER CONFLICT RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahadi Wasi Bintoro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The new authorities of religious courts, particularly in Economics Sharia field still collide with other rules. This writing intends to identify the rules conflict that exist. Based on the analysis, can be identified the rule conflict relating to the authority of the judge occurs on the peace effort. Rules of conflict regarding peace with instrument PerMA No.1 year 2008 can be accessed by using the principle of lex superior derogat legi law priori, whereas with regard to the authority prosecuting Sharia Board of arbitration verdict temporarily can use the verdict of the Supreme Court of Cassation Number 56/PK/AG/2011, however this is still not final because we are not wedded to the binding force principle of precedent. The next rule of conflict is related with judgement authority to the bankruptcy matter. On this occasion, the author gives suggestions to immediately syncronize authorities prosecutes’ rules, so it can give birth to legal certainty.

  8. Examination of judicial practice on the exercise of parental authority by a single parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Gheorghiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objective of the present study lies in identifying how respected the principle of joint exercise of parental authority, enshrined in the Romanian legislature. The aim of Civil fundamental rule is to recognize the active participation regarding compliance by the parents of the right to psychological and physical welfare of their children, growth, education, training and their health. Analysis interests of the child enshrined rule that parental rights are not only father but also parental duties so that this breach legal obligations should be duly reasoned. Knowledge of basic civil complying with the requirements resulting from commitments made by Romania in the European integration process and the new status of our country's membership of the European Union. Jurisprudence should share the idea that joint parental authority is the rule and the exception exclusive. The availability principle in subsequent civil trial must be the protection of the interests of the child. Just this social reality we can talk about a Europe constituted by and for children.

  9. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  10. Management of Cesarean Deliveries and Cesarean Scars With Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martingano, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Cesarean scars pose a unique set of risks for women who have had previous cesarean deliveries. Between 1996 and 2007, the rate of trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery increased, along with reported rates of uterine rupture and other complications. Consequently, trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery and resultant vaginal birth after cesarean delivery have decreased and cesarean delivery has increased. With nearly one-third of women having cesarean delivery, the rate of rare complications such as cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy has also increased. An integration of osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques into the management of cesarean deliveries and cesarean scars has yet to be defined. The author presents 4 cases of cesarean delivery in which osteopathic manipulative treatment was integrated with successful outcomes.

  11. 28 CFR 71.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 71.42 Section 71.42....42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an... assessments under this part and specifies the procedures for such review....

  12. 14 CFR 1264.141 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1264.141 Section 1264.141... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.141 Judicial review. Section 3805 of Title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of the authority...

  13. Elective cesarean hysterectomy vs elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy: reassessing the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost; Rising; Bost

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the risks of elective cesarean hysterectomy with the risks of elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy.Methods: A census of elective cesarean hysterectomies (n = 31) and a random sample of 200 cesarean sections and 200 hysterectomies performed by the authors between 1987 and 1996 were evaluated. Only elective repeat and primary cesarean section patients without labor were selected for study (n = 86). Total abdominal hysterectomies were drawn from the sample (n = 60), excluding cancer cases, patients over 50 years old, and those with ancillary procedures other than adnexectomy and lysis of adhesions. General probability theory was used to calculate a predicted complication rate of cesarean section followed by TAH from the complication rates of the component procedures done independently. This predicted combined complication rate was then compared to the observed rate of complications from cesarean hysterectomy to evaluate the risks of the two alternative treatment regimens.Results: Elective cesarean section and total abdominal hysterectomy had complication rates of 12.8% and 13.4%, respectively. The predicted combined complication rate for elective cesarean section followed by TAH was 24.5%. The observed rate of complications for elective cesarean hysterectomy was much lower (16.1%). Although bleeding complications were similar for the two regimens, the rate of transfusion was higher for cesarean hysterectomy (13.0%) than for cesarean section (0%) and TAH (3.4%) alone. Eighty percent of the cesarean hysterectomy patients would have been candidates for autologous blood donation, had it been available.Conclusions: Elective cesarean hysterectomy has a lower risk of complications than elective cesarean section followed by remote abdominal hysterectomy and should be preferred. Transfusion risks are higher for cesarean hysterectomy but can be decreased by the use of autologous blood.

  14. 30 CFR 775.13 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 775.13 Section 775.13 Mineral... ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF DECISIONS § 775.13 Judicial review. (a) General. Any applicant or any... authority for administrative review under § 775.11 of this chapter fails to act within applicable...

  15. 42 CFR 423.2136 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 423.2136 Section 423.2136 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2136 Judicial review. (a) General rule. To the extent authorized by sections...

  16. 33 CFR 140.30 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 140.30 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES GENERAL General § 140.30 Judicial review. (a) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prevent any interested party from seeking judicial review as authorized by law. (b)...

  17. 31 CFR 16.42 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 16.42 Section 16.42... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.42 Judicial review. Section 3805 of title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court of a final decision of...

  18. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  19. [Cesarean section and eye disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karska-Basta, Izabella; Tarasiewicz, Marta; Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Miniewicz, Joanna; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a growing tendency for cesarean birth has been noted both, in Poland and worldwide. Non-obstetric problems constitute a large part of indications for cesarean section. Many ophthalmologists and obstetricians still believe that high myopia, the presence of peripheral retinal degenerations, history of retinal detachment surgery, diabetic retinopathy, or glaucoma are indications for surgical termination of pregnancy. However, these recommendations are not evidence-based. The literature offers no proof that high myopia and previous retinal surgery increase the risk of retinal detachment during spontaneous vaginal delivery. There is only one indication for cesarean section in myopic patients, i.e. the presence of choroidal neovascularization, which can cause subretinal bleeding with acute visual loss. Prolonged and intensified Valsalva maneuver during labor in patients with an active proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be an indication for an elective cesarean section. Uterine contractions during the second stage of vaginal delivery lead to a marked elevation of intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the delivery may damage retinal ganglion cells, resulting in further progression of visual field. Thus, glaucoma associated with advanced visual field changes is the next ophthalmic indication for cesarean section. The report presents the current state of knowledge concerning the effect of pregnancy on pre-existing ocular disorders and the influence of physiological changes on the clinical course of these diseases during the stages of natural delivery. The authors discuss also the ophthalmic indications for cesarean section.

  20. Birth after cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velemínský, Miloš; Velemínský, Miloš; Piskorzová, Martina; Bašková, Martina; Tóthová, Valérie; Stránský, Pravoslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women, iterative cesarean sections were indicated. To evaluate knowledge of educational material designed for women being prepared for the iterative delivery, we used information compiled on experience from 2002 to 2003; the same approach was used to evaluate the nursing process on interventions and diagnoses of cesarean sections. Results From 2004 to 2008, 11 279 deliveries were performed in the Perinatological Center in České Budějovice; this was significant (Pcesarean section. The number of iterative cesarean sections in women who had already experienced the cesarean section (828) and delivered by cesarean section again is 620. Other data were not significant. Only 2 to 3 pregnancies next to the first cesarean section were statistically significant in 2004 and 2005. Conclusions If a trial of labor after cesarean does not proceed to vaginal birth, the woman will need support and encouragement to express feelings about another cesarean birth. PMID:21278695

  1. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  2. Judicial review of administrative silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radošević Ratko S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative silence is a situation in which the competent authority, within the statutory deadline, has not issued an administrative act at the request of the party. In the case of administrative silence, given the fact that the citizens are unable to protect their rights and legal interests without an administrative act, they are provided with legal protection. In this case, the same legal relationship is created, directly on the basis of the statute, as in the situation in which the party's request is rejected. This means that the party may, under the conditions prescribed by the statute, initiate the procedure of judicial review of administrative silence. In the paper, the author explains the conditions under which the judicial review of administrative silence can be initiated and the role of the court in this judicial procedure.

  3. Judicial Reform of the 1864 as a Stage of Russian Judicial System Democratic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov F. Miloserdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author considers the place of judicial reform of 1864 in the public and social reforms of Alexander II. This paper attempts to show the place of justice in the legal system of Russian Empire in the post-reform period. Author emphasizes democratic and progressive nature of judicial reform of 1864, noting lack of preconditions for the formation of democratic judicial system under the autocracy. Author analyzes relationship and development of the judicial system and the dynamics of social relations. Author also revealed the way of judicial system in the formation of civil society prerequisites. This paper attempts to show and prove that judicial reform is actually a first step towards the formation of the Russian system of powers separation. Author concludes that undertaken by the Government of Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century attempt of the Russian Empire judicial system democratization had neither political nor social assumptions. In conclusion, author concludes that in the present conditions of judicial system democratization in modern Russian Federation a number of principles and institutions of judicial reform of 1864 was applied.

  4. 12 CFR 308.541 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 308.541 Section 308.541 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE... Title 31, United States Code, authorizes judicial review by an appropriate United States District Court...

  5. Cesarean myomectomy in modern obstetrics: More light and fewer shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparić, Radmila; Kadija, Saša; Stefanović, Aleksandar; Spremović Radjenović, Svetlana; Likić Ladjević, Ivana; Popović, Jela; Tinelli, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The study aim was to evaluate management of myomas during cesarean section, the pro and cons and the outcomes of cesarean myomectomy. Moreover, we tried to investigate the long-term outcomes of cesarean myomectomy. The authors conducted a literature review using scientific databases, focusing on the benefits and outcomes of cesarean myomectomy and the recent trends regarding this topic, and identified relevant articles, related references and other papers citing them. Despite the demonstrated advantages of cesarean myomectomy, postponed myomectomy after cesarean section was recommended in some instances. Apart from recent reports on the safety and feasibility of cesarean myomectomy, the current literature also describes serious complications of cesarean myomectomy, including even maternal death. This poses a question about the reported rate of complications: whether it is underestimated in common practice. Although some studies strongly suggest the safety of cesarean myomectomy, data on the long-term outcomes of cesarean myomectomy in women are lacking. The risk-benefit ratio of cesarean myomectomy should be re-evaluated in the new century, given the increasing patient age, incidence of myoma in pregnancy, and the wide use of assisted reproductive techniques. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. 28 CFR 0.49 - International judicial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International judicial assistance. 0.49 Section 0.49 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil... authorities which are referred to the Department of Justice through diplomatic or other governmental...

  7. Cesarean Delivery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz Eriksen, Jennifer L; Melamed, Alexander; Clapp, Mark A; Little, Sarah E; Zera, Chloe

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effect of maternal age on indication for primary cesarean delivery in low-risk nulliparous women. Retrospective cohort study. Urban academic tertiary care center. Nulliparous women younger than 35 years of age delivering vertex-presenting singletons at term. Participants underwent spontaneous, operative or cesarean delivery. Mode of delivery, indication, and timing of cesarean delivery. Adolescents were half as likely to undergo cesarean delivery overall (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.54), and more than one-third less likely to undergo cesarean delivery in labor (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.53-0.66). Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the strength of these associations. Adolescents were half as likely to undergo cesarean delivery for failure to progress (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.43-0.54). There was no difference in the odds of cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.77-1.06), or genital herpes (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.57-3.68). Induction, macrosomia, oxytocin augmentation, and any labor complication were all associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery. There was no difference in the duration of second stage for adolescents who delivered by cesarean delivery compared with adults (240.0 vs 237.7 minutes; P = .84), but adolescents who delivered vaginally had a second stage that was one-third shorter than adults (62.5 vs 100.3 minutes; P cesarean delivery overall, and 40% less likely to undergo a primary cesarean delivery in labor, even after adjustment for multiple maternal, neonatal, and labor characteristics. This difference is not explained by differences in the duration of the second stage of labor. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Judicial system of the Russian Federation: reforming errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaydidey Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of considering problems of modern Russian judicial system and judicial policy is emphasized. The author proves the necessity to study the judicial system of our country in detail. The content of judicial system is analyzed and its structural elements are described. Factors determining the structure of national judicial system are characterized. The main feature of the Russian judicial system is noted, notably: centralization (there is no independent judicial authority in regions except constitutional justice. Considering the judicial system as hierarchically structured set of courts is too simplified and is not conformable to modern justice tasks. The ways of optimizing the system of courts as well as the judicial system of the Russian Federation are proposed. Interim results of the reform in the form of abolishment of the RF Supreme Arbitration Court are negatively evaluated. Intraorganizational transformations have substituted the evolutionary development of the judicial system and the necessity to improve the justice itself. The author confirms that development of relevant draft bill was not accompanied by conducting public researches, studying statistical data, and making general conclusions, proving the efficiency of establishing an integrated supreme court. Threats and challenges to law order are ignored. Supreme courts integration has virtually established a new judicial system, though the proper legal base for it has not been developed. The viewpoints of researchers, warning against negative effects of such reform, are provided. It is concluded that the law under study does not meet present demands of the Russian judicial system.

  9. [Complications of cesarean deliveries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgeirsdottir, Heiddis; Hardardottir, Hildur; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the rate of complications which accompany cesarean sections at Landspitali University Hospital (LSH). All deliveries by cesarean section from July 1st 2001 to December 31st 2002 were examined in a retrospective manner. Information was collected from maternity records regarding the operation and its complications if they occurred, during or following the operation. During this period 761 women delivered by cesarean section at LSH. The overall complication rate was 35,5%. The most common complications were; blood loss > or =1000 ml (16.5%), post operative fever (12.2%), extension from the uterine incision (7.2%) and need for blood transfusion (4.3%). Blood transfusion was most common in women undergoing cesarean section after attempted instrumental vaginal delivery (20%). Fever and extension from the uterine incision were most common in women undergoing cesarean section after full cervical dilation without attempt of instrumental delivery (19,4%). These complications were least likely to occur if the patient underwent an elective cesarean section. Complications following cesarean section are common, especially if labor is advanced. Each indication for an operative delivery should be carefully weighed and the patient informed accordingly.

  10. Peers and Plagiarism: The Role of Student Judicial Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    After reading Kathryn Valentine's article that talked about her interaction with a Chinese student accused of plagiarism, the author was reminded of the effectiveness of student judicial boards. In this article, the author describes the benefits of having a student judicial board in fighting off plagiarism among students. She relates that although…

  11. Ethical issues in cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2017-08-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Author: K Malan REASSESSING JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    functionary or institution (i) exercising a power or performing a function in terms of ...... liberal view is unrealistic and rather mythical, premised on an excessive and ...... typical of South Africa under its present ruling elite: the bad state of public.

  13. What Is a Cesarean Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common complications? What is a high-risk pregnancy? What is labor? What is a cesarean delivery? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What is a cesarean delivery? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A cesarean delivery ...

  14. Cesarean scar pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Hoffmann, Elise; Rifbjerg Larsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Coch......OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE...

  15. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  16. Delivery by Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often when: The mother has had a previous baby by Cesarean delivery The obstetrician feels that the baby’s health might ... lost time. Don’t be surprised if your baby is still affected by the anesthesia for six to twelve hours after delivery and appears a little sleepy. If you’re ...

  17. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  18. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    ) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  19. Surgical Management of the Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisodowleh Nankali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Little is known about its incidence and natural history. The diagnosis and treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP is challenging. The authors reported here a case of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP with hypovolemic shock that underwent emergency laparotomy with resection of ectopic mass. The patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications.

  20. Cesarean Section: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An analysis of variations of indications and maternal-fetal prognosis for... Article: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Shivering during Cesarean Delivery under Spinal Anesthesia. Article: Optimal Pain Management After Cesarean Delivery. Cesarean Section -- see more ...

  1. Judicial Decisions in the Field of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes recent judicial decisions in various countries concerning application of general legal principles to labor law, access to employment, conditions of employment, occupational safety and health, social security, and labor relations. (Author/SK)

  2. [Changing trends and indications for cesarean section in the last few decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Sándor

    2014-07-20

    Cesarean section rates are increasing worldwide, which has been paralelled by an increase in primary cesarean delivery and decrease in vaginal birth after cesarean section. Behind the different frequencies there is a number of interrelated factors including advanced maternal age, increasing incidence of obesity, assisted reproductive technologies, and maternal request for non-medical reasons. The sub-optimal management of labor and the concerns about medical liability claims and litigations increase the number of abdominal deliveries. The author reviews the changing indications for cesarean deliveries in the last few decades and summarizes the effects on the obstetrical clinical practice.

  3. Myth of the ideal cesarean section rate: commentary and historic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Ronald M

    2006-04-01

    Attempts to define, or enforce, an "ideal" cesarean section rate are futile, and should be abandoned. The cesarean rate is a consequence of individual value-laden clinical decisions, and is not amenable to the methods of evidence-based medicine. The influence of academic authority figures on the cesarean rate in the US is placed in historic context. Like other population health indices, the cesarean section rate is an indirect result of American public policy during the last century. Without major changes in the way health and maternity care are delivered in the US, the rate will continue to increase without improving population outcomes.

  4. Feasibility of abdominoplasty with Cesarean section [Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet WN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the International Journal of Women’s Health have been alerted by Dr Nadine Sherif, the corresponding author, to unacceptable levels of duplication with a previously published paper: Ali A, Essam A. Abdominoplasty Combined with Cesarean Delivery: Evaluation of the Practice. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 2011;35(1:80–86.It is worth noting that this paper was peer-reviewed by two peer-reviewers and the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Women’s Health before publication. The paper concerned is: Thabet WN, Hossny AS, Sherif NA. Feasibility of abdominoplasty with Cesarean section. International Journal of Women’s Health. 2012;4:115–121.

  5. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of courts to generate political change has long been debated in national, comparative, and international politics. In the examination of the interaction between judicial and legislative politics, scholars have disagreed on the degree of judicial power and the ability of politics...... to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  6. POLITIK HUKUM JUDICIAL REVIEW DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono Kartono

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Indonesia judicial review system is not opens the possibility of regulations review under the act against the constitution, das sollen pracitically these conditions may still occur. From political of law the legal authority of constitutional court should be able to put the interests of citizens rights that are based on the principles of recognition, guarantees, protection and legal certainty of a fair and equal treatment before the law. Given that changes in the constitution can not be done easily, then the judicial review in UUD 1945 should not be formulated too limitedly that restricting the organic law to complete and explore the authority that is adaptable to any concrete problem. Keywords: politics of law, constitutional court, UUD 1945, limitedly.

  7. Thromboprophylaxis after cesarean section: decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondon, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in developed countries, the usefulness of preventive low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) after cesarean section remains a matter of controversy. This article will review a recent decision analysis addressing this question, comparing a 7-day LMWH with none in this setting. Prophylaxis with LMWH yielded the highest quality-adjusted life expectancy, with a net gain of 1.5 days per treated patient. Sensitivity analyses showed the incidence of VTE after cesarean section and the haemorrhagic risk related to LMWH to be critical, at threshold values of 0.22% and 0.24% respectively. In the hypothetical cases created by the authors, LMWH was safe but only marginally more effective in women with no risk factors. With the addition of other risk factors, reductions in VTE greatly outnumbered the increase in major hemorrhages. This study highlights the need to assess the individual thrombotic risk in women after a cesarean section.

  8. [Evidence-based cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Heini; Tekay, Aydin; Mäkikallio, Kaarin

    2015-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most frequent major surgery in Finland: in 2013 over 16% of the deliveries were via cesarean route. 27% of the mothers are estimated to face complications. Optimal surgical techniques and other operation-related measures aim to reduce the incidence of complications. Recommendations favor preoperative antibiotics, vaginal preparation, transversal skin incision, non-development of bladder flap, blunt cephalo-caudad uterine extension, spontaneous placental removal, late cord clamping, continuous sutures for uterine closure and subcutaneous skin sutures. Optimal measures will not only reduce complications in cesarean deliveries but bring cost savings and unify the clinical routines and training in specialization programs.

  9. Judicial Dialogue and Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.; Kjos, H.E.

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the extent, method, purpose and effects of domestic and international courts' judicial dialogue on human rights. The analysis covers national courts' judicial dialogue from different regions of the world, including Eastern Europe, Latin America, Canada,

  10. Can antenatal classes reduce the rate of cesarean section in southern Italy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Daniela; Pelullo, Concetta Paola; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Attena, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Among European Countries, Italy has the highest rate of cesarean section (36.8%), and in the Campania region this rate reaches 60.0%. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether participation in antenatal classes during pregnancy reduces the rate of cesarean delivery in southern Italy. We selected three local health authorities, with the lowest, the highest, and an intermediate rate of cesarean delivery. The study included 1893 mothers who brought their children for vaccination and were interviewed about their participation in antenatal classes and their obstetric history. The main causes of cesarean section given in the interview were clinical indications (61.0%), previous cesarean section (31.0%) and woman's request (8.0%). When we excluded emergency cesarean delivery, we found a moderate association between participation in antenatal classes and cesarean section reduction (relative risk=1.27; 95% CI=1.08-1.49; in percentage values from 49.3% to 38.8%). Private hospitals and the two local health authorities with higher baseline rates of cesarean section showed an enhanced reduction of these rates. Our paper shows moderate efficacy of antenatal classes, which reduced the occurrence of cesarean section by about 10%. However, the cesarean section rate remained high. As it is possible that different classes have a different level of efficacy, a further study on a standardized model of an antenatal classes is in progress, to assess its efficacy in term of cesarean section reduction, with the purpose of its widespread implementation to the whole region. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  12. Pheochromocytoma after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Naghshineh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy.

  13. Simplified cesarean section: a strategic surgical approach to minimize postoperative infectious morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi

    1998-07-01

    Objective: A simplified method of cesarean delivery aimed at minimizing postoperative morbidity is illustrated.Methods: Two hundred consecutive cesarean deliveries were performed by the authors' simplified cesarean technique. Mean patient age was 27 years (range 17-46), and mean weight was 169 pounds (range 112-414). Indications for cesarean delivery included dystocia or failure to progress in labor (38%), repeat cesarean (32%), malpresentation (11.5%), fetal distress (9.5%), and other (9%).Results: Simplified cesarean delivery was successfully completed in all cases. Mean operating time was 16 minutes (range 9-33), mean blood loss was 460 mL (range 100-1150), and mean postsurgical hospitalization time was 72 hours (range 36-120). No bowel, bladder, or vascular injuries occurred. Postoperative febrile morbidity occurred in one patient (0.5%), ileus occurred in one patient (0.5%), and blood transfusion was administered to one patient (0.5%). No cases of wound infection, wound dehiscence, hematoma, or incisional hernia occurred. All patients were ambulatory on the first postoperative day. All but one patient (99.5%) tolerated a regular diet on the first postoperative day.Conclusions: The authors' technique of cesarean section appears to be a safe and efficient method for cesarean delivery associated with minimal postoperative infectious morbidity and rapid resumption of bowel and ambulatory function.

  14. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  15. Arbitration and Judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Stone Sweet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The arbitral world is at a crucial point in its historical development, poised between two conflicting conceptions of its nature, purpose, and political legitimacy. Formally, the arbitrator is an agent of the contracting parties in dispute, a creature of a discrete contract gone wrong. Yet, increasingly, arbitrators are treated as agents of a larger global community, and arbitration houses concern themselves with the general and prospective impact of important awards. In this paper, I address these questions, first, from the standpoint of delegation theory. In Part I, I introduce the basic “Principal-Agent” framework [P-A] used by social scientists to explain why actors create new institutions, and then briefly discuss how P-A has been applied to the study of courts. Part II uses delegation theory to frame discussion of arbitration as a mode of governance for transnational business and investment. In Part III, I argue that the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID is presently in the throes of judicialization, indicators of which include the enhanced use of precedent-based argumentation and justification, the acceptance of third-party briefs, and a flirtation with proportionality balancing. Part IV focuses on the first wave of awards rendered by ICSID tribunals pursuant to Argentina’s response to the crushing economic crisis of 2000-02, wherein proportionality emerged, adapted from the jurisprudence of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization.

  16. Evaluating Judicial Performance: Editors’ Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this issue tackle the conceptual issues associated with defining good judging and the purposes of evaluating judges, and ask such questions as: What values are central to the judicial role? What knowledge, skills, abilities, and other qualities are important to judicial performance? What does scholarship tell us about judging and judicial performance? What are the challenges in measuring judicial performance, the extent to which existing evaluation programs can capture what it means to be a judge, and the potential for developing multi-method evaluation programs? An underlying theme is the nature and desirability of linking evaluations of individual judges with evaluations of the court system and the ways in which results from performance evaluation can be incorporated into educational and other programs designed to promote improvements in the quality of the judiciary. The papers cluster around three major themes: (i Conceptual and methodological issues; (ii Experiences of evaluating judges; and (iii Empirical research findings. Los artículos de este número abordan aspectos conceptuales asociados con el hecho de juzgar de forma correcta y los propósitos de evaluar a los jueces, y plantean preguntas como: ¿qué valores son básicos en el rol judicial? ¿Qué conocimiento, aptitudes, habilidades y otras cualidades son importantes para el rendimiento judicial? ¿Qué nos dice el mundo académico sobre el hecho de juzgar y el rendimiento judicial? ¿Cuáles son los retos en la medición del rendimiento judicial, hasta qué punto los programas de evaluación existentes pueden capturar lo que significa ser un juez, y el potencial para desarrollar programas de evaluación multidisciplinares? Un tema subyacente es la naturaleza y la deseabilidad de unir evaluaciones de jueces individuales con evaluaciones del sistema judicial, y las formas en las que los resultados del rendimiento judicial se pueden incorporar en programas educativos

  17. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Sullivan, R; Abder, R

    2016-11-01

    Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery has been traditionally discouraged. Recent literature has challenged this view. We present two cases of large subserosal fibroids that underwent removal without complication at the time of cesarean delivery. We present two patients that underwent myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery. Case 1 had a 10 cm subserosal leiomyoma removed without complication at the time of a cesarean section for breech presentation. Case two had a fundal myoma removed without incident at the time of primary cesarean delivery for suspected macrosomia. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean section has been traditionally discouraged. Recent studies have questioned this recommendation and demonstrated no significant increase in peri-operative complications when myomectomy is performed at the time cesarean section. Further, there is added benefit in that a future procedure is avoided. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery is both a safe and reasonable procedure.

  19. Analytical study of indications of cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki M. Pandya

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Reduction of number of primary cesarean sections and successful VBAC trials are recommended to keep the rate of cesarean sections to the possible minimum level. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1460-1463

  20. [Demographic impact of cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2009-08-01

    in the vital statistics the cesarean section is a cause that makes reference to births and deaths. to analyze the frequency of the cesarean section, the changes brought about in the rates of maternal, perinatal mortality and of natality, and their relation with reliable contraceptive methods. retrospective study realized with the dices of patients of the Coordination of Reproductive Health of the Mexican Institute of the Social Insurance (IMSS) of the state of Aguascalientes (Mexico). The births were registered majors of 20 weeks of gestation, the maternal and perinatal deaths from 1990 to 2007 in the hospitals of the IMSS in Aguascalientes. The rate of cesarean calculated by means of the registry of the number of the same realized per year and they were divided between the total of vaginal and abdominal births, and the result multiplied percent. 201,563 obstetrical events were registered, of which 145,106 corresponded to vaginal childbirths and 56,457 abdominal ones. With these data a global rate of cesarean section of 28% was obtained, with 201,182 new born alive ones and 2,618 perinatal ones. The acceptance of the tubary bilateral occlusion maintained a constant increase during the period of study, like the intrauterine device. The acceptance from the bilateral occlusion was completely different tubary during the cesarean one, in comparison with the childbirth. the long term results show positive influence in the reduction of the rate of natality.

  1. Cesarean section by maternal request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Raphael; Burlá, Marcelo; Ferrari, José; Lima, Lana; Amim, Joffre; Braga, Antonio; Rezende, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks. RESUMO A cesariana a pedido materno é aquela realizada em uma gestante sem indicações médicas e sem contraindicação para tentativa do parto vaginal. Existe grande controvérsia sobre a realização da cesariana a pedido. Riscos potenciais da cesariana a pedido incluem complicações em gravidezes subsequentes, tais como: rotura uterina, placenta prévia e acretismo. Potenciais benefícios da cesariana a pedido englobam um menor risco de hemorragia pós-parto na primeira cesariana e menos complicações cirúrgicas quando comparada ao parto vaginal. A cesariana a pedido jamais deve ser realizada antes de 39 semanas.

  2. 40 CFR 178.65 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 178.65 Section 178.65... REQUESTS FOR HEARINGS Judicial Review § 178.65 Judicial review. An order issued under § 178.37 is final... of the order in the Federal Register. The failure to file a petition for judicial review within...

  3. 40 CFR 179.125 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 179.125 Section 179... EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Judicial Review § 179.125 Judicial review. (a) The Administrator's final decision... judicial review within the period ending on the 60th day after the date of the publication of the...

  4. 31 CFR 341.7 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 341.7 Section... BONDS § 341.7 Judicial proceedings. No judicial determinations will be recognized which would give... against a registered owner will be recognized when established by valid judicial proceedings, but in...

  5. 31 CFR 346.7 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 346.7 Section... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.7 Judicial proceedings. No judicial determination will be recognized which would give... claim against a registered owner will be recognized when established by valid judicial proceedings,...

  6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: cesarean deliveries in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, E; Ortner, C; Bollag, L; Davies, J; Landau, R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a congenital disorder resulting in multiple fractures and extremely short stature, usually necessitating cesarean delivery. Identical twins with severe osteogenesis imperfecta each of whom underwent a cesarean delivery with different anesthetic modalities are presented. A review of the literature and anesthetic options for cesarean delivery and postoperative analgesia for women with osteogenesis imperfecta are discussed.

  7. Rare complications of cesarean scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS. As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  8. Los retos del periodismo judicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Javier Ronda Iglesias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodista se consolida como un nuevo habitante de la administración de justicia. Es habitual su presencia para cubrir las numerosas informaciones que genera el complejo mundo judicial. Señala el autor que la fiebre por esta información especializada sigue creciendo cada día, ya que interesa al público y a los medios de comunicación. Este auge por la información judicial o de tribunales exige una mayor preparación específica del profesional, que redundará en la mejora de la calidad y veracidad de este hacer periodístico. Por ello, en este artículo se facilitan una serie de usos y recomendaciones para desarrollar convenientemente el periodismo judicial.

  9. [Risk factors for cesarean section: epidemiologic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Hernández, B; Tene Pérez, C E; Ríos Silva, M

    2000-07-01

    The increase in frequency of cesareans that has been noted through 70's, not diminished--like it was expected--perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most important indications to cesarean are distocias, previous cesarean and fetal stress. In 1998 frequency of cesarean deliveries in our hospital was 35% of the pregnancy attended. The claim of this study was to determine risks factors to cesarean in our hospital. A case-control study was performed, selecting 165 cases (cesareans) and 328 controls (via vaginal). It was determined OR of the risks factors and atribuible fraction. Data were analyzed by X2. The most important indications to cesarean delivery were: distocias (39%, n = 64); previous cesarean (23%, n = 41) and fetal stress (11%, n = 21). There was not significative differences in age, height and rupture membrane time in both groups. History of cesarean delivery gave major risk to another surgical intervention (OR = 12.7, p = < 0.0001, atribuible fraction 92%). Nuliparous (OR = 6.6, p < 0.00000, atribuible fraction 85%), second gestation (OR = 1.8, p = 0.002) or history of abortion (OR = 1.8, p = 0.04) were factors mainly associated to cesarean delivery. We concluded that the precise 'medications of this surgical intervention specially in nuliparous or previous cesarean delivery cases must be replanteated to diminish its elevated frequency.

  10. Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery...... between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, abdominal surgery, or cesarean delivery after the inclusion period. For women who had...... a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous cesarean deliveries were tracked and manually analyzed to validate the relationship between hernia repair and cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed with a competing risk analysis that included each cesarean delivery. RESULTS: We...

  11. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuivey RW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block2 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Independent consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. Keywords: cesarean section, vacuum, forceps, birth, delivery

  12. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  13. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  14. Judicial Independence Versus Public Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At the annual Supreme People's Court conference on publicity work held in early September, Deputy Chief Justice Cao Jianming announced a few new measures to limit the media's access to several news sources, setting a future tone for releasing news of China's judicial system.

  15. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  16. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author engag

  17. Classification of judicial investigation situations and its importance for criminalistic tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin S.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of defining the criteria for determining judicial investigation situations are studied. Situations occurring during the prejudicial inquiry and legal proceedings have same epistemological nature, which allows to successfully apply the existing classification base to systematize and order the situations of judicial investigation. The author distinguishes the judicial problem-searching situations, occurring in the courts of original jurisdiction, of appellate jurisdiction, of review and of reviewing authority, differing in the character of problem raised and solved by the court. The typical situation in the courts of original jurisdiction is collecting evidence sufficient for making judicial decision. The typical situation in the courts of appellate jurisdiction, of review and of reviewing authority is validating decisions made by the court of original jurisdiction. The difference in the line of development of typical judicial investigation situations and search and cognitive activity’s character is shown. The author distinguishes typical problem-searching judicial situations, occurring in the court of original jurisdiction, connected with: 1 saving the evidence seized during prejudicial inquiry; 2 filling the gaps in prejudicial inquiry materials; 3 providing judicial assessment of evidence; 4 making judicial decision. The court of original jurisdiction adjudicates in a case, courts of appellate jurisdiction, of review and of reviewing authority review the judicial decision (their revision activity is provided with search and cognitive means to a lesser extent. The most widespread problem-searching judicial situations in the court of appellate jurisdiction are distinguished. The information uncertainty in mentioned situations cannot be overcome by cognitive means of such courts.

  18. Cesarean delivery technique: evidence or tradition? A review of the evidence-based cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Betsy; Zlatnik, Marya G

    2012-08-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most common surgical procedure performed in the United States, yet the techniques used during this procedure often vary significantly among providers. The purpose of this review was to evaluate and outline current evidence behind the cesarean delivery technique. A search of the PubMed database was conducted using the terms cesarean section and cesarean delivery and the technique of interest, for example, cesarean section prophylactic antibiotics. Few aspects of the cesarean delivery were found to have high-quality consistent evidence to support use of a particular technique. Because many aspects of the procedure are based on limited or no data, more studies on specific cesarean delivery techniques are clearly needed. Providers should be aware of which components of the cesarean delivery are evidence-based versus not when performing this procedure.

  19. 5 CFR 1201.120 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1201.120 Section 1201... PROCEDURES Petitions for Review of Initial Decisions § 1201.120 Judicial review. Any employee or applicant... provisions of 5 U.S.C. 7703 may obtain judicial review in the United States Court of Appeals for the...

  20. 5 CFR 1201.127 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1201.127 Section 1201... Judicial review. (a) An employee subject to a final Board decision imposing disciplinary action under 5 U.S.C. 1215 may obtain judicial review of the decision in the United States Court of Appeals for...

  1. 40 CFR 180.30 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 180.30 Section 180.30... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.30 Judicial review. (a) Under FFDCA section 408(h), judicial review is available in the United States Courts of Appeal as to...

  2. 49 CFR 1016.310 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 1016.310 Section 1016.310 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Judicial review. Judicial review of final Board decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5...

  3. 44 CFR 7.15 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 7.15 Section...-Assisted Programs-General § 7.15 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603 of the Act....

  4. 14 CFR 1250.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1250.110 Section 1250.110... PROGRAMS OF NASA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1250.110 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section...

  5. 36 CFR 1150.104 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 1150.104 Section 1150.104 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Judicial review. Any complainant or participant in a proceeding may obtain judicial review of a final...

  6. 42 CFR 423.1976 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 423.1976 Section 423.1976 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.1976 Judicial review. (a) Review of ALJ's decision. The enrollee may request...

  7. 32 CFR 195.12 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 195.12 Section 195.12 National... RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 195.12 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603 of the Act....

  8. 31 CFR 28.630 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 28.630 Section 28.630 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS... Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to 20 U.S.C. 1682 is subject to judicial review as provided in 20...

  9. 14 CFR 1262.309 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1262.309 Section 1262.309... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.309 Judicial review. Judicial review of final... United States having jurisdiction to review the merits of the underlying decision of the agency...

  10. 36 CFR 1211.630 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 1211.630... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 1211.630 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to 20 U.S.C. 1682 is subject to judicial review as provided in 20 U.S.C. 1683....

  11. 44 CFR 6.57 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 6.57 Section... SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Requests To Amend Records § 6.57 Judicial review... requestor may seek judicial review of that determination. A civil action must be filed in the...

  12. 44 CFR 62.22 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 62.22 Section 62.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Claims Adjustment, Claims Appeals, and Judicial Review § 62.22 Judicial review. (a)...

  13. 17 CFR 201.58 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 201.58 Section 201.58 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.58 Judicial review. Judicial review of...

  14. 31 CFR 92.18 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 92.18 Section 92.18... States Mint § 92.18 Judicial review. A Final Notice of Assessment issued under the procedures in this subpart may be subject to judicial review pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 701 et seq....

  15. 44 CFR 295.43 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 295.43... Judicial review. As an alternative to arbitration, a Claimant dissatisfied with the outcome of an Administrative Appeal may seek judicial review of the decision by bringing a civil lawsuit against FEMA in...

  16. 31 CFR 27.8 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 27.8 Section 27.8... OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.8 Judicial review. A final Notice of Assessment issued under this party may be subject to judicial review pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 701 et seq....

  17. 42 CFR 414.920 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 414.920 Section 414.920 Public... Under Part B § 414.920 Judicial review. The following areas under the CAP are not subject to administrative or judicial review: (a) The establishment of payment amounts. (b) The awarding of vendor...

  18. 31 CFR 6.16 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 6.16 Section 6.16... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.16 Judicial review. Judicial review of final agency decisions on awards may be sought as provided in 5 U.S.C. 504(c)(2)....

  19. 42 CFR 422.612 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 422.612 Section 422.612 Public... Judicial review. (a) Review of ALJ's decision. Any party, including the MA organization, may request judicial review (upon notifying the other parties) of an ALJ's decision if— (1) The Board denied the...

  20. 28 CFR 17.17 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings. 17.17 Section 17.17... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Administration § 17.17 Judicial proceedings. (a)(1) Any Department official or... proceeding in any manner, the assigned Department attorney shall take all steps necessary to ensure...

  1. PROCEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIVE JUDICIAL REVIEW OF THE RIGHT TO HEALTH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This text seeks to identify the objective and subjective aspects of rights to an existential minimum in health care, based on international parameters which, because they are restricted to the internal scope of a nation, depend on a constitutional basis and on comprehensible facts, the demonstration of which should be the responsibility of the national administrative authority. Regarding the judicial review of the minimum right to healthcare, this paper points out that it is a serious mistake to try to handle public health conflicts according to the typical judicial principles governing conflicts under private law, because that distorts the public health system, with judicial orders that depart from the universal access to health care and that are often impossible to comply with. The article concludes that the judicial review of administrative authorities in matters involving the right to health necessarily requires simultaneous judicial review of the corresponding administrative procedures.

  2. Judicial Labor Relations in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta MODIGA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European social law represents the branch of the international labor law consisting of the regulations in this matter adopted by the Council of Europe, respectively the European Union. If the instruments elaborated within the Council of Europe are, in virtue of its objectives, limited as number, the law elaborated within the European Union, known as „community social law" knew full expansion in the latest years. In the current language, we are witnessing a confusion of terms, the collocation „European social law” being attributed either to the law created through the conventions and agreements of the Council of Europe, as „European” in title, or the law consisting of the regulations and directives of the European Union. In reality, in our opinion, both sets of regional norms, together, represent a new branch of international law, maybe insufficient grounded theoretically, the social European law. The work relations related to the European social law are not established only in the sector of production of material goods, but also in the section of nonproductive activities such as those units (economic agents, private and judicial entities, state or private, institutions, administrative authorities etc. which hire personnel for management or execution positions, in productive or nonproductive sectors (hold and exert administrative, sanitary etc. positions. The social work relations stemming from the individual labor contract have a leading position from the other typical or atypical forms, judicial work relations in the European social law and the law of the EU member states.

  3. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Vahedpoor

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Previous cesarean scar pregnancy if not detected early can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the possibility of this pregnancy should be considered in pregnant women with uterine bleeding, abdominal pain as well as a history of cesarean section. It should be noted that after previous cesarean scar pregnancy was definitely diagnosed via ultrasound examination, treatment necessitates to be started utilizing methotrexate to ensure the future fertility of the mother.

  4. RITUALITY AS A WAY OF ACTUALIZING THE CATEGORY OF OTHERNESS WITHIN THE JUDICIAL DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomazova Viktoriya Vladimirovna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the rituality as one of the ways of actualizing the category of otherness within the judicial discourse, in general, and the court session, in particular. The author analyzes the relevant features of rituality in the judicial discourse, reveals the categorical connection between the rituality and otherness, the speech means which actualize their interaction. The author gives examples illustrating the actualization of the concept by means of rituality in the texts of cou...

  5. Delivery by Cesarean Section and Early Childhood Respiratory Symptoms and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C.; Håberg, Siri E.; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J.; Vangen, Siri; Nystad, Wenche

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that children delivered by cesarean section are at an increased risk of developing wheezing and asthma. This could be the result of an altered immune system development due to delayed gut colonization or of increased neonatal respiratory morbidity. The authors examined the associations between delivery by cesarean section and the development of wheezing, asthma, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in children up to 36 months of age among 37,171 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Generalized linear models were used in the multivariable analysis. Children delivered by cesarean section had an increased likelihood of current asthma at 36 months of age (relative risk = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.32), and the association was stronger among children of nonatopic mothers (relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.58). No increased risk of wheezing or recurrent lower respiratory tract infections was seen among children delivered by cesarean section. Findings were similar among children delivered by acute and elective cesarean section. In conclusion, children delivered by cesarean section may have an increased risk of current asthma at 36 months, but residual confounding cannot be excluded. In future prospective studies, investigators should reexamine this association in different age groups. PMID:22038100

  6. STRESS PROLONGS WOUND HEALING POST CESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decision for cesarean section may lead to the stress for women in delivery. Stress response requires longer recovery time in post cesarean section patients. Most of patients who experience stress before and after surgical is associated with wound healing delay. When this condition continues, the wound will have a higher risk of infection. The objective of this study was to analyze correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. Method: A cross sectional design was used in this study. The population were women with cesarean section, both elective or emergency, in Delivery Room I RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Samples were recruited by using purposive sampling, with 28 samples who met to the inclusion criterias. The observed variables were stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patient. Stress data were collected by interview and wound healing measurement done by observation on the 3rd day post cesarean section. Result: The result showed that women with stress experience wound healing delay. The characteristic of wound healing delay was prolonged on inflammation phase, nevertheless there was presence of granulation tissue. Spearman’s rho correlation showed that correlation value r=0.675 with p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that there was strong significant correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. It is important to give this information to the patients with cesarean section in order to prevent stress and delay in wound healing phase.

  7. Per operative findings in repeat cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Sinha

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Chances of developing adhesions increases with each cesarean section, which leads to increase in morbidity of women. Thus cases of previous cesarean section should be educated about routine antenatal care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1093-1096

  8. HISTORIOGRAPHY GENERAL, REGIONAL AND SPECIAL STUDIES OF JUDICIAL REFORM IN RUSSIA 1864

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - through analysis and synthesis of existing studies of the judiciary and judicial reforms.The purpose of this study - to explore the historiography of general, special and regional studies of judicial reform of1864 inRussia, to classify research on history and on the subject of the study.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the significant weight of the studies of the judicial reform of 1864 and classified by facilitating orientation interested in individuals in the study subjects.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the historiography of general, special and regional studies of the judicial reform of1864 inRussia, introducing a classification of such studies in chronological order (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern stages and subject matter (common - affecting all aspects of judicial reform, special - dedicated to a particular aspect (legal agencies, prosecutors, legal, etc. and regional - dedicated to judicial reform, or some aspects of it in some regions of Russia.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in industry disciplines "judiciary", "advocacy", "notary public", "public prosecutor's supervision" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland" ; in science - by picking up information about the historiography of the judicial reform, and in practice - said work can serve as a guide to research judicial reform, which may be useful to practitioners of judicial and investigative bodies, as well as - prosecutors

  9. Judicial Cooperation Based On a European Evidence Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Laura Pamfil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of a better judicial cooperation between European Union Member States is aconstant preoccupation of the Council of Europe, taking into consideration that the European Union has setitself the objective of maintaining and developing an area of freedom, security and justice. The achievementof this objective is only possible if among EU Member States there is a high level of confidence and a mutualrecognition of the decisions issued by the competent judicial authorities. The European arrest warrant was thefirst concrete measure in the field of criminal law implementing the principle of mutual recognition which theEuropean Council referred to as cornerstone of judicial cooperation. It was followed by other measuresdesigned to create the legal framework of the judicial cooperation; some of these measures concerns the fightagainst corruption, terrorism, cross-border criminality, racism and xenophobia while others are applicable inany case, such as the order of freezing the property and the evidence. On 18 December 2008, a newinstrument was created in order to improve the judicial cooperation between the Member States: the Europeanevidence warrant. Its purpose is to assure the obtaining of the objects, documents and data which may be usedas evidence in proceedings in criminal matters in issuing State, from another Member State. So, the aim ofthis Framework Decision is to complete the provision of the Decision on the execution of orders freezingproperty and evidence which is not talking about the transfer of the evidence after the freezing.Romania, like the other European Union Member States must transpose the provision of this Decision in thenational law by 19 January 2011. That is why we would like to analyse the procedures and the safeguardsprovided by this Decision and to show the way we see the European evidence warrant settled in ourlegislation.

  10. 17 CFR 200.64 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 200.64... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.64 Judicial review. The Congress has provided for review by the courts of the decisions and orders by this Commission. Members should...

  11. 31 CFR 29.406 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 29.406 Section 29.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Claims and Appeals Procedures § 29.406 Judicial...

  12. 49 CFR 397.225 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 397.225 Section 397.225... MATERIALS; DRIVING AND PARKING RULES Preemption Procedures § 397.225 Judicial review. A party to a proceeding under § 397.205(a), § 397.213(a), or § 397.223(a) may seek review by the appropriate...

  13. 31 CFR 29.515 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 29.515 Section 29.515 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Overpayments § 29.515 Judicial review. An individual whose request for reconsideration has been denied...

  14. 40 CFR 173.9 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 173.9 Section 173.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES GOVERNING... Judicial review. The State may appeal an order rescinding, in whole or in part, its primary...

  15. 13 CFR 117.18 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 117.18 Section 117.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY....18 Judicial review. (a) The complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion...

  16. 49 CFR 386.67 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 386.67 Section 386.67... Decision § 386.67 Judicial review. (a) Any party to the underlying proceeding, who, after an administrative... service of the Final Agency Order, petition for review of the order in the United States Court of...

  17. One Roof Judicial System in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sufiarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Judicial power as an independent and autonomous power must be free from any intervention and power, thus ensuring that judges possess independence and impartiality in handling cases. One of the measures for enhancing the independence and autonomy of the judiciary is by placing it under the one roof judicial arrangement developed by the Supreme Court, both from the judicial as well as the non-judicial technical aspects. Up to the present time, endeavors for bringing the four court jurisdictions under the one roof judicial arrangement developed by the Supreme Court have not been completely materialized, due to the existing dualism in judicial power at various courts. The objective of this research is to understand the developments in the endeavors towards bringing the Indonesian judicial system under the one roof judicial arrangement developed by the Supreme Court. The type of research applied is descriptive normative juridical research, namely legal research based on examining secondary data. As the research results indicate, the one roof system developed by the Supreme Court is already being implemented, with the exception of the Military Court and the Tax Court within the State Administration Court jurisdiction.

  18. 32 CFR 776.5 - Judicial conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial conduct. 776.5 Section 776.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT... § 776.5 Judicial conduct. To the extent that it does not conflict with statutes, regulations, or this...

  19. 6 CFR 7.13 - Judicial proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial proceedings. 7.13 Section 7.13 Domestic... Administration § 7.13 Judicial proceedings. (a) Any DHS official or organization receiving an order or subpoena... proceeding in any manner, the DHS General Counsel attorney, in conjunction with the Department of...

  20. 29 CFR 785.7 - Judicial construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial construction. 785.7 Section 785.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Hours Worked § 785.7 Judicial construction. The United States Supreme Court originally stated...

  1. Elective cesarean delivery for term breech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal complications of elective cesarean delivery for breech at term with those after vaginal or emergency cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 15441 primiparas who delivered singleton breech at term. Information...... was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Death Causes, and the Denmark Patient Register. RESULTS: Elective cesarean delivery was associated with lower rates of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (relative risk [RR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 0.92), hemorrhage...... and anemia (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84, 0.97), and operations for wound infection (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57, 0.83) than emergency cesarean delivery. There was a higher rate of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.11, 1.25) than for vaginal delivery. Thromboembolic disease occurred in 0.1% of women...

  2. Postmortem Cesarean Section: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Mete Ural

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available     Postmortem cesarean section is a rare event that usually ends up with the mortality of the fetus. A 32-year-old multigravid woman at 34th week of gestation was transferred to the emergency ward due to cardiopulmonary arrest after a traffic accident. A postmortem cesarean section was performed at the 20th minute of the maternal cardio pulmonary arrest and a live fetus was delivered initially. Because of the potential for the survival of a normal infant, obstetricians must consider a cesarean delivery in any pregnant woman that undergone a cardiopulmonary arrest in the third trimester. In this case report. Indications and prognostic factors for fetal well-being in case of a postmortem cesarean section are discussed.

  3. 28 CFR 33.2 - Statutory authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory authority. 33.2 Section 33.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice...-115, Pub. L. 96-157, and Pub. L. 98-473) (hereinafter referred to as the Justice Assistance Act...

  4. 28 CFR 549.80 - Authority to conduct autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to conduct autopsies. 549.80 Section 549.80 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Authority To Conduct Autopsies § 549.80 Authority to conduct autopsies. (a) The Warden...

  5. Cesarean section: science or ritual surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, M

    1991-01-01

    Cesarean section has proven to be a powerful weapon in saving fetal and maternal life when scientific criteria are used in a variety of emergency conditions. However, because of the high incidence of false positive readings with fetal heartrate monitoring, cesareans are often resorted to unnecessarily. In addition, there are other marginal, nonscientific human concerns such as patient and doctor preference, convenience, fear of litigation, wish to avoid pain of labor, and other unspoken and often unrecognized issues that can lead to cesarean section. When cesarean section is resorted to for the above reasons, it becomes ritual surgery. It is time to recognize two sets of criteria for cesarean sections: first, scientific criteria that would save the life of the mother or fetus, or unequivocally guarantee better fetal outcome; and second, nonscientific criteria based on personal preference of doctors and patients. If doctors were candid about these two sets of criteria, patients would not be pressured into cesareans by minor, often transient and misleading, abnormalities on fetal monitors. They would not have to experience ritual surgery unless it was clearly their choice to do so.

  6. [Characteristic features of systemic hemodynamics during cesarean section under general anesthesia with ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, V N

    1983-02-01

    On the basis of a comparative investigation of the central hemodynamics by the method of integrative rheography of the body in two groups of women during the operation of cesarean section under general anesthesia with ether or ketamin the author makes a conclusion that ketamin is a good drug for anesthesia in urgent surgical situations.

  7. Mixed Blessing of Judicial Specialisation: the Devil is in the Detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Uzelac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses from a critical perspective the issue of judicial specialisation. While accepting the assessment that judicial specialisation is a growing trend in a number of contemporary states, the author sets forth different perspectives and viewpoints on judicial specialisation which clearly show that the excessive enthusiasm should be subdued and that any attempt to specialise judges, court structures and procedures should be carefully balanced against the possible negative impact specialisation could have, both at the general level, and at the level of concrete gains related to administration of justice. The starting point of the analysis is the presentation of multiple forms that judicial specialisation can have. Aspects that are distinguished are judicial specialisation in narrow sense (jurisdictional specialisation and broader sense (internal, personal and procedural specialisation. Based on the data of the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ, it is concluded that there is no coherent or consistent approach to judicial and jurisdictional specialisation in Europe, both in respect to the level of specialisation, and in respect to the forms of specialisation. A discussion of the Opinion no. 15 of the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE shows that the viewpoint of judges and their professional organisations is also sceptical on certain aspects of specialisation, and that specialisation is considered to be potentially harmful for the unity of judicial profession and its main professional and ethical foundations. From the perspective of judicial administration, as demonstrated on the examples of international expert assistance to judiciaries of the Netherlands and Croatia, judicial specialisation is attractive, but often for wrong reasons. There is so far little comparative research on judicial specialisation, and the methodology of assessing its concrete benefits and detriments is not developed. Most

  8. Disciplinary discourses: rates of cesarean section explained by medicine, midwifery, and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy Su May; Kirkman, Maggie

    2008-05-01

    In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women recklessly choose unnecessary cesareans against medical advice. Midwifery discourses portrayed medicine as paternalistic toward both women and midwifery, and feminist discourses situated birth and women's bodies in the context of a patriarchally structured society. The findings illustrate the complex ways in which this intervention in birth is discursively constructed, and demonstrate its significance as a site of disciplinary conflict.

  9. Judicial fiats and contemporary enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Naveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematic processes in a case that has had few parallels in Indian judicial history. The apex court in T. N. Godavarman took upon the responsibility of deciding how forest resources in the country should be accessed and who is (or is not to have such access. Purportedly done to protect the environment, through the ′clarification and fine-tuning′ of national forest-laws, the case has seriously affected the life, livelihood, and habitat of millions of marginal groups. Recent trends demonstrate the wider trend of constitutional courts assuming the roles of adjudication, administration and legislation, all rolled into one, whereby they become problematic sites for creating a hierarchy of conflicting public interests, which claim constitutional validity from different vantage points. Thus, constitutional values of ′protection of environment′ and ′justice - social, political and economic′ ′are pitted against each other′ where unelected courts take it upon themselves to define the legitimate precincts of the theoretical discourse of sustainable use / development; and importantly also implement it into ′everyday′ ′reality, in the way it feels fit′. The article seeks to make sense of this contemporary process of forest governance.

  10. [Pregnancy and delivery in patients with a personal history of cesarean section in Dakar: epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulimaya-Gombet, Cyr Espérance; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Diallo, Moussa; Dia, Anna; Sène, Codou; Moreau, Jean Charles; Diouf, Alassane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine hospitalization rate for vaginal birth after cesarean section in Pikine, to evaluate the quality of the management of pregnant women with previous cesarean section and to determine prognostic factors of the outcome of a trial of scar. We conducted a retrospective study based on medical records and operational protocols of patients who underwent vaginal birth after cesarean section over the period 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2011. We analyzed socio-demographic data, pregnancy follow-up, therapeutic modalities and prognosis. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and SPSS software 17.0. The frequency of vaginal births after cesarean section was 9.6%. The average age of our patients was 29.4 years. Primiparous women accounted for 54%. Short spacing interval between births was found in 52.6% of cases. Based on the number of cesarean sections, the breakdown was as follows: patients with a history of one previous cesarean section (79.8%), patients with a history of two previous caesarean sections (17.9%) and patients with a history of three previous caesarean sections (2.3%). The number of antenatal consultations performed was greater than or equal to 3 in 79.8% of cases. Patients undergoing evacuation accounted for 54.2% and they were already in labor at the time of admission in 81.7% of cases. Trial of scar was authorized in 177 patients (34.3%) and, at the end of this test, 147 patients (83%) had vaginal birth, of whom 21.7% by vacuum extraction. Cesarean section was performed in 71.4% of cases with 245 emergency cesarean sections and 93 scheduled cesarean sections. A history of vaginal birth was a determining factor in normal delivery (p = 0.0001). There was also a significant relationship between mode of admission and decision to perform a cesarean section (p = 0.0001). Maternal mortality was 0.4%. Perinatal mortality rate was 28.2‰ of live births. We are witnessing a dramatic increase of

  11. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  12. 29 CFR 1603.306 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPT STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Appeals § 1603.306 Judicial review. Any party to...

  13. Evaluating Judicial Performance Evaluation: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe McIntyre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the performance evaluation of judges has become a ubiquitous aspect of modern judicial administration, evaluation mechanisms of are too often utilised uncritically, without reflection on why we evaluate judges, and how ‘measurement’ furthers these objectives. This article provides a conceptual analysis of the role and purpose of performance evaluation, conceiving it as a limited tool of judicial accountability, which itself exists only to promote excellent judging. As such, the efficacy of evaluation mechanisms must always be assessed by reference to their impact on these overarching accountability objectives. The article explores the value of this conception approach by briefly examining three uses of performance evaluation: 1 judicial promotions; 2 judicial retention elections; and 3 judicial professional development. In doing so it illustrates how a clear conceptual approach invites a more nuanced and critical examination of the limitations and benefits of judicial performance evaluation programs. Mientras que la evaluación del rendimiento de los jueces se ha convertido en un aspecto omnipresente de la administración judicial moderna, los mecanismos de evaluación se utilizan con demasiada frecuencia de manera acrítica, sin reflexionar sobre las razones por las que evaluamos a los jueces, y cómo se alcanzan los objetivos buscados mediante la 'medición'. Este artículo ofrece un análisis conceptual de la función y el propósito de la evaluación del rendimiento, concibiéndola como una herramienta limitada de la responsabilidad judicial, que a su vez sólo existe para promover la excelencia judicial. Como tal, la eficacia de los mecanismos de evaluación siempre se debe comprobar en función de su impacto en los objetivos de responsabilidad globales. El artículo explora el valor de este enfoque examinando brevemente tres usos de la evaluación de rendimiento: 1 promociones judiciales; 2 elecciones para la reelección de

  14. Italian Microhistory, anthropology and judicial archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Hernández Ciro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the interceptions between the Italian microhistory and anthropology, this article aims to provide a central debate of contemporary historiography account of popular culture and subaltern classes from the intensive and exhaustive judicial proceedings. To do this, some of the impacts of anthropology will be addressed in the historical work, as the appearance and questioning notion of popular culture, the ethnographic value of court files and finally, some possibilities in the case of Judicial Historical Archive of Medellin.

  15. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  16. Feasibility of abdominoplasty with Cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabet WN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wael Naeem Thabet1, Ahmad Samir Hossny1, Nadine Alaa Sherif21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Abdominoplasty is an esthetic surgical procedure that restores abdominal contouring. Repeated pregnancies combined with advancing maternal age usually lead to lower abdominal skin redundancy and excess fat accumulation. Delivery via Cesarean section adds weakness to the lower abdominal wall muscles and yields a lower transverse Cesarean scar. Some patients request whether abdominoplasty can be performed with Cesarean section in the same setting, to avoid a future surgery. This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of combined abdominoplasty with Cesarean section. The study included 50 pregnant women from September 2009 to June 2010 with an average follow-up period of 9 months. Nine patients (18% developed wound infection; three of them (6% developed wound dehiscence. Six patients (12% developed lower abdominal skin necrosis; three of them (6% were treated conservatively and healed by secondary intention, while surgical debridement and secondary sutures were needed in the other three patients (6%. Residual abdominal skin redundancy in nine patients (18%, outward bulging of the abdomen and lack of waist definition in 16 patients (32%, and outward bulging of the umbilicus in twelve patients (24% were the reported unesthetic results. The results were compared with results of 80 abdominoplasties in nonpregnant women.Keywords: abdominoplasty, Cesarean section, pregnancy

  17. Varying gestational age patterns in cesarean delivery: An international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnord, M.; Blondel, B.; Drewniak, N.; Klungsøyr, K.; Bolumar, F.; Mohangoo, A.; Gissler, M.; Szamotulska, K.; Lack, N.; Nijhuis, J.; Velebil, P.; Sakkeus, L.; Chalmers, J.; Zeitlin, J.; Haidinger, G.; XMartens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Wenzlaff, P.; Bonham, S.; Jaselioniene, J.; Gatt, M.; Klungsøyr, K.; Barros, H.; Novak, Z.; Gottvall, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While international variations in overall cesarean delivery rates are well documented, less information is available for clinical sub-groups. Cesarean data presented by subgroups can be used to evaluate uptake of cesarean reduction policies or to monitor delivery practices for high and

  18. Youssef’s Syndrome following Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Youssef’s syndrome is characterized by cyclic hematuria (menouria, absence of vaginal bleeding (amenorrhea, and urinary incontinence due to vesicouterine fistula (VUF, the least common of the urogynecological fistulas. Youssef’s syndrome has a variable clinical presentation. A vesicouterine fistula is an abnormal pathway between the bladder and the uterus. The most common cause is lower segment Cesarean section. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in some cases, but surgery is the definitive treatment. Vesicouterine fistula should be suspected in cases presenting with urinary incontinence even years after Cesarean section. Diagnostic tests as well as necessary appropriate surgery should be performed on cases with suspected vesicouterine fistula. We present a 40-year-old multiparous woman with vesicouterine fistula after primary Cesarean section; she presented with urinary incontinence, hematuria, and amenorrhea 1 year after the birth. Here, we discuss our case with the help of previously published studies found in the literature.

  19. Cesarean Section and Chronic Immune Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated...... with the development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We......, or celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: Cesarean delivery exemplifies a shared environmental risk factor in early life associating with several chronic immune diseases. Understanding commonalities in the underlying mechanisms behind chronic diseases may give novel insight into their origin and allow prevention....

  20. 28 CFR 0.104 - Redelegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redelegation of authority. 0.104 Section 0.104 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.104 Redelegation of authority. The Administrator of the Drug...

  1. 28 CFR 0.79 - Redelegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redelegation of authority. 0.79 Section 0.79 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Justice Management Division § 0.79 Redelegation of authority. The Assistant Attorney General for Administration...

  2. 28 CFR 901.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and authority. 901.1 Section 901.1 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL FINGERPRINT SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS § 901.1 Purpose and authority. The Compact Council is established pursuant to...

  3. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L; Schjørring, Susanne; Krogfelt, Karen A; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Delivery by means of cesarean section has been associated with increased risk of childhood immune-mediated diseases, suggesting a role of early bacterial colonization patterns for immune maturation. We sought to describe the influence of delivery method on gut and airway colonization patterns in the first year of life in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. Seven hundred children from the COPSAC2010 birth cohort participated in this analysis. Fecal samples were collected at age 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, and hypopharyngeal aspirates were collected at age 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months and cultured for bacteria. Detailed information on delivery method, intrapartum antibiotics, and lifestyle factors was obtained by personal interviews. Seventy-eight percent of the children were born by means of natural delivery, 12% by means of emergency cesarean section, and 9% by means of elective cesarean section. Birth by means of cesarean section was significantly associated with colonization of the intestinal tract by Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium species, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus at age 1 week, whereas colonization by Escherichia coli was associated with natural birth. At age 1 month, these differences were less prominent, and at age 1 year, they were not apparent, which was confirmed by means of multivariate data-driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate that microbial derangements, as indicated in our study, can demonstrate a possible link between delivery by means of cesarean section and immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  4. The Role of Xylitol Gum Chewing in Restoring Postoperative Bowel Activity After Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Cheng, Po-Jen; Lin, Jr-Rung

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal recovery after cesarean section. Women who underwent cesarean section (N = 120) were randomly allocated into Group A (xylitol gum), Group B (nonxylitol gum), or the control group (no chewing gum). Every 2 hr post-cesarean section and until first flatus, Groups A and B received two pellets of chewing gum and were asked to chew for 15 min. The times to first bowel sounds, first flatus, and first defecation were then compared among the three groups. Group A had the shortest mean time to first bowel sounds (6.9 ± 1.7 hr), followed by Group B (8 ± 1.6 hr) and the control group (12.8 ± 2.5 hr; one-way analysis of variance, p cesarean section, chewing gum increased participants' return of bowel activity, as measured by the appearance of bowel sounds and the passage of flatus. In this context, xylitol-containing gum may be superior to xylitol-free gum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The economics of elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, John A F

    2008-09-01

    Four million deliveries occur annually in the United States, and obstetric care has traditionally constituted a substantial portion of medical costs for young women, as well as being a major source of uncompensated care. The economic implications of a large shift in the mode of delivery are potentially important. This article reviews the relevant economic issues surrounding elective cesarean section and cesarean section at maternal request, summarizes the methodological quality and results of current literature on the topic, and presents recommendations for further study.

  6. Cesarean scar pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıddık Evsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy implantation to the cesarean scar could be the life threatening, although it is a rare event, its ratio increased along with the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Early diagnosis and treatment may be lifesaving with preserving fertility in these patients. In transvaginal ultrasonography; presence of an empty uterine and cervical cavity, lack of continuity of myometrial setting at the anterior isthmic region and pregnancy implantation to this region should suggest the diagnosis. In this article, we aimed to present a patient with scar ectopic pregnancy with the review of the literature.

  7. Is judicial integrity a norm? An inquiry into the concept of judicial integrity in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeharno, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Much effort is being made to safeguard judicial integrity – but what is it? In this article, two discourses on judicial integrity will be outlined: one in which judicial integrity is said to be at stake and one in which the emphasis lies on safeguarding judicial integrity. These discourses are by no

  8. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  9. Complications and outcomes of repeat cesarean section in adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanoglu, Mustafa; Karateke, Atilla; Un, Burak; Akgor, Utku; Baloğlu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the effect of repeat cesarean sections in adolescent pregnancies on the morbidity, obstetric and perinatal results. We reviewed the patient file and hospital records of patients who underwent at least one cesarean section among adolescent age group pregnant women who gave birth at our clinic between January 2010 and May 2013. The patients were divided into two groups as the patients who underwent the second cesarean section (116 patients) and those who underwent the third cesarean section (36 patients). The demographic data, maternal data and obstetric and perinatal results of the patients were evaluated. A significant difference was present between the patients in the evaluation of the total number of examinations during pregnancy (P = 0.001), total maternal weight gain during pregnancy (P = 0.006), and the first examination gestational age (P = 0.006) and all values were less favorable in the third cesarean group. The gestational week at birth (P cesarean section were statistically significantly lower than the second cesarean section. The third cesarean cesarean was found to cause a significant risk increase for placenta accreta risk in adolescent pregnancies (P = 0.042). The increasing number of cesarean sections in the adolescent group is seen to be a significant risk factor for low gestational week of birth, low birth weight and related morbidities. The most important reason for the increased morbidity with increasing cesarean sections in the adolescent age has been defined as placenta accreta.

  10. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-08-01

    An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.

  11. [Vaginal birth after cesarean section in light of international opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Gábor; Molnár, András

    2017-07-01

    The tendency of increasing cesarean section rate has drawn worldwide attention. The vaginal birth after cesarean section is a useful method to decrease cesarean section rate at defined cases. Retrospective overview of factors resulting successful vaginal birth, labor/induction's condition, criterias, short and long term benefits and consequences. Overview recommendations of international guidelines and publications' results concerned vaginal birth after cesarean section in "PubMed", "MEDLINE", "Cochrane" databases from 1996 to 2016. Reviewing results of recommendations and publications we can declare that statements are inconsistent, however the option of vaginal birth after cesarean section is appropriate for decrease complications and trend of increasing cesarean section rate. It would be important in our country to define a uniform recommendation regarding vaginal birth after cesarean section, with supporting evidence in obstetrical and gynecological practice. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(30): 1168-1174.

  12. Procedural Justice Elements of Judicial Legitimacy and their Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Persak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low trust in courts has been recorded in many EU countries. According to the procedural justice paradigm, this phenomenon has negative repercussions for judicial legitimacy, since people who (or when they distrust an authority tend also not to perceive this authority as legitimate (which, in turn, has consequences for their compliance and cooperation with this authority and its decisions. Legitimacy of judiciary, objectively conceived, has several elements, some of which are connected to procedural justice concerns. This article focuses on the latter. In the second part, moreover, the article addresses some of the possible challenges to the judicial procedural justice, drawing on sociological and socio-legal observations regarding legal institutions in the late modern world, where, for example, efficiency-oriented goals mix with justice- and other public good-oriented ones, often creating internal pressures that may impact on the legitimacy of the institution in question. Numerosos países de la UE han registrado una baja confianza en los tribunales. Según el paradigma de la justicia procesal, este fenómeno tiene repercusiones negativas para la legitimidad judicial, ya que las personas que (o cuando desconfían de una autoridad, también tienden a no percibir esta autoridad como legítima (lo que, a su vez, tiene consecuencias para su conformidad y cooperación con esta autoridad y sus decisiones. La legitimidad del poder judicial, concebida de forma objetiva, tiene diversos elementos, algunos de los cuales están relacionados con las preocupaciones de la justicia procesual. Este artículo se centra en estos elementos. En la segunda parte, además, el artículo aborda algunos de los posibles desafíos de la justicia de procesal, basándose en observaciones sociológicas y sociojurídicas relacionadas con las instituciones legales en el mundo moderno reciente, donde, por ejemplo, los objetivos orientados a la eficiencia se mezclan con objetivos

  13. The Political Context of Judicial Review in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Edward Siregar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia Constitutional Court will celebrate 12th birthday this August 2015, and it cannot be denied that the Court play significant role in securing democracy in Indonesia. In exercising their authorities, including the election result dispute and judicial review, the Court continue to affirm institutional judicial legitimacy and pursue their role to guard 1945 Constitution and continue to do so. The first Chief Justice Jimly showed how within five years of the Court’s creation, he could strategically maximise its momentum and build up the Court as a respectful institution. The Chief Justice Mahfud MD was then elected to reduce the judicial activism started by Jimly’s bench. However, against promises and expectations, Mahfud MD brought the Court to a level far beyond the imagination of the Constitution drafters. Parliament and President tried to limit Court’s authority, not ones, and the Court able to overcome those constrain. Current various available studies observed only how the Court issued their decision and solely focus to the impact of the decision. Scholars slightly ignore that study about the Court, by reducing other constitutional actor in Indonesia, produce study about the Court itself isn’t complete. In fact, political environment in which the Court operated at that time is one of utmost importance the strengthen of the Court institutional legitimacy. This paper is trying to discover the rise of the Indonesia Constitutional Court, not from what the Court did, but from political environment outside the court. Political parties realize that the Court is the only institution that act as political dispute resolution among them. Political parties maturity and political constraint are the key factor that support the development of the Court’s institutional power.

  14. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, the...delivery and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  15. Cesarean scar pregnancy:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜平; 汪溦; 唐小丽; 王瑛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ranking among the rare forms of ectopic pregnancy,Cesarean scar pregnancy is a dangerous condition that can potentially lead to uterine rupture and severe hemorrhaging, or even a secondary abdominal pregnancy.Its early diagnosis can be challenging, and the optimal treatment has not been determined. This case report will be followed by a discussion of treatment options.

  16. Ga-67 uptake post cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, O.L.; Maisano, E.R.

    1984-02-01

    Gallium-67 distribution in normal patients is well known; it is also known that the concentration in some tissues may vary according to an individual physiologic stimulus. In this report, the case of a young woman is presented who was studied 15 days after a cesarean section and showed physiologic and pathologic Ga-67 accumulation.

  17. Educational strategies in performing cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine; Grønbeck, Lene; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Cesarean section is a common operation and one of the first surgeries performed independently by trainees/residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Determination of trainees' technical skills level is dependent upon subjective faculty assessment. Based on three studies on learning curves in cesarea...... Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology....

  18. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L

    2016-01-01

    -driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. CONCLUSION: Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate...

  19. Laparoscopic Resection of Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Alex; Parghi, Sneha

    To demonstrate a technique for the laparoscopic surgical management of cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy. Step-by-step presentation of the procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). Cesarean section scar ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with an incidence ranging from 1:1800 to 1:2216. Over the last decade, the incidence seems to be on the rise with increasing rates of cesarean deliveries and early use of Doppler ultrasound. These pregnancies can lead to life-threatening hemorrhage, uterine rupture, and hysterectomy if not managed promptly. Local or systemic methotrexate therapy has been used successfully but can result in prolonged hospitalization, requires long-term follow-up, and in some cases treatment can fail. In the hands of a trained operator, laparoscopic resection can be performed to manage this type of pregnancy. Consent was obtained from the patient, and exemption was granted from the local Internal Review Board (The Womens' Hospital, Parkville). In this video we describe our technique for laparoscopic management of a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. We present the case of a 34-year-old G4P2T1 with the finding of a live 8-week pregnancy embedded in the cesarean section scar. The patient had undergone 2 previous uncomplicated cesarean sections at term. On presentation her β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level was 52 405 IU/L. She was initially managed with an intragestational sac injection of potassium chloride and methotrexate, followed by 4 doses of intramuscular methotrexate. Despite these conservative measures, the level of β-hCG did not adequately fall and an ultrasound showed a persistent 4-cm mass. A decision was made to proceed with surgical treatment in the form of a laparoscopic resection of the ectopic pregnancy. The surgery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged home within 24 hours of her procedure. Her serial β-hCG levels were followed until complete resolution

  20. A Speech Act Analysis of Judicial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    BERNAL, Carlos L.

    2007-01-01

    According to the theory of speech acts, speech is a kind of action. He, who says something, does something. Certainly, when a judge or a court makes a decision, he or it says something. He performs some (locutionary) acts like uttering or writing some sentences. However, there is something further he does, namely, by uttering or writing some sentences in the appropriate context, he makes a judicial decision. In a judicial decision the judge says something about the law, the facts of the case,...

  1. Changes in uterine flexion caused by cesarean section: correlation between post-flexion and deficient cesarean section scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryo, Eiji; Sakurai, Rina; Kamata, Hideo; Seto, Michiharu; Morita, Masayoshi; Ayabe, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    To investigate changes in uterine flexion after cesarean delivery in comparison with vaginal delivery, and their relationship with the presence of deficient cesarean section scars. In 147 women who had a vaginal delivery and 101 women who had a cesarean delivery, transvaginal ultrasonographic photographs of the uterus were obtained at the first trimester of pregnancy and at 1 month postpartum, and they were reviewed to determine changes in uterine flexion. The presence of a deficient cesarean section scar was also reviewed in women with a cesarean section. Changes in uterine flexion were observed more frequently among the woman with a cesarean delivery than in those with a vaginal delivery. The incidence of post-flexed uterus during puerperium tended to increase depending on the number of cesarean sections the woman had undergone. In the women with a cesarean section, changes in uterine flexion were more frequently observed in the women with a deficient cesarean section scar than in those without one. Changes in uterine flexion after birth occurred more frequently in the women who had a cesarean delivery than in those who had a vaginal delivery, especially in the presence of a deficient cesarean section scar.

  2. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CESAREAN SCAR PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-zhou Jiao; Jun Zhao; Xi-run Wan; Xin-yan Liu; Feng-zhi Feng; Tong Ren; Yang Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the early diagnosis and treatment of cesarean sear pregnancy (CSP).Methods Clinical data of 28 patients with CSP in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1994 to April 2007, including age, interval from the last cesarean delivery to diagnosis, clinical presentation, location of the le-sion, process of diagnosis and treatment, outcome, and follow-up, were retrospectively analyzed.Results CSP constituted 1.05% of all ectopic pregnancies, and the ratio of CSP to pregnancy was 1:1 221. Themean age of the group was 31.4 years. Twenty-six women had only one prior cesarean delivery. The interval from the last cesarean delivery to diagnosis ranged from 4 months to 15 years. The most common presenting symptoms of CSP were amenorrhoea and vaginal bleeding. Seventeen cases were misdiagnosed as early intrauterine pregnancies and 2 weremisdiagnosed as gestational trophoblastic tumor. The other 9 were diagnosed definitely before treatment. The diagnosis was made based on cesarean delivery history, gynecologic examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The treatment of CSP included systemic or local methotrexate administration, conservative surgery, and hyster-ectomy. The conservative treatment was successful in 24 eases. All of the 28 women were cured through individual ther-apies.Conclusions CSP is rare and usually misdiagnosed as other diseases. Ultrasound is valuable for diagnosing CSP,and MRI can be used as an adjunct to ultrasound scan. Early diagnosis offers the options of conservative treatment and greatly improves the outcome of patients. Individual therapy is strongly recommended.

  3. Judicial Training and Research for Child Custody Litigation. Report To Accompany H.R. 1253. Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2d Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    The purpose of House Resolution (HR) 1253, an amendment to the State Justice Institute (SJI) Act of 1984, is to authorize the SJI to carry out research on state judicial decisions and develop judicial training curricula related to child custody litigation involving domestic violence, and to disseminate the results of this research. The report…

  4. [The social and medicolegal aspects of maternal request or non-medically indicated cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Menachem; Shrem, David; Solt, Ido

    2013-07-01

    Patient choice cesarean or cesarean by maternal request/ demand is a controversial issue. The medical literature contains evidence based data on the medical aspects of patient choice cesarean, risks and benefits to the mother and her newborn. Fewer studies focused on the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean. This opinion paper discusses the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean.

  5. Contributing Indications to the Rising Cesarean Delivery Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, Emma L.; LUNDSBERG, Lisbet; BELANGER, Kathleen; PETTKER, Christian M.; FUNAI, Edmund F.; ILLUZZI, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine physician-documented indications for cesarean delivery in order to investigate the specific indications contributing to this increase. METHODS We analyzed rates of primary and repeat cesarean delivery, including indications for the procedure, among 32,443 live births at a major academic hospital between 2003–2009. Time trends for each indication were modeled to estimate the absolute and cumulative annualized relative risk of cesarean by indication over time and the relative contribution of each indication to the overall increase in primary cesarean delivery rate. RESULTS The cesarean delivery rate increased from 26% to 36.5% between 2003 and 2009; 50.0% of the increase was attributable to an increase in primary cesarean delivery. Among the documented indications, nonreassuring fetal status, arrest of dilation, multiple gestation, pre-eclampsia, suspected macrosomia, and maternal request increased over time, while arrest of descent, malpresentation, maternal-fetal indications, and other obstetric indications (eg, cord prolapse, placenta previa) did not increase. The relative contributions of each indication to the total increase in primary cesarean rate were: Non-reassuring fetal status (32%), labor arrest disorders (18%), multiple gestation (16%), suspected macrosomia (10%), pre-eclampsia (10%), maternal request (8%), maternal-fetal conditions (5%), and other obstetric conditions (1%). CONCLUSION Primary cesarean births accounted for 50% of the increasing cesarean rate. Among primary cesareans, more subjective indications (nonreassuring fetal status and arrest of dilation) contributed larger proportions than more objective indications (malpresentation, maternal-fetal, and obstetric conditions). PMID:21646928

  6. 北洋初期司法界与湖北军政当局的矛盾与抗争--以刘豫瑶案为例%Rivalries between the Judicial Circle and the Military and Political Authorities in Hubei Province During the earlier period of Northern Warlords Government---Focus on the Lawsuit of Liu Yuyao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海荣

    2016-01-01

    The principle of judicial independence has been introduced into China since the Judicial Reform in late Qing Dynasty. During the early Northern Warlords Government period, although the political and economic situation was always disordered, the principle of judicial independence was still respected in appearance in a certain time. In winter of 1919, Wang Zhan⁃yuan, together with He Pei⁃rong, unexpectedly appointed Cheng Ding⁃yuan as the deputy Chief Justice of the Higher Court in Hubei province. Their excuse was Liu Yu⁃yao, the former Chief Justice, had bent law for selfish ends. Meanwhile, they also unlawfully detained the judge Chen Chang⁃cu in order to get the official seal. Such behaviors made a bad start for the highest provincial military officer interfering with judicial administration by force. Because the nature of this case was extremely bad, the Central Department of Justice, along with the Higher Court in Hubei province, fought back strictly. Both sides argued repeatedly with the judicial administration, as well as other issues. Finally the Central Government had to intervene and reaffirmed the principle of judicial independence. By showing the various cognitive conflicts and behavior patterns of all parties in this case, this paper examines multiple spectrums of relations between military and politics in the Northern Warlord period.%自清末实施司法改革以来,司法独立原则被正式引入中国。北洋政府初期,虽然政局扰攘不安、社会经济紊乱,但在一定时期内司法独立原则仍保有形式上的尊崇。而1919年冬,湖北督军王占元、省长何佩瑢藉口本省高等审判厅厅长刘豫瑶徇私枉法,竟擅自委任督军署军法课长程定远暂代厅长,并派兵拘押原代理厅长陈长簇,劫夺厅印,开民国以来地方最高军政长官联手干涉司法行政的嚆矢。由于该案性质极其恶劣,随即招致中央司法部与湖北高等审判厅的群体反击

  7. Constitutional and Judicial Language Protection in Multilingual States: A Brief Overview of South Africa and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bambust (Isabelle); A. Kruger (Albert); T. Kruger (Thalia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The purpose of this contribution is to provide a very modest comparison of judicial language protection in South Africa and in Belgium. First of all, the authors sketch briefly the historical context and the constitutional status of languages in both countries. It is di

  8. RITUALITY AS A WAY OF ACTUALIZING THE CATEGORY OF OTHERNESS WITHIN THE JUDICIAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomazova Viktoriya Vladimirovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rituality as one of the ways of actualizing the category of otherness within the judicial discourse, in general, and the court session, in particular. The author analyzes the relevant features of rituality in the judicial discourse, reveals the categorical connection between the rituality and otherness, the speech means which actualize their interaction. The author gives examples illustrating the actualization of the concept by means of rituality in the texts of court sessions' records. In addition, the author identifies the main communicative strategies and tactics used by the participants of judicial discourse. They serve as a means of expressing the analyzed categories. It is shown that a convict often uses the communicative strategy of self-defense, a defender and/or lawyer – the communicative strategy of defense or psychological impact, the prosecutor often appeals to the strategy of accusation and psychological impact. The author makes conclusion that the ritual character of judicial communication as a whole contributes to the distinction of discourse participants according to the features of "friend" and "enemy" thus actualizing the category of otherness.

  9. 5 CFR 1201.133 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1201.133 Section 1201... review. An employee, former employee, or applicant for employment who is adversely affected by a final... review of the decision in the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. 5 U.S.C....

  10. PROCEDURAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE INVESTIGATOR AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsukhov A. Z.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Judicial review is a necessary and sufficient guarantee of the rights and legitimate interests of participants in criminal proceedings. The only judicial control over the investigation of crimes will expand unreasonably narrowed the boundaries of procedural autonomy and independence of the investigator, will enhance the efficiency, agility pre-trial proceedings. These and other problems were considered by the author from the perspective of theory and practice, as well as in the aggregate of rules of the code of criminal procedure regulating the activities of the investigator

  11. RESTRICTION OF RIGHTS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN RUSSIA AS A SUBJECT OF JUDICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vinogradova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of the regulation of the Russian state’s control over the activities of non-governmental organizations and the limits to that control. Important changes made in 2014–2016 in the regulation of the organization and activity of judicial power show that the tasks of transformation of the judicial power structure, establishment of effective control mechanisms and strengthening of the requirements on substantiation of court judgments have become more topical. Addressing this issue and taking it as the subject of study are motivated by the small number of works dealing with this issue. The task of enhancing the effectiveness of the exercise of their powers by public authorities necessitates consideration of special features of judicial control over disputes related to restriction of rights. The adoption of the Administrative Procedure Code of the Russian Federation and the statutory formalization of special features of judicial control with respect to certain non-commercial organizations imply changes in judicial practice related to challenging the decisions made by public authorities. In addition to special procedural features such changes also facilitate the spread in law enforcement practice of legal arrangements like the ‘proportionality test’ and determining the balance between competing constitutional values and conditions of public order observance. The analysis carried out by the author reveals tendencies of improvement in legislative action and allows identification of future lines of improvement in judicial practice.

  12. JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF THE VOLOGDA PROVINCE DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Evgenievich Strakhov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, a crucial role is played by the judiciary. In the period lasting judicial reform, it is important to explore this institution not only at the present stage, but also to trace the history of its development, including - at a landmark in the history of Russian stage of the First World War.The purpose of this study - to investigate the status and the legal regulation of the judicial system, as well as - the status of the judicial institutions of theVologdaprovince during the First World War.Scientific, theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the study of this topic will summarize the knowledge of the judicial system of theVologdaprovince, to understand the structure of the judiciary, the legal regulation of their status and activities in the First World War.The author uses historical, comparative, hermeneutical, mathematical methods, as well as general methods of scientific research.The author analyzes the status and regulation of the judicial system, as well as - the status of the judicial institutions of the Vologda province during the First World War, concluding that the judicial institutions of the Vologda province in the period under review was based on the establishment of institutions of court, 1864, as supplemented by the Law of the transformation local court in 1912, according to which the competence of Congress restored magistrates and parish court becomes part of the general judicial system.The results of this study are scientific and practical value, because they can be useful for teaching students - in the industrial discipline "judiciary" and general theoretical "History of State and Law," "History of the fatherland"; in science - by picking up information about the judicial system of the Vologda province, and in practice - said the work can be useful to practitioners of the judiciary, in order to understand the place of the judiciary in the system of state power during the First

  13. Cesarean section in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margo S; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section is an essential maternal healthcare service. Its role in labor and delivery care in low- and middle-income countries is complex; in many low-resource settings it is underutilized in the most needy of populations and overused by the less needy, without clear methods to ensure that universal access is available. Additionally, even if universal access were available, it is not evident that these countries would have the capacity or the finances to appropriate meet demand for the procedure, or that patients would want to utilize the care. This review summarizes the literature and illustrates the complicated relationship that cesarean section, which is rapidly on the rise around the world, has with individuals, communities, and nations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Cesarean scar pregnancy: diagnosis, management, and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Fatma; Uysal, Ahmet; Adam, Gürhan

    2013-07-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is a very rare form of pregnancy and a life-threatening situation. It has become an important and serious problem over the last 10 years, as a result of the worldwide increase in cesarean births. In this retrospective series, the diagnosis of cesarean scar pregnancy, management, treatment methods, risk factors, and possibility of subsequent normal pregnancy are discussed, and case descriptions are presented.

  15. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie;

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth....

  16. Economic Evaluation of Adjunctive Azithromycin Prophylaxis for Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lorie M; Kilgore, Meredith; Szychowski, Jeff M; Andrews, William W; Tita, Alan T N

    2017-08-01

    To compare the costs associated with adjunctive azithromycin compared with standard cefazolin antibiotic prophylaxis alone for unscheduled and scheduled cesarean deliveries. A decision analytic model was created to compare cefazolin alone with azithromycin plus cefazolin. Published incidences of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were used to estimate the baseline incidence of surgical site infection in scheduled and unscheduled cesarean delivery using standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The effectiveness of adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis was obtained from published randomized controlled trials for unscheduled cesarean deliveries. No randomized study of its use in scheduled procedures has been completed. Cost estimates were obtained from published literature, hospital estimates, and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and considered costs of azithromycin and surgical site infections. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying parameters in the model based on observed distributions for probabilities and costs. The outcome was cost per cesarean delivery from a health system perspective. For unscheduled cesarean deliveries, cefazolin prophylaxis alone would cost $695 compared with $335 for adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis, resulting in a savings of $360 (95% CI $155-451) per cesarean delivery. In scheduled cesarean deliveries, cefazolin prophylaxis alone would cost $254 compared with $111 for adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis, resulting in a savings of $143 (95% CI 98-157) per cesarean delivery, if proven effective. These findings were robust to a multitude of inputs; as long as adjunctive azithromycin prevented as few as seven additional surgical site infections per 1,000 unscheduled cesarean deliveries and nine additional surgical site infections per 10,000 scheduled cesarean deliveries, adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis was cost-saving. Adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis is a cost-saving strategy in both unscheduled

  17. Variation in Hospital Intrapartum Practices and Association With Cesarean Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsberg, Lisbet S; Illuzzi, Jessica L; Gariepy, Aileen M; Sheth, Sangini S; Pettker, Christian M; Lee, Henry C; Lipkind, Heather S; Xu, Xiao

    To examine hospital variation in intrapartum care and its relationship with cesarean rates. Cross-sectional survey. Connecticut and Massachusetts hospitals providing obstetric services. Nurse managers or other clinical staff knowledgeable about intrapartum care. We assessed labor and delivery unit capacity and staffing, fetal monitoring, labor management, intrapartum interventions, newborn care, quality assurance, and performance review practices. Association of hospital characteristics and intrapartum practices with cesarean rate was evaluated using Wilcoxon exact rank sum test and Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Among 60 eligible hospitals, respondents from 39 hospitals (65%) completed the survey. Cesarean rates varied from 21% to 42% (median = 30%). Regular review of cesarean rates and indications (85%), regular provision of feedback on cesarean rates and indications to physicians (80%), and regular review of vaginal birth after cesarean rates (94%) were commonly performed at responding hospitals. These practices, however, were not associated with hospital cesarean rate. Hospitals that offered cesarean at the request of the woman (p cesarean birth (p cesarean rates than institutions without these practices. Routinely placing an intravenous line (p cesarean rates; having a certified nurse-midwife in house at all times (p = .01) and permitting women to eat during labor (p = .02) were associated with lower cesarean rates. Intrapartum practices of hospitals varied markedly. These different patterns of care may suggest differing levels of intrapartum intervention. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidural anesthesia in repeated cesarean section.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando T. Espín González

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A spectacular development has been experimented in the Anesthesiology branch in the last few years in the different areas of its competence in which the attendance activity on obstetric patients as well as every aspect related with its adequate practice is of a great importance. Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of epidural anesthesia in repetitive cesarean. Methods: a descriptive retrospective study of a series of cases (112in which epidural anesthesia in repetitive cesarean was applied from January 2001 to December 2001 in the surgical unit of the Gynecological obstetric service at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ in Cienfuegos city, Cuba. Some variables such as fixation time of the anesthesia, its duration, transurgical and postsurgical hemodynamic behavior, complications related with the anesthesia, evaluation of the new born baby and, the level of satisfaction of the patients were analyzed. Results: The immediate transurgical and postsurgical hemodynamic behavior was stable predominating normotension and the normal cardiac frequency. The complications related to anesthesia were minimal. The level of satisfaction of the patients was elevated. No alterations in new born babies were presented. As a conclusion, it may be stated that epidural anesthesia in repetitive cesarean is a safety and reliable anesthetic method.

  19. [Cesarean birth: justifying indication or justified concern?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Enciso, José Manuel; Rosales-Aujang, Enrique; Domínguez-Ponce, Guillermo; Serrano-Díaz, César Leopoldo

    2011-02-01

    Caesarean section is the most common surgery performed in all hospitals of second level of care in the health sector and more frequently in private hospitals in Mexico. To determine the behavior that caesarean section in different hospitals in the health sector in the city of Aguascalientes and analyze the indications during the same period. A descriptive and cross in the top four secondary hospitals in the health sector of the state of Aguascalientes, which together account for 81% of obstetric care in the state, from 1 September to 31 October 2008. Were analyzed: indication of cesarean section and their classification, previous pregnancies, marital status, gestational age, weight and minute Apgar newborn and given birth control during the event. were recorded during the study period, 2.964 pregnancies after 29 weeks, of whom 1.195 were resolved by Caesarean section with an overall rate of 40.3%. We found 45 different indications, which undoubtedly reflect the great diversity of views on the institutional medical staff to schedule a cesarean section. Although each institution has different resources and a population with different characteristics, treatment protocols should be developed by staff of each hospital to have the test as a cornerstone of labor, also request a second opinion before a caesarean section, all try to reduce the frequency of cesarean section.

  20. Formula over Function? From Algorithms to Values in Judicial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the forms and effects of the ‘invasion’ of the ‘temples of the law’ by new economic and managerial forms of performance evaluation. While traditional judicial evaluation focused on how to select and promote individual judges and on the legal quality of the single case, new quantitative methods and formulas are being introduced to assess efficiency, productivity and timeliness of judges and courts. Building on two case studies, from Spain and the Netherlands, the paper illustrates two contrasting approaches to judicial performance evaluation. On the one hand individual judges' productivity is evaluated through quantitative data and mathematical algorithms: in the extreme case considered here, judge's remuneration was adjusted accordingly. On the other hand quantitative and qualitative data, collected by a variety of methods and theoretical frameworks, are used as the basis of a multi-layered negotiation process designed to find a synthesis between competing economic, legal and social values aimed at improving overall organizational performance. Considering the flaws of unidimensional measurement and evaluation systems and considering the incommensurability of the results of the multiple evaluative frameworks (economic, legal, sociological required to overcome such flaws, the authors argue there is a need for political dialogue between relevant players in order to allocate the values appropriate to judicial evaluation. Este artículo analiza las formas y efectos de la “invasión” de los “templos de la ley” por nuevas formas económicas y de gestión como la evaluación del rendimiento. Mientras que la evaluación judicial tradicional se ha centrado en la forma de seleccionar y promocionar a jueces individuales, y en la calidad jurídica de un caso individual, hoy en día se están introduciendo nuevos métodos cuantitativos y fórmulas para determinar la eficiencia, productividad y oportunidad de jueces y

  1. 28 CFR 0.97 - Redelegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redelegation of authority. 0.97 Section 0.97 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of... Division of the Department of Justice with the consent of the head of that Bureau, Board, Office,...

  2. 28 CFR 904.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and authority. 904.1 Section 904.1 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL STATE CRIMINAL..., Article IV (c), the Compact Council hereby establishes record screening standards for criminal...

  3. 28 CFR 905.2 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and authority. 905.2 Section 905.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL NATIONAL FINGERPRINT... the NFF Qualification Requirements as established by the Compact Council (Council). The Council...

  4. 28 CFR 906.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and authority. 906.1 Section 906.1 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL OUTSOURCING OF... involving access to Interstate Identification Index (III) information. The Compact Council is...

  5. 28 CFR 902.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and authority. 902.1 Section 902.1 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION... for the adjudication of disputes by the Compact Council. The Compact Council is established...

  6. 28 CFR 71.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal to authority head. 71.39 Section 71.39 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROVISIONS OF... appeal shall be stayed automatically pending resolution of the motion for reconsideration. (2) If...

  7. Obstetricians' choice of cesarean delivery in ambiguous cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios....... The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably....... Perceived risk of complaints and litigation is associated with compliance with the requested cesarean....

  8. Contemporary Cesarean Delivery Practice in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Jun; TROENDLE, James; REDDY, Uma M.; LAUGHON, S. Katherine; BRANCH, D. Ware; BURKMAN, Ronald; LANDY, Helain J.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; HABERMAN, Shoshana; RAMIREZ, Mildred M.; BAILIT, Jennifer L.; HOFFMAN, Matthew K.; GREGORY, Kimberly D.; GONZALEZ-QUINTERO, Victor H.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle; LEARMAN, Lee A.; HATJIS, Christos G.; VAN VELDHUISEN, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe contemporary cesarean delivery practice in the U.S. Study Design Consortium on Safe Labor collected detailed labor and delivery information from 228,668 electronic medical records from 19 hospitals across the U.S., 2002 – 2008. Results The overall cesarean delivery rate was 30.5%. 31.2% of nulliparas were delivered by cesarean section. Prelabor repeat cesarean delivery due to a previous uterine scar contributed 30.9% of all cesarean sections. 28.8% of women with a uterine scar had a trial of labor and the success rate was 57.1%. 43.8% women attempting vaginal delivery had induction. Half of cesarean for dystocia in induced labor were performed before 6 cm of cervical dilation. Conclusion To decrease cesarean delivery rate in the U.S., reducing primary cesarean delivery is the key. Increasing VBAC rate is urgently needed. Cesarean section for dystocia should be avoided before the active phase is established, particularly in nulliparas and in induced labor. PMID:20708166

  9. 28 CFR 8.2 - Designation of officials having seizure authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of officials having seizure authority. 8.2 Section 8.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.2 Designation of officials having seizure authority. The Director, Associate...

  10. Inequities in milk-based prelacteal feedings in Latin America and the Caribbean: the role of cesarean section delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello

    2015-02-01

    Prelacteal feeds (ie, foods other than breast milk offered before the milk comes in) have been identified as a risk factor for shorter breastfeeding duration and neonatal mortality. This study aimed to test for socioeconomic inequities on the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding associated with cesarean section delivery. We conducted secondary cross-sectional data analyses of 7 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2005 and 2010 (N = 49 253 women with children younger than 3 years of age). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between cesarean section delivery and the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding in the total samples as well as within the lowest and highest wealth quintile subsamples by country and in the pooled sample. Almost one-third of newborns received milk-based (22.9%) prelacteal feeds. Prelacteal feeding prevalence varied from 17.6% in Guiana to 55% in Dominican Republic. Cesarean section delivery was associated with significantly higher odds of introduction of milk-based prelacteals in all countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range, 2.34 in Bolivia to 4.50 in Peru). The association between cesarean section delivery and risk of milk-based prelacteal feeds was stronger among the poorest than wealthiest women (AOR [95% confidence interval], 2.94 [2.58-3.67] vs 2.17 [1.85-2.54]). Women of lower socioeconomic status may need additional breastfeeding support after cesarean section delivery to prevent the introduction of milk-based prelacteals. Reducing the rates of cesarean section deliveries is likely to reduce the prevalence of prelacteal feeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. CDA Judicial Council: blending idealism and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The California Dental Association Judicial Council has the responsibility for interpreting and enforcing the Code of Ethics, for disciplining members and for fostering a climate of education and ethics awareness for CDA members. The Council recognizes the inherent difficulty in rigid enforcement of the Code of Ethics, and chooses to take an approach that educates and encourages members to embrace the highest standards of our profession as outlined in the Code.

  12. Judicial considerations with regard to civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelli, S D; Muñoz, D R

    2007-03-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between the doctrinaire position of a judge in terms of the civil liability objective and subjective theories and the results of their decisions in terms of "acquittal/against judgments". A system of classification of matter of fact results is proposed and the influence on the result of the decision of each category is also tested. The material consists of 71 records of judicial procedures from São Paulo State Court of Justice.

  13. 论网络司法公开之度%Theory of Judicial Public Network of Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爽; 程鹏

    2016-01-01

    Justice not only to expose, and to be in the right way at the right on the degree and scope of public. Public is to win the judicial credibility in the judiciary, safeguard judicial authority, to the inevitable choice of judicial justice. Public way and degree directly influences the effect of judicial public. The development of network technology, provides the judicial organs to carry out the judicial public events to good technology at the same time also brought challenges, how to combine modern science and technology and perfect the judicial punishment, delimit the scope of judicial public images of justice to win public trust, safeguard judicial justice is an important task to our current.%司法不但要公开,而且要以正确的方式在正确的程度和范围上进行公开。司法公开是赢得司法公信力、维护司法权威、走向司法公正的必然选择。公开的方式和程度直接影响着司法公开的效果。网络技术的发展,为司法机关开展司法公开活动提供了良好的技术手段,同时也带来了各种挑战,如何结合现代化的科技手段完善司法公开方式,划定司法公开范围使司法赢得公众信任、维护司法公正形象,是我们当前面临的重要课题。

  14. The European Judicial Training Network and its Role in the Strategy for the Europeanization of National Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benvenuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the building of a European Judicial Training Framework (EJT, notably the establishment, organization and functioning of the European Judicial Training Network (EJTN. After describing the EJTN and retracing its distinctive features – co-operation, decentralization, complementarity, targeting –, the article underlines its peculiar function within EJT, which reflects the role of EJT itself in the strategy for Europeanization of national judges. It then concludes by pointing out and situating other strategic areas where important synergies with EJT for the purpose of judicial Europeanization can be strengthened, notably enhancement of transnational judicial networks and introduction of knowledge management tools in national systems. The article is based on the analysis of documents and scientific literature as well as on empirical research and semi-structured interviews conducted by the author in 2013 and 2014.

  15. Erb's palsy after delivery by Cesarean section. (A medico-legal key to a vexing problem.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffy, Leslie; Pantages, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    Despite impressive progress in perinatology, fetal injuries from arrest of the shoulders at birth have not decreased in recent decades. Based upon sporadic reports of Erb's palsy in neonates born by Cesarean section, some obstetricians embraced the theory recently that brachial plexus lesions often derive from spontaneous forces acting in utero. Having reviewed three hundred malpractice claims involving fetal injuries attributed to shoulder dystocia at birth, the authors found only two cases connected with abdominal deliveries. One followed manual replacement of the already delivered fetal head into the pelvis after sequential vacuum and forceps procedures and failed manual extraction of the body. The other was an elective repeat Cesarean section where extensive adhesions limited the available space for the lower segment transverse uterine incision. Coincidental fracture of the clavicle and absence of contractures or deformities indicated that the brachial plexus injury was acute, having resulted from forceful traction at delivery.

  16. Decision or norm: Judicial discretion as a treat to the rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of legality and legal certainty, as key notions even of the thinnest concept of rule of law, are largely endangered in our times by widening of judicial discretion range. That trend is more and more at hand in European states as well, due to convergence of common law and civil law legal systems. Judicial decision acquires higher and higher factual importance in European legal systems, although it is generally not considered as a source of law. After analysis of standings by leading scholars of legal realism theory, the author admits that a very high level of tension frequently exists between judicial decision and legal norm. Within that conflict often and relatively easy decision succeeds to tear off by the strict letter of the law. In application of general legal rules upon concrete case, by creative adjustment of the law to life, due to necessary general and abstract character of legal norms, judge becomes more creator of law, rather than the one who applies it. The author points to danger of subjective and prejudiced attitudes of the judges, as they, due to their wide discretion, make a decision more upon their own feeling of justice, rather than upon law itself. In that way the law transforms itself in judicial decision based upon subjective understanding of justice and fairness.

  17. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Based on a comparison of the clinical indications for cesarean section (CS) in two Danish counties and a review of the literature regarding this issue the aim of this study was to discuss possible explanations for variations in CS rates in twin pregnancies. The comparison of indications...

  18. Are multiple repeated cesarean sections really as safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Turp, Ahmet Berkiz; Agar, Mehmet; Tasduzen, Mehmet Emin; Sak, Sibel; Erdal Sak, Muhammet

    2017-02-01

    Surgical complications were compared between patients with three or less prior cesarean deliveries and four or more prior cesarean deliveries. Records of 120 patients who had undergone cesarean sections (CSs) in our Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between August and November 2015, were retrospectively studied. Cases were reviewed on the basis of age, type of operation, type of anesthesia, number of CSs, time of hospitalization, and intra-operative and post-operative complications. Cesarean sections had been performed on 62 (51.7%) patients whose cesarean number was three or less, while 58 (48.3%) patients had multiple CSs four or more. Patients with four or more prior cesareans had an increased rate of intra-abdominal adhesions, compared with the other group. There was no significant difference in the gestational weeks, neonatal admission rate, incidence of cesarean hysterectomy, uterine scar rupture, placenta previa with placental invasion anomalies, bladder and bowel injuries, incidence of peripartum hemorrhage and blood transfusion rate between the two groups. There is no greater risk of maternal complications in patients with four or more prior cesareans, excepting intra-abdominal adhesions.

  19. Applying Lean Six Sigma methodology to reduce cesarean section rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ze-Ying; Hu, Hua-Min; Ren, Xiu-Ling; Zeng, Bao-Jin; Zheng, Ling-Zhi; Qi, Feng

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to reduce cesarean section rate and increase rate of vaginal delivery. By using Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology, the cesarean section rate was investigated and analyzed through a 5-phase roadmap consisting of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The principal causes of cesarean section were identified, improvement measures were implemented, and the rate of cesarean section before and after intervention was compared. After patients with a valid medical reason for cesarean were excluded, the main causes of cesarean section were maternal request, labor pain, parturient women assessment, and labor observation. A series of measures was implemented, including an improved parturient women assessment system, strengthened pregnancy nutrition guidance, implementation of painless labor techniques, enhanced midwifery team building, and promotion of childbirth-assist skills. Ten months after introduction of the improvement measures, the cesarean section rate decreased from 41.83% to 32.00%, and the Six Sigma score (ie, Z value) increased from 1.706 to 1.967 (P cesarean section. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Vaginal birth after two or more previous cesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakides, G; Duvivier, R; Schulman, H; Schneider, E; Biordi, J

    1987-03-01

    The recommendation from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is to allow vaginal delivery after one cesarean section. This report is an update of our experience of 57 women with two or more cesarean sections who were allowed to labor.

  1. Fetomaternal hemorrhage in women undergoing elective cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perslev, Anette; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the degree of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) caused by elective cesarean section. Design. Descriptive study. Settings. University Hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population. Women scheduled for elective cesarean section, in the period September 2007 to January 2009......, at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods. Two maternal blood samples were taken, the first before cesarean section and the second immediately after. Both samples were analyzed at the Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, for the presence...... of fetal red blood cells (fRBCs) using flow cytometry. FMH associated with cesarean section was defined as the difference between the volumes of fRBCs in the two samples. Main Outcome Measures. The frequency and volume of FMH caused by elective cesarean section. Results. 207 women were included...

  2. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation i...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth.......Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...

  3. Perspectives of cesarean section in buffaloes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G N Purohit; Mitesh Gaur; Amit Kumar; Chandra Shekher; Swati Ruhil

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean section in buffaloes is an emergency operative procedure being performed prinicipally for uncorrectable uterine torsions and for delivery of fetal monsters. Left paramedian (lateral and parallel to the milk vein) and oblique ventrolateral (above arcus cruralis) are the two common operative sites used for buffalo caesarean section. Although many anesthetic combinations including intravenous and inhalation anesthetic procedures have been experimented in the buffalo species yet most caesarean sections in buffaloes are satisfactorily performed in right lateral recumbency under mild sedation and local infiltration analgesia or paravertebral nerve blocks. The history, indications, anesthesia, operative procedures, post operative complications and future fertility following caesarean section in buffalo are described.

  4. Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaill, Fiona M; Grivell, Rosalie M

    2014-10-28

    The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean section. Although guidelines endorse the use of prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing cesarean section, there is not uniform implementation of this recommendation. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995 and last updated in 2010. To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. The clinically important primary outcomes were wound infection, endometritis, serious maternal infectious complications and adverse effects on the infant. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and combined trials in meta-analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified 95 studies enrolling over 15,000 women. Compared with placebo or no treatment, the use of prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing cesarean section reduced the incidence of wound infection (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.46, 82 studies, 14,407 women), endometritis (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.42, 83 studies, 13,548 women) and maternal serious infectious complications (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.49, 32 studies, 6159 women). When only studies that included women undergoing an elective cesarean section were analyzed, there was also a reduction in the incidence of wound infections (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.82, 17 studies, 3537 women) and endometritis (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.61, 15 studies, 2502 women) with prophylactic

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaill, Fiona M; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean section. Routine prophylaxis with antibiotics may reduce this risk and should be assessed in terms of benefits and harms. Objectives To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified 86 studies involving over 13,000 women. Prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of febrile morbidity (average risk ratio (RR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.51, 50 studies, 8141 women), wound infection (average RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.48, 77 studies, 11,961 women), endometritis (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.42, 79 studies, 12,142 women) and serious maternal infectious complications (RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.48, 31 studies, 5047 women). No conclusions can be made about other maternal adverse effects from these studies (RR 2.43; 95% CI 1.00 to 5.90, 13 studies, 2131 women). None of the 86 studies reported infant adverse outcomes and in particular there was no assessment of infant oral thrush. There was no systematic collection of data on bacterial drug resistance. The findings were similar whether the cesarean section was elective or non elective, and whether the antibiotic was given before or after umbilical cord clamping. Overall, the methodological quality of the trials was unclear and in only a few studies was it obvious that potential other sources of bias had been

  6. Health implications resulting from the timing of elective cesarean delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalev Eliezer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is nearly unanimous in recommending elective cesarean delivery at 39 weeks of gestation because of the lower rates of neonatal respiratory complications compared to 38 weeks. However, elective cesarean delivery at 39 weeks or more may have maternal and other fetal consequences compared to delivery at 38 weeks, which are not always addressed in these studies. Discussion Between 38 and 39 weeks of gestation, approximately 10% - 14% of women go into spontaneous labor; meaning that a considerable number of women scheduled for an elective cesarean delivery at 39 weeks will deliver earlier in an unscheduled, frequently emergency, cesarean delivery. The incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality is higher among women undergoing non-elective cesarean deliveries than among those undergoing elective ones. Complications may be greater among women after numerous repeat cesarean deliveries and among older women. Other than reducing the frequency of non-elective cesarean deliveries, bringing forward the timing of elective cesarean delivery to 38 weeks, may occasionally prevent intrauterine fetal demise which has been shown to increase with increasing gestational age and to avoid other fetal consequences related to the emergency delivery. All these considerations need to be weighed against the medical and the economic impact of the increase in neonatal morbidity resulting from births at 38 weeks compared to 39 weeks. Summary Until prospective randomized trials are conducted, we are unlikely to be able to precisely answer all risk:benefit questions as to the best timing of scheduled elective cesarean delivery. Older women, and women with numerous prior cesarean deliveries, are of particular concern. It is reasonable to inform the pregnant women of the risk of each of the above options and to respect her autonomy and decision-making.

  7. Trial of labor compared to repeat cesarean section in women with no other risk factors than a prior cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studsgaard, Anne; Skorstengaard, Malene; Glavind, Julie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes with trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or elective repeat cesarean delivery on maternal request (ERCD-MR). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish university hospital. POPULATION: Women with TOLAC (n = 1161) and women with ERCD-MR (n = 622) between 200...

  8. China's Judicial Protection of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN LIANG

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has devoted great efforts to improving judicial protection of human rights in the past 30 years.It has ratified the International Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights,signed but yet to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and become a state party to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.In March 2004,the 10th National People's Congress adopted at its second plenary session the amendments to the Constitution,writing "the state respects and protects human rights" into the Constitution,declaring that China will use legal means to protect and safeguard human rights.

  9. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  10. Disciplinary Responsibility Of Judges And Judicial Employees In England And Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury M. Filippov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the topical issues of the judges and judicial employees’ disciplinary responsibility in England and Wales after the adoption of the Constitutional Reform Act and creation of the new disciplinary bodies. Present article contains a short analysis of the mechanism of professional and ethical standards among judges and magistrates of England and Wales maintenance, possible conflict of interests settlement and questions of conduct in the need of disciplinary trial. Author consider features of the lord powers - chancellor in the questions of bringing judges and magistrates to the disciplinary responsibility, interaction of the Lord Chancellor with the Lord - Supreme Judge and the Ministry of Justice in the questions of the disciplinary investigations organization and conduct. At the same time author considers an aspect that responsibility before the civil society has an informal character and doesn't assume carrying out any trial. At the same time possibility of judge's and court's employees behavior discussion by public organizations and associations and also in press is a usual practice. In the conclusion author notes that to the number of features of English model of the disciplinary responsibility of judges and judicial employees it is necessary to include active participation of public authorities in the process of trial on the complaints in regard to actions of judges and judicial employees (Ministry of Justice is authorized to conduct such trials, the dual legal nature of such decision on the complaint which is taken out not only on behalf of the judicial community, but also a name of the Lord Chancellor appointed by the Parliament, general procedure of the judge's and worker's of courts, and also coroners accountability.

  11. Maternal outcomes associated with early preterm cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine L; Landy, Helain J; Desale, Sameer; Iqbal, Sara N

    2017-03-01

    Data on complications associated with classic cesarean delivery are conflicting. In extremely preterm cesarean delivery (22 0/7-27 6/7 weeks' gestation), the lower uterine segment is thicker. It is plausible that the rates of maternal complications may not differ between classic and low transverse cesarean. We sought to compare maternal outcomes associated with classic versus low transverse cesarean after stratifying by gestation (23 0/7-27 6/7 and 28 0/7-31 6/7 weeks' gestation). We conducted a multihospital retrospective cohort study of women undergoing cesarean delivery at 23 0/7 to 31 6/7 weeks' gestation from 2005 through 2014. Composite maternal outcome (postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion, endometritis, sepsis, wound infection, deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, hysterectomy, respiratory complications, and intensive care unit admission) was compared between classic and low transverse cesarean. Outcomes were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models yielding adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and adjusted P values controlling for maternal characteristics, emergency cesarean delivery, and comorbidities. Analyses were stratified by gestational age categories (23 0/7-27 6/7 and 28 0/7-31 6/7 weeks' gestation). Of 902 women, 221 (64%) and 91 (16%) underwent classic cesarean between 23 0/7 and 27 6/7 and between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation, respectively. There was no increase in maternal complications for classic cesarean versus low transverse cesarean between 23 0/7 and 27 6/7 weeks' gestation. However, between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation, classic cesarean was associated with increased risks of the composite maternal outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.45), transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-5.52), endometritis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-10.21), and intensive care unit admission (adjusted odds ratio, 5.05; 95

  12. Expectant management of heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiao-xia; GAO Hui-juan; YANG Xiao-fu; DONG Ming-yue; ZHU Yi-min

    2012-01-01

    Background Heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy (HCSP) is a very rare but life-threatening entity and there is no optimal management strategy.Here we report a successfully managed case of HCSP with expectant treatment in a tertiary referral hospital.@@Methods A woman with HCSP after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer opted for expectant treatment after five days of mild bleeding and ultrasound demonstrated cardiac activity disappearance of the scar pregnancy at 8+4 weeks of gestation.@@Results The patient had mild to moderate bleeding during close monitoring.Three days later,speculum examination revealed the gestational mass was partly protruding at the os of the cervix and it was removed with forceps without massive hemorrhage.A healthy male baby was delivered by cesarean section at gestational age of 36+4 weeks.@@Conclusions The expectant method might be an alternative option for a HCSP with loss of cardiac activity of the scar pregnancy,when applied under supportive management and with available emergency surgery facilities.

  13. Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C S Smith

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28, maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78, male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29, no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72, prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60, and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42 or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62 gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section ( 40%; 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31 and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73. The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1. We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the first validated model for antepartum prediction of the

  14. Predicting cesarean section and uterine rupture among women attempting vaginal birth after prior cesarean section.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no validated method for antepartum prediction of the risk of failed vaginal birth after cesarean section and no information on the relationship between the risk of emergency cesarean delivery and the risk of uterine rupture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We linked a national maternity hospital discharge database and a national registry of perinatal deaths. We studied 23,286 women with one prior cesarean delivery who attempted vaginal birth at or after 40-wk gestation. The population was randomly split into model development and validation groups. The factors associated with emergency cesarean section were maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.22 per 5-y increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.28, maternal height (adjusted OR = 0.75 per 5-cm increase, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78, male fetus (adjusted OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.29, no previous vaginal birth (adjusted OR = 5.08, 95% CI: 4.52 to 5.72, prostaglandin induction of labor (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.60, and birth at 41-wk (adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.42 or 42-wk (adjusted OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.62 gestation compared with 40-wk. In the validation group, 36% of the women had a low predicted risk of caesarean section (< 20% and 16.5% of women had a high predicted risk (> 40%; 10.9% and 47.7% of these women, respectively, actually had deliveries by caesarean section. The predicted risk of caesarean section was also associated with the risk of all uterine rupture (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.31 and uterine rupture associated with perinatal death (OR for a 5% increase in predicted risk = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73. The observed incidence of uterine rupture was 2.0 per 1,000 among women at low risk of cesarean section and 9.1 per 1,000 among those at high risk (relative risk = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.6 to 8.1. We present the model in a simple-to-use format. CONCLUSIONS: We present, to our knowledge, the

  15. Reforma al poder judicial de la federación

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Nieto Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Por Reforma Judicial se entiende el proceso de diagnóstico, evaluación, propuesta de modificación (estructural y procedimiental) que se realiza en un Poder Judicial para fortalecerlo. Para diseñarla, es necesario conjugar tres ejes conceptuales (independencia, eficiencia-eficacia, accesibilidad) con las categorías institucionales que nos dibuja la forma de organización del poder judicial.

  16. Antonin Scalia’s Textualism in philosophy, theology, and judicial interpretation of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Philipse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Textualism or Originalism, as defended by Justice Antonin Scalia of the U.S. Supreme Court, is a normative doctrine of method according to which the judicial interpretation of statutes and of the Constitution should aim at establishing the original meaning of the text. Textualism in the strict sense is unpopular not only among most judges but also among philosophers and theologians. In philosophy, Textualism was denounced as hopelessly naive by authors such as Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and their American followers. In theology, Textualism is not a viable option for believers who want both to accept as true the text of their holy book and to endorse the results of modern science and historical scholarship. I argue that Textualism is the only valid methodology of interpretation both in philosophy and in theology. For the judicial interpretation and application of statutes and constitutions, however, Textualism cannot be more than one methodological topos among many. We also have to accept other topoi, such as the topos that the system of statutes and treatises should form a consistent whole, and these other topoi cannot be considered as part and parcel of Textualism in the strict sense. It follows that the difference between a tenable sophisticated version of Textualism as a methodology of judicial interpretation and the so-called doctrine of the Living Constitution is one of degree and emphasis only. Justice Scalia’s simple version of Textualism is a political ideology rather than a valid methodology of judicial interpretation.

  17. Dimensões da governança judicial e sua aplicação ao sistema judicial brasileiro Judicial governance dimensions and their appointment to the Brazilian judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Akutsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A administração da Justiça brasileira enfrenta dificuldades crônicas de acessibilidade da população de menor renda à Justiça, de morosidade e de baixa eficácia das deliberações judiciais. O presente estudo busca contribuir para o exame de soluções para tais dificuldades, tendo como objetivos identificar dimensões relacionadas ao conceito de governança judicial estudadas em pesquisas empíricas recentes e discutir como tais dimensões podem influenciar o desempenho do sistema judicial brasileiro. As seguintes dimensões foram identificadas: independência judicial; accountability; acessibilidade à Justiça; estrutura do Poder Judiciário; recursos estratégicos do Poder Judiciário; e desempenho do sistema judicial. Ante a escassez de estudos empíricos sobre gestão do judiciário em geral e do Brasil em particular, foram formuladas propostas de pesquisas para avaliar, entre outros aspectos: (a a influência do desenvolvimento dos recursos estratégicos no desempenho do Poder Judiciário; e (b o impacto, na diminuição da corrupção do sistema judicial brasileiro, do aumento da independência judicial e da garantia de que os juízes sejam accountables perante a sociedade.The Brazilian justice management faces chronic difficulties of accessibility of lower income population to justice, the slowness and low effectiveness of the judicial decisions. In order to contribute to the analysis of solutions to these difficulties, the objectives of this paper are to identify dimensions related to the concept of judicial governance studied in recent empirical researches, and discuss how these dimensions can push the performance of the Brazilian judicial system. The following dimensions were identified: Judicial Independence, Accountability, Accessibility to Justice; Structure of the Judiciary; Strategic Resources of the Judiciary, and Judiciary's Performance. Faced with the scarcity of empirical studies on management of the judiciary

  18. Data driven information system for supervision of judicial open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the four outstanding problems of informationized supervision for judicial publicity, the judicial public data is classified based on data driven to form the finally valuable data. Then, the functional structure, technical structure and business structure of the data processing system are put forward, including data collection module, data reduction module, data analysis module, data application module and data security module, etc. The development of the data processing system based on these structures can effectively reduce work intensity of judicial open iformation management, summarize the work state, find the problems, and promote the level of judicial publicity.

  19. Fetal cardiotocography and acid-base status during cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matorras, R; Tacuri, C; Nieto, A; Pijoan, J I; Cortés, J

    1998-10-01

    To assess the fetal well-being during cesarean section, in relation to the previous fetal condition. Observational study. University Hospital. PATIENTS PARTICIPANTS: 204 women undergoing cesarean section (203 intrapartum cesarean sections): 177 with general anesthesia and 27 with spinal anesthesia. We compared the fetal heart records of the last 30 min before cesarean section (during the first stage of labor) with those during cesarean section. Scalp blood analysis 30 min before the beginning of anesthesia induction was compared with umbilical artery analysis at delivery. Cardiotocography. Acid-base analysis. Apgar scores. During cesarean section there was a reduction in uterine activity, an increase in silent tracings and a decrease in late decelerations. Umbilical artery pH was lower than scalp pH (7.23+/-0.06 vs 7.30+/-0.06). Oxygen saturation was also lower (14.43+/-8.58% vs 18.99+/-8.4%). The values of pCO2 and of base deficit were higher. During cesarean section low values of modified Fischer scores were associated with low pH values of umbilical artery and low Apgar scores. Silent tracings appearing during cesarean section usually do not indicate fetal distress. Poor intracesarean fetal heart tracings were associated with worse indicators of neonatal well-being. Although umbilical pH were lower than scalp values, when the correction described in the literature was applied, the difference was of little clinical relevance. It is concluded that anesthesic, pharmacological and surgical events have slight repercussion in fetal well being. However, in a few cases fetal heart monitoring during cesarean section could detect otherwise undiagnosed cases of transient acidemia or depression in the fetus.

  20. [Risk factors for bladder injuries during cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer Urueta, Jaime; Bonilla Mares, Marcela; Gorbea Chávez, Viridiana; Velázquez Valassi, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean delivery, to let patients and doctors know them and their importance. We conducted a case-control study of women undergoing cesarean delivery at the Instituto Nacional de PerinatologíaIsidro Espinosa de los Reyes between January 2001 and December 2007. Cases were women with bladder injuries at the time of cesarean section. Two controls per case were selected randomly. Medical records were reviewed for clinical and demographic data to compare them. Twenty-one bladder injuries were identified among 24, 057 cesarean sections, (incidence 0.087%), only 19 were analized. Prior cesarean section was more prevalent among cases than controls (63% vs 42% p 0.134), with an OR of 2.35 (95% CI 0.759-7.319), when we take only patients with one cesarea in contrast with no cesarea the OR is 3.75 (95% CI 1.002- 14.07). Statistically significant differences (P values < .05) between cases and controls were found in gestacional age (38.16 vs 37.35 weeks), prior cesareans (42% vs 18%), adhesions (79% vs 5%), Odds ratio of 67.5 (95% CI 11.14- 408), VBAC (31.5 vs 3%), median skin incisión (16% vs 68%), Pfannenstiel (84% vs 32%), blood loss (744cc vs 509cc) and length of surgery 135 vs 58 minutes). No differences were found among age, BMI, prior surgery, labor, premature rupture of membranes, station, chorioamnioitis, induction, uterine incision, timing of delivery, uterine rupture. Prior cesarean section and adhesions are risk factors for bladder injury at the time of repeat cesarean delivery. Elective cesarean delivery is valid but it is duty of physicians to inform patients the risks of it.

  1. Variation in Cesarean Birth Rates by Labor and Delivery Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Joyce K; O'Hara, Michele; Clarke, Sean P; Shah, Neel T

    To examine variation in the cesarean birth rates of women cared for by labor and delivery nurses. Retrospective cohort study. One high-volume labor and delivery unit at an academic medical center in a major metropolitan area. Labor and delivery nurses who cared for nulliparous women who gave birth to term, singleton fetuses in vertex presentation. Data were extracted from electronic hospital birth records from January 1, 2013 through June 30, 2015. Cesarean rates for individual nurses were calculated based on the number of women they attended who gave birth by cesarean. Nurses were grouped into quartiles by their cesarean rates, and the effect of these rates on the likelihood of cesarean birth was estimated by a logit regression model adjusting for patient-level characteristics and clustering of births within nurses. Seventy-two nurses attended 3,031 births. The mean nurse cesarean rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [23.9, 28.1]) and ranged from 8.3% to 48%. The adjusted odds of cesarean for births attended by nurses in the highest quartile was nearly 3 times (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval [2.3, 3.3]) greater than for births attended by nurses in the lowest quartile. The labor and delivery nurse assigned to a woman may influence the likelihood of cesarean birth. Nurse-level cesarean birth data could be used to design practice improvement initiatives to improve nurse performance. More precise measurement of the relative influence of nurses on mode of birth is needed. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cesarean section rate in Iran, multidimensional approaches for behavioral change of providers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammad, Kazem; Rashidian, Arash; Changizi, Nasrin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-07-05

    The cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005 in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify barriers of reduce the cesarean section rate in Iran, as perceived by obstetricians and midwives as the main behavioral change target groups. A qualitative study with purposive sampling was designed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analyses. Hospitals were selected on the bases of being public and or private and their response to the ministry's C-section reduction interventions. The hospital director, obstetricians and midwives from each hospital were included in the study. The classification of barriers suggested by Grol and Wensing was used for the thematic analysis. After 26 in-depth interviews and document analyses, the barriers were identified as: financial, insurance and judicial problems at the economic and political context level; the type and ownership of hospitals, absence of an on call physician, absence of clear job-descriptions for obstetricians and midwives, too many interventions in the delivery process and shortage of human resources and facilities at the organizational context level; distrust and insufficient collaborations between obstetricians and midwives from macro to micro level at the social context level; attitudes toward complications of C-section, reduced capabilities of obstetricians, midwives and residents at the individual professional level; and finally, at the innovation level, vaginal delivery is time consuming, imposes high stress levels and is unpredictable. Changing service providers' behavior is not possible through presentation of scientific evidence alone. A multi-level and multidisciplinary approach using behavior change theories is unavoidable. In future studies, the effect of the barriers should be determined to help policy makers recognize the most effective interventional package.

  3. Procedural and Substantive Judicial Review of the Right to Health in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2015-01-01

    This text seeks to identify the objective and subjective aspects of rights to an existential minimum in health care, based on international parameters which, because they are restricted to the internal scope of a nation, depend on a constitutional basis and on comprehensible facts, the demonstration of which should be the responsibility of the national administrative authority. Regarding the judicial review of the minimum right to healthcare, this paper points out that it is a serious mistake...

  4. Fetomaternal hemorrhage in women undergoing elective cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perslev, Anette; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2010-01-01

    , at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods. Two maternal blood samples were taken, the first before cesarean section and the second immediately after. Both samples were analyzed at the Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, for the presence...... of fetal red blood cells (fRBCs) using flow cytometry. FMH associated with cesarean section was defined as the difference between the volumes of fRBCs in the two samples. Main Outcome Measures. The frequency and volume of FMH caused by elective cesarean section. Results. 207 women were included...

  5. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Italy is among the countries with the highest litigation rate and those with the highest duration of trials. This article shows that judge turnover contributes negatively to delays in Italian courts and outlines possible policies for improvement. In Italy, judges can voluntarily move from one...... office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...

  6. Imaginaries of Judicial Practices in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Buchely

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the emotions of users and functionaries involved in the justice system and the administration of justice in Cali, Colombia. The analysis presented argues that the state not only employs a bureaucratic rational language but also invokes emotions and feelings. In this sense, it is not only the central imaginaries of the state justice system and judicial processes but also the idea of justice itself that is marked by tediousness, delay and chaos, imaginaries of the system that were identified by the users and the officials involved in the administration of the system. There is no justice if it is not a process that is tedious, marked by ritual, mysticism, disorder and difficulties. These findings demonstrate that, against liberal discourses that emphasize the order, unity and rationality of public actions, that the power of the state actually operates through the disaggregated, the irrational and the emotional, a much wider and inexplicable framework.

  7. Bovine cesarean section in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kenneth D

    2008-07-01

    Cesarean section is perhaps one of the more challenging surgical procedures performed on the farm; the veterinarian often has far less control over the patient, availability of assistance, and environmental contaminants. A number of variables may affect the successful outcome of this procedure for both the calf and cow; case selection is the most important and often overlooked variable. In addition, patient and surgeon preparation, surgical technique, calf viability at the time of surgery, and exteriorizing the uterus can affect outcome. Good surgical technique including gentle tissue handling, appropriate suture materials and patterns, adequate infolding of the uterine incision to prevent leakage, combined with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication when indicated can help minimize detrimental adhesions that may adversely affect the future reproductive efficiency of the cow.

  8. La competencia judicial en sede de concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegbert Rippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Es nuestro propósito comentar las normas concursa les contenidas en la Ley de Urgencia I1, en sede de competencia judicial, para lo cual dividiremos nuestra exposición en dos partes: en primer lugar, examinaremos el arto 12 de dicha ley, referido a las disposiciones en materia de competencia judicial; y en segundo lugar, procederemos a analizar el arto 13 de la misma ley, relativo al fuero de atracción.Adicionalmente, comentaremos algunas disposiciones contenidas en la ley 17.613, Ley de Fortalecimiento del Sistema Bancario, en cuanto se relaciona con la temática del presente trabajo.En atención a las limitaciones derivadas del tiempo asignado para la presente colaboración, no pretendemos describir a la letra la normativa referente a los temas a tratar sino centrarnos en los aspectos esenciales de aquellas, señalando adicionalmente que nuestros planteamientos se orientarán a los aspectos más conflictivos que advertimos en la oportunidad,algunos de los cuales seguramente no serán compartidos por la doctrina comercial dominante teniendo en cuenta, por lo pronto, ciertos antecedentes históricos sobre el particulary diversos pronunciamientos efectuados a partir de la publicación de la ley 17.292, como son, por ejemplo, los aportes realizados por los Dres. 1. Creimer y D. Puceiro, así como por los Dres. N. Rodríguez Olivera y C. Martínez Blanco.

  9. JUDICIAL CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATIVE ACT = CONTROLE JUDICIAL DO ATO ADMINISTRATIVO AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Garcia de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the current judicial control of the environmental administrative acts, considering the evolution of the legal doctrine after the Federal Constitution of 1988. The legal conception of the environmental administrative act has, gradually, being modified after the promulgation of the Federal Constitution of 1988. The insertion, in the constitutional text, of directional principles of the public administration, together with specific commandments of the environmental protection, forced the law scholars to modify the traditionalistic vision of the principle of the presumption of legality of the administrative act, when it is able to cause significant environmental damage to biodiversity. Such positioning of the legal doctrine has forced some courts to judge, more severely, the principles of the environmental administrative act, analyzing not only the formal aspects of its establishment, but also its motivation, reasonableness proportionality and purpose. However, the defense of the doctrines of the administrative law in the amplification of the judicial control of the environmental administrative act is not causing a sensible alteration in the jurisprudence that still reflects a positioning of the courts in the exclusive analysis of its formulation. The extended judicial control, although not yet a rule in the judicial analysis of the environmental administrative acts, demonstrates a way to be pursued in the preservation of the natural resources, amplifying and diversifying the existing control mechanisms. = Este trabalho visa avaliar o controle judicial atual dos atos administrativos ambientais, considerando a evolução da doutrina jurídica pós Constituição Federal de 1988, cuja concepção vem, paulatinamente, sendo alterada a partir de então. A inserção, no texto constitucional, de princípios norteadores da administração pública, aliada aos mandamentos específicos da tutela ambiental, vem levando os estudiosos do

  10. Semantic Storyboard of Judicial Debates: A Novel Multimedia Summarization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersini, E.; Sartori, F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The need of tools for content analysis, information extraction and retrieval of multimedia objects in their native form is strongly emphasized into the judicial domain: digital videos represent a fundamental informative source of events occurring during judicial proceedings that should be stored, organized and retrieved in short time and…

  11. 13 CFR 142.37 - What judicial review is available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What judicial review is available? 142.37 Section 142.37 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.37 What judicial review is available? 31 U.S.C....

  12. 13 CFR 142.36 - Can I obtain judicial review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I obtain judicial review? 142.36 Section 142.36 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.36 Can I obtain judicial review? If the...

  13. 31 CFR 357.23 - Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial proceedings-sovereign immunity. 357.23 Section 357.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.23 Judicial proceedings—sovereign immunity. (a) Department...

  14. Judicious use of oxytocin augmentation for the management of prolonged labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Janne; Østborg, Tilde B; Lindtjørn, Elsa; Schulz, Jørn; Eggebø, Torbjørn M

    2016-03-01

    A protocol including judicious use of oxytocin augmentation was investigated to determine whether it would change how oxytocin was used and eventually influence labor and fetal outcomes. The population of this cohort study comprised 20 227 delivering women with singleton pregnancies ≥37 weeks, cephalic presentation, spontaneous or induced onset of labor, without previous cesarean section. Women delivering from 2009 to 2013 at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, were included. Data were collected prospectively. Before implementing the protocol in 2010, oxytocin augmentation was used if progression of labor was perceived as slow. After implementation, oxytocin could only be started when the cervical dilation had crossed the 4-h action line in the partograph. The overall use of oxytocin augmentation was significantly reduced from 34.9% to 23.1% (p labor over 12 h increased from 4.4% to 8.5% (p oxytocin augmentation. Our findings may be of interest in the ongoing discussion of how the balanced use of oxytocin for labor augmentation can best be achieved. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. The midwife as first assistant for cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, C B; Thacher, F

    2001-01-01

    Across the United States, midwives have expanded their role to include serving as first assistants at cesarean sections. An American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Position Statement adopted in 1998 recognizes the practice as a "frequently-performed advanced midwifery practice skill." Workshops have been offered nationally in 1997, 1998, 2000, and 2001 as well as locally in some states to educate and guide the midwife in completing the didactic and clinical preparation. Yet, there is a dearth of published literature on the subject. This article reviews the evolution of the role from its origins in perioperative nursing, including the requirements for the Registered Nurse First Assistant as established by the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses that are referenced in the regulations of several states in regard to the practice of midwives as surgical assistants. The authors report the results of a survey of state regulatory agencies that reveals a wide variation in laws, regulations, and interpretations ranging from statutory acceptance to prohibition with suggestions on how to effect needed change. This article also includes a process for credentialing that is consistent with the ACNM "Guidelines for the Incorporation of New Procedures into Midwifery Practice." The importance of documentation of the educational and credentialing process from a medico-legal perspective is stressed.

  16. TAP Catheters Versus Intrathecal Morphine for Cesarean Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    Abdominal Muscles/Ultrasonography; Adult; Anesthetics, Local/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Analogs & Derivatives; Cesarean Section; Humans; Nerve Block/Methods; Pain Measurement/Methods; Pain, Postoperative/Prevention & Control; Ultrasonography, Interventional

  17. Rare Asymptomatic Presentation of Omental Mass from Cesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of big oozing lump of unknown origin through a healed cesarean section stitchline, completely asymptomatic at ... method, compels to reconsider and review the changes in ... operative time, less postoperative pain and fever, and.

  18. Delivery after previous cesarean: Short-term perinatal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Jain, Lucky

    2010-01-01

    Women must often choose between a vaginal birth after prior cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery. Short-term risks of vaginal birth after cesarean can be potentially catastrophic in the setting of uterine rupture. Although randomized controlled trials comparing these two modes of delivery are lacking, observational studies suggest an increased risk of perinatal mortality and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in infants whose mothers undergo a trial of labor. These rare risks compete with more common, albeit less severe, short-term risks associated with elective repeat cesarean delivery with a particular emphasis on increased respiratory morbidities. Further studies are needed to identify potential strategies to improve perinatal outcomes and help guide physicians and patients in choosing optimal methods of delivery. PMID:20654778

  19. Is a Vaginal Birth Possible After a Cesarean Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that a woman will have to have an unplanned cesarean after having a trial of labor. The ... benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds Extreme temperatures may increase ...

  20. Two Cases of Tuberculous Meningitis after Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This article revealed two valuable case reports about two young females suffered tuberculous meningitis after cesarean section. After antituberculous therapy, the condition of one patient improved and the other one became deteriorated.

  1. Serous cystadenocarcinoma as incidental finding during a repeat cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahram, J; Lakoff, K; Miller, R

    1985-09-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoma and pregnancy are rarely found to coexist. We report here a case of cystadenocarcinoma discovered as an incidental finding during an elective cesarean section in a 26-year-old woman.

  2. [IUD insertion during cesarean section and its most frequent complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Pelayo, J; Borbolla Sala, M E

    1994-11-01

    A prospective and cooperative study was done in 152 patients that were submitted to cesarean section. Seventy eight patients received intrauterine device (IUD) T CU 220 during cesarean section, and the other 74 patients only got the cesarean section without IUD. The events that were analyzed during the puerperium were pain, bleeding and infection. We didn't find any difference in the results between both groups, these were analyzed with the help of the square chi (X2). These results suggest that with an adequate selection of the patients, the insertion of the IUD during the cesarean section is a secure and helpful method for the fertility control for patients with high risk of reproduction.

  3. The judicial process: an overview from the TDA Council on Ethics and Judicial Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Roy N

    2011-08-01

    From time to time, the Council on Ethics and Judicial Affairs must investigate and act on the alleged unethical behavior of Texas Dental Association members. Because the alleged behavior is directed at a colleague and TDA member, the work of the council is neither comfortable nor inviting. Nonetheless, council decisions are made taking into account its mission to investigate the allegation between the parties and to improve dental ethics in the state.

  4. Brief procedural issues, regarding the writ to reclaim a spoil judicial. If released the premises belongs to someone else

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Isaac Torres Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this installment, the author addresses a topic related to the effectuation of judicial restoration of the law of possession, through the injunction to recover, with the particularity that is brought, for the reason that the site launched is related to another person

  5. Increasing cesarean birth rates: a clash of cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates in the United States reached a high of 27.6% in 2003, a 6% increase over 2002. A cultural conflict appears to exist between the views of those who believe that birth is normal and many cesareans are unnecessary and the views of those who feel that higher rates are justifiable. Childbirth educators can share cultural concepts of normal birth in their classroom.

  6. Increasing Cesarean Birth Rates: A Clash of Cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    Cesarean birth rates in the United States reached a high of 27.6% in 2003, a 6% increase over 2002. A cultural conflict appears to exist between the views of those who believe that birth is normal and many cesareans are unnecessary and the views of those who feel that higher rates are justifiable. Childbirth educators can share cultural concepts of normal birth in their classroom.

  7. FETOMATERNAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY WITH PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigamananda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to see the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with previous cesarean section. METHODS: This study was conducted in the department of OBGYN, BARC Hospital, Mumbai from October 2011 to September 2012, a period of one year. All the pregnant women with previous one cesarean section attending ANC clinic for confinement were included in the study group after giving consent. RESULTS: Out of total75 cases, a total of 23 patients (30.67% were given trial of labor. Out of 23 patients given trial of labor, 12 patients (52.17% had successful VBAC. Commonest indication for unsuccessful trial of labor undergoing repeat cesarean section was non-progress of labor (54.55% and failed IOL (36.67%. Out of 12 patients who had successful VBAC, 3 patients (25% had complication like episiotomy hematoma, perineal tear and cervical tear. No patients had major complications. In present study no baby had apgar score <7 at 1min and 5 min in VBAC group and elective LSCS group. CONCLUSION: The current study concludes that women with a prior cesarean are at increased risk for repeat cesarean section. Vigilance with respect to indication at primary cesarean delivery, proper counseling for trial of labor and proper antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of patients, are key to reducing the cesarean section rates. The antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications are more in repeat cesarean section cases. There is no doubt that a trial of labor is a relatively safe procedure, but it is not risk free. Therefore, patient evaluation prior to TOLAC, careful observation throughout labor in a well-equipped unit with around the clock services for emergency surgery and availability of expertise is the backbone for successful VBAC.

  8. Indications for and Risks of Elective Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Friese, Klaus

    2015-07-20

    Rates of cesarean section have risen around the world in recent years. Accordingly, much effort is being made worldwide to understand this trend and to counteract it effectively. A number of factors have been found to make it more likely that a cesarean section will be chosen, but the risks cannot yet be clearly defined. This review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed, Scopus, and DIMDI databases, as well as on media communications, analyses by the German Federal Statistical Office, and guidelines of the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The increased rates of cesarean section are thought to be due mainly to changed risk profiles both for expectant mothers and for their yet unborn children, as well as an increase in cesarean section by maternal request. In 1991, 15.3% of all newborn babies in Germany were delivered by cesarean section; by 2012, the corresponding figure was 31.7%, despite the fact that a medical indication was present in less than 10% of all cases. This development may perhaps be explained by an increasing tendency toward risk avoidance, by risk-adapted obstetric practice, and increasing media attention. The intraoperative and postoperative risks of cesarean section must be considered, along with complications potentially affecting subsequent pregnancies. Scientific advances, social and cultural changes, and medicolegal considerations seem to be the main reasons for the increased acceptibility of cesarean sections. Cesarean section is, however, associated with increased risks to both mother and child. It should only be performed when it is clearly advantageous.

  9. The use of midwives as first assistants in cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks; Thacher; Camargo

    1998-07-01

    Introduction: In 1997, medical insurance gives limited financial reimbursement to physicians who first assist cesarean sections. Therefore, a formal program was developed at our community teaching hospital using midwives in place of physicians as first assistant in cesarean section. Midwives on the midwifery service were taught the principles and procedures of obstetrical anesthesia, anatomy, and physiology of the gravid abdomen.A team approach using obstetrician/gynecologist, anesthesiologist, midwives, and operating nurses performed the tracking in a 1-day course. A 28-minute video was developed to depict the role of the midwife as first assistant. Additionally, the principles of operation room set-up and instrumentation were taught.Result: All 24 midwives on the midwifery service were involved in the teaching of first assisting an attending obstetrician. After taking the course, nurse-midwives received formal certification from the department of obstetrics and gynecology and were approved by risk management. They also received clinical privileges outlining these guidelines. Their malpractice rates have not increased. The time to complete a cesarean section has not increased for the physician, and an emergency cesarean section is no longer delayed by waiting for an assistant to arrive. Patient satisfaction has increased because of decreased waiting time for a cesarean section and increased familiarity with the entire operating team.Discussion: Midwives can be trained to first assist the obstetrician/gynecologist in a cesarean section. Since the duration of a cesarean section is not prolonged, the patient will not experience increased blood loss or infection secondary to a prolonged procedure. The patient is more relaxed since they know that their provider during labor is also one of their surgeons for the cesarean section.

  10. Cold therapy in the management of postoperative cesarean section pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Hanjani, S; Corcoran, J; Chatwani, A

    1992-07-01

    Sixty-two patients were randomized to receive either localized cold therapy to the cesarean section incision or routine postoperative care. Evaluation of the amount of analgesia requested, infection rate, and length of hospital stay did not show a significant difference between the two groups. There is no objective evidence to show that the use of cold therapy in postoperative cesarean section pain relief is beneficial.

  11. Anesthetic management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome for urgent cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, B T; Muravyea, M; Kuo, C; Drexler, C; Pagel, P S

    2016-08-01

    Stiff person syndrome is a rare neurologic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:1000000. The underlying pathophysiology is truncal and proximal limb muscle stiffness resulting from continuous co-contracture of agonist and antagonist muscle groups concomitant with superimposed episodic muscle spasms. Loss of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition creates chronic excitation manifested by tonic agonist-antagonist muscle contraction. To date, only three case reports referred indirectly to the anesthetic management of parturients with Stiff person syndrome. The authors describe their management of a parturient with Stiff person syndrome who underwent urgent cesarean delivery under epidural anesthesia.

  12. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

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    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  13. Effects of cesarean section on mean platelet volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usluoğullari, Betül; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Simavli, Serap; Eser, Ayla; Inegol Gumus, İknur

    2015-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a risk factor for cardiovascular complications, cerebrovascular disorders, and low-grade inflammatory conditions prone to arterial and venous thromboses. Cesarean delivery is the most important risk factor for pulmonary embolism, stroke, and intracranial venous thrombosis. The hypothesis is that increase in the prevalence of cesarean section and high MPV may be associated with cardiovascular complications such as stroke along with intracranial complications in addition to known systemic and surgical complications. In this study, platelet counts and MPV for postpartum women who delivered by cesarean section and normal vaginal parturition are compared. The subjects were divided in two groups, one was study group consisting of 118 patients giving birth by cesarean section and the other was the control group consisting 94 patients giving birth by normal vaginal parturition. Peripheral venous blood samples in EDTA tubes were collected from all the subjects 1 week before and after the delivery for their prenatal and postpartum periods, respectively. The values were compared between the groups and also before and after the delivery. In the cesarean group, while the MPV level was 8.60 (1.64) fl in the prenatal period, it increased to 9.10 (2.00) fl in the postnatal period (p cesarean section.

  14. Airway management for cesarean delivery performed under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, S; Suresh, M; Clark, S L; Serratos, B; Chandrasekhar, S

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing popularity of neuraxial anesthesia, there has been a decline in the use of general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. We sought to examine the incidence, outcome and characteristics associated with a failed airway in patients undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia. A retrospective review of airway management in women undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia over an eight-year period from 2006-2013 at an academic medical center was conducted. During the study period, 10 077 cesarean deliveries were performed. Neuraxial anesthesia was used in 9382 (93%) women while general anesthesia was used in 695 (7%). Emergent cesarean delivery was the most common indication for general anesthesia. Failed intubation was encountered in only three (0.4%) women, who were successfully managed with a laryngeal mask airway. The overall incidence of failed intubation was 1 in 232 (95% CI 1:83 to 1:666) and general anesthesia was continued in all cases. There were no adverse maternal or fetal outcomes directly related to failed intubation. Advances in adjunct airway equipment, availability of an experienced anesthesiologist and simulation-based teaching of failed airway management in obstetrics may have contributed to our improved maternal outcomes in patients undergoing cesarean delivery under general anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sonographic evaluation of surgical repair of uterine cesarean scar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Michal; Fuchs, Tomasz; Rosner-Tenerowicz, Anna; Zimmer, Mariusz

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical outcomes of surgical repair of uterine cesarean scar defects with sonography (US). Seven nonpregnant women with history of cesarean section and a large uterine scar defect were enrolled. The surgical repair was performed by minilaparotomy. The US assessment of the uterine scar was performed using a standardized approach at baseline, then at a first visit 2-3 days following the surgical intervention (V1) and at a follow-up visit 3 months later (V2). Residual myometrial thickness (RMT), width, and depth of the scar defect were measured. The mean RMT increased significantly from 1.9 mm at baseline to 8.8 mm at V1 and 8.0 mm at V2. No intraoperative complications were observed. Postmenstrual spotting and abdominal pain reported preoperatively resolved after the operation. A surgical repair procedure for an incompletely healed uterine cesarean scar is effective in increasing RMT thickness, decreasing the depth of the scar, and reducing symptoms related to the cesarean section scar defect. Further studies on post-repair pregnancy outcomes are required to evaluate whether the procedure affects the rate of cesarean scar pregnancy, morbidly adherent placenta, and/or uterine scar dehiscence and rupture. The repair of a cesarean scar defect is recommended only for symptomatic women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:455-460, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cesarean Delivery, Overweight throughout Childhood, and Blood Pressure in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; De Jongste, Johan C; Van Rossem, Lenie

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether children delivered by cesarean had a higher risk of being overweight from early until late childhood and whether they had a higher blood pressure in adolescence compared with children delivered vaginally. We used data from a Dutch birth cohort study with prenatal inclusion in 1996 and 1997. Mode of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery) was ascertained at 3 months after birth by questionnaire. During clinical examinations, height and weight (at age 4, 8, 12, and 16 years) and blood pressure (at age 12 and 16 years) were measured. We used mixed model analysis to estimate associations of cesarean delivery with overweight and blood pressure z scores in 2641 children who participated in at least 1 of the 4 examinations. Children born by cesarean delivery (n = 236, 8.9%) had a 1.52 (95% CI 1.18, 1.96) higher odds of being overweight throughout childhood than children delivered vaginally. Children born by cesarean delivery had no higher systolic blood pressure z-score (0.11 SD, 95% CI -0.04, 0.26), nor a different diastolic blood pressure z-score (-0.00 SD, 95% CI -0.10, 0.09) in adolescence than children delivered vaginally. Compared with children delivered vaginally, children delivered by cesarean had a 52% higher risk of being overweight throughout childhood, but this was not accompanied by a higher blood pressure in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of clinical audits on cesarean section rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fu-Shiang; Lin, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Ho-Hsiung; Tu, Fung-Chao; Hsiao, Chin-Fen; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou

    2016-08-01

    Many countries have noted a substantial increase in the cesarean section rate (CSR). Several methods for lowering the CSR have been described. Understanding the impact of clinical audits on the CSR may aid in lowering CSR. Thus, our aim is to elucidate the effect of clinical audits on the CSR. We retrospectively analyzed 3781 pregnant women who gave birth in a medical center between January 2008 and January 2011. Pregnant women who delivered between January 2008 and July 2009 were enrolled as the pre-audit group (n = 1592). After August 2009, all cesarean section cases that were audited were enrolled in the audit group (n = 2189). The CSR was compared between groups. The overall CSR (34.5% vs. 31.1%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, p = 0.008) and the cesarean section rate due to dystocia (9.6% vs. 6.2%, p cesarean section was achieved in 16 (8.2%) of 195 audit cases in the monthly audit conference. In nulliparous pregnant women (n = 2148), multivariate analysis revealed that clinical audit (OR = 0.78), maternal age (OR = 1.10), gestational age at delivery (OR = 0.80), and fetal body weight at birth (OR = 1.0005) were independent predictors of cesarean section (all p cesarean section to reduce the CSR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: a group practice's approach to minimizing failed trial of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman; Scudder; Joseph

    1998-07-01

    Objective: Among women attempting a trial of labor (TOL) after a prior abdominal delivery, 60-80% accomplish a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). McMahon and coworkers (N Engl J Med, 1996) have indicated that at a 60% success level for TOL, the remaining 40% incurred enough major complications that the scheduled repeat cesarean section group was less morbid overall. The same authors speculated that a success rate of 80% might be necessary for the TOL group's morbidity to be superior. We sought to review our group's patient selection experience during an interval when successful TOL consistently exceeded 80%.Methods: The study interval ranged from January 1995 through June 1997 and was limited to patients with one previous low transverse cesarean section. Rather than using administrative or charge-related diagnoses, we analyzed a departmental database that included each delivering physician's selection of one of four VBAC categories: successful VBAC, unsuccessful VBAC, patient declined trial of labor, or physician advised against trial of labor. All deliveries were at a single institution and were performed by one of seven obstetricians in a group practice.Results: During the study interval, 332 women provided a history of a single previous cesarean delivery. Of these 332, a total of 173 attempted a TOL and 150 of the 173 (87%) were successful. Fifty-eight of the 332 (18%) declined a trial of labor despite being assessed as excellent candidates, and 101 (30%) were advised against a TOL by their physician. Most common reasons for physicians discouraging labor included malpresentation, fetal macrosomia, and clinically small pelvis. Complications for the 23 of 173 (13%) experiencing a failed TOL included 1 asymptomatic partial separation of a uterine scar and 4 cases of puerperal fever; neither transfusion nor hysterectomy was required.Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in a population of women with one prior cesarean delivery, it is possible for a group

  19. Fetal outcome in emergency versus elective cesarean sections at Souissi Maternity Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzouina, Soukayna; Boubkraoui, Mohamed El-mahdi; Mrabet, Mustapha; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; El-hassani, Amine; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal mortality rates have come down in cesarean sections, but fetal morbidity is still high in comparison to vaginal delivery and the complications are more commonly seen in emergency than in elective cesarean sections. The objective of the study was to compare the fetal outcome and the indications in elective versus emergency cesarean section performed in a tertiary maternity hospital. Methods This comparative cross-sectional prospective study of all the cases undergoing elective and emergency cesarean section for any indication at Souissi maternity hospital of Rabat, Morocco, was carried from January 1, to February 28, 2014. Data were analyzed with emphasis on fetal outcome and cesarean sections indications. Mothers who had definite antenatal complications that would adversely affect fetal outcome were excluded from the study. Results There was 588 (17.83%) cesarean sections among 3297 births of which emergency cesarean section accounted for 446 (75.85%) and elective cesarean section for 142 cases (24.15%). Of the various factors analyzed in relation to the two types of cesarean sections, statistically significant associations were found between emergency cesarean section and younger mothers (P cesarean section performed under general anesthesia (P cesarean section was fetal distress (30.49%), while the most frequent indication in elective cesarean section was previous cesarean delivery (47.18%). Conclusion The overall fetal complications rate was higher in emergency cesarean section than in elective cesarean section. Early recognition and referral of mothers who are likely to undergo cesarean section may reduce the incidence of emergency cesarean sections and thus decrease fetal complications. PMID:27347286

  20. Coping with preoperative anxiety in cesarean section: physiological, cognitive, and emotional effects of listening to favorite music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Friedman, Ahuva; Ehrenfeld, Mally; Kushnir, Talma

    2012-06-01

    Listening to music has a stress-reducing effect in surgical procedures. The effects of listening to music immediately before a cesarean section have not been studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of listening to selected music while waiting for a cesarean section on emotional reactions, on cognitive appraisal of the threat of surgery, and on stress-related physiological reactions. A total of 60 healthy women waiting alone to undergo an elective cesarean section for medical reasons only were randomly assigned either to an experimental or a control group. An hour before surgery they reported mood, and threat perception. Vital signs were assessed by a nurse. The experimental group listened to preselected favorite music for 40 minutes, and the control group waited for the operation without music. At the end of this period, all participants responded to a questionnaire assessing mood and threat perception, and the nurse measured vital signs. Women who listened to music before a cesarean section had a significant increase in positive emotions and a significant decline in negative emotions and perceived threat of the situation when compared with women in the control group, who exhibited a decline in positive emotions, an increase in the perceived threat of the situation, and had no change in negative emotions. Women who listened to music also exhibited a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared with a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure and respiratory rate in the control group. Listening to favorite music immediately before a cesarean section may be a cost-effective, emotion-focused coping strategy. (BIRTH 39:2 June 2012). © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. THE ITALIAN WAY TO ANTITRUST JUDICIAL REVIEW: A FEW ODDITIES OF THE PFIZER CASE

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    Cristoforo Osti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The note deals with the Pfizer case, where the pharmaceutical company was condemned for an abuse of dominant position relating to otherwise lawful patent practices which, in the Authority's representation, had delayed without merit entry by generic producers. The note takes this opportunity to comment on the system of judicial review of the Italian Competition Authority's antitrust decisions, comparing it with the equivalent system at the EU level. The note also reviews more in-depth the judgment with reference to both those areas where the Court decided to take a specific position and in those where it omitted doing so.

  2. The Evaluation of the Practical Implementation of Social Justice by the Judicial System of State

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    Marţian Iovan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a sociological research, the author of this article aims to identify the beliefs and the attitudes of a group of BA and MA students enrolled in university programs of Juridical Science, regarding their apprehension of the principles of justice - as the central value of the Romanian judicial system. This would contribute to the implementation of justice in the actual Romanian economic, political, and judicial structure. The data analysis provides the necessary information for comprehending the extensions of justice and injustice within the specific social context. A real distance between reality and the political doctrines, and the classical and post-modern philosophical theories of justice as well can be noticed. The resulting conclusions could provide solid settings in order to develop a number of strategies/public policies to shape a more honest society.

  3. 28 CFR 551.11 - Authority to approve a marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to approve a marriage. 551.11... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.11 Authority to approve a marriage. (a) The Warden may approve the marriage of a federal inmate confined in a federal institution. This authority may not be delegated...

  4. 7 CFR 1.189 - Delegations of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture delegates to the Judicial Officer authority to take final action on matters pertaining to the Act in proceedings covered by these rules. The Secretary by order may delegate authority to take final...)(1) The Secretary of Agriculture delegates to the Director of the National Appeals Division authority...

  5. 28 CFR 11.1 - Delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority. 11.1 Section 11... Debt Collection § 11.1 Delegation of authority. The Assistant Attorney General for Administration shall exercise the full authority of the Attorney General to develop and administer the Department of Justice...

  6. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  7. Judicial control of legal relations in the sports law - de lege ferenda

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    Dean Vuleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The business of Sport is a complex entity in our current society. All participants in the business of sport (Sport Community includings athletes, coaches, managers and facilities providers require legal representation and consideration within the legal framework of the country in which they operate. The participants in the business of sport require civil, labor, criminal, commercial, and judicial regulation in order to maintain the integrity and raise the quality of their sport to a global level. Legislative and judicial authorities have neglected to pursue legislation that provides protection for the progress and development of the Sports Community. Current Sports Law has many gaps and is lacking the standardization which would provide judicial support for Sports Community. Without specific sport legislation there will be a substantial increase in disputes for the violation of subjective rights within the Sports Community. One of the most crucial unsolved questions is how a sport will be protected as an institutionalized and regulated activity from legal abuses in and outside of the specific sport. The Republic of Croatia is still lacking effective and organized judicial power of the quality necessary to protect and support its Sports Community. A solution to this problem is for those with legislative authority to initiate the procedure of forming specialized courts constituted only for trial in conflict situations related to sports conflicts. This excludes criminal offenses for which a prison sentence is determined. This initiative would lead to additional provisions of certain legal acts through necessary amandments, mainly Sports Law, Court Law and Civil Procedure.

  8. Treatnebt if Addiction - Clinical and Judicial Perspectives: Two Case Reports

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    Sofia Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sporadic or chronic use of drugs and alcohol is directly related to conduct disorders and to the triggering of psychopathological states of sub-acute or chronic course. The excessive consumption of alcohol and excessive traffic/consumption of illicit drugs by individuals without mental illness or disability are actions of free will; they are therefore criminally responsible for their behaviour, even if they commit a crime during the state of intoxication, which the individual chose voluntarily to experience. In clinical practice, it is widely accepted that the treatment of these disorders is only effective when the patient accepts it voluntarily and that involuntary commitment (compulsive treatment is only carried out when the psychopathological state associated justifies the presuppositions of Article 12 of the Mental Health Law. However, if the compulsive treatment is of a penal character, mandated by a judge, the individual is obligated to accept treatment, independent of whether or not he suffers from mental illness. The authors present two case studies, one of drug addiction, the other of alcoholism, and discuss the clinical and judicial perspectives on the treatment of these clinical entities.

  9. La Gaceta Judicial (1861-1862

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    Vania Ramos Núñez

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración del índice que presentamos ha sido emprendida usando dos colecciones de la Biblioteca Nacional del Perú. Una de ellas puede hallarse en la Colección Porras de la Sala Alberto Tauroo antigua sala de investigaciones, bajo el código XPPB/340/Gl2J/1857. Dicha colección se encuentra incompleta y ha sido compaginada junto a la Gaceta de los Tribunales (1857-1860 con la que comparte un volumen. La segunda, en mejor estado de conservación, base primordial de este trabajo, pudo consultarse en la vieja hemeroteca, hoy Sala «José Antonio Miró Quesada», hallándose virtualmente completa. Unicamente faltaban los números 4 y 218, correspondientes al 22 de mayo de 1861 y al 26 de febrero de 1862, respectivamente. La Gaceta Judicial/P.1861, en el fondo hemerográfico, es la única seña que identifica a esta segunda colección.

  10. Improvements of Judicial Systems: European Experiences

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    Pim Albers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper function of courts is to positively influence the economic development of societies. Companies or enterprises are best served when courts function in a fast, fair and affordable manner. However, courts exist not only for the sake of companies, but to bring justice to citizens in accordance with the rule of law. I will focus little attention on the difficulties associated with defining the concept of rule of law. However, it is important to emphasize that developed societies must respect the rule of law. They do so by ensuring an independent judiciary, an impartial court system, a degree of separation of powers between the executive, legislative and the judicial powers of government, and the right to a fair trial. In the greater European community, these essential conditions are set forth in article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights which states that: “(… everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law

  11. La Rama Judicial frente al conflicto armado

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    Luis Alberto Gómez Araujo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rama Judicial en Colombia ha sido victima continua de la violencia, pero en igual sentido, se ha convertido también en un factor generador en la medida en que la falta de una pronta y cumplida justicia o la imposibilidad de acceder a ella, trae como consecuencia una desconfianza en la institucionalídad y una tenencia a la búsqueda de otras soluciones al margen de la ley. No obstante la existencia de un marco normativo idóneo para impulsar procesos de paz en Colombia y los intentos formales por acudir a los mecanismos concertados de solución de conflictos, el fracaso de tales esfuerzos se debe a la ausencia de voluntad política real de los actores del conflicto, lo que ha venido generando en la comunidad incredulidad y desesperanza en la solución del conflicto por estas vias. Sin embargo, es vital para elfuturo de la sociedad colombiana persistir en la exploración defórmulas que busquen una salída a la coyuntura dolorosa de violencia que estamos pasando.

  12. Quality of Life after Cesarean and Vaginal Delivery

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    Seyed Abbas Mousavi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cesarean rates in recent decades have been increasing and a number of studies have shown that cesarean increases maternal morbidities. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of life after cesarean and vaginal delivery.Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 356 pregnant women visiting urban health centers in Shahroud City, Northeast Iran, in 2011. The subjects completed the quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum.Results: In primiparas, the mean global QOL scores for the cesarean and vaginal delivery groups were 67.65 ± 12.7 and 72.12 ± 11.8, respectively. Also, the scores for the physical, psychological and social domains of QOL as well as the global score of QOL were higher in the vaginal delivery group than the cesarean group (p<0.05. In the case of primiparas, multiple regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for education, desirability of pregnancy and the General Health Questionnaire score, the delivery type remained as a predictor of the scores for the physical (R2=1.7%; B=-3.826; p=0.031; CI [-7.301, -.350] and social (R2=2.5%; B=-5.708; p=0.017; CI [-10.392, -1.023] domains of QOL and the global QOL score (R2=2.6%; B=-4.065; p=0.006; CI [-6.964, -1.164]. While multiparas, there was no relationship between QOL and type of delivery.Conclusion: In this sample of low-risk women, cesarean negatively affected the QOL of primiparas. More studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to examine the effects of cesarean on QOL in both primiparas and multiparas within a shorter period after delivery.

  13. [Increased prevalence of congenital dacryostenosis following cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, Claudia; Lüchtenberg, M; Hofmann, C; Kohnen, T

    2016-08-01

    Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (dacryostenosis) with a persisting membrane at Hasner's valve is the most common cause of persistent tear and ocular discharge in infants. To evaluate whether there is an association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery via cesarean section. In a prospective study we examined 107 children (mean age 9.2 ± 7.1 months) with congenital dacryostenosis. We evaluated data about the mode of delivery (vaginal delivery versus cesarean section) and gestational age at the time of birth. Within the first 8 months of life children were treated by probing using local anesthesia, whereas older children were treated using general anesthesia. After the age of 11 months treatment included nasolacrimal duct intubation with a bicanalicular stent. Statistical analyses were performed using binomial tests, Fisher's exact test and the t-test. In this study 51 children delivered by cesarean section were compared with 56 children delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery. A total of 44 age-matched pairs from both groups were evaluated in order to eliminate confounding factors due to gestational age at delivery. Based on the published rate of cesarean sections from the same region of the State of Hesse between 2002-2004 we observed a statistically significant association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery by cesarean section among the 88 age-matched patients (P = 0.009). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between congenital dacryostenosis and delivery by primary cesarean section (P = 0.00004). The prevalence of surgical treatment was not statistically different between both groups based on the mode of delivery (P = 0.8). Our results suggest that delivery via cesarean section is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of congenital dacryostenosis.

  14. Endometriosis In Cesarean Scar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Özgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A patient with surgical scar endometriosis, a rare condition, was presented. The patient was 30 years old, gave birth twice by cesarean section, her last delivery was seven years ago. She appealed to the outpatients’ clinic because of the complaints of pain, swelling and redness on the scar site, her complaints began one year after the last delivery and continued. The complaints did not alter by menstrual cycle. On the examination, there was a painful hyperemic lesion 2x2cm in size which was raised from the skin, located at the right of the scar, assumed to be associated with the fixed fascia and another lesion 2x2cm in size which could not be noticed by inspection but be palpated was found. The lesions described were totally excised. The result of paraffin block examination of the material was reported as endometriosis. Pain on the scar site with menstrual period, enlargement and discoloration of the lesions are classical signs of scar endometriosis. But the patients do not always present these findings. Endometriosis should also be remembered along with other reasons when lesions occur on the scar site after surgery.

  15. From therapeutic to elective cesarean deliveries: factors associated with the increase in cesarean deliveries in Chiapas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyermuth, María Graciela; Muños, José Alberto; Ochoa, María Del Pilar

    2017-05-25

    Cesarean deliveries have increased over the past decade in Mexico, including those states with high percentages of indigenous language speakers, e.g., Chiapas. However, the factors contributing to this trend and whether they affect indigenous languages populations remain unknown. Thus, this work aims to identify some of the factors controlling the prevalence of cesarean sections (C-sections) in Chiapas between the 2011-2014 period. We analyzed certified birth data, compiled by the Subsystem of Information on Births of the Secretary of Health and the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, and information regarding the Human Development Index (HDI), assembled by the United Nations Development Program. A descriptive analysis of the variables and a multilevel logistics regression model were employed to assess the role of the different factors in the observed trends. The results show that the factors contributing to the increased risk of C-sections are (i) women residing in municipalities with indigenous population and municipalities with high HDIs, (ii) advanced schooling, (iii) frequent prenatal checkups, and (iv) deliveries occurring in private health clinics. Furthermore, C-sections might also be associated with prolonged hospital stays. The increasing frequency of C-sections among indigenous populations in Chiapas seems to be related to public policies aimed at reducing maternal mortality in Mexico. Therefore, public health policy needs to be revisited to ensure that reproductive rights are being respected.

  16. When Is a Cesarean Delivery Necessary and What Are the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cesarean may be necessary if a woman is pregnant with twins, including labor starting too early or the fetuses not being in good position within the uterus. The chances of having a cesarean increase with ...

  17. Hysteroscopy and suction evacuation of cesarean scar pregnancies: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of a pregnancy into the scar of a prior cesarean is an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be one in 1800-2216 pregnancies. The increase in the incidence of cesarean scar pregnancy is thought to be a consequence of the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. The natural history of cesarean scar pregnancy is unknown. However, if such a pregnancy is allowed to continue, uterine scar rupture with hemorrhage and possible hysterectomy seem likely. Two early diagnosed cesarean scar pregnancies were treated with hysteroscopy and suction curettage removal. One required intramuscular methotrexate to resolve a persistent cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. It would seem reasonable that simple suction evacuation would frequently leave chorionic villi imbedded within the cesarean scar, as the pregnancy is not within the endometrial cavity.

  18. A judicial rashomon: on ageism and narrative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel

    2012-03-01

    How are old people treated in courts? How do judges construct old age? To what extent judicial decisions regarding older persons reflect ageist attitudes? Historically, these questions have received relatively little attention in gerontological literature. This Israeli case-study tries to add a new dimension to the growing literature in the field of jurisprudential gerontology, in a context that so far received little attention: narrative justice. More specifically, this study combines a narrative-justice theoretical approach, with a legal case-study methodology, in order to explore the relationships between judicial narratives and ageism. The narrative analysis presented in this case study exposes how in contrast to common perception, which views legal decisions as objective and unimaginative texts, reality is different. The judicial case studied in this article exemplify how in real life, judges often construct a socio-judicial narrative, embellished by personal bias and prejudices regarding old age.

  19. 42 CFR 405.990 - Expedited access to judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... controversy. (1) If a provider or supplier is granted judicial review in accordance with this section, the... obligations issued for purchase by the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund for the month in... or suppliers under Medicare. ALJ Hearings...

  20. Judicial Review of Antitrust Decisions: Q&A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giovagnoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The RIA/IAR asked several experts to give their opinion on the Italian system of judicial review of antitrust decisions and its compatibility with art. 6 of the ECHR following a set of common questions.

  1. Judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... victims of oil spill and environmental degradation are often left without judicial remedies. ... victims of environmental degradation may continue to fuel militancy in the years ahead.

  2. Cesarean section in morbidly obese parturients: Practical implications and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovina SM Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has reached pandemic proportions across nations. Morbid obesity has a dramatic impact on pregnancy outcome. Cesarean section in these women poses many surgical, anesthetic, and logistical challenges. In view of the increased risk of cesarean delivery in morbidly obese women, the practical implications and complications are reviewed in this article. A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in english literature on cesarean section in morbidly obese women. The types of incisions and techniques used during cesarean delivery, intra-operative and postpartum complications, anesthetic and logistical issues, maternal morbidity and mortality were reviewed. Morbidly obese women with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 are at increased risk of pregnancy complications and a significantly increased rate of cesarean delivery. Low transverse skin incisions and transverse uterine incisions are definitely superior and must be the first option. Closure of the subcutaneous layer is recommended, but the placement of subcutaneous drains remains controversial. Thromboprophylaxis adjusted to body weight and prophylactic antibiotics help in reducing postpartum morbidity. Morbidly obese women are at increased risk of postpartum infectious morbidity. Weight reduction in the postpartum period and thereafter must be strongly encouraged for optimal future pregnancy outcomes and well-being.

  3. Sagittal venous sinus thrombosis after cesarean section: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is uncommon after cesarean section. Although it can be a leading cause of maternal mortality. CVT may occur during pregnancy because of hypercoagulable states such as preeclampsia, thrombophilias, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and sepsis.Case presentation: A 31 years old woman G2 Ab1 at 37 weeks gestational age with  premature rupture of membrane underwent cesarean section because breech presentation and preeclampsia. Spinal anesthesia was done for emergent cesarean section. On the second day after cesarean section, she developed headache, vomiting, focal neurologic deficits, paresthesia, blurred vision. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed thrombosis in anterior half of superior sagittal sinus. Treatment consisted of anticoagulation.  Conclusion: Thrombophilias, pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean section are the predisposing factors for thromboembolism. Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWs are effective drugs for thromboprophylaxis. It is vital to prevent venous thrombosis to reduce mortality during both intrapartum and postpartum periods. Consideration of cerebral venous thrombosis in similar cases is recommended.

  4. Niches after cesarean section in a population seeking hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Lucy Lucet F; Limperg, Tobias; Veersema, Sebastiaan; Timmermans, Anne; Bij de Vaate, A Marjolein J; Brölmann, Hans A M; Huirne, Judith A F

    2017-07-01

    To study the prevalence of hysteroscopically evaluated disruptions of the integrity of the uterine wall ('niches') in women with and without a previous cesarean section. A prospective cohort study was performed in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Women seeking hysteroscopic sterilization were included. A hysteroscopic evaluation of the anterior wall of the uterus and cervix to identify the existence of disruptions (niches) was performed in a standard manner. Primary outcome was the presence of a uterine niche, defined as any visible defect, disruption, or concavity (gap) in the anterior wall. Secondary outcome was to develop a registration form of niche features for hysteroscopic evaluation. In total, 713 women were included, 603 without and 110 with a previous cesarean section. In women with a previous cesarean Section 83 (75%) niches were observed using hysteroscopy. Anterior wall disruptions were not observed in women without a cesarean section. The following niche features were identified and incorporated in a registration form: polyps, cysts, myometrium defect, fibrotic tissue, (abnormal) vascular pattern, lateral branches, mucus production inside the defect, and bleeding. In a prospective cohort study among women undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization, a uterine niche could be detected by hysteroscopy in 75% of women with a previous cesarean section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Caseload Allocation and Special Judicial Skills: Finding the 'Right Judge'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wallace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Australian courts, as with those in most common law systems, value judicial officers who are generalists. Appointment to a court indicates that the appointee is capable of dealing impartially with all types of cases that come before it. However, caseload allocation processes within courts also recognize and value different skills or expertise that may be applied to particular types of cases or to particular judicial tasks. Our research investigates ways magistrates courts in Australia (first instance courts of general criminal and civil jurisdiction manage caseload allocation processes to match magistrates' skills and abilities to specific work demands within their general jurisdictions as well as to the demands of specialist lists and courts. The research draws on interview data collected from judicial officers and court staff involved in caseload allocation in four Australian jurisdictions. This research finds that these courts place a high value on the principle that ‘everyone should be able to do everything’ and the entitlement of individual judicial officers to a caseload that is balanced and fair in relation to their colleagues. However, this preference for generalist judicial officers can create tensions in relation to the need to staff specialist lists, and to sometimes use particular skills in the general lists. Despite the presumption of competence, those allocating generalist and specialist caseload take into account different skills and expertise in the judicial workforce in the allocation decisions. Preferences of judicial officers for particular types of work can also play a role. However, the process by which assessments are made about expertise is also less than transparent in many cases, and draws largely on informal sources of knowledge. Magistrates and court users may benefit from a more clearly defined and transparent process to identify and develop skills and expertise, and allocate caseload accordingly. Such a process

  6. Women's preference for cesarean delivery and differences between Taiwanese women undergoing different modes of delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of cesarean delivery was 35% in 2007 in Taiwan. It is unclear how many of the cesarean deliveries were without medical indications. Women's preference for cesarean delivery during their course of pregnancy has rarely been studied and therefore our objectives were to examine rate of cesarean deliveries without medical indications, to explore women's preference for cesarean delivery as their gestation advances, and to compare background and perinatal factors among women who underwent different modes of delivery in Taiwan. Methods This prospective study applied a longitudinal design. The study participants were 473 women who received prenatal care at four hospitals in Taipei and answered structured questionnaires at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy, 34 to 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 5 to 7 weeks after delivery. Results Of the 151 women (31.9%) who had cesarean deliveries, 19.9% were without medical indication. Three indications: malpresentation, prior cesarean section, and dysfunctional labor together accounted for 82.6% of cesarean section with medical indications. The prevalence of maternal preference for cesarean delivery was found to be 12.5% and 17.5% during the second and third trimester, respectively. Of the women who preferred cesarean delivery during the second trimester, 93.2% eventually had a cesarean delivery. Women who were older, with older spouses, and who had health problems before or during pregnancy were more likely to have cesarean deliveries. Conclusions About 20% of cesarean deliveries were without medical indications. Women's preference for cesarean delivery during the second trimester predicts subsequent cesarean delivery. Counseling regarding mode of delivery should be offered early in pregnancy, especially for women who are older or with older spouses, have health problems, or had a prior cesarean section. PMID:20504354

  7. Ceremony and Judicial Construction%仪式与司法建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣

    2012-01-01

    文章从人类学的仪式理论与实践出发,引入仪式在日常生活和在司法领域的表现及作用,从而阐明仪式对立统一的存在价值。其次,从陪审制度这一现代司法仪式的阻断功能、辅助司法权威功能以及稳定司法功能进行全景式考察,阐述陪审制度借助仪式这一载体而体现的独特价值。%Starting from the ritual theory and practice of anthropology,the article introduces the performance and function of ceremony in daily life and judicial field,and clarifies the value of the unity of opposites of ceremony.Then,the article makes a thorough investigation of the blocking function,the function of assisting judicial authority,and the function of stabilizing the justice of jury system,a modern judicial ceremony,and states the unique value of jury system with ceremony as its carrier.

  8. 论司法能动%On Judicial Activism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永福

    2012-01-01

    Judicial activism give judges the right to create rules on the condition that there are legal loopholes in laws or there is no precedent to follow.The judges of contemporary China should exert judicial activism,fully consider the factors of law,morality,policy,and economy in the process of judging,and make judicial decisions and other judicial activities more reasonable and be in line with the spirit of the law.Exerting judicial activism should follow certain rules and restrictions,not pure extreme judicial activism.%司法能动赋予法官在法律存在漏洞或无先例可循的情况下创制规则的权力。当代中国的法官应当发挥司法能动性,在裁决过程中充分考虑法律、道德、政策、经济等多种因素,使司法裁决等司法活动,更加符合理性,更加符合法律精神。司法能动的发挥应当遵循一定的规则和限制,而不是纯粹的极端司法能动主义。

  9. Outcome of subsequent delivery after a previous early preterm cesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwee, A.; Smink, M.; Laar, R. van; Bruinse, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) rate and risk of uterine rupture in women with a previous early preterm cesarean section. METHODS: Women who delivered their first child by cesarean section between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in a retrospective c

  10. Outcome of subsequent delivery after a previous early preterm cesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwee, A.; Smink, M.; Laar, R. van; Bruinse, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) rate and risk of uterine rupture in women with a previous early preterm cesarean section. METHODS: Women who delivered their first child by cesarean section between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in a retrospective

  11. Variation in cesarean section rates is not related to maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Alanen, Anna; Ekblad, Ulla; Vahlberg, Tero; Koivisto, Mari; Raudaskoski, Tytti; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Uotila, Jukka

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of cesarean sections in 12 delivery units in Finland, and to assess possible associations between cesarean section rates and maternal and neonatal complications. Prospective multicenter cohort study. The 12 largest delivery units in Finland. Total obstetric population between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2005 (n = 19 764). Prospectively collected data on 2496 cesarean sections and data derived from the Finnish Birth Register on all deliveries in these units were compared. Cesarean section rates and maternal complication rates were adjusted for known risk factors. Cesarean section rate, maternal complications related to cesarean section, and neonatal asphyxia. The cesarean section rates varied significantly between the hospitals (12.9-25.1%, p cesarean section (13.0-36.5%, p cesarean section rate. The differences remained after adjusting for risk factors. Neonatal asphyxia rates varied between 0.14 and 2.8% (p cesarean section rates. The rates of cesarean section, maternal complications and neonatal asphyxia vary markedly between different delivery units. Good maternal and neonatal outcomes can be achieved with cesarean section rates <15%. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Judicial Districts, Judicial District, Published in 1999, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Judicial Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1999. It is...

  13. Judicial Districts, nevada judicial districts, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Judicial Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'nevada...

  14. Time between skin incision and delivery during cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Jana N; Hall, David; Harvey, Justin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate factors influencing skin incision-to-delivery time (including sub-divisions thereof) and the effect of these surgical intervals on immediate neonatal outcome. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted of all women undergoing cesarean delivery at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from May 24 to November 2, 2010. Three surgical intervals were evaluated: skin incision to myometrium, myometrium to delivery, and skin incision to delivery. Neonatal outcome was assessed by the 5-minute Apgar score. Of 1120 cesarean deliveries recorded during the study period, 77.2% were emergency procedures, which were performed more quickly at all surgical planes (Pdelivery time was significantly extended among repeat procedures (Pdeliveries. Repeat procedures, adhesions, and obesity prolonged the time taken for cesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the effect of these factors on the 5-minute Apgar score was minimal. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Non-indicated cesarean section--does the "Golem" counteract?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Arie

    2011-11-01

    Cesarean section rate is steadily increasing and in Israel it has risen to 20%. MultipLe and different reasons have led to this phenomenon, among them are non-indicated cesarean sections. Although health care providers disagree whether this development is medically, ethically and publically justified, national associations allow it, while respecting those obstetricians who decline to do so. In Israel there are some hospitals which allow non-indicated cesarean sections, whereas others reject them. When discussing this issue with the patients, documentation is advised concerning the reasons for approval or rejection of the patients' request in order to avoid future complaints in the case of adverse outcome. Low risk vaginal delivery should be regarded as a natural process and not as a medical treatment and keeping balanced and reasonable decisions may help to contain the phenomenon and avoid a situation in which the "Golem" created by the medical system, counteracts.

  16. Elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M S; Roberts, W S; Fiorica, J V; Angel, J L; Finan, M A; Cavanagh, D

    1993-03-01

    From January 1, 1979, to March 31, 1991, 37 patients underwent elective cesarean hysterectomy for early cervical neoplasia. Thirty-four patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and three patients had stage IA-1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Twenty-eight were primary cesarean sections; nine had obstetric indications. The mean operative time was 128 minutes; mean estimated blood loss was 1,400 mL. One patient experienced an intraoperative hemorrhage (3,500 mL). There were no other recognized intraoperative complications. Four significant postoperative complications included a vaginal cuff abscess, a wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess, one patient with febrile morbidity and an ileus and ligation with partial transection of a ureter. Patients were discharged on a mean of postoperative day 5.7. Although significant complications occurred, we believe that the noncompliant nature of our patient population justifies elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia.

  17. The vanishing mother: Cesarean section and "evidence-based obstetrics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Claire L

    2007-06-01

    The philosophy of "evidence-based medicine"--basing medical decisions on evidence from randomized controlled trials and other forms of aggregate data rather than on clinical experience or expert opinion--has swept U.S. medical practice in recent years. Obstetricians justify recent increases in the use of cesarean section, and dramatic decreases in vaginal birth following previous cesarean, as evidence-based obstetrical practice. Analysis of pivotal "evidence" supporting cesarean demonstrates that the data are a product of its social milieu: The mother's body disappears from analytical view; images of fetal safety are marketing tools; technology magically wards off the unpredictability and danger of birth. These changes in practice have profound implications for maternal and child health. A feminist project within obstetrics is both feasible and urgently needed as one locus of resistance.

  18. Timing cervicovesical fistula repair with repeat cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Roxana; Hyakutake, Momoe T

    2014-08-01

    We present a case in which there was optimal management of recurrent cervicovesical fistula. The patient sustained a fistula shortly after a cesarean for cephalopelvic disproportion in the second stage. She underwent an unsuccessful attempt at vaginal repair 3 months postpartum and continued experiencing intermittent urinary leakage through the vagina. She expressed a wish for further childbearing and was counseled to undergo fistula repair at the time of repeat cesarean section. Twenty-seven months after her first delivery, she had a second healthy pregnancy and the repair of her cervicovesical fistula was performed with collagen graft interposition at the time of her elective cesarean section. This case report highlights the importance of surgical timing and comments on various factors that possibly enhance the success of the fistula repair.

  19. Classifications for cesarean section: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean section (CS rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1 identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2 analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14. Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9. Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14. Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8. CONCLUSIONS: This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this

  20. 42 CFR 405.1136 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... review. (a) General rules. (1) To the extent authorized by sections 1869, 1876(c)(5)(B), and 1879(d) of... other than the Secretary, the plaintiff will be notified that he or she has named an incorrect...

  1. Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the following book: Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013. pp. 364, 45.00 GBP (paperback. ISBN: 8757429154

  2. The Brazilian preference: cesarean delivery among immigrants in Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the country of origin affects the probability of being delivered by cesarean section when giving birth at public Portuguese hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Women delivered of a singleton birth (n = 8228, recruited from five public level III maternities (April 2005-August 2006 during the procedure of assembling a birth cohort, were classified according to the country of origin and her migration status as Portuguese (n = 7908, non-Portuguese European (n = 84, African (n = 77 and Brazilian (n = 159. A Poisson model was used to evaluate the association between country of birth and cesarean section that was measured by adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS: The cesarean section rate varied from 32.1% in non-Portuguese European to 48.4% in Brazilian women (p = 0.008. After adjustment for potential confounders and compared to Portuguese women as a reference, Brazilian women presented significantly higher prevalence of cesarean section (PR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.08-1.47. The effect was more evident among multiparous women (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.12-1.73 and it was observed when cesarean section was performed either before labor (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 0.99-2.06 or during labor (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.58. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cesarean section was significantly higher among Brazilian women and it was independent of the presence of any known risk factors or usual clinical indications, suggesting that cultural background influences the mode of delivery overcoming the expected standard of care and outcomes in public health services.

  3. Electronic Fetal Monitoring and Cesarean Birth: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; McElroy, Kathleen; Regan, Mary

    2016-12-01

    In many United States hospitals, electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is used continuously during labor for all patients regardless of risk status. Application of EFM, particularly at labor admission, may trigger a chain of interventions resulting in increased risk for cesarean birth among low-risk women. The goal of this review was to summarize evidence on use of EFM during low-risk labors and identify gaps in research. We conducted a scoping review of studies published in English since 1996 that addressed the relationship between EFM use and cesarean among low-risk women. We screened 57 full-text articles for appropriateness. Seven articles were included in the final review. The largest study demonstrated an 81 percent increased risk of primary cesarean birth when EFM was used in labor, but did not differentiate between high- and low-risk pregnancies. Four randomized controlled trials examined the association of admission EFM with obstetric outcomes; only one considered cesarean birth as a primary outcome and found a 23 percent increase in operative birth when EFM lasted more than 1 hour. A study examining application of continuous EFM before and after 4 centimeters dilatation found no differences between groups. In general, the research on this topic suggests an association between the use of EFM and cesarean birth; however, more well-designed studies are needed to examine benefits of EFM versus auscultation, determine if EFM is associated with use of other technologies that could cumulatively increase risk of cesarean birth, and understand provider motivation to use EFM over auscultation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cesarean section and offspring's risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete M; Bager, Peter; Stenager, Egon;

    2013-01-01

    Apart from a recent study reporting a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among women and men who were delivered by Cesarean section (C-section), little attention has been given to the possible association between mode of delivery and the risk of MS.......Apart from a recent study reporting a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among women and men who were delivered by Cesarean section (C-section), little attention has been given to the possible association between mode of delivery and the risk of MS....

  5. Cimetidine as pre-anesthetic agent for cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Storm, K; Holmskov, A

    1985-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study of 39 consecutive cesarean sections, 20 patients received cimetidine 400 mg intramuscularly as a pre-anesthetic, an 19 control patients were given NaCl. No perinatal effects on the infants were observed by cardiotocography before delivery, and K, Na, pH, PCO2, HCO......-3 and glucose values in capillary blood were nearly identical in the two groups 2 hours after birth, the difference being non-significant (p greater than 0.05). No respiratory effects or arrhythmias were observed. In another study comprising 8 elective cesarean sections in patients...

  6. Cesarean Delivery for a Life-threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, II; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Placental abruption is one of the major life-threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal delivery is not imminent. However, further studies are necessary before this could be recommended for routine clinical practice. PMID:27057388

  7. Effect of Social Factors on Cesarean Birth in Primiparous Women: A Cross Sectional Study (Social Factors and Cesarean Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can ONER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women.Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used.Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9-42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6-14.1] in university hospital; time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1-16.0]; doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8-8.95] and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0-4.7] have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women.Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures.Keywords: Cesarean sections, Primiparity, Social determinants, Epidemiology 

  8. Gestational weight gain, cesarean delivery, and cesarean delivery on maternal request: a cohort analysis of Chinese nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yubo B; Li, Hongtian T; Ye, Rongwei W; Li, Zhiwen W; Zhang, Yali L; Zhang, Le; Ren, Aiguo G; Liu, JianMeng M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and cesarean delivery including cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) among low-risk women. A total of 1,009,987 Chinese nulliparous women who delivered live term singletons during 1993-2010 were included. GWG, according to maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index-specified z-scores, was categorized into five groups: less than -1.2, -1.2 to less than -0.6, -0.6 to 0.6 (reference), more than 0.6 to 1.2, and more than 1.2. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). GWG was positively associated with overall cesarean and CDMR after adjusting for various confounders. Adjusted risk ratios for cesarean were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.82-0.85), 1.00, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.14-1.19), and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.29-1.35) in five ascending GWG categories, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.73), 0.80 (95% CI, 0.78-0.82), 1.00, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.18-1.23), and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.40-1.45) for CDMR. The graded positive associations were consistent across levels of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, and in strata defined by southern and/or northern provinces, urban and/or rural residence, maternal age at delivery, year of delivery, and level of delivering hospital. Even among low-risk women, higher GWG was monotonically associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery, indicating that limiting GWG could benefit to curb the rate of both medically necessary and unnecessary cesareans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 28 CFR 68.28 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge. 68... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Authority of Administrative Law Judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part,...

  10. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section...-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by...) Detect and assist in the prosecution of crimes in violation of the laws of the United States and to...

  11. Is non-directive counseling for patient choice cesarean delivery ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Robin B; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    The current controversy concerning patient choice cesarean delivery potentially affects all women of child-bearing age and the physicians who care for them. The purpose of this paper is to address three salient issues within the patient choice cesarean delivery controversy. First, is performing patient choice cesarean delivery consistent with good professional medical practice? Second, how should physicians respond to or counsel patients who request patient choice cesarean delivery? And, third, should patient choice cesarean delivery be routinely offered to all pregnant women?

  12. Interobserver variation in measurements of Cesarean scar defect and myometrium with 3D ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Duch; Glavind, Julie; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    -16 months after their first Cesarean section with 2D transvaginal sonography and had 3D volumes recorded. Two observers independently evaluated “off-line” each of the 3D volumes stored. Residual myometrial thickness (RMT) and Cesarean scar defect depth (D) was measured in the sagittal plane with an interval...... of Cesarean section scar size and residual myometrium needs further investigation.......Objectives: To evaluate the Cesarean scar defect depth and the residual myometrial thickness with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography concerning interobserver variation. Methods: Ten women were randomly selected from a larger cohort of Cesarean scar ultrasound evaluations. All women were examined 6...

  13. Cesarean delivery rates and obstetric culture - an Italian register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevani, Cristina; Incerti, Maddalena; Del Sorbo, Davide; Pintucci, Armando; Vergani, Patrizia; Merlino, Luca; Locatelli, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Cesarean delivery rates are rising due to multiple factors, including less use of operative vaginal delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, which often reflect local obstetric practices. Objectives of the study were to analyze the relations between cesarean delivery, these practices, and perinatal outcomes. We included all deliveries in the 72 hospitals of Lombardia, a region in northern Italy, during the year 2013. The delivery certificate was used as data source. Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We included 87 896 deliveries. The number of deliveries per hospital ranged from 140 to 6123. The rate of cesarean delivery was 28.3% (range 9.9-86.4%), operative vaginal delivery 4.7% (range 0.2-10.0%), and vaginal birth after cesarean 17.3% (range 0-79.2%). We found a significant inverse correlation between rates of overall cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery (r = -0.25, p = 0.04). The correlation between rate of overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean was also inverse and significant (r = -0.57, p cesarean delivery rate and the rates of Apgar score at 5 min cesarean delivery, could reduce the rising cesarean delivery rate. This will require a change in obstetric culture, continuing education of healthcare providers, and leadership. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Ensenyament pràctic en 3D: judici virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Escutia Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article descriu els resultats de l'aplicació de metaversos com a eina d'ensenyament en l'àmbit jurídic. L'activitat pedagògica realitzada s'ha dut a terme a través de la simulació d'un judici virtual a Second Life. L'enfocament donat a l'exercici del dret en un entorn virtual ha combinat les següents activitats: (1 l'anàlisi jurídica a través de fòrums de discussió, com una activitat obligatòria prèvia al judici. Aquesta tasca inicial es va dur a terme a través de la plataforma d'aprenentatge asincrònica en 2D Moodle (Aula Judicial; (2 el treball col.laboratiu a través de Google Docs per a preparar tots els documents legals pertinents (demanda, contestació i tramitació judicial; i (3 la immersió síncrona en una experiència 3D d'un judici a Second Life.

  15. Judicial System Restructuring and Modernization in Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Groo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a practical overview of the recently initiated modernization of Abu Dhabi’s judicial system. Beginning in 2007, Abu Dhabi’s Government launched a comprehensive effort to transform the Emirate’s judicial system. While the implementation of these reforms is ongoing, with the adoption of the law in May 2007 establishing the new judicial architecture the initial phase of the modernization program is already complete. The restructuring process encompasses court management and administration reform, a new judicial training regime, a redesigned organizational structure for the Emirate’s Judicial Department and courts, and the establishment of a system-wide strategic planning and budgeting process. Many of these initiatives are supported by applying advanced IT-based applications. Given the early achievements and ambitious broader aims of the restructuring process, Abu Dhabi’s example is relevant not only to the other Emirates within the Federal UAE system, but also within the context of the wider Middle East region.

  16. Obstetrician call schedule and obstetric outcomes among women eligible for a trial of labor after cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Liu, Lilly Y; Grobman, William A

    2017-01-01

    Reducing cesarean deliveries is a major public health goal. The low rate of vaginal birth after cesarean has been attributed largely to a decrease in the likelihood of choosing a trial of labor after cesarean, despite evidence suggesting a majority of women with 1 prior low transverse cesarean are trial of labor after cesarean candidates. Although a number of reasons for this decrease have been explored, it remains unclear how systems issues such as physician call schedules influence delivery approach and mode in this context. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between obstetricians' call schedule and obstetric outcomes among women eligible for a trial of labor after cesarean. This is a retrospective cohort study of the likelihood of attempting a trial of labor after cesarean and achieving vaginal birth after cesarean among women with 1 prior low transverse cesarean delivery and a term, cephalic singleton gestation based on the delivering provider's call schedule. Attending obstetrician call schedules were classified as traditional or night float call. Night float call was defined as a schedule in which the provider had clinical responsibilities only for a day or night shift, without other clinical responsibilities before or after the period of responsibility for laboring patients. Call schedules are determined by individual provider groups. Bivariable analyses and random-effects logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between obstetricians' call schedule and the frequency of trial of labor after cesarean. Secondary outcomes including frequency of vaginal birth after cesarean and maternal and neonatal outcomes also were assessed. Of 1502 eligible patients, 556 (37%) were delivered by physicians in a night float call system. A total of 22.6% underwent a trial of labor after cesarean and 12.8% achieved vaginal birth after cesarean; the vaginal birth after cesarean rate for women attempting a trial of labor after cesarean

  17. Which Factors Influence the Type of Delivery and Cesarean Section Rate in Women with Gestational Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inocêncio, Gonçalo; Braga, António; Lima, Tânia; Vieira, Bruna; Zulmira, Rosa; Carinhas, Maria; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Silva, Clara

    2015-01-01

    To discover the differences between women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered vaginally and those who delivered by cesarean section, and to assess the cesarean rate in this group of women. We divided all pregnant women with GDM into 2 groups: those who had vaginal delivery and those who gave birth by cesarean section (retrospective study of 6 years). We evaluated 460 births at term (≥ 37 weeks' gestation), for a total of 240 vaginal births and 220 cesarean births. All occurred in our institution. Of all the variables that were compared between the 2 groups, we found statistically significant differences (p cesarean section. Also, the initiation of insulin treatment at an early gestational age is associated with a higher chance of a woman delivering by cesarean section. The cesarean section rate in women with GDM was 47.8%.

  18. After "Fisher": Academic Review and Judicial Scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Noue, George R.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of the case "Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin," in which the plaintiff had accused the University of Texas (UT) of racial discrimination in the admission process. The author believes that the ruling of the court in this case makes it harder to hide race-based measures used in college admissions.…

  19. Comparison of Subcuticular Suture Materials in Cesarean Skin Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Solmaz Hasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Comparison of the rate of wound complications, pain, and patient satisfaction based on used subcuticular suture material. Methods. A total of 250 consecutive women undergoing primary and repeat cesarean section with low transverse incision were prospectively included. The primary outcome was wound complication rate including infection, dehiscence, hematoma, and hypertrophic scar formation within a 6-week period after operation. Secondary outcomes were skin closure time, the need for use of additional analgesic agent, pain score on numeric rating scale, cosmetic score, and patient scar satisfaction scale. Results. Absorbable polyglactin was used in 108 patients and nonabsorbable polypropylene was used in 142 patients. Wound complication rates were similar in primary and repeat cesarean groups based on the type of suture material. Skin closure time is longer in nonabsorbable suture material group in both primary and repeat cesarean groups. There was no difference between groups in terms of postoperative pain, need for additional analgesic use, late phase pain, and itching at the scar. Although the cosmetic results tended to be better in the nonabsorbable group in primary surgery patients, there was no significant difference in the visual satisfaction of the patients. Conclusions. Absorbable and nonabsorbable suture materials are comparable in cesarean section operation skin closure.

  20. Cesarean section and disease associated with immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Stokholm, Lonny Merete

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that delivery by cesarean section (CS) is associated with an increased risk of disease associated with immune function in the offspring, but these studies have generally not discriminated between the effect of acute and elective CS. OBJECTIVE: We sought to f...

  1. Risk of Asthma from Cesarean Delivery Depends on Membrane Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childh......OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma...... in Childhood2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma was diagnosed prospectively by physicians at the research site, and associations with cesarean delivery were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. From the Danish national prospective registry we included data from 1997......-2010. Childhood asthma was defined from recurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids filled at pharmacies. Cesarean delivery was classified as either before or after rupture of membranes, and the risk of asthma was compared with vaginal delivery. Results were adjusted stepwise for age and calendar year, sex, birth...

  2. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of incision healing after cesarean sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, O. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Kuecuekler, C. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Pirnar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Erata, Y. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Posaci, C. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the healing period of incision scar in myometrial wall and the normal pelvis after cesarean sections by means of MRI. In this study 17 voluntary women were examined after their first delivery with cesarean section in the early postpartum period (first 5 days), and following this, three more times in 3-month intervals. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.0-T system (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), and sagittal T1-weighted (550/17 TR/TE) and T2-weighted (2000/80 TR/TE) spin-echo (SE) images of the pelvis were obtained. During follow-up examinations incision scar tissues lost their signals within the first 3 months on both SE sequences, and little alteration was observed in the subsequent tests. Zonal anatomy of the uterus reappeared completely 6 months after cesarean sections. The time for the involution of the uterus was independent of the zonal anatomy recovery, and the maximum involution was inspected within the first 3 months. In conclusion, the maturation time of myometrial scar tissue in uncomplicated cesarean sections, which can be evaluated by the signal alterations in MRI, is approximately 3 months, whereas the complete involution and the recovery of the zonal anatomy need at least 6 months. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  4. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;

    Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...

  5. Cesarean Delivery, Overweight throughout Childhood, and Blood Pressure in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; De Jongste, Johan C; Van Rossem, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children delivered by cesarean had a higher risk of being overweight from early until late childhood and whether they had a higher blood pressure in adolescence compared with children delivered vaginally. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from a Dutch birth cohort study

  6. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  7. How important is the butyrylcholinesterase level for cesarean section?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inangil, Gökhan; Deniz, Suleyman; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Keskin, Ugur; Bakal, Omer; Sen, Huseyin; Ozkan, Sezai; Kurt, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), commonly known as pseudocholinesterase or non-neural cholinesterase, hydrolyzes neuromuscular blocker agents containing choline esters such as succinylcholine that is widely used in rapid sequence induction (RSI) for general anesthesia. The aim of this study is to compare plasma BChE levels and investigate the affects and relationship of succinylcholine on BChE levels in preeclamptic, gestational diabetic and healthy pregnants. We designed a prospective, controlled, pilot single-center study. Thirty (n=30) pregnant women who were scheduled for cesarean section under general anesthesia (refusal of regional anesthesia) with RSI involved. Group 1 included ten (n=10) preeclamptic pregnancies, Group 2 included ten (n=10) gestational diabetic (GD) pregnancies and Group 3 included ten (n=10) healthy pregnancies. BChE levels of all patients were measured prior to the initiation of cesarean section. Train-of-four recovery of 90% (TOF T1) was used to monitor the degree of neuromuscular block beginning from the administration of succinylcholine. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups comparing BChE levels and the duration between tracheal intubation and formation of TOF T1 (p>0.05). As similar results were gathered from normal and high-risk pregnancies (preeclamptic pregnancy or gestational diabetic pregnancy) who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia, we believe that succinylcholine is still neuromuscular agent of choice in cesarean section. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Amnioinfusion among women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, T H; Vega, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M J; Feldman, D B; Koemptgen, J G

    1992-05-01

    Eighteen of 901 women (2%) attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) received amnioinfusion. No untoward effects occurred in the subjects or their fetuses. We conclude that, though amnioinfusion in the setting of a VBAC attempt is needed only infrequently, it appears to be a reasonable intrapartum management option. The usual safeguards for a VBAC attempt should be followed.

  9. Non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Schantz, A L; Toftager-Larsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A case of non-obstructive cecal dilatation and perforation after cesarean section is reported, with a review of the literature on the diagnosis and management of this entity. Fifteen cases have been described. Attention is called to this rare complication and to the accompanying pseudo...

  10. O Poder Judicial na sociedade livre The Judiciary in a free society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos dias atuais multiplicam-se as discussões em torno da "crise da justiça". Porém, nas sociedades modernas esta expressão (independentemente do seu conteúdo concreto designa especificamente a crise da justiça democrática e liberal ou, pode-se ainda dizer, a crise do poder judicial na sociedade democrática e liberal. Assim, qualquer discussão acerca da "crise da justiça" parece exigir um enquadramento contextual que ajude a clarificar o lugar ocupado pelo poder judicial em sociedades como as nossas. O propósito deste artigo consiste em contribuir para elucidar qual é, do ponto de vista político e constitucional, esse contexto. A perspectiva da História do Pensamento Político é considerada como a mais útil, na medida em que permite aceder à origem dos fundamentos intelectuais que estruturam não só o poder judicial moderno, mas a sociedade moderna como um todo. Neste artigo, John Locke e Montesquieu aparecem como dois autores incontornáveis por terem dado um contributo indelével para essa dupla estruturação.There is increasing debate about the "crisis of the judiciary", although in modern societies this expression (independent from its concrete content specifically designates the crises of liberal democratic justice, or, it could be said, the crises of the judiciary in liberal and democratic society. Thus, any discussion about the "crisis of the judiciary" appears to demand a contextual framing that helps to clarify the place occupied by the judicial branch in societies such as ours. This article seeks to elucidate this context, from the political and constitutional point of view. The perspective of the History of Political Thinking is considered the most useful, to the degree to which it points to the origin of the intellectual foundation not only of modern judicial power, but of modern society as a whole. In this article, John Locke and Montesquieu are presented as two essential authors because they have made an indelible

  11. Cesarean section trends in the Nordic Countries - a comparative analysis with the Robson classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Bergholt, Thomas; Rasmussen, Steen C; Smárason, Alexander; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Másdóttir, Birna B; Källén, Karin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Tapper, Anna-Maija

    2017-05-01

    The cesarean rates are low but increasing in most Nordic countries. Using the Robson classification, we analyzed which obstetric groups have contributed to the changes in the cesarean rates. Retrospective population-based registry study including all deliveries (3 398 586) between 2000 and 2011 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Robson group distribution, cesarean rate and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed nationally for four 3-year time periods. For each country, we analyzed which groups contributed to the change in the total cesarean rate. Between the first and the last time period studied, the total cesarean rates increased in Denmark (16.4 to 20.7%), Norway (14.4 to 16.5%) and Sweden (15.5 to 17.1%), but towards the end of our study, the cesarean rates stabilized or even decreased. The increase was explained mainly by increases in the absolute contribution from R5 (women with previous cesarean) and R2a (induced labor on nulliparous). In Finland, the cesarean rate decreased slightly (16.5 to 16.2%) mainly due to decrease among R5 and R6-R7 (breech presentation, nulliparous/multiparous). In Iceland, the cesarean rate decreased in all parturient groups (17.6 to 15.3%), most essentially among nulliparous women despite the increased induction rates. The increased total cesarean rates in the Nordic countries are explained by increased cesarean rates among nulliparous women, and by an increased percentage of women with previous cesarean. Meanwhile, induction rates on nulliparous increased significantly, but the impact on the total cesarean rate was unclear. The Robson classification facilitates benchmarking and targeting efforts for lowering the cesarean rates. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pprevia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Prior Prelabor or Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery and Risk of Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Albert, Paul S.; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery prior to onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002–2010) with restriction to the first two singleton deliveries of women nulliparous at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as 1) vaginal (reference); 2) cesarean delivery prior to labor onset (prelabor); or 3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by prior delivery mode using logistic regression and adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, co-morbidities, prior pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Results The majority of first deliveries were vaginal (82%, n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%, n=3,931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%, n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by prior delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pprevia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.24–5.56]). There was no significant association between prior intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa [adjusted odds ratio, 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.68–2.19)]. Conclusion Prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a more than two-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, while the approximately 20% increased risk of previa associated with prior intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after prior prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering non-medically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. PMID:25576818

  14. ¿Puede demandarse el Divorcio, cuando ya se ha debatido y resuelto judicialmente la Separación Judicial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Baraona González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se plantea el efecto que tiene una sentencia que se ha pronunciado sobre una separación judicial en la nueva Ley de Matrimonio Civil, de cara a la posibilidad de iniciar, fundado en los mismos hechos, un juicio de divorcio. El autor concluye que la sentencia judicial que decreta la separación tiene un efecto preclusivo sobre la futura acción de divorcio intentada por los mismos hechos. En el artículo se revisa la historia de la de aprobación de las normas y se analiza el panorama en derecho comparado, en países en que existe tanto separación como.This paper examines the effect of a judicial resolution that has accepted the separation, according to the new Ley de Matrimonio Civil, in relation with the possibility to begin a divorce trial in the future, pleading the same facts. The author concludes that the judicial resolution has precluded the divorce action supported in the same facts. The paper offers the approving history of the Act and a comparative law survey, in the countries that have in their marriage law, separation and divorce.

  15. [The outcome of trial of labor after cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z Q; Ma, R M; Xiao, H; Tian, Y Q; Li, B L; Liang, K; Du, M Y; Chen, Z; Geng, L; Yang, M H; Tao, Y P; Zhu, B

    2016-10-25

    Objective: To explore the outcome of trial of labor after cesarean section(TOLAC). Methods: Totally 614 TOLAC were conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from July 2013 to June 2016. Among them, 586 cases of singleton pregnancy with one prior cesarean section(gestational age≥28 weeks)were studied retrospectively. The maternal and neonatal outcomes among the vaginal birth after cesarean(VBAC)group(481 cases), failed TOLAC group(105 cases)and the elective repeat cesarean section(ERCS)group(1 145 cases)were compared. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors of admission to neonatal intensive care unit(NICU). Results: (1)The TOLAC rate was 29.62%(614/2 073)from July 2013 to June 2016, and the VBAC rate was 82.6%(507/614). The cesarean section rate was reduced by VBAC by 3.147%(507/16 112).(2)The comparison of adverse maternal outcomes: in the VBAC group, the postpartum hemorrhage volume was(431±299)ml, the rate of postpartum fever was 6.4%(31/481), the birth weight of the neonates was(3 085± 561)g, and the rate of large for gestational age was 2.9%(14/481). All were significantly lower than those in the failed TOLAC group and the ERCS group(P0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed no association between VBAC and admission to the NICU(OR=0.84, 95%CI: 0.58-1.21). The isolated risk factors for admission to the NICU were preterm birth(OR=16.71, 95% CI: 11.44-24.40), hypertensive disorder complicating pregnamcy(OR=3.89, 95% CI: 2.39-6.35), meconium stained amniotic fluid(OR=2.48, 95% CI: 1.62-3.80), small for gestational age(OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.19-3.36)and diabetes mellitus(OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.14-2.50). Conclusions: VBAC reduces cesarean section rate, with good outcomes in both mother and neonate. It is a safe and feasible way of labor in women with only one cesarean section history.

  16. The Movement Strategy in Taiwan’s Judicial Independence Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-shou Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Judicial independence reform in Taiwan was pioneered by a group of reform-spirited judges from Room 303 of the Taichung (台中, Taizhong District Court, in 1993. Rather than joining the mass movement that was unfolding on the streets, the reformers formed a coalition with other judges to trigger reform from within the judiciary. The reformers appealed to the rule of law and democracy as a movement strategy for mobilization. As a result, the movement strategy turned out to be a great success, and Room 303 became the chief engine for further judicial reforms in subsequent years. However, the movement strategy in itself also presents some limitations. This paper examines why the movement strategy was successful and how its limitations eventually created problems that hinder further judicial reforms in Taiwan.

  17. The judicial domain in view Figures, trends and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Loth

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to describe the most relevant social tendencies that can influence the Dutch judicial system’s domain in the medium term and to evaluate the possible effects of these tendencies on the composition of legal fields. American legal theory concerning the role of the courts’ functions is a frame of reference for the analysis. In the light of a quantitative paradigm, first, the judicial domain is represented in figures and demarcated with respect to the domains of other relevant activities and participants. The social role of courts in the Dutch legal system is then considered in the light of a qualitative paradigm, focusing on the influence of the judge and the impact of his judgments. These lines of thought are brought together in the description of a few possible scenarios for the development of the judicial domain in the Netherlands in the years to come. A few conclusions round off this investigation.

  18. Justicia sin la Rama Judicial: Estado de Derecho y desigualdad como desafios para el fortalecimiento de la democracia brasilera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Lemus Nelson.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author argues that the scant existence of state agencies equipped to carry out legal actions in Brazil - described by Guillermo O’Donnell as the inoperance of accountability - is attributable to the weakness of the state of law in this country. The implications of a weak state of law for the quality and sustainability of democracy in Brazil are analyzed in two of the most grave cases of judicial impunity: racial discrimination and public security.

  19. Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabsh Khalil MA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery is traditionally discouraged because of the risk of hemorrhage. A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine whether myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery leads to an increased incidence of intrapartum and short-term postpartum complications. Methods A computer search of medical records from May 1991 to April 2001 identified a total of 111 women who underwent myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery and 257 women with documented fibroids during the index pregnancy who underwent cesarean delivery alone. Charts were reviewed for the following outcome variables: change in hematocrit from preoperative to postoperative period, length of operation, length of postpartum stay, incidence of postpartum fever, and incidence of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was defined as a change in hematocrit of 10 points or the need for intraoperative blood transfusion. Results The incidence of hemorrhage in the study group was 12.6% as compared with 12.8% in the control group (p = 0.95. There was also no statistically significant increase in the incidence of postpartum fever, operating time, and length of postpartum stay. No patient in either group required hysterectomy or embolization. Size of fibroid did not appear to affect the incidence of hemorrhage. After stratifying the procedures by type of fibroid removed, intramural myomectomy was found to be associated with a 21.2% incidence of hemorrhage compared with 12.8% in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. This study had 80% power to detect a two-fold increase in the overall incidence of hemorrhage. Conclusion In selected patients, myomectomy during cesarean delivery does not appear to result in an increased risk of intrapartum or short-term postpartum morbidity.

  20. Cesarean and VBAC rates among immigrant vs. native-born women: a retrospective observational study from Taiwan Cesarean delivery and VBAC among immigrant women in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Cultural and ethnic roots impact women's fertility and delivery preferences This study investigated whether the likelihood of cesarean delivery, primary cesarean, and vaginal delivery after cesarean (VBAC) varies by maternal national origin. Methods We conducted a nation-wide, population-based, observational study using secondary data from Taiwan. De-identified data were obtained on all 392,246 singleton live births (≥500 g; ≥20 weeks) born to native-born Taiwanese, Vietnamese and mainland Chinese-born mothers between January 1 2006 and December 31 2007 from Taiwan's nation-wide birth certificate data. Our analytic samples consisted of the following: for overall cesarean likelihood 392,246 births, primary cesarean 336,766 (excluding repeat cesarean and VBAC), and VBAC 55,480 births (excluding primary cesarean and vaginal births without previous cesarean). Our main outcome measures were the odds of cesarean delivery, primary cesarean delivery and VBAC for Vietnamese and Chinese immigrant mothers relative to Taiwanese mothers, using multiple regression analyses to adjust for maternal and neonatal characteristics, paternal age, institutional setting, and major obstetric complications. Results Unadjusted overall cesarean, primary cesarean, and VBAC rates were 33.9%, 23.0% and 4.0% for Taiwanese, 27.6%, 20.1% and 5.0% for mainland Chinese, and 19.3%, 13.9 and 6.1% for Vietnamese respectively. Adjusted for confounders, Vietnamese mothers were less likely than native-born Taiwanese to have overall and primary cesarean delivery (OR = 0.59 and 0.58 respectively), followed by Chinese mothers (both ORs = 0.90 relative to native-born Taiwanese). Vietnamese mothers were most likely to have successful VBAC (OR = 1.58), followed by Chinese mothers (OR = 1.25). Conclusion Immigrant Vietnamese and Chinese mothers have lower odds of cesarean and higher VBAC odds than native-born Taiwanese, consistent with lower cesarean rates prevailing in their home countries

  1. Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary......, ECtHR and IACHR. It is found that the threat of governmental noncompliance and the strength of the constituency possessed by an IC have the most explanatory power, although there is still a significant residual that can only be explained by looking at factors relating to judicial choices and agency....

  2. Cooperación judicial penal en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Ruano, Miguel; González Vega, Ignacio U.; Moreno Catena, Víctor; Arnáiz Serrano, Amaya

    2013-01-01

    Directores: Miguel Carmona Ruano, Ignacio U. González Vega, Víctor Moreno Catena. Coordinadora: Amaya Arnáiz Serrano Unión Europea Evolución de la Cooperación Judicial Penal Internacional: en especial, la Cooperación Judicial Penal en Europa / Amaya Arnáiz Serrano. -- El cambio de paradigma y el principio de reconocimiento mutuo y sus implicaciones. Perspectivas del Tratado de Lisboa / Víctor Moreno Catena. -- El fortalecimiento de la confianza mutua: garantías procesales del imputad...

  3. [Anencephaly: the magnitude of the judicial authorization among medical doctors in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Penalva, Janaína; Faúndes, Aníbal; Rosas, Cristião

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the magnitude of the medical care for pregnant women with an anencephalic fetus. Anencephaly is an abnormality incompatible with life. The right to abort in this case is under litigation at the Brazilian Supreme Court. This survey was conducted among 1,814 medical doctors, all of them affiliated to the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Febrasgo), corresponding to 12% of the doctors within this federation. The results show that, in a group of 9,730 women cared by the physicians over the last 20 years, 85% preferred to interrupt pregnancy in case of anencephaly. This fact reveals how common the experience of assist women pregnant with an anencephalic fetus is in health care services, as well as the ethical challenge imposed by the restrictive Brazilian legislation on abortion.

  4. Effect of Social Factors on Cesarean Birth in Primiparous Women: A Cross Sectional Study (Social Factors and Cesarean Birth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONER, Can; CATAK, Binali; SÜTLÜ, Sevinç; KILINÇ, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women. Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used. Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9–42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6–14.1] in university hospital); time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1–16.0]); doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8–8.95]) and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0–4.7]) have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women. Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures. PMID:27648420

  5. El uso de la información judicial (The use of judicial information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmar Gessner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Los datos empíricos de juzgados y sistemas judiciales se analizan con mucha frecuencia tanto en estudios comparativos, como en estudios económicos y sociológicos, sin embargo, los agentes implicados en proyectos de reformas judiciales como jueces, profesores de derecho, funcionarios o políticos no hacen un uso adecuado de los mismos. Este artículo sugiere que esto tiene un origen estructural, que asigna roles sociales diferentes a estos actores. Una solución puede ser la creación de centros de investigación especializados. Una aproximación más amplia, plural y democrática es buscar la transparencia en internet, dando acceso al público general a todo tipo de documentos, incluyendo estadísticas judiciales y estudios empíricos. Se han visitado y categorizado en función de su contenido gran número de páginas web de juzgados, para conocer el nivel de transparencia judicial. Las primeras posiciones en cuanto al nivel de transparencia lo han obtenido algunas páginas anglosajonas, que ofrecían información legal, económica, organizacional y empírica, y que además ofrecían ayuda para utilizar estos datos. Sin embargo, este esfuerzo no alcanza su objetivo si la información no se utiliza. Si se quiere medir el uso real de los contenidos de las páginas judiciales no es suficiente con contar su número de visitas, sino que es necesario conocer más sobre las motivaciones que generan esas visitas. Afortunadamente, se ha encontrado un sitio web (mexicano que ofrece información sobre los visitantes: sus preocupaciones, su “historia” e incluso sus nombres y (en ocasiones su lugar de residencia. Estas peticiones se han evaluado cuidadosamente, y se analizan en este artículo. Se ha descubierto que hay una gran demanda de información empírica sobre los juzgados y las prácticas judiciales. La transparencia en internet parece ser una solución, aunque todavía se deben explorar las mejores formas de ofrecer la información judicial

  6. Rate of cesarean delivery at hospitals providing emergency obstetric care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad T; Yoshimura, Yukie

    2015-01-01

    To assess the rate of cesarean delivery and its indications at public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) hospitals in a district in Bangladesh. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data were extracted from the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project database and operation theater registers for cesarean deliveries at three district and three subdistrict EmOC hospitals in Narsingdi between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Information on cesarean deliveries and their indications, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed descriptively. Among 3329 deliveries, 1075 (32.3%) occurred by cesarean. The frequency of cesarean delivery ranged from 17.8% (147 of 824 deliveries) to 56.3% (174 of 309) among the six hospitals. Information on indications was available for 1043 cesarean deliveries. The main indications were previous cesarean delivery (251 deliveries, 24.1%), fetal distress (228, 21.9%), and prolonged or obstructed labor (214, 20.5%). There were no maternal deaths, but 10 (1.0%) cesarean deliveries resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate of cesarean delivery was high at EmOC hospitals. Interventions to improve decision making and limit possible unnecessary cesarean operations are needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Cesarean section delivery at Nova Bila Hospital according to the Robson classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipović, Ljiljana Bilobrk; Stojkanović, Jadranka Dizdarević; Brković, Irma

    2015-03-01

    An increase in Cesarean section birth rate is evident worldwide, especially in developed and developing countries. Since this trend is rapidly gaining epidemic status with unpredictable consequences regarding the reproductive and overall women's health, there is a need for systematic collection and analysis of Cesarean section occurrence data. At this moment, there is no standardized, internationally accepted classification that would be easy to understand and simple to apply. In 2001, Robson Cesarean section classification in ten groups, which might satisfy good classification criteria, was published. In this paper, we have retrospectively collected and sorted the data on Cesarean section births from the "Dr. Fra Mato Nikolić" Croatian Hospital in Nova Bila, according to Robson classification, for the period from January 1st, 1998 to December 31st, 2007. During this period, 6603 women have given birth. Of these, 1010 opted for Cesarean sec- tion (15.30%). The largest group of women giving birth belongs to group 3 (multiparous, single pregnancy, head down, 37 weeks gestation age or more, spontaneous labor), where 49.74% of all the analyzed births belong. The largest group for those with Cesarean sections is group 5 (previous Cesarean section) with 26.93% of all the Cesarean sections. Our results are similar to the results of studies done elsewhere in the world. Robson classification identifies the risk groups with high Cesarean section percentage and is appropriate for long-term tracking and international comparison of the recognized increase of the Cesarean section trend.

  8. Risk factors for incomplete healing of the uterine incision after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Han, Ping; Wang, Yi-Jia; Li, Yan-Xia

    2017-08-01

    To analyze related risk factors of post-cesarean scar defects (PCSDs). A retrospective study of full-term women delivered by cesarean with singleton infants at our hospital from April 2014 to December 2015 was performed. 69 cases of diagnosed PCSDs and 107 cases with no PCSD who accepted cesarean were recruited for analysis. Individual medical case and operative report review were retrieved for maternal clinical characteristics analysis. There was no difference in age, gestational age, BMI and baby's weight between the two groups. PCSD group has more cases of anemia, higher neutrophil percentage and more cases of elected cesarean and emergency cesarean than controls (all p cesarean, there were more cases with cervix dilated larger than 3 cm in operation and more cases received cesarean at least one time before. In addition, women with cesarean interval of at least 5 years, women with ultrasonic measured echo longer than 3 cm, women with poor healing in uterine incision, women with retroposition of uterus and women who had intrauterine separation are more prone to develop PCSDs. The occurrence of a defective uterine scar after cesarean section is primarily a by-product of the combination of multiple factors: age ≥30 years, BMI ≥27.30, premature rupture of membranes, elective cesarean section, post-operative anemia, WBC count ≥12.5 × 10(9) g/L and retroposition of uterus. These are high risk factors of PCSDs.

  9. Prevalence, Disparities, And Determinants Of Primary Cesarean Births Among First-Time Mothers In Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Thornton, Dorothy; Walker, Dilys; Harvey, Michael; Walsh, Julia; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Mexico has the second-highest prevalence of cesarean deliveries in the Americas, behind Brazil. Having had a previous cesarean delivery is highly predictive of having subsequent cesarean deliveries, yet evidence on the drivers of primary (that is, first-time) cesarean deliveries is sparse. Using 2014 Mexican birth certificate data and performing population-level analyses of data on 600,124 first-time mothers giving birth after at least thirty-seven weeks of gestation, we examined the prevalence and determinants of primary cesarean deliveries. We found a very high prevalence of cesarean deliveries among these women-48.7 percent-and wide variations across insurance coverage types. Enrollees in Seguro Popular, the public health insurance program introduced in 2003 for the previously uninsured and gradually rolled out nationally, had a cesarean rate of 40 percent, while women insured through the Social Security Institute for Civil Servants had a rate of 78 percent. The lower risk of primary cesarean deliveries among Seguro Popular enrollees persisted after adjustment for covariates. Rates of primary cesarean deliveries were particularly high in private birthing facilities for all first-time mothers. Reducing the rate of cesarean deliveries in Mexico will require interventions across types of insurance and birthing facilities and will also require targeted public health messaging. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart H - Delegation of Authority Respecting Denials of Freedom of Information and Privacy Act Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of Authority Respecting Denials of Freedom of Information and Privacy Act Requests Appendix to Subpart H Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Pt. 0, Subpt. H,...

  11. Judicious Discipline: Citizenship Values as a Framework for Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Barbara

    When teaching moral education, the ethical dilemma often faced by educators revolves around the question of whose morals should be taught. Judicious Discipline, a constitutional model for classroom management, proposes to answer this question by offering educators the opportunity to teach the moral standards of the U.S. democratic system of…

  12. Building Coalitions for Change : Venezuela Judicial Infrastructure Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Government of Venezuela urgently requested assistance from the World Bank to combat corruption, improve the business climate, and create a sense of transparency and involvement of civil society in state matters. The country's judicial system was identified as the institution in which to begin such reforms, because it was widely perceived as lacking credibility and e...

  13. Judicial Decisions in the Field of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents a selection of summaries of recent judicial decisions in a number of countries concerninq the application of general legal principles to contracts of employment, acquired rights, liability of employers and workers, access to employment, nature of the employment relationship, and more. (Editor/CT)

  14. Legal and Judicial Problems in Mandating Equal Time for Creationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    This paper, presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Biology Teachers, is focused on legal and judicial problems in mandating equal time for creationism. Past events provide evidence that legislation, policies, and local resolutions that require science textbooks and curricula to include the Genesis account of creation are…

  15. Judicial Decisions in the Field of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents a selection of summaries of recent judicial decisions in a number of countries concerninq the application of general legal principles to contracts of employment, acquired rights, liability of employers and workers, access to employment, nature of the employment relationship, and more. (Editor/CT)

  16. 26 CFR 301.6363-4 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judicial review. 301.6363-4 Section 301.6363-4... review. (a) General rule. If the Secretary or his delegate determines pursuant to paragraph (c) of § 301... a petition for the review of such determination with either the United States Court of Appeals...

  17. Structuring Judicial Discretion in China: Exploring the 2014 Sentencing Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Roberts (Julian V.); W. Pei (Wei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, a range of western jurisdictions has introduced reforms designed to restrict and guide judicial discretion at sentencing. The reforms enacted include mandatory sentencing laws and guiding statutes prescribing sentencing purposes and principles as well as important aggrav

  18. Judicial review of Shaik's medical parole a viable option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Loammi Wolf

    2005-06-02

    Jun 2, 2005 ... are part of the judicial branch to the other extreme of their being part of the executive, ... prosecutors in Bad Kreuznach, who refused to drop charges against ..... administrative action to the exercise of a public power, Wiechers ...

  19. Judicial judgement-making and legal criteria of testimonial credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Seijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Judicial judgement-making in legal and forensic settings is characterised by the information loss model. In comparison to formal reasoning styles, in which information is processed in detail, judicial reasoning styles are mainly informal. Moreover, the experimental literature regarding judges and juries has revealed that reliability is the corner stone of legal judgement-making in legal contexts. This study aims to assess the underlying legal criteria assigned to the credibility of testimonies by judges by evaluating the court archives of judicial judgements in which the verdict rested entirely on the credibility of testimonies. Moreover, given the prevalence of informal reasoning in this context, an analysis was undertaken to determine the use of heuristics which are indicative of informal reasoning. In addition, an analysis of the interaction of both variables and their effect on joint decision-making by legal experts and lay people was assessed. Finally, bearing in mind the limitations of this study, the results are discussed in terms of their implications in the evaluation of testimonial credibility in judicial proceedings.

  20. 41 CFR 105-70.042 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 105-70.042 Section 105-70.042 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  1. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  2. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients' Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status…

  3. Methodologies for Measuring Judicial Performance: The Problem of Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about gender and racial bias in the survey-based evaluations of judicial performance common in the United States have persisted for decades. Consistent with a large body of basic research in the psychological sciences, recent studies confirm that the results from these JPE surveys are systematically biased against women and minority judges. In this paper, we explain the insidious manner in which performance evaluations may be biased, describe some techniques that may help to reduce expressions of bias in judicial performance evaluation surveys, and discuss the potential problem such biases may pose in other common methods of performance evaluation used in the United States and elsewhere. We conclude by highlighting the potential adverse consequences of judicial performance evaluation programs that rely on biased measurements. Durante décadas ha habido una preocupación por la discriminación por género y racial en las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial basadas en encuestas, comunes en Estados Unidos. De acuerdo con un gran corpus de investigación básica en las ciencias psicológicas, estudios recientes confirman que los resultados de estas encuestas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial están sistemáticamente sesgados contra las mujeres y los jueces de minorías. En este artículo se explica la manera insidiosa en que las evaluaciones de rendimiento pueden estar sesgadas, se describen algunas técnicas que pueden ayudar a reducir las expresiones de sesgo en los estudios de evaluación del rendimiento judicial, y se debate el problema potencial que estos sesgos pueden plantear en otros métodos comunes de evaluación del rendimiento utilizados en Estados Unidos y otros países. Se concluye destacando las posibles consecuencias adversas de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial que se basan en mediciones sesgadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533937

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma having Reduction and ... Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis in a ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report ... Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ... Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Case Study

  7. 媒体监督对司法活动的影响%The Influence of Media Supervision upon Judicial Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中相

    2013-01-01

    媒体监督司法活动,可以有效的保证司法的公平正义,但是当由媒体监督滑向媒体审判时,这将严重影响司法独立和司法公正。之所以会产生这种现象,究其原因是倡导言论自由的新闻媒体与强调司法独立的司法审判活动是一对天然的矛盾,司法独立对媒体监督具有排斥性,而媒体监督对司法独立具有天然的侵犯性。文章尝试着分析媒体监督对司法活动的影响,并试图找出协调二者之间矛盾的方案。%That the media supervises judicial activities can ensure judicial fairness and justice effectively. However, if the media changes from supervision to monitoring, the judicial independence and justice can be seriously affected. The reason why this phenomenon exists is that we promote the media's freedom of expres-sion and emphasize judicial activities independence at the same time. The media and the judicial activity are a pair of natural contradiction, in which independent judiciary has exclusive supervision of the media, and the media supervision has a natural aggressiveness to the judicial independence. The author tries to analyze the impacts of media supervision to the judicial activity and attempts to find an answer to solve the contradiction.

  8. Cesarean section trends in the Nordic Countries - a comparative analysis with the Robson classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cesarean rates are low but increasing in most Nordic countries. Using the Robson classification, we analyzed which obstetric groups have contributed to the changes in the cesarean rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective population-based registry study including all deliveries...... (3,398,586) between 2000 and 2011 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Robson group distribution, cesarean rate and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed nationally for four three-year time periods. For each country, we analyzed which groups contributed to the change...... in the total cesarean rate. RESULTS: Between the first and the last time period studied, the total cesarean rates increased in Denmark (16.4-20.7%), Norway (14.4-16.5%) and Sweden (15.5-17.1%), but towards the end of our study, the cesarean rates stabilized or even decreased. The increase was explained mainly...

  9. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN THE CRIMINAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Karceva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of crime throughout the eras has increased at an alarming rate. It has expanded, evolved and gone through many different forms and stages. With the formation of the EU and the expulsion of internal borders, as well as the insurance of greater liberty and freedom of movement, acts of crime and the number of criminals have drastically increased. Its enormous growth and expansion, especially in the form of crime betwixt country borders (within EU territory, has desperately called for change and development within the norms of criminal law. However, with the view that criminal law in most EU nations has its own specific and varied markings, and since a supranational criminal law does not exist, there has arisen a dire need for cooperation within this sphere. The globalization of transnational organized crime and its entry within the legal sector of these member countries has been the reason for the development of court cooperation within Europe. Cooperation between the courts was achieved through a tight collaboration between the court services and other regulatory organs/authorities of the member countries. This court cooperation is conducted through very varied activities carried out by the different countries, which are in turn guaranteed through different conventions, bilateral and multilateral agreements/treaties. There exist many other kinds of legal support when viewing court cooperation that one member country can provide to another member country, for which information will be provided further in the text.

  10. [How to reduce the number of cesarean sections?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Sánchez, A; González Moreno, J; González Guzmán, M; Villa Villagran, F

    1997-07-01

    The cesarean section (C) frequency has increased dramatically as high as 62%. This situation has been producing a real preoccupation in all the world as well as in México. Documented bibliography about this subject, is unquestionable. We feel that at this time there is a lack of punctuals strategies in order to reduce the high frequency of C. Our communication analyzes this problem in relation to antecedents, evolution and integrated general strategies in order to reduce the C rates. Special analysis and comments involve amnioinfusion, trials for vaginal deliveries in case of previous cesarean section, prostaglandins, and external version. With these actions, at the Antiguo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara we have achieved 10.8% of C. rates, without any increase in fetomaternal morbility and/or mortality.

  11. [Anesthesia for cesarean section in patients with fetal anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, S; Tashiro, C; Nishimura, M; Ueyama, H; Uchiyama, A; Kubota, A; Suehara, N

    1991-05-01

    Twenty-two cases of Cesarean section due to fetal anomaly diagnosed prenatally were reviewed in terms of the anesthetic managements. In 6 cases, diazepam 0.3 mg.kg-1, which provides fetal anesthesia for surgery scheduled immediately after birth, was administered intravenously to the mothers with/without fentanyl (2 general anesthesia and 4 regional anesthesia). The diagnosis of their fetuses was congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung, gastroschisis or omphalocele. No fetal anesthesia was performed in the other 16 cases (15 spinal anesthesia and 1 general anesthesia). Seven of their fetuses were diagnosed as hydrops. Since the general condition of the diseased newborn is known to be deteriorated after receiving various stress and aerophagia, fetal anesthesia in Cesarean delivery has the advantage of stress reduction and prevention of aerophagia. When the newborn is considered to need immediate neonatal resuscitation or intensive care including surgery, fetal anesthesia may be a choice of anesthetic technique.

  12. Nontraumatic Fat Embolism Found Following Maternal Death after Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Schrufer-Poland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Fat embolism is a rare form of nonthrombotic embolization. Limited literature exists regarding the diagnosis of fat embolism during the perinatal period. We present the first case of maternal death that resulted from nontraumatic fat embolization following Cesarean delivery. Case Description - A 29-year-old gravida 1 with a complex medical and surgical history underwent a primary Cesarean delivery at term. On postoperative day 2 the patient was found to be unresponsive. Despite resuscitative efforts, the patient succumbed. Autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse pulmonary fat emboli. Furthermore, there was no histological evidence of either amniotic fluid embolism or thromboembolism. The primary cause of death was attributed to nontraumatic fat embolization. Discussion - Multiple risk factors may have contributed to the development of nontraumatic fat embolization in our patient. Obstetricians should maintain a high level of suspicion for nontraumatic fat embolization in cases of maternal respiratory decompression and sudden maternal mortality.

  13. Sharp compared with blunt fascial incision at cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Hare, Kristine J; Krebs, Lone

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare patient preference for either sharp incision with scissors or blunt manual cleavage of the fascia at cesarean delivery in a randomized controlled trial in which each woman was her own control. STUDY DESIGN: Women undergoing primary cesarean delivery (n=34) were randomized...... to side distribution of sharp or blunt incision of the fascia (sharp right and blunt left or blunt right and sharp left) and followed three months postoperatively. The primary outcome was patient preference for the right or left side of the scar 3 months postoperatively and modeled by polytomous logistic...... difference was found in patient preference with regard to sharp or blunt incision of the fascia, nor was there a significant difference in postoperative pain scores. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: www.clinicaltrials.org;NCT01297725....

  14. Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from socio-legal research by Sharyn Roach Anleu & Kathy Mack: Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gar Yein Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary examines the contribution in this edition by Roach Anleu & Mack, based on arguments that reducing judicial performance evaluation (ergo any professional performance to that which is easily measurable removes the human aspect of that performance, and is therefore less accurate. Here, “measurable” is meant as focusing only on the “outward performance”, “interaction with stakeholders” and how judges perform in relation to numbers of cases. Compared to such organisational standards, judicial codes of ethics or other written codes reflect the more traditional values of the judiciary, such as independence and impartiality. This can be seen e.g. in the experiences of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe in supporting the use of judicial performance standards. The argument in the paper, supported by this commentator, is that such exercises are superficial and more depth is needed to capture the entirety of the judicial experience using the model presented. Este comentario analiza el artículo de Roach Anleu y Mack en este número, en base a los argumentos de que limitar la evaluación del rendimiento judicial (ergo cualquier rendimiento profesional a lo que es fácilmente medible elimina el aspecto humano de ese rendimiento, y es por lo tanto menos preciso. Aquí, por “medible” se entiende lo que está centrado únicamente en el “rendimiento exterior”, la “interacción con los interesados” y el rendimiento de los jueces en relación con el número de casos. En comparación con estas normas de organización, los códigos judiciales de ética u otros códigos escritos reflejan los valores más tradicionales de la judicatura, como la independencia o imparcialidad. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las experiencias de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa en apoyar el uso de las normas de rendimiento judicial. El argumento del artículo, apoyado por esta autora, es que estos

  15. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  16. Cultural perceptions and preferences of Iranian women regarding cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifnejad-Roudsari, Robab; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-02-01

    Data was reported in Iran in 2013 has shown that almost 42 percent of deliveries in public hospitals and 90 percent in private hospitals were carried out with cesarean section. This high rate of cesarean requires careful consideration. It seems that making decision for cesarean is done under the influence of cultural perceptions and beliefs. So, this study was conducted to explore pregnant women's preferences and perceptions regarding cesarean delivery. A focused ethnographic study was used. 12 pregnant women and 10 delivered women, seven midwives, seven gynecologist and nine non-pregnant women referred to the health clinics of Tonekabon, who selected purposively, were included in the study. To collect data semi-structured in-depth interviews and participant observation were used. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and MAXQDA software. Four themes emerged from the data including personal beliefs, fear of vaginal delivery, cultural norms and values and also social network. These concepts played main roles in how women develop meanings toward caesarean, which affected their perceptions and preferences in relation to caesarean delivery. Most of pregnant women believed that fear of vaginal delivery is a major factor to choose caesarean delivery. Hence, midwives and physicians could help them through improving the quality of prenatal care and giving them positive perception towards vaginal delivery through presenting useful information about the nature of different modes of delivery, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the alternative ways to control labor pain.

  17. Cultural perceptions and preferences of Iranian women regarding cesarean delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifnejad-Roudsari, Robab; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Data was reported in Iran in 2013 has shown that almost 42 percent of deliveries in public hospitals and 90 percent in private hospitals were carried out with cesarean section. This high rate of cesarean requires careful consideration. It seems that making decision for cesarean is done under the influence of cultural perceptions and beliefs. So, this study was conducted to explore pregnant women's preferences and perceptions regarding cesarean delivery. Materials and Methods: A focused ethnographic study was used. 12 pregnant women and 10 delivered women, seven midwives, seven gynecologist and nine non-pregnant women referred to the health clinics of Tonekabon, who selected purposively, were included in the study. To collect data semi-structured in-depth interviews and participant observation were used. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and MAXQDA software. Results: Four themes emerged from the data including personal beliefs, fear of vaginal delivery, cultural norms and values and also social network. These concepts played main roles in how women develop meanings toward caesarean, which affected their perceptions and preferences in relation to caesarean delivery. Conclusion: Most of pregnant women believed that fear of vaginal delivery is a major factor to choose caesarean delivery. Hence, midwives and physicians could help them through improving the quality of prenatal care and giving them positive perception towards vaginal delivery through presenting useful information about the nature of different modes of delivery, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the alternative ways to control labor pain. PMID:25949249

  18. Obesity and gestational weight gain: cesarean delivery and labor complications

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Luiz Carlos; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Branchtein,Leandro; Gaio, Dea Suzana Miranda; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between pre-gestational obesity and weight gain with cesarean delivery and labor complications. METHODS: A total of 4,486 women 20-28 weeks pregnant attending general prenatal care clinics of the national health system in Brazil from 1991 to 1995 were enrolled and followed up through birth. Body mass index categories based on prepregnancy weight and total weight gain were calculated. Associations between body mass index categories and labor complications w...

  19. [Can we decrease cesarean rate at a university hospital treating high risk pregnancies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrouck, C; Mottet, N; Bourtembourg, A; Ramanah, R; Riethmuller, D

    2016-06-01

    To determine which clinical practice changes were responsible for a decrease in cesarean rate from 19.2% in 2003 to 15.5% in 2012 at our university hospital treating high risk pregnancies, while verifying the absence of any increase in neonatal morbidity and death. A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken at our labour ward including all patients delivering in 2003 and in 2012. Maternal, obstetrical and neonatal characteristics of the two populations were compared. Cesarean rates were analysed following : (1) Robson classification, (2) some maternal and obstetrical characteristics, and (3) indications for cesarean. Mean age, BMI and rate of scarred uterus significantly increased in 2012. The two populations remained comparable in terms of other criteria studied. The main cause responsible for decrease in cesarean rate was breech presentations (pdecreased our elective cesarean rate by more than 3% without increasing cesarean sections during labour, showing a rise in successful vaginal delivery trials. The impact of in utero transfers on the global rate of cesarean is highly significant since the latter has been divided by half in 10 years in this population considered to be of high risk for cesareans. These significant decreases reflect our experience in allowing vaginal deliveries in breech presentations, and also a better selection of patients for labour induction. Furthermore, it should be noted that increasing vaginal delivery trials in various obstetrical situations participated in this decrease. We clearly found that some indications for elective cesarean can be avoided, such as multiple pregnancies and scarred uterus, thus showing the importance of restricting the first indication for cesarean. Finally, the decrease in cesarean rate had no negative effect on neonatal outcome. Decreasing cesarean rate is possible in a university hospital treating high risk pregnancies. It requires daily obstetrical case by case critical analysis, allowing wide

  20. Misrecognition of need: Women’s experiences of and explanations for undergoing cesarean delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    International rates of operative delivery are consistently higher than the World Health Organization determined is appropriate. This suggests that factors other than clinical indications contribute to cesarean section. Data presented here are from interviews with 115 mothers on the postnatal ward of a hospital in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009 after the women underwent either unscheduled or scheduled cesarean childbirth. Using thematic content analysis, we found women’s accounts of their experiences largely portrayed cesarean section as everything that they had wanted to avoid, but necessary given their situations. Contrary to popular suggestion, the data did not indicate impersonalized medical practice, or that cesareans were being performed ‘on request.’ The categorization of cesareans into ‘emergency’ and ‘elective’ did not reflect maternal experiences. Rather, many unscheduled cesareans were conducted without indications of fetal distress and most scheduled cesareans were not booked because of ‘choice.’ The authoritative knowledge that influenced maternal perceptions of the need to undergo operative delivery included moving forward from ‘prolonged’ labor and scheduling cesarean as a prophylactic to avoid anticipated psychological or physical harm. In spontaneously defending themselves against stigma from the ‘too posh to push’ label that is currently common in the media, women portrayed debate on the appropriateness of cesarean childbirth as a social critique instead of a health issue. The findings suggest the ‘need’ for some cesareans is due to misrecognition of indications by all involved. The factors underlying many cesareans may actually be modifiable, but informed choice and healthful outcomes are impeded by lack of awareness regarding the benefits of labor on the fetal transition to extrauterine life, the maternal desire for predictability in their parturition and recovery experiences, and possibly lack

  1. Current Debate on the Use of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kim, Sun Kwon; Uldbjerg, Neils; ROMERO, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is frequently complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs), endometritis and urinary tract infection. Most SSIs occur after discharge from hospital, and are increasingly being used as performance indicators. Worldwide, the rate of cesarean delivery is increasing. Evidence-based guidelines recommended the use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to surgical incision. An exception is made for cesarean delivery, where narrow-range antibiotics are administered post umbilical cord...

  2. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Delivery by Cesarean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of vitamin D deficiency to risk of cesarean delivery using prospective data in a cohort of 1153 low income and minority gravidae. Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care 13.73 ± 5.6 weeks (mean ± SD. Intake of vitamin D and calcium was assessed at three time points during pregnancy. Using recent Institute of Medicine guidelines, 10.8% of the gravidae were at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and 23.8% at risk of insufficiency. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D was related positively to vitamin D and calcium intakes and negatively to circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Risk for cesarean delivery was increased significantly for vitamin D deficient women; there was no increased risk for gravidae at risk of insufficiency. When specific indications were examined, vitamin D deficiency was linked to a 2-fold increased risk of cesarean for prolonged labor. Results were the similar when prior guidelines for vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 37.5nmol/L and insufficiency (37.5–80 nmol/L were utilized.

  3. Neonatal outcomes and operative vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Contag, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.

  4. Intraoperative bleeding control during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with transient occlusion of uterine arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Joung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soo-Jung; Kwack, Jae Young; Kwon, Yong Soon

    2015-11-01

    There are few methods to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of placenta previa. Transient occlusion of uterine arteries (TOUA) during operation has previously been reported as a quick and safe method to control intra-operative uterine bleeding. We reported 2 cases of cesarean delivery with complete placenta previa in which TOUA was performed to safely reduce intra-operative complication, especially heavy intra-operative bleeding. In the 2 cases, cesarean deliveries were safe and without any complications under the TOUA method. TOUA can be a good method to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with risk of heavy bleeding.

  5. Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after cesarean section and outcomes in rural area of Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Mehmet Baki; Cakmak, Yusuf; Atac, Halit; Budak, Mehmet Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Successful vaginal birth after cesarean section is more comfortable than repeat emergency or elective cesarean section. Antenatal examinations are important in selection for trial of labor, while birth management can be difficult when the patients present at emergency condition. But there is an increased chance of vaginal birth with advanced cervical dilation. This study attempts to evaluate factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section and to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes between vaginal birth after cesarean section and intrapartum cesarean section in patients who were admitted to hospital during the active or second stage of labor. A retrospective evaluation was made from the results of 127 patients. Cesarean section was performed in 57 patients; 70 attempted trial of labor. The factors associated with success of vaginal birth after cesarean section were investigated. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Vaginal birth after cesarean section was successful in 55% of cases. Advanced cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were factors associated with successful vaginal birth. The vaginal birth group had more complications (P0.05). In this study, cervical opening, effacement, gravidity, parity, and prior vaginal delivery were important factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean section. The patients' requests influenced outcome. Trial of labor should take into consideration the patient's preference, together with the proper setting.

  6. Ultrasound anatomy of the transversus abdominis plane region in pregnant women before and after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Nicholas; Krahe, Stefanie; Gembruch, Ulrich; Weber, Stefan

    2016-12-22

    After cesarean delivery, analgesia is often incomplete and a multimodal approach to analgesia is necessary. Transverse abdominal plane (TAP) block has been advocated in this setting, yet no systematic description of the ultrasound anatomy in pregnant women exists in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to describe the sonographical features of relevant structures in pregnant women before and after elective cesarean. Sixty women at, or close to term scheduled for elective cesarean delivery underwent a standardized ultrasound examination before and after delivery. We assessed the visibility of the muscular layers and measured the distance from the skin to the layers of the abdominal wall muscles in the region for TAP block before and after cesarean section on both side. The three muscular layers of the lateral abdominal wall (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscle) were visible in all examinations. Before cesarean section the median TAP distance was shorter: 2.9 cm (interquartile range 2.6-3.6) compared to 3.9 cm (3.1-4.5) after cesarean section (left side, p cesarean section. An increased body mass is associated with increased the TAP distance before and after birth (p cesarean delivery. Postoperatively, depth of the TAP as compared to before birth is increased significantly. Scanning the abdominal wall before CD will underestimate the target depth of the TAP after delivery. The obstetric anesthetist needs to be aware of these changes when planning a TAP block in the context of cesarean delivery.

  7. Association of Previous Cesarean Delivery With Surgical Complications After a Hysterectomy Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sofie A I; Shah, Neel; Overgaard, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Glavind, Karin; Larsen, Thomas; Plough, Avery; Galvin, Grace; Knudsen, Aage

    2017-08-09

    In recent decades, the global rates of cesarean delivery have rapidly increased. Nonetheless, the influence of cesarean deliveries on surgical complications later in life has been understudied. To investigate whether previous cesarean delivery increases the risk of reoperation, perioperative and postoperative complications, and blood transfusion when undergoing a hysterectomy later in life. This registry-based cohort study used data from Danish nationwide registers on all women who gave birth for the first time between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2012, and underwent a benign, nongravid hysterectomy between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2012. The dates of this analysis were February 1 to June 30, 2016. Cesarean delivery. Reoperation, perioperative and postoperative complications, and blood transfusion within 30 days of a hysterectomy. Of the 7685 women (mean [SD] age, 40.0 [5.3] years) who met the inclusion criteria, 5267 (68.5%) had no previous cesarean delivery, 1694 (22.0%) had 1 cesarean delivery, and 724 (9.4%) had 2 or more cesarean deliveries. Among the 7685 included women, 3714 (48.3%) had an abdominal hysterectomy, 2513 (32.7%) had a vaginal hysterectomy, and 1458 (19.0%) had a laparoscopic hysterectomy. In total, 388 women (5.0%) had a reoperation within 30 days after a hysterectomy. Compared with women having vaginal deliveries, fully adjusted multivariable analysis showed that the adjusted odds ratio of reoperation for women having 1 previous cesarean delivery was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.03-1.68), and the adjusted odds ratio was 1.35 (95% CI, 0.96-1.91) for women having 2 or more cesarean deliveries. Perioperative and postoperative complications were reported in 934 women (12.2%) and were more frequent in women with previous cesarean deliveries, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.98-1.37) for 1 cesarean delivery and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.02-1.65) for 2 or more cesarean deliveries. Blood transfusion was administered to 195 women (2.5%). Women having

  8. Vaginal birth after cesarean: neonatal outcomes and United States birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Ellen L; Cheyney, Melissa; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Emeis, Cathy; Lapidus, Jodi; Biel, Frances M; Wiedrick, Jack; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-04-01

    Women who seek vaginal birth after cesarean delivery may find limited in-hospital options. Increasing numbers of women in the United States are delivering by vaginal birth after cesarean delivery out-of-hospital. Little is known about neonatal outcomes among those who deliver by vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in- vs out-of-hospital. The purpose of this study was to compare neonatal outcomes between women who deliver via vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in-hospital vs out-of-hospital (home and freestanding birth center). We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2007-2010 linked United States birth and death records to compare singleton, term, vertex, nonanomolous, and liveborn neonates who delivered by vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in- or out-of-hospital. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate unadjusted, absolute, and relative birth-setting risk differences. Analyses were stratified by parity and history of vaginal birth. Sensitivity analyses that involved 3 transfer status scenarios were conducted. Of women in the United States with a history of cesarean delivery (n=1,138,813), only a small proportion delivered by vaginal birth after cesarean delivery with the subsequent pregnancy (n=109,970; 9.65%). The proportion of home vaginal birth after cesarean delivery births increased from 1.78-2.45%. A pattern of increased neonatal morbidity was noted in unadjusted analysis (neonatal seizures, Apgar score cesarean delivery in out-of-hospital settings had higher odds of neonatal morbidity and death compared with women of higher parity. Women who had not birthed vaginally prior to out-of-hospital vaginal birth after cesarean delivery had higher odds of neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with women who had birthed vaginally prior to out-of-hospital vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Sensitivity analyses generated distributions of plausible alternative estimates by outcome. Fewer than 1 in

  9. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T

    2017-09-01

    Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Consecutive cervical length measurements as a predictor of preterm cesarean section in complete placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Okuda, Naotaka; Inde, Yusuke; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether consecutive cervical length measurements can predict preterm cesarean section in women with complete placenta previa. Seventy-one women with complete placenta previa were retrospectively categorized into women who delivered preterm due to massive hemorrhage (the preterm cesarean section group, n = 28) and those delivered at term (the control group, n = 43). Maternal characteristics, delivery outcomes, and cervical lengths serially measured at least every 2 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation until delivery were compared. The relationship between cervical length and preterm cesarean section was analyzed. Cervical length gradually decreased with advancing gestational age. After 26 weeks' gestation, this decrease was significantly more rapid in the preterm cesarean section group. Cervical length before cesarean section in the preterm cesarean section group was significantly shorter than that in the control group. Just before cesarean section, 71.4% of the preterm cesarean section group presented with cervical lengths of ≤35 mm, whereas only 34.9% of the control group had cervical lengths of ≤35 mm (odds ratio 4.67, 95% confidence interval 1.66-13.10, p = 0.006). In women with complete placenta previa, decrease in cervical length to ≤35 mm was associated with increased risk of preterm cesarean section due to massive hemorrhage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Michael; Mynbaev, Ospan; Vassilevski, Yuri; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this question. The working thesis is that the higher the incision is done, the more damage to muscle tissue can take place contrary to incision in the lower segment, where fibrous tissue prevails. In this perspective, a call for participation in a two-armed prospective study is included, which could result in an optimal, evidence-based Cesarean Section for universal use.

  12. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ...

  13. Could Revision of the Embryology Influence Our Cesarean Delivery Technique: Towards an Optimized Cesarean Delivery for Universal Use

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Michael; Mynbaev, Ospan; Vassilevski, Yuri; Rozenberg, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Until today, there is no standardized Cesarean Section method and many variations exist. The main variations concern the type of abdominal incision, usage of abdominal packs, suturing the uterus in one or two layers, and suturing the peritoneal layers or leaving them open. One of the questions is the optimal location of opening the uterus. Recently, omission of the bladder flap was recommended. The anatomy and histology as results from the embryological knowledge might help to solve this ques...

  14. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC versus emergency repeat cesarean section at teaching hospitals in India: an ICMR task force study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Dhillon

    2014-06-01

    Results: A total of 155863 deliveries occurred during the study duration, there were 28.1% (n=43824 cesarean section and (10.1% (n=15664 were the number of previous cesarean section. In 84% (n=13151 had repeat cesarean delivery and 2513 (16% delivered vaginally. A trial of labor was planned in 4035 (25.8% women. The success rate of VBAC was 62.3% with 2513 women had successful vaginal delivery and 1522 (37.7% delivered by emergency repeat cesarean section. Major indication of emergency cesarean section was CPD (52.9%, foetal distress (25.8%, severe PIH/eclampsia (5.0%, previous 2 CS (0.7%, APH (1.4% and others (2.7%. In majority, surgical technique was conventional and in 3.7% the Misgav-Ladach technique was used. Scar dehiscence and surgical complications were observed in 5.4% and 4.0% of cases respectively. Blood transfusion was given in 7.0% and post-operative complications were seen in 6.8%. Perinatal and maternal mortality was 18.0/1000 and 257/100000 deliveries respectively. Conclusions: Safety in childbirth for women with prior cesarean is a major public health concern. Repeat caesarean section and planned vaginal birth after cesarean section are both associated with benefits and harms and correct management represents one of the most significant and challenging issues in obstetric practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 592-597

  15. Hegel’ s Thought of Judicial Indenpendence and Its Inspiration for Chinese Judicial Reform%黑格尔的司法独立思维及其对我国司法改革的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思远

    2015-01-01

    黑格尔在其不朽著作《法哲学原理》一书中论述了法的本质、法治、立法、司法以及法律部门等诸多法律思想,这其中也包含了黑格尔的司法独立思维。不同于孟德斯鸠三权分立架构下的司法独立,黑格尔的司法独立思维主要体现在市民社会中的“法院”部分,并且通过重视立法、审判公开、程序公正来予以保障。我国实行的也不是三权分立下的司法独立,而是权力机关下的法院、检察院独立行使职权。黑格尔的司法独立思维,对于当下我国的司法体制改革有所启示。%Hegel discussed the nature of law, the rule of law, legislation, judicature, legal department and many legal thoughts in his immortal work“The Principle of Philosophy of Law”, including his judicial independence thought. Different from judicial in-dependence under “separation of the three powers” put forward by Montesquieu, Hegel’ s judicial independence thought mainly em-bodies in “Court” of civil society and safeguarded by attention of legislation, open trial, and procedural justice. In China, what we are carrying out is not judicial independence under “separation of the three powers”, but independently discharge functions and powers by court and procuratorate under authorities. Research of Hegel’ s judicial independence thought may give inspiration for Chi-nese present judicial reform.

  16. Responsible Communication between the Judicial and Deontological Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Popa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Confronting with numerous problems related to moral judgment, the responsibility and irresponsibility in what concerns the vast domain of communication, we are interested in forming a correct and complete vision that crosses the judicial and deontological domain of the profession. The deontological norms are meant to guarantee, by their freely consented acceptance, the good fulfillment of the mission of the journalists, recognized as being indispensable for the god functioning of any human society. The laws do not expressly refer to the deontological norms, but these norms exist according to the law order and are necessary for its guarantee in this social context, which is chaotic from the point of view of the legislation in communication. The aspects analyzed here aremeant to indicate the manner in which passing from deontological norm to the judicial norm creates an external constraint for the communicator which brings more responsibility in view of avoiding the journalistic conflicts.

  17. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  18. Minimalismo judicial ¿Cass Sunstein en la Corte Constitucional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cajas Sarria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cass Sustein Unstein es hoy en día uno de los principales expositores de la tesis del minimalismo judicial, metodología de adjudicación que puede ser utilizada por el máximo órgano de control constitucional cuando interpreta la Constitución. En este artículo se exponen las principales características y ventajas de esta metodología, así como una comparación con las otras formas de adjudicación presentes actualmente en el derecho estadounidense. Posteriormente, se analiza el uso dado al minimalismo judicial por la Corte Constitucional de Colombia en el control que ésta realiza a la legislación, prestando especial atención a los argumentos presentados por la Corte para declarar inconstitucional el estatuto antiterrorista del año 2003.

  19. A súmula vinculante e o precedente judicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Roberto Oliveira de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo pretende-se fazer análise da Súmula Vinculante introduzida na Constituição Federal pela Emenda Constitucional nº 45 de 2004, fazendo-se uma perquirição acerca da relação deste instituto com o precedente judicial. Faz-se, assim, uma abordagem de acordo com o marco teórico proposto por Michele Taruffo acerca da classificação possível dos precedentes, colocando-se, então, a Súmula Vinculante como um precedente judicial sui generis devido às suas características que não são encontradas em outros ordenamentos jurídicos.

  20. Judicial Impartiality, subjectivity and conviction: the Logical Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Pintos Bentancur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several studies on the procedural aspects of the judicial decision. However, only few of them have examined a key aspect of such decision: the psychological conviction of the judge. We focus, firstly, on the procedure aspects which compose the judgment, such as its elements, its nature, evidence and its evaluation principles; arriving, finally, to the logic judgment itself. From a substantial view, we pass through different elements which are closely related with the conviction of the judge and its limits; such as neutrality, discretionality and assessment when delivering the decision. Throughout different reflections and case law analysis, including a brief study on common law, we conclude that judicial subjectivity is much appreciated in our system. As well, we consider through this paper, possible mechanisms that assure control on such an abstract element, always taking into consideration its main purpose: bring justice.

  1. 43 CFR 4.433 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.433 Authority of the administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to conduct the hearing in an orderly and judicial...

  2. 43 CFR 4.452-4 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.452-4 Authority of administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to conduct the hearing in an orderly and judicial...

  3. 28 CFR 0.140 - Authority relating to advertisements, and purchase of certain supplies and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority relating to advertisements, and... Administrative Matters § 0.140 Authority relating to advertisements, and purchase of certain supplies and... action in the following-described matters: (a) Authorizing the publication of advertisements, notices,...

  4. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    OpenAIRE

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Economic, social and cultural right (“social right”) have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy...

  5. Research on the Judicial Relief System of Villagers’ Autonomy Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the division of the functions of the village committee,the use of self-government rights of the villagers was examined in view of the different functions.Judicial remedies should be screened whether or not the exercise of autonomy,as well as the main disputes in order to determine the specific litigation.The responsibility determination of the villagers’ autonomy rights prosecution in different circumstances is put forward.

  6. Judicial lobbying: The politics of labor law constitutional interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Iaryczower; Pablo Spiller; Mariano Tommasi

    2006-01-01

    This paper links the theory of interest groups influence over the legislature with that of congressional control over the judiciary. The resulting framework reconciles the theoretical literature of lobbying with the negative available evidence on the impact of lobbying over legislative outcomes, and sheds light to the determinants of lobbying in separation-of-powers systems. We provide conditions for judicial decisions to be sensitive to legislative lobbying, and find that lobbying falls the ...

  7. La posición constitucional del poder judicial

    OpenAIRE

    Andaluz Vegacenteno,Horacio

    2010-01-01

    En el Estado de Derecho, el poder judicial se posiciona a la par de los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo. Esto lo consigue a través de su independencia. El artículo explica eso desde el punto de vista doctrinal y lo aplica al análisis de la regulación en la materia en la Constitución de Bolivia de 2009.

  8. Corrupção e judiciário: a (ineficácia do sistema judicial no combate à corrupção Corruption and judicial system: the (ineffectiveness of the judicial system against corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Higino Ribeiro de Alencar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Há uma percepção generalizada no brasil de que funcionários públicos corruptos não são punidos. Não obstante, até o momento, não há evidências empíricas que apóiem essa afirmação e muitos argumentam que se trata de uma percepção equivocada decorrente do aumento de medidas anticorrupção. Uma das principais razões para essa notável ausência é a grande dificuldade de se identificar casos comprovados de corrupção para, então, se averiguar se eles foram ou não punidos pelo sistema judicial. Este artigo usa o sistema brasileiro de responsabilidade tríplice como um experimento natural para medir o desempenho do sistema judicial contra corrupção. Nossos resultados mostram que o sistema judicial brasileiro é altamente ineficaz no combate à corrupção, sendo a probabilidade de ser punido menor do que 5%.There is a widespread perception in Brazil that civil servants caught in corrupt practices are not punished. Yet, until now, there was no hard evidence that would support such claim and some argued that this was just a misleading perception due to the recent increase in anti-corruption measures. One of the main reasons for this notable absence is the difficulty of identifying atual cases of corruption to evalute whether the agents are actully being punished by the judicial system or not. This article uses the brazilian triple responsibility system as a natural experiment to assess juducial system is highly ineffective agaist corruption with a lower than 5% probability of conviction.

  9. Otitis media: diagnosis, management, and judicious use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool, Sylvan; Carlson, Linda H; Johnson, Candice E

    2002-07-01

    Otitis media continues to present a major challenge to practitioners in the clinical setting. With the ever-increasing trend toward the use of a sound research-structured approach to health care and the use of evidence-based guidelines, it is important to have an understanding of these findings related to otitis media. A review of research-supported literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this disease, and suggestions for the judicious use of antibiotics, are presented in this paper.

  10. Factors leading to cesarean section delivery at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Fantu Eyowas; Gebeyehu, Abebaw Worku; Kidane, Ashebir Negasi; Eyassu, Gizached Aynalem

    2016-01-20

    Cesarean section is the commonest obstetric operative procedure worldwide. When used appropriately cesarean sections can improve infant and/or maternal outcomes. However, when used inappropriately the potential harm may exceed the potential benefit of cesarean section. Appreciating the limited information in this area the current study assessed the rate and factors associated with cesarean section in Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The study was a retrospective analysis of eligible patient records that included 2967 pregnant women who had underwent either cesarean or vaginal delivery from July 1, 2012 to June 31, 2013. The data were double entered to EPI-INFO 3.5.2 and analyzed with SPSS. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent factors associated with cesarean section. The proportion of women who underwent cesarean section in this study was 25.4%. Obstructed labor (30.7%), fetal distress (15.9%) and abnormal presentation (13.4%) were the major obstetric indications for cesarean section. The odd of undergoing cesarean section was higher among mothers in rural residence (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.20), mothers reported to have pregnancy risk factors (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.74, 3.07) and lower among mothers in age category of 15-19 (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93). Obstetric factors occurring around birth, including obstructed labor and fetal distress were the main reasons leading to Cesarean Section rather than background characteristics assumed to be a risk. The results imply that there is a need for timely and accurate screening of women during obstetric care and, decision to perform cesarean section should be based on clear, compelling and well-supported justifications.

  11. Explaining judicial corruption in the courts of Chile, Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Basabe-Serrano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main variables that explain judicial corruption in Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Improving the current methodological strategies used to measure judicial corruption and incorporating endogenous and exogenous variables in the model, this article argues that legal training of the judges, respect for the judicial career, and the fragmentation of political power explain different degrees of judicial corruption. Through a comparative diachronic and synchronic research design of Chile, Peru and Ecuador, the article shows institutional designs with more legal steps will be more inclined to illegal payments or other types of judicial corruption.

  12. Remote prognosis after primary cesarean delivery: the association of VBACs and recurrent cesarean deliveries with maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Offer Erez1, Lena Novack2, Vered Kleitman-Meir1, Doron Dukler1, Idit Erez-Weiss3, Francesca Gotsch4, Moshe Mazor11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 4Obstetrics and Gynecology Departement, Policlinico GB Rossi Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, ItalyPurpose: To determine the effects of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC versus repeated cesarean sections (RCS after a primary cesarean section (CS, on the rate of intraoperative and postpartum maternal morbidity.Patients and methods: This is a retrospective population-based cohort study. During the study period (1988–2005 there were 200,012 deliveries by 76,985 women at our medical center; 16,365 of them had a primary CS, of which 7429 women delivered a singleton infant after the primary CS, met the inclusion criteria, were included in our study, and were followed for four consecutive deliveries. Patients were divided into three study groups according to the outcome of their consecutive delivery after the primary CS: VBAC (n = 3622, elective CS (n = 1910, or an urgent CS (n = 1897. Survival analysis models were used to investigate the effect of the urgency of CS and the numbers of pregnancy predating the primary CS on peripartum complications.Results: Women who failed a trial of labor had a higher rate of uterine rupture than those who had a VBAC. Patients who delivered by CS had a higher rate of endometritis than those giving birth vaginally. The rate of cesarean hysterectomy and transfer to other departments increased significantly at the fourth consecutive surgery (P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively. VBAC was associated with a 55% reduction in the risk of intrapartum complications in comparison to a planned CS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–0.89. A greater

  13. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and cultural right (“social right” have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy is false. The paper will consider the international normative framework for the legal protection of social rights, the specific content of state obligations under treaties dealing with such rights, how the international social rights monitoring system functions, and the various obstacles and opportunities currently facing the judicial enforceability of social rights. In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  14. Confrontation Between Judicial Activism and State of Exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pedro Moura D’Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The judiciary has excelled in the international and national scene, reaching role of great importance, thus creating opposition to the legislative and executive powers. The center of gravity of the sovereign power of the state moves toward the judiciary, that happens to have a more active role and controlling of the others powers, but also appears as a great defender of social and fundamental rights causes, seeking to make an effective constitution. Its great public notoriety has attracted great distrust of various sectors of society, especially by the two powers that have an increasing interference. Arises, therefore, a speech that the judiciary would be reversing into a big and uncontrollable power, increasing the suspicion that now it would be living in a real dictatorship of the judiciary through judicial activism. There is a growing concern with the expansion of activism and the role of the judiciary. The purpose of this work is to conceptualize and approach the judicial activism and the state of exception to search and reveal if there is any similarity, to then draw up a possible answer to the concern of forming a dictatorship of the judiciary. The state of exception is one of the rule of law paradoxes, while activism is a political manifestation of the judiciary. The similarity between the institutes appears as appalling in a dynamic expansion of political power of a state institution exercising judicial function, putting in check who would be the sovereign in a rule of law and democratic state.

  15. Multiple Repeated Cesarean Deliveries: Operative Complications in the Fourth and Fifth Surgeries in Urgent and Elective Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gedikbasi

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple repeated cesarean sections increase the risks for operative complications and poor perinatal outcomes. Patients must be informed about the related risks of multiple repeated cesarean sections and tubal ligation needs to be encouraged.

  16. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  17. The Criminal Judicial Reform:Re-analysis of Specification for the Judicial Interpretation Power of Criminal Law%刑事司法改革:规范刑法司法解释权若干问题再析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段锟

    2014-01-01

    提升国家治理体系与治理能力的现代化水平反映在刑事司法领域不仅仅要求司法独立,更要求正确适用刑事法律、法规,规范行使刑法司法解释权。有权机关在行使刑法司法解释权时应严格把握刑法司法解释的司法权能,防止其越位立法,明确刑法司法解释遵循从旧兼从轻的时间效力,彰显刑法谦抑的精神品格,防范突破罪刑法定宪纲性的原则要求。只有刑法得以被正确的适用,才能真正将刑法抽象的正义与公平转化为现实的正义与公平。%The modernization level of the promotion of the national system of governance and governance capa-bility is reflected in the field of criminal justice which requires not only the independence of the judiciary laws,but the correctly applied regulations regulating the exercise of judicial interpretation of criminal law.The authorities should strictly grasp the judicial power of judicial interpretation of criminal law in the exercise of the right of judicial interpretation of criminal law,prevent the offside legislation,make clear the validity in term of time,highlight the spiritual character of the restraining criminal law.Only the correct application of criminal law can ensure the real justice and fairness.

  18. Judicial Institutions in Albanian Customary Law and in Comparison with Modern Law (The Canon of Lekë Dukagjini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Njomëza Zejnullahu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares judicial institutions of customary law and modern law. There are many discussions between authors regarding the relation between customary and modern law, specifically the impact of customary law in modern law. The role of the customary law is of crucial importance especially its impact in the positive law of the country. Although, the customary law was practiced years ago, similarities with current positive law are obvious. Many of the judicial institutions in Albanian customary law can be compared with similar ones in modern law, but is also crucial to identify differences between them. Main judicial institutions that served as enforcement mechanisms in Albanian customary law are identified in this article in comparison with respective institutions of modern law. In addition, it is important to view and analyse customary law in regard to its power as governing law in a given period. In this regard, an analysis of the Albanian customary law in view of Hart’s rule of recognition is provided.

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  20. Myomectomy at the Time of Cesarean Section: A Prospective Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Akhter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of myomectomy during cesarean section. Methods : The study design was a prospective multicentre study done in three tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka city. The subject were 30 pregnant women underwent elective or emergency myomectomy during cesarean section. All cesarean section myomectomy were performed by consultant. Intra-operative and post-operative complications such as change in haematocrit, length of operation, blood loss were estimated. Length of hospital stay was also recorded. Results : 50 Fibroid of various sizes (2-6cm were removed from 30 women. Fibroid were on the anterior uterine wall with most being subserous and intramural. Four patients had one unit of whole blood transfusion in post-operative period. No hysterectomy was done at the time of cesarean section. There was no significant frequency of blood transfusion; incidence of post- operative fever and duration of operation. The mean duration of post operative hospital study was 7.3±1.2 days. Two patients subsequently became pregnant, were also underwent repeated cesarean section in the study period. Conclusion : In selected cases myomectomy during cesarean section does not appear to result in an increased risk of intrapartum or short-term postpartum morbidity if performed by an experienced practitioner. Cesarean myomectomy is a safe surgical options with no significant complications. Keywords : Cesarean section; myomectomy; uterine myoma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v4i2.8639 BSMMU J 2011; 4(2:102-105

  1. The use of quality control performance charts to analyze cesarean delivery rates nationally.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of quality control performance charts to analyze cesarean rates nationally. METHODS: Information on cesarean rates was obtained for all 19 Irish maternity hospitals receiving state funding in 2009. All women who underwent cesarean delivery of a live or stillborn infant weighing 500 g or more between January 1 and December 31 were included. Deliveries were classified as elective or emergency. Individual hospitals were not identified in the analysis. RESULTS: The mean rates per hospital of elective and emergency cesarean were 12.9+\\/-2.6% (n=9337) and 13.8+\\/-3.0% (n=9989), respectively-giving an overall mean rate of 26.7+\\/-4.2% (n=19326) per hospital. Cesarean rates were normally distributed. Using a quality control performance chart with a cutoff 2 standard deviations from the mean, 1 hospital was above the normal range for both total and elective cesareans, indicating that its pre-labor obstetric practices warrant clinical review. Another hospital had a mean emergency cesarean rate above the normal range, indicating that its labor ward practices warrant review. CONCLUSION: Quality control performance charts can be used to analyze cesarean rates nationally and, thus, to identify hospitals at which obstetric practices should be reviewed.

  2. Maternal deaths after elective cesarean section for breech presentation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Joke M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Santema, Job G.; Schuitemaker, Nico W. E.; Van Roosmalen, Jos

    2007-01-01

    Background and methods. The cesarean section rate for term singleton breech babies in the Netherlands rose from 57 to 81% after the Term Breech Trial in 2000. The Dutch Maternal Mortality Committee registered and evaluated maternal mortality due to elective cesarean section for breech. Results. Four

  3. The Effect of Clinical Chorioamnionitis on Cesarean Delivery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarito, Kerry M; Gross, Gilad A; Willers, Denise M; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association of clinical chorioamnionitis on cesarean delivery in a national sample of hospital discharges. Hospital discharge data from the 1998-2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We performed a cross-sectional study and general linear modeling was used to determine the association of clinical chorioamnionitis on risk of cesarean delivery. A total of 10,843,682 deliveries and 51,799,431 nationally weighted deliveries were identified. Clinical chorioamnionitis was present in 2.9 percent of cesarean and 1.3 percent of vaginal deliveries (p cesarean delivery. Compared with women without clinical chorioamnionitis at an urban/teaching hospital, women with clinical chorioamnionitis at an urban/teaching, urban/nonteaching, and rural hospital were 1.4-1.5 times more likely to have cesarean delivery. Compared with women without clinical chorioamnionitis in the Midwest, the relative risk for cesarean in women with clinical chorioamnionitis was 1.54 for women in the South, 1.47 in the Northeast, 1.39 in the Midwest, and 1.34 in the West. Women with clinical chorioamnionitis were more likely to have cesarean delivery than those without clinical chorioamnionitis, and the risk of cesarean delivery varied significantly by hospital location, teaching status, and U.S. region. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Maternal deaths after elective cesarean section for breech presentation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Joke M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Santema, Job G.; Schuitemaker, Nico W. E.; Van Roosmalen, Jos

    2007-01-01

    Background and methods. The cesarean section rate for term singleton breech babies in the Netherlands rose from 57 to 81% after the Term Breech Trial in 2000. The Dutch Maternal Mortality Committee registered and evaluated maternal mortality due to elective cesarean section for breech. Results. Four

  5. Obstetric interventions and maternal morbidity among women who experience severe postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, K; Ramachandran, B; Hegde, P; Riley, E T; El-Sayed, Y Y; Nelson, L M; Butwick, A J

    2017-05-01

    Compared to vaginal delivery, women undergoing cesarean delivery are at increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Management approaches may differ between those undergoing prelabor cesarean delivery compared to intrapartum cesarean delivery. We examined surgical interventions, blood component use, and maternal outcomes among those experiencing severe postpartum hemorrhage within the two distinct cesarean delivery cohorts. We performed secondary analyses of data from two cohorts who underwent prelabor cesarean delivery or intrapartum cesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric center in the United States between 2002 and 2012. Severe postpartum hemorrhage was classified as an estimated blood loss ≥1500mL or receipt of a red blood cell transfusion up to 48h post-cesarean delivery. We examined blood component use, medical and surgical interventions and maternal outcomes. The prelabor cohort comprised 269 women and the intrapartum cohort comprised 278 women. In the prelabor cohort, one third of women received red blood cells intraoperatively or postoperatively, respectively. In the intrapartum cohort, 18% women received red blood cells intraoperatively vs. 44% postoperatively (Pcesarean delivery had the highest rates of morbidity, with 18% requiring hysterectomy and 16% requiring intensive care admission. Our findings provide a snapshot of contemporary transfusion and surgical practices for severe postpartum hemorrhage management during cesarean delivery. To determine optimal transfusion and management practices in this setting, large pragmatic studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy outcomes associated with Cesarean deliveries in Peruvian public health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma L; Fort, Alfredo L; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2013-01-01

    A continuous rise in the rate of cesarean deliveries has been reported in many countries over recent decades. This trend has prompted the emergence of a debate on the risks and benefits associated with cesarean section. The present study was designed to estimate cesarean section rates over time during the period between 2000 and 2010 in Peru and to present outcomes for each mode of delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System, which includes 570,997 pregnant women and their babies from 43 Peruvian public health facilities in three geographical regions: coast, highlands, and jungle. Over 10 years, 558,901 women delivered 563,668 infants weighing at least 500 g. The cesarean section rate increased from 25.5% in 2000 to 29.9% in 2010 (26.9% average; P cesarean than vaginal deliveries (P cesarean section (P cesarean section group than in the vaginal delivery group. Data suggest that cesarean sections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24124393

  7. Obstetrician perceptions of the causes of high cesarean delivery rates in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Mert

    2017-07-01

    To assess obstetricians' perceptions surrounding cesarean delivery rates in Turkey. The present cross-sectional descriptive study was performed between May 1 and June 30, 2016. Practicing obstetricians with contact details known by the researchers and those attending a conference in Turkey were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic data and information on participants' opinions, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cesarean delivery. There were 100 obstetricians who responded to the survey. Awareness of high cesarean delivery rates was reported by 96 (96%) participants and 95 (95%) respondents said they were supportive of efforts to reduce it. There were 60 (60%), 83 (83%), and 100 (100%) participants aware of associations between high cesarean delivery rates and increased maternal and infant mortality; increased risk of uterine rupture; and increased risk of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and emergency cesarean hysterectomy, respectively. The most commonly reported reason for high cesarean delivery rates was high compensation costs during medical litigation legal proceedings, reported by all 100 (100%) participants. Participants were generally aware of the risks associated with high cesarean delivery rates. The results suggest that the greatest concern among obstetricians who perform cesarean deliveries was malpractice litigation. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Disclosing doubtful indications for emergency cesarean sections in rural hospitals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Onesmo, Rwakyendela;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate in depth to what extent indications for emergency cesarean sections followed evidence-based audit criteria for realistic best practice.......To investigate in depth to what extent indications for emergency cesarean sections followed evidence-based audit criteria for realistic best practice....

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  11. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis during cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugino; Cimino; Wactawski-Wende

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To compare single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis (cefotetan 1 g vs cefoxitin 2 g) in various subpopulations based upon risk factors for postsurgical infection following cesarean section.Methods: Patients undergoing cesarean section from April 1993 through March 1994 were included in a retrospective analysis if either of the above antibiotics were administered, surgery was non-emergent, gestational age was less than 32 weeks, absence of fever or prior antibiotics therapy within 72 hours, and no history of organ transplantation or HIV. Cases classified as high risk for infection: IDDM, obesity, autoimmune disease, sickle cell disease, or corticosteroid use. Cases classified as high risk for endometritis (any 2 factors): labor >12 hours, >4 vaginal examinations, ruptured membranes >9 hours, and internal fetal monitor. Cases were separated into 4 groups: elective vs non-elective, low vs high surgical risk. A chi(2) analysis was used to test for differences in infection rates between groups (P cesarean sections, 385 met criteria for inclusion. Non-elective cases accounted for 77% of cases. Postsurgical infection rate was greater in non-elective cases, 7.4%, vs elective cases, 3.0% (P =.056) as was the rate of endometritis (3.2% vs 1.2%, P =.185). No differences were noted based on antibiotic regimen. Postsurgical infection rate was greater for 28 cases at high risk for both surgical infection and endometritis (17.9%) when compared to all 357 other cases (4.5%), P =.003. No difference was noted for endometritis. Of the 28 cases 28.6% of patients treated with cefoxitin and 7.1% of cases treated with cefotetan developed postsurgical infection (P =.13).Conclusion: Overall cefoxitin and cefotetan provided equivalent clinical outcome. A small subset of patients with multiple risk factors for infection may benefit from cefotetan.

  12. Cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Shan-rong Shu, Xin Luo, Zhi-xin Wang, Yu-hong Yao Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of JiNan University, HuangPu Road West, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Pregnancy in a cesarean scar is the rarest form of an ectopic pregnancy. The treatment for cesarean scar pregnancy mainly includes systemic methotrexate and uterine artery embolization. Here, we reported a case of cesarean scar pregnancy treated by curettage and aspiration guided by laparoscopy. The treatment plan included two phases. Three days after a combination of methotrexate and mifepristone was administered, the gestational sac was removed under laparoscopy, which enabled a successful treatment for the unruptured ectopic pregnancy in a previous cesarean scar and made it possible to preserve the reproductive capability of the patient. Keywords: cesarean scar pregnancy, laparoscopy, curettage and aspiration 

  13. Cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section for dystocia - effect on subsequent trial of labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Helle; Diness, Marie; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of cervical dilation at the time of cesarean section due to dystocia and success in a subsequent pregnancy of attempted vaginal delivery. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital in Copenhagen capital area. Population. All women with a prior...... cesarean section due to dystocia who had undergone a subsequent pregnancy with a singleton delivery during 2006-2010. Methods. Medical records were reviewed for prior vaginal birth, cervical dilation reached before cesarean section and induction of labor, gestational age, use of oxytocin, epidural...... anesthesia and mode of birth was collected. Results. A total of 889 women were included; 373 had had a trial of labor. The success rate for vaginal birth among women with prior cesarean section for dystocia at 4-8 cm dilation was 39%, but 59% for women in whom prior cesarean section had been done at a fully...

  14. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  15. Abdominal Incisional Endometriosis Following Cesarean Section: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Azargoon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is described as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue (glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. The most common location is within the pelvis. However, extra pelvic endometriosis is a fairly uncommon disorder and difficult to diagnose. It can sometimes occur in a surgical scar. Scar endometriosis is a rare condition and difficult to diagnose. It mostly follows obstetrical and gynecological surgeries. It presents as a painful, slowly growing mass in or near a surgical scar. We report two cases of abdominal wall endometriosis following hysterotomy and cesarean section. Consequently the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  16. 'Postmortem' cesarean section with recovery of both mother and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Betesh, J S; Kotler, M N

    1982-08-27

    A 27-year-old primigravida of 37 weeks' gestation suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after massive hemoptysis. After extensive advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures, it was thought that the mother could not be resuscitated and a cesarean section was performed. Immediately after delivery of the fetus, the mother's pulse was palpated, and both the mother and infant are alive without neurological sequelae 20 months later. The reversal of the supine hypotensive syndrome, which was precipitated by massive blood loss, may be the mechanism to account for the restoration of the mother's cardiac output after delivery.

  17. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cherrie Lynn; Kim, Young Mi; Yari, Khalid; Ansari, Nasratullah; Tappis, Hannah

    2014-05-27

    As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. All time intervals with the exception of "decision to skin incision" were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect

  18. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  20. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  1. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  2. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  3. Trajetória da revisão judicial no desenho constitucional brasileiro: tutela, autonomia e judicialização The trajectory of judicial review in the brazilian constitutional design: tutelage, autonomy and judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As instituições judiciárias ficaram por muito tempo na sombra dos fenômenos e da teoria política estudadas na América Latina. Neste texto trago algumas reflexões em torno de uma dessas instituições, a revisão judicial. A ideia central é demonstrar a trajetória deste instrumento jurídico que se tornou uma peça chave no entendimento da judicialização da política no Brasil. Neste sentido, tentaremos mapear os fatores que potencializam a judicialização da política tomando como pano de fundo a evolução das instituições judiciais brasileiras no período republicano, especificamente as instituições responsáveis pela revisão judicial.The judicial institutions remained for a long time in the shadow of the political phenomena and theory in Latin America. This article presents some thoughts on one of these institutions, the judicial review. The main idea is to demonstrate the trajectory of this legal instrument that has become a key piece to understand the judicialization of politics in Brazil. In this sense, the paper tries to identify the factors that lead to the judicialization of politics, considering as background the evolution of the judicial institutions in Brazil during the republican period, and in particular the institutions responsible for the judicial review.

  4. Home closure as a weapon in the Dutch war on drugs: Does judicial review function as a safety net?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, L Michelle; Vols, Michel; Brouwer, Jan G

    2017-09-01

    A widespread sense of a failing criminal justice system and increased feelings of insecurity changed the response to crime into a culture of control, which is characterized by policies that punish and exclude. In the Netherlands, these influences can be witnessed in the war on drugs where local authorities use their administrative power to close homes involved in drug-related crime. Citizens can invoke judicial review over these administrative interferences by claiming that such closure results in an unfair balance between purposes, means and consequences. This paper assesses whether judicial review functions as a safety net against losing one's home due to drug-related crime. We used doctrinal legal research methods to examine the "law in the books" and empirical legal research methods to analyse the "law in action". We used a survey to investigate how often the drug-related closure power was used in 2015, and we statistically analysed all published case law of Dutch lower courts between 2007 and 2016. The scope of the closure power broadened over the years and our data show that local authorities fiercely make use of this instrument. In 41.4% of the cases, citizens are successful in fighting the closure. While scholarly literature indicates that judicial courts function as safeguards by questioning the proportionality of administrative action, raising a proportionality defence does not necessarily result in a more favourable outcome for citizens. In fact, raising a proportionality defence makes it more likely to result in dismissal of the appeal. The stretched scope of the drug-related closure power together with the relatively low success rate of citizens who fight the loss of their home and a seemingly meaningless proportionality check show no sign of a safety net against the loss of one's home at the suit of a local authority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. La influencia del género en las decisiones de los tribunales: del paternalismo judicial a los papeles familiares The influence of the gender on judicial decision-making: from judicial paternalism to family roles

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    Andreia de Castro-Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurriendo al concepto de género como objeto de análisis, este artículo realiza una retrospectiva sobre la evolución de la investigación sobre la influencia de factores extralegales en las decisiones judiciales, a través de la lectura de sus referencias bibliográficas más destacadas. En el caso concreto del género, esta evolución se caracteriza por una sofisticación crítica que provocó un cambio en las explicaciones asociadas a las diferencias encontradas en las sentencias atribuidas a hombres y mujeres. Esta transición parte de perspectivas simplistas relacionadas con una actitud paternalista por parte del sistema de justicia criminal, y evoluciona hasta perspectivas complejas y multifacéticas relacionadas con los diferentes papeles familiares ejercidos por hombres y mujeres.Using the concept of gender as an object of analysis, this article aims at having a retrospective description of the methodological and conceptual evolution regarding the influence of extralegal aspects on judicial decisions research through the most prominent authors. In the specific case of Gender, this evolution is characterized by a critical sophistication. The transition in the explanations in differential criminal sentences attributed to men and women evolved from a simplistic perspective linked to paternalism and chivalry hypothesis to more complex and multifaceted standpoints related to the different family roles exercised by men and women.

  6. [Investigation on the approach of delivery after previous cesarean section of Xinjiang Uyghur women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Aimainilezi, Adalaiti; Jin, Yan; Abudula, Wuriguli; Yin, Chenghong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the appropriate approach of delivery after cesarean section of Uyghur women in primary hospitals in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. A total of 5 154 women delivered in Luopu County People Hospital, Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region from January 2011 to December 2012. Among them, 178 Uyghur women had cesarean section history. The interval between the previous cesarean section and this delivery varied from 1 year to 17 years. The number of cases attempting vaginal labor and the indications of the previous cesarean section were recorded. The indications for the second cesarean section were analyzed. The gestational weeks at delivery, blood loss in 2 hours after delivery, neonatal birth weight, newborn asphyxia, the rate of postpartum fever (≥ 38 °C) and hospitalization days were compared between the two approaches of delivery. (1) Among the 178 cases, 119 cases attempted vaginal labor, the rate of attempting vaginal labor was 66.9% (119/178). A total of 113 cases succeeded in vaginal delivery (the vaginal delivery group), with the successful rate of attempting vaginal delivery of 95.0% (113/119), and the successful rate of vaginal delivery was 63.5% (113/178). For those 119 women succeeded in vaginal delivery, the indications of the previous cesarean sections were as following: pregnancy complications (68.1%, 81/119), macrosomia(5.0%, 6/119), dystocia (14.3%, 17/119), pregnancies complicated with other diseases (5.0%, 6/119) and cesarean section on maternal request (7.6%, 9/119). (2) 15 cases in the cesarean section group had postpartum hemorrhage, with the incidence of 13.3% (15/113). The mean total labor time was (507 ± 182) minutes. 6 cases attempting vaginal delivery failed and turned to cesarean section. (3) 59 cases received the second cesarean section (the cesarean section group). The rate of second cesarean section was 33.1% (59/178). The indications of the second cesarean section were as following: contracted pelvis (5%, 3

  7. Science and judicial proceedings--seventy-six years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Robert

    2009-10-01

    The intersection of law and science, particularly in relation to causality and the legal concept of causation, were of considerable interest to Sir Owen Dixon. In this article, revisiting Dixon's 1933 lecture "Science and Judicial Proceedings", the Chief Justice refers to Dixon's deep interest in science and the issues to which it can give rise in legal proceedings. The 1933 lecture followed shortly after the judgment of the High Court in Australian Knitting Mills Ltd v Grant (1933) 50 CLR 387 which involved consideration of expert testimony and causal connections between product characteristics and personal injury to the consumer.

  8. Interdelivery weight gain and risk of cesarean delivery following a prior vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ(2) statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m(2) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m(2) to cesarean

  9. Intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Kay; Lyons, Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative awareness is defined as the spontaneous recall of an event occurring during general anesthesia. A move away from rigid anesthetic protocols, which were designed to limit drug transmission across the placenta, has reduced the incidence of awareness during cesarean delivery to approximately 0.26%. Nevertheless, it remains an undesirable complication with potential for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Assessing depth of anesthesia remains a challenge for the anesthesia provider as clinical signs are unreliable and there is no sensitive and specific monitor. Bispectral Index monitoring with the goal of scores awareness. Induction drugs vary in their ability to produce amnesia and the period of hypnotic effect is affected by the rate at which they are redistributed. After initiation of anesthesia, volatile anesthetics should be administered to a target of 0.7 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration, which has been shown to consistently achieve mean Bispectral Index scores awareness during emergency cesarean delivery. In the absence of fetal compromise, there is no rationale for an inspired oxygen concentration above 0.33. Deeper levels of anesthesia reduce the incidence of awareness; current evidence does not suggest an increased risk of tocolysis or fetal morbidity.

  10. Uterocutaneous Fistula Following Cesarean Section: Successful Management of a Case

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    Ghodratollah Maddah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A uterocutaneous fistula is a rare clinical presentation that occurs following Cesarean section and other pelvic operations. There are only a few reports discussing the treatments. We describe a patient with successful surgical management and review the literature. A 25-year-old woman referred to our department 13 months after her first Cesarean section. She had a history of an abdominal mass and collection 2 months after surgery and some fistula opening with discharge from her previous incision. She had a previous surgical operation and antibiotic therapy without complete response. We performed fistulography to evaluate the tracts. In the operation — she had fistula tracts, one of which was between the uterus and skin. We debrided the necrotic tissue in the uterus, excised the fistula tracts, and drained the uterine cavity. At 8 months’ postoperative follow-up, she had no recurrence. A uterocutaneous fistula is a rare condition with many causes and needs proper investigation and timely medical and surgical management.

  11. Uterine Closure in Cesarean Delivery: A New Technique

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    K M Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear of scar rupture is one of risks involved in a post caesarean pregnancy. This had led to an increased rate of repeat cesarean delivery in today′s times. Closure of the uterine incision is a key step in cesarean section, and it is imperative that an optimal surgical technique be employed for closing a uterine scar. This technique should be able to withstand the stress of subsequent labor. In the existing techniques of uterine closure, single or double layer, correct approximation of the cut margins, that is, decidua-to-decidua, myometrium to myometrium, serosa to serosa is not guaranteed. Also, there are high chances of inter surgeon variability. It was felt that if a suturing technique which ensures correct approximation of all the layers mentioned above with nil or minimal possibility of inter operator variability existed, there will not be any thinning of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Further, a scarred uterus repaired in this manner will be able to withstand the stress of labor in future. We hereby report a new technique for uterine closure devised by us, which incorporates a continuous modified mattress suture technique as a modification of the existing surgical technique of uterine closure.

  12. Epidemiology of cesarean delivery: the scope of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Annelee; Reddy, Uma M

    2012-10-01

    Approximately one-third of births in the United States are via cesarean delivery (CD). The rate of CD has increased dramatically since the 1990s, reaching a peak of 32.9% in 2009. The increase can be seen among women of all ages and race/ethnicities, in every state, and across all gestational ages. The primary CD rate has increased from 14.5% in 1996 to 23.4% in 2007. Because the primary CD rate has increased and the rate of trial of labor after CD has decreased, the primary cesarean rate has become a major driver in the total CD rate. Also contributing to the high CD rate is an increase in somewhat subjective indications, such as fetal distress or nonreassuring fetal tracing and failure to progress leading to performance of CD in the latent phase of labor. Addressing these factors--as well as focusing on the use of elective induction and management of early labor in the particular subgroup of nulliparous women at term, with singleton fetuses in vertex presentation--may have a significant impact on the total CD rate.

  13. Primary and Repeat Cesarean Deliveries: A Population-based Study in the United States, 1979-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Cande V; Friedman, Alexander M; Keyes, Katherine M; Lavery, Jessica A; Hamilton, Ava; Wright, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Despite the temporal increase in cesarean deliveries, the extent to which maternal age, period, and maternal birth cohorts may have contributed to these trends remains unknown. We performed an analysis of 123 million singleton deliveries in the United States (1979-2010). We estimated rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for primary and repeat cesarean deliveries. We examined changes in cesarean rates with weighted Poisson regression models across three time-scales: maternal age, year of delivery, and birth cohort (mother's birth year). The primary cesarean rate increased by 68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67%, 69%) between 1979 (11.0%) and 2010 (18.5%). Repeat cesarean deliveries increased by 178% (95% CI: 176, 179) from 5.2% in 1979 to 14.4% in 2010. Cesarean rates increased with advancing age. Compared with 1979, the RR for the period effect in primary and repeat cesarean deliveries increased up to 1990, fell to a nadir at 1993, and began to rise thereafter. A small birth cohort effect was evident, with women born before 1950 at increased risk of primary cesarean; no cohort effect was seen for repeat cesarean deliveries. Adjustment for maternal BMI had a small effect on these findings. Period effects in primary cesarean were explained by a combination of trends in obesity and chronic hypertension, as well as demographic shifts over time. Maternal age and period appear to have important contributions to the temporal increase in the cesarean rates, although the effect of parity on these associations remains undetermined.

  14. The Forms of Judicial Anomie in China and Its Correction%中国司法失范形态及其矫正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2016-01-01

    “Anomie” is originally a concept in sociology. It was first put forward by the French sociologist Emile Durkheim, and the American scholar Morton developed the theory later on. Introduing “anomie” into the judicial field can vividly describe the problems that exist in the judicial operation. Judicial anomie is the state that the judicial practice gets out of the judicial rules control due to the imbalance of cultural goals and institutionalized means. Judicial anomie behaviors in the progress of the jurisdiction are still common, such as judicial anomie, lack of legal norms, lack of ability of specification.This has not only severely eroded the judi⁃cial authority of China, but also damaged the vital interests of the people.To rectify the anomie phenomenon in the process of judicial power operation, we can perfect the legal system, strengthen the judicial punishment mechanism and improve the quality of the law. Only defining the behaviors and correcting the judicial anomie can reinstate the judicial authority and protect the rights and interests of citizens.%“失范”原本是社会学中的概念,最早是由法国社会学家涂尔干提出的,而后美国学者默顿发展了此理论。将“失范”一词引入司法中,能够形象地描述中国司法运行中的问题。司法失范是指司法过程中存在的因文化目标与制度化手段的不平衡而导致的司法行为与司法规则的离散状态。在中国司法权运行过程中,存在司法失范现象,具体表现为司法规范之阙如、司法规范之不能、司法权力之滥用,这些不仅严重侵蚀了中国的司法权威,而且损害了人民的切身利益。针对中国司法权运行过程中出现的失范现象,可以从完善司法体系、强化司法惩戒机制、提高司法者素质等方面进行矫正。只有明确中国司法失范的表现形式及其矫正方式,才能重建中国的司法权威、保障公民权利。

  15. Relaciones entre el Congreso Nacional y el Poder Judicial: La Importancia de la Apertura

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    Sebastián Soto Velasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza las relaciones entre el Congreso Nacional y el Poder Judicial a través de dos instituciones existentes en nuestro ordenamiento: el proceso de nombramiento de Ministros de la Corte Suprema y los informes que esta última envía al Congreso Nacional en ciertos proyectos de ley. En el caso de las nominaciones de Ministros a la Corte Suprema se estudia como ha operado el sistema desde la incorporación del Senado en 1997 hasta el año 2005. Se analiza cómo la transparencia del proceso, la posibilidad de conocer la historia profesional del nominado y audiencias abiertas contribuirían a incentivar una decisión centrada en criterios de calidad. El documento también se centra en el contenido y la influencia de los informes que envía la Corte Suprema al Congreso Nacional con ocasión de la tramitación de proyectos de ley que contienen normas que modifican la organización o atribuciones de los tribunales de justicia. En esta instancia, permitir el acceso a los informes también tendría positivas consecuencias. En definitiva, aunque hay otras vías de comunicación entre el Congreso y el Poder Judicial, se profundiza únicamente en las mencionadas pues del estudio se concluye que ambas tenderían a aumentar el potencial que de suyo ya tienen si se incorpora apertura en los procesosThis paper analyzes the relationship between the Chilean Congress and Judicial power, focusing on two institutions: the nomination process to appoint Supreme Court justices and the reports that the Supreme Court is constitutionally obligated to send to the Congress when specific types of bills are introduced. The appointment of Supreme Court candidates is studied from the Senate's incorporation in the process from 1997 until 2005. The author states that a more transparent process, including the publication of the candidate's backgrounds and public hearings, would increase the incentives to nominate the most qualified candidates. The paper also

  16. Analysis on Indications and Causes of Cesarean Section on Pemba Island of Zanzibar in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Liping; Zubeir TS; Hamida SA

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore and analyze the indications and causes of cesarean section on Pemba island of Zanzibar in Africa to improve the quality of obstetrics. Methods: 564 patients performed cesarean section in Abdulla Mzee Hospital of Pemba from January, 2008 to December, 2011 were selected, and statistics was conducted by the method of retrospective analysis. Results: The rate of cesarean section in Abdulla Mzee Hospital of Pemba was 10.01%. The primary causes of cesarean section included cephalopelvic disproportion (27.13%), scar uterus (23.40%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (13.30%), fetal distress in uterus (9.40%), fetal factors (9.75%) and complication of pregnancy (6.91%). Conclusion: Cesarean section plays a great role in the treatment of dystocia, some complications of pregnancy and reducing the mortality of pregnant women and perinatal infants, but in the area with relatively undeveloped medical conditions in Africa, cesarean section still takes great risks. Unnecessary cesarean section cannot reduce the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal morbidity. The local medical staff should improve the midwifery technique, establish and perfect the formal antenatal examination system to improve the quality of maternity.

  17. Obstetric and Non-Obstetric Risk Factors for Cesarean Section in Oman

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    Ibrahim Al Busaidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to explore the risk factors, profiles and neonatal outcomes of Cesarean sections among selected women in Oman.Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, a total of 500 participants (250 cases who had cesarean section and 250 controls who had spontaneous vaginal delivery, were randomly selected from four hospitals. Cases and controls were matched according to timing and place of delivery.Results: The following predictors were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of cesarean section: a advancing age (above the age of 25 years, OR=1.42; p=0.03, b prior cesarean section (previous cesarean section=1, OR=22.71; p=0.001, c increased body mass index (obesity, OR=2.11; p=0.07, d extremes of neonatal birth weight (neonates birth weight 4.0 kg, OR=7.3; p<0.001, and e prepregnancy diabetes (OR=9.3; p=0.04. On the contrary, increased parity and history of the use of birth spacing methods (OR=0.38; p=0.03 were associated with decreased risk of cesarean section.Conclusion: The study calls for increasing awareness about clinical and public health majors that would lead to prevention of risk factors associated with increased risk of cesarean section such as maintaining normal BMI and prevention of gestational and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. The failure of financial incentive? The seemingly inexorable rise of cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Lin, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two policy interventions in Taiwan aiming to slow the growth of cesarean delivery utilization were respectively implemented in 2005 and 2006. The first policy provided financial incentives to encourage vaginal delivery by setting a global fee for obstetric services and in essence increasing the reimbursement for vaginal delivery up to the same level of cesarean section. The second policy aimed to reduce the demand for elective cesarean procedure by employing a copayment when cesarean section is not medically indicated. This paper examines the impact of financial incentives of both the supply and the demand side on the use of utilization of cesarean section using data from the 2003-2008 National Health Insurance Research Database. We found that while the overall trend of cesarean utilization did not seem to respond to the interventions, the policies did have significant impact on its elective use. Financial incentives for the providers do matter, and policy interventions, such as a fee change, are still important strategies to consider in reducing the over-utilization of cesarean section.

  19. Uterine rupture after previous low segment transverse cesarean is rarely catastrophic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltsman, Sofia; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben Ami, Moshe; Ben Shlomo, Izhar

    2017-03-06

    The cornerstone of concerns over trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) is the risk of uterine rupture. The purpose of this study was to document the rate of uterine rupture during TOLAC and to delineate its severity and consequences. We retrospectively collected the data on vaginal and cesarean deliveries after a previous cesarean section with specific emphasis on uterine rupture and dehiscence in our center from 2006 through 2013. 22,670 deliveries were registered, with 18.2% rate of cesarean section. 2890 women had a single cesarean scar; of them 1206 delivered vaginally and 194 were re-operated during unsuccessful TOLAC. Seven cases of uterine rupture and 16 cases of dehiscence were recorded. There were no maternal, intrapartum or neonatal deaths, and no cesarean hysterectomy. There was one re-laparotomy, one ICU admission, and one blood transfusion; one neonate was admitted to NICU. TOLAC was successful in 86.1% of cases. Cautious selection and close monitoring of candidates are the cornerstones of successful management of TOLAC. Readily available facilities for emergency cesarean delivery and concerted obstetrical team can save the mother and child from catastrophic complications.

  20. Association Between Type of Health Insurance and Elective Cesarean Deliveries: New Jersey, 2004–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the relationship between insurance coverage, which may influence physician incentives and maternal choices, and cesarean delivery before labor. Methods. I analyzed hospital discharge data for mothers without previous cesarean deliveries in New Jersey between 2004 and 2007, with adjustment for maternal age, race, marital status, and maternal, fetal, and placental conditions. Results. Nearly 1 in 7 women (13.9%) had a cesarean delivery without laboring. Insurance status was strongly associated with cesarean birth. Women insured by Medicaid (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.91) or self-paying (ARR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) had a significantly lower likelihood, and women insured by BlueCross (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09) or standard commercial plans (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10) had a significantly higher likelihood of cesarean delivery than did women insured by commercial health maintenance organizations. These associations persisted in subsets restricted to lower-risk women and in qualitative sensitivity analyses for a hypothetical single, binary, unmeasured confounder. Conclusions. Insurance status has a small, independent impact on whether a woman without a previous cesarean delivery proceeds to labor or has a cesarean delivery without labor. PMID:21940911

  1. The relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Quayle, Julieta; Santiago, Kely; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals that adopt standardized protocols of obstetrical care. METHODS This was a prospective cohort study conducted between May 2005 and January 2006 with 831 pregnant women recruited from 10 public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected during pregnancy. The three main exposures were schooling, monthly family income per capita, and residential crowding. The main outcome was cesarean section at three public hospitals located in the area. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. We examined the effects of each exposure variable on cesarean section accounting for potential confounders by using four different models: crude, adjusted by mother’s characteristics, by obstetrical complications, and by the other two indicators of socioeconomic status. RESULTS Among the 757 deliveries performed in the public hospitals, 215 (28.4%) were by cesarean section. In the bivariate analysis, cesarean section was associated with higher family income per capita, higher education, lower residential crowding, pregnancy planning, white skin color, having a partner, and advanced maternal age. In the multivariate analysis, after adjustment for covariates, none of the socioeconomic status variables remained associated with cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS In this group, the chance of women undergoing cesarean section was not associated with indicators of socioeconomic status only, but was defined in accordance with major obstetric and clinical conditions. PMID:28355336

  2. Association between prior vaginal birth after cesarean and subsequent labor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krispin, Eyal; Hiersch, Liran; Wilk Goldsher, Yulia; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Ashwal, Eran

    2017-03-27

    To estimate the effect of prior successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) on the rate of uterine rupture and delivery outcome in women undergoing labor after cesarean. A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting labor after cesarean delivery in a university-affiliated tertiary-hospital (2007-2014) was conducted. Study group included women attempting vaginal delivery with a history of cesarean delivery and at least one prior VBAC. Control group included women attempting first vaginal delivery following cesarean delivery. Primary outcome was defined as the rate of uterine rupture. Secondary outcomes were delivery and maternal outcomes. Of 62,463 deliveries during the study period, 3256 met inclusion criteria. One thousand two hundred and eleven women had VBAC prior to the index labor and 2045 underwent their first labor after cesarean. Women in the study group had a significantly lower rate of uterine rupture 9 (0.7%) in respect to control 33 (1.6%), p = .036, and had a higher rate of successful vaginal birth (96 vs. 84.9%, p cesarean, prior VBAC appears to be associated with lower rate of uterine rupture and higher rate of successful vaginal birth.

  3. The relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Quayle, Julieta; Santiago, Kely; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-03-23

    To assess the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals that adopt standardized protocols of obstetrical care. This was a prospective cohort study conducted between May 2005 and January 2006 with 831 pregnant women recruited from 10 public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected during pregnancy. The three main exposures were schooling, monthly family income per capita, and residential crowding. The main outcome was cesarean section at three public hospitals located in the area. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. We examined the effects of each exposure variable on cesarean section accounting for potential confounders by using four different models: crude, adjusted by mother's characteristics, by obstetrical complications, and by the other two indicators of socioeconomic status. Among the 757 deliveries performed in the public hospitals, 215 (28.4%) were by cesarean section. In the bivariate analysis, cesarean section was associated with higher family income per capita, higher education, lower residential crowding, pregnancy planning, white skin color, having a partner, and advanced maternal age. In the multivariate analysis, after adjustment for covariates, none of the socioeconomic status variables remained associated with cesarean section. In this group, the chance of women undergoing cesarean section was not associated with indicators of socioeconomic status only, but was defined in accordance with major obstetric and clinical conditions.

  4. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all pcesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  5. The relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Faisal-Cury

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals that adopt standardized protocols of obstetrical care. METHODS This was a prospective cohort study conducted between May 2005 and January 2006 with 831 pregnant women recruited from 10 public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected during pregnancy. The three main exposures were schooling, monthly family income per capita, and residential crowding. The main outcome was cesarean section at three public hospitals located in the area. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR, with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. We examined the effects of each exposure variable on cesarean section accounting for potential confounders by using four different models: crude, adjusted by mother’s characteristics, by obstetrical complications, and by the other two indicators of socioeconomic status. RESULTS Among the 757 deliveries performed in the public hospitals, 215 (28.4% were by cesarean section. In the bivariate analysis, cesarean section was associated with higher family income per capita, higher education, lower residential crowding, pregnancy planning, white skin color, having a partner, and advanced maternal age. In the multivariate analysis, after adjustment for covariates, none of the socioeconomic status variables remained associated with cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS In this group, the chance of women undergoing cesarean section was not associated with indicators of socioeconomic status only, but was defined in accordance with major obstetric and clinical conditions.

  6. Analysis on Indications and Causes of Cesarean Section on Pemba Island of Zanzibar in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and analyze the indications and causes of cesarean section on Pemba island of Zanzibar in Africa to improve the quality of obstetrics. Methods: 564 patients performed cesarean section in Abdulla Mzee Hospital of Pemba from January, 2008 to December, 2011 were selected, and statistics was conducted by the method of retrospective analysis. Results: The rate of cesarean section in Abdulla Mzee Hospital of Pemba was 10.01%. The primary causes of cesarean section included cephalopelvic disproportion (27.13%, scar uterus (23.40%, preeclampsia and eclampsia (13.30%, fetal distress in uterus (9.40%, fetal factors (9.75% and complication of pregnancy (6.91%. Conclusion: Cesarean section plays a great role in the treatment of dystocia, some complications of pregnancy and reducing the mortality of pregnant women and perinatal infants, but in the area with relatively undeveloped medical conditions in Africa, cesarean section still takes great risks. Unnecessary cesarean section cannot reduce the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal morbidity. The local medical staff should improve the midwifery technique, establish and perfect the formal antenatal examination system to improve the quality of maternity.

  7. Elective cesarean delivery for women with a previous anal sphincter rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, David S; Ester, John B; Fischer, John R

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate elective cesarean delivery for women with a history of anal sphincter rupture. The effectiveness of cesarean delivery in parous women with a previous anal sphincter rupture was determined by decision analysis. The outcomes were excess cesarean deliveries and morbidity and mortality rates per prevented case of anal incontinence. We needed 2.3 cesarean deliveries to prevent one case of anal incontinence. A woman who chooses a cesarean delivery has a 11.3% risk of morbidity compared with a 4.2% risk for vaginal delivery (relative risk, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.6-2.8; P<.001). The relative risk for maternal death from a cesarean delivery is 2.6 (95% CI, 1.5-4.5; P<.001). Continent women with a previous anal sphincter rupture who are delivered vaginally are at high risk for permanent anal incontinence. Cesarean delivery will prevent most cases of anal incontinence, although marginally increasing maternal risk. The increased risk may be justified by the potential benefits. Patients should be counseled on these risks and benefits.

  8. Internacionalização e ativismo judicial: as causas coletivas Internationalization and judicial activism: the collective causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Engelmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende fornecer elementos para a análise da relação entre o fenômeno de internacionalização do direito e a emergência de modalidades de advogados engajados na representação judicial de causas coletivas. São analisadas duas dimensões: uma primeira expõe um panorama exploratório das causas coletivas no cenário nacional e internacional, pela catalogação das decisões judiciais na Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos e em tribunais brasileiros. Uma segunda dimensão de análise aborda, com base em entrevistas, casos representativos de promoção de causas coletivas nas décadas de 1990 e 2000. Essas duas dimensões permitem avançar a hipótese de que a redemocratização política nacional e a constituição de redes internacionais de circulação de causas políticas e jurídicas contribuem para a definição dos perfis de ativismo judicial legitimados no espaço jurídico em diferentes períodos.The article intends the analysis of the relation between the phenomenon of internationalization of Law and the emergency of modalities of lawyers engaged in the judicial representation of collective causes. Two dimensions are analyzed: the first one displays an exploratory panorama of the collective causes in the national and international scene, out of a survey of the profile of demands of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Brazilian courts. The second dimension approaches, from interviews, representative cases of promotion of collective causes in the decades of 1990 and 2000. These two dimensions allow to advance the hypothesis that the national political redemocratization and the constitution of international networks of circulation of political and legal causes contribute for the definition of the profiles of judicial activism legitimated in the legal space in different periods.

  9. O Poder Judicial na Constituição de Angola de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacelar Gouveia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nova Constituição da República de Angola, de 2010, reserva um dos seus Títulos ao Poder Judicial, definindo as estruturas do Poder Judicial, bem como os poderes de intervenção dos diferentes atores de natureza judicial, sem esquecer ainda as competências dos advogados e dos defensores públicos, bem como do Ministério Público.

  10. Biomedical engineers and participation in judicial executions: capital punishment as a technical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of judicial execution from the perspective of the intersection of the technological issues and the professional ethics issues. Although physicians are generally ethically forbidden from any involvement in the judicial execution process, this does not appear to be the case for engineering professionals. This creates an interesting but controversial opportunity for the engineering community (especially biomedical engineers) to improve the humaneness and reliability of the judicial execution process.

  11. Assessing potential future environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Schweitzer, M.; Godfrey, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wagner, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); MacGregor, D.G. [MacGregor-Bates, Inc. (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This report describes a methodology to proactively and methodically assess future potential environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events. This is an important endeavor because new, revised, and reauthorized legislation, proposed and final regulations, and outcomes of judicial proceedings have the potential to impose new actions, directions, and costs of many organizations in the United States (related to capital investments, operating approaches, and research and development) and to affect the quality of life. The electric power industry is particularly impacted by environmental regulatory events (the term `regulatory` is used to cover all the types of legal events listed above), as the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity affects air and water quality, require disposal of solid, hazardous, and radioactive wastes, and at times, impacts wetlands and endangered species. Numerous potential regulatory events, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and new regulations associated with global climate change, can greatly affect the power industry. Organizations poised to respond proactively to such events will improve their competitive positions, reduce their costs in the long-term, and improve their public images.

  12. Poder Judiciário: perspectivas de reforma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Maria Tereza Aina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute aspectos da crise do sistema de justiça brasileiro que estão no centro do debate sobre a necessidade de reforma do Poder Judiciário, com base na crítica geral ao anacronismo, inoperância e à desigualdade de acesso aos seus serviços. A autora apresenta a posição dos próprios integrantes do sistema de justiça brasileira através da análise de resultados de pesquisas realizadas pelo IDESP a partir de 1993. Alguns destes resultados têm apontado, ao longo do tempo, para uma flexibilização do espírito corporativo dos membros do Judiciário, como por exemplo, a aceitação de sua democratização. Os resultados também mostram que o controle externo a este poder e a sua composição, embora incorporada pelos juízes antes refratários a esta discussão, permanece uma importante divisão no interior da magistratura.

  13. [Limits of pain treatment: medical and judicial aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, M; Rissing-van Saan, R

    2011-08-01

    Medical principles of pain treatment are generally in line with the judicial principles. To relieve pain is one of the fundamentals of medicine and this has also been acknowledged by the Federal Court in Germany. It is criminal bodily harm, when a physician denies a possible pain treatment. Whereas courts clearly see an obligation to basic and continuing education in pain diagnosis and therapy, pain is still not represented in the German licensing regulations for physicians. Only palliative medicine has been added to the obligatory curriculum. Very similar pain is not mandatory in many clinical disciplines leaving physicians without the needed knowledge to treat pain. The need for interdisciplinary treatment is not yet acknowledged sufficiently, although meanwhile chronic pain is regarded as a bio-psycho-social illness.Since 2009 the advance directive is regulated by law. However, still many physicians are unaware that not only the position of the patient but also of the relatives have been strengthened. In 2010 the Federal Court has pronounced a judgment allowing "passive euthanasia" in certain conditions but prohibiting any active handling even in line with the patient's will. This is also in line with the European Human Rights Convention. The judicial unpunished assisted suicide has provoked an ethical discussion within the medical profession. However, what is not illegal is not automatically accepted as ethical handling for physicians. Palliative medicine is at least one alternative in this discussion.

  14. Uterine rupture in second-trimester misoprostol-induced abortion after cesarean delivery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vinita

    2009-05-01

    To determine the risk of uterine rupture when using misoprostol for second-trimester abortion in women with a history of cesarean delivery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically for all articles published before September 2008. Sixty-three articles were found using the above data sources. I excluded case reports, narrative reviews or commentaries, studies that excluded women with a history of cesarean delivery, studies with unrelated outcomes, studies not conducted in humans, and studies that were not available in English. The remaining 16 studies that described misoprostol use for second-trimester abortion in women with a history of cesarean delivery were examined. The number of participants with and without cesarean delivery, regimen of medical abortion used, and cases of uterine rupture were reviewed. To estimate the risk of uterine rupture in women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing second-trimester abortion with misoprostol and number needed to harm, I pooled the results of all 16 studies. The risk of uterine rupture in women with prior cesarean delivery was 0.28% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-1.00%). The risk of uterine rupture in women without prior cesarean delivery was 0.04% (95% CI 0.01-0.20%). Based on these risks, if 414 women with a history of cesarean delivery were given misoprostol for second-trimester abortion, one would experience uterine rupture. The risk of uterine rupture among women with a prior cesarean delivery undergoing second-trimester abortion using misoprostol is less than 0.3%. This may be acceptable to both patients and providers.

  15. Cesarean delivery in preeclampsia and seasonal variation in a tropical rainforest belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor U

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia is poorly understood and recent evidence suggests that the incidence varies depending upon the season. Aim: This study was carried out to determine whether there is a seasonal variation in the presentation of preeclamptics undergoing cesarean delivery in a tropical rainforest belt. Setting: A university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: The hospital records of consecutive patients (July 1996-June 2006 with preeclampsia, who underwent cesarean delivery in a tertiary care centre, were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, total number of deliveries, number of cesarean deliveries, and number of preeclampsia patients and time of presentation for cesarean section. Approval of the local ethical committee was obtained. Statistical Analysis: The EPI info software program was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 6798 deliveries were recorded during the study period resulting in 6485 live births. There were 1579 cesarean deliveries during the period. Of these, 196 patients had toxemia of pregnancy (166 with preeclampsia and 30 with eclampsia. One hundred and forty-one patients (9% of cesarean deliveries had cesarean delivery during the rainy season and 55 (3.5% during the dry season (P < 0.05. Amongst preeclampsia patients, 115 presented (7% during the rainy season and 51 (3.2% during the dry season (P < 0.05. In the eclampsia group, 26 (1.65% of cesarean sections presented during the rainy season and four (0.25% during the dry season (P < 0.05. Conclusions: There was a seasonal variation in the cesarean delivery required for preeclampsia/eclampsia patients. This may help in counseling women on when to plan their pregnancy in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this apparent seasonal disease.

  16. Indications for Cesarean Delivery in Mexico: Evaluation of Appropriate Use and Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Neri, Juan Carlos; Suárez-López, Leticia; DeMaria, Lisa M; Walker, Dilys

    2017-03-01

    Cesarean delivery is one of the most widely used surgical interventions in Latin America and in many cases it is performed with no clear medical indication. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between reported indications for a cesarean and support for that indication in the clinical record in four Mexican hospitals, during the 2006-2007 period. The data are from 604 (37.1%) women from a total of 1,625 who were admitted to the hospital in labor, and who gave birth through cesarean. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to explore the association between indications for clinically justified or unjustified surgery and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. Supporting clinical information for indications of cesarean delivery were found in only 45 percent of the cases considered. The adjusted statistical analysis showed that the variables associated with an unjustified indication for cesarean were: not having had a prior birth (OR 1.84 [95% CI 1.16-2.89]), having a maximum cervical dilation of 4 centimeters or less at time of cesarean (OR 2.44 [95% CI 1.53-3.87]), and having received care in a private hospital (OR 6.11 [95% CI 1.90-19.57]). The indications for cesarean related to labor dynamics were those least supported. Not having had a prior birth poses the greatest risk of having a poorly supported indication for a cesarean delivery. It would be prudent to institute audits, and greater requirements for and surveillance of documentation for cesarean delivery indications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regional Gradients in Institutional Cesarean Delivery Rates: Evidence from Five Countries in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2017-03-01

    Although the influence of the type of institutional setting on the risk of cesarean birth is well documented, less is known about the regional variations in institution-specific cesarean rates within countries. Our purpose was to examine regional variations in cesarean rates across public and private facilities in five Asian countries with a sizeable private sector: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Demographic Health Survey data and a hierarchical model were used to assess regional variations in the mode of delivery while controlling for a wide range of socioeconomic, demographic, and maternal risk factors. The risk of cesarean birth was greater in a private facility than in a government hospital by 36-48 percent in India and Indonesia and by 130 percent in Bangladesh. Regional gradients in cesarean birth were found to be steeper for deliveries in private facilities than in government hospitals in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The residents of India's high-use states were 55 percent more likely to undergo a cesarean delivery in a government hospital and 83 percent more likely in a private facility than their counterparts in the medium-use states. Similarly, compared to the residents of the Philippines's medium-use provinces, giving birth in a government facility increased the likelihood of a cesarean delivery by 84 percent and by 173 percent in a private facility. Large regional variations in cesarean rates suggest the need for more informed clinical decision making with respect to the selection of cases for cesarean delivery and the establishment of well-developed guidelines and standards at the provincial or state levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vaginal birth after cesarean section-The world trend and local experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Wu, Chia-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    The trend of increasing cesarean section rates had evoked worldwide attention. Many approaches were introduced to diminish cesarean section rates. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is a route of delivery with diverse agreements. In this study, we try to reveal the world trend in VBAC and our experience of a 10-year period in a medical center in northern Taiwan. This is a retrospective study of all women who underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery or trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) following primary cesarean delivery by a general obstetrician-gynecologist in the Tamshui Branch of MacKay Memorial Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) between 2006 and 2015. We excluded cases of preterm labor, two or more cesarean deliveries, and major maternal diseases. We compared the characteristics and outcomes between these groups. We included 400 women with subsequent pregnancies who underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery or TOLAC during the study period. Among the study population, 112 women were excluded and 11 underwent repeat VBAC. A total of 204 (73.65%) cases underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery and 73 (26.35%) chose TOLAC. The rate of successful VBAC among the women who chose TOLAC was 84.93%. With respect to maternal and fetal safety, and success rates and adverse effects of VBAC, the results of this study are promising and compatible with the global data. It shows that a trial of VBAC can be offered to pregnant women without contraindications with high success rates. Copyright © 2017 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association of Expanded Access to a Collaborative Midwifery and Laborist Model With Cesarean Delivery Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Melissa G; Nijagal, Malini; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    To examine the association between expanded access to collaborative midwifery and laborist services and cesarean delivery rates. This was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital between 2005 and 2014. In 2011, privately insured women changed from a private practice model to one that included 24-hour midwifery and laborist coverage. Primary cesarean delivery rates among nulliparous, term, singleton, vertex women and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) rates among women with prior cesarean delivery were compared before and after the change. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the effects of the change on the odds of primary cesarean delivery and VBAC; an interrupted time-series analysis estimated the annual rates before and after the expansion. There were 3,560 nulliparous term singleton vertex deliveries and 1,324 deliveries with prior cesarean delivery during the study period; 45% were among privately insured women whose care model changed. The primary cesarean delivery rate among these privately insured women decreased after the change, from 31.7% to 25.0% (P=.005, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.81). The interrupted time-series analysis estimated a 7% drop in the primary cesarean delivery rate in the year after the expansion and a decrease of 1.7% per year thereafter. The VBAC rate increased from 13.3% before to 22.4% afterward (adjusted OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.08-3.80). The change from a private practice to a collaborative midwifery-laborist model was associated with a decrease in primary cesarean rates and an increase in VBAC rates. II.

  20. The Impact of Judicial Reform on Crime Victimization and Trust in Institutions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the impact of judicial reform in Mexico. It does so using a survey about crime victimization and perceptions of insecurity (Encuesta Nacional Sobre la Inseguridad [ENSI]) collected in 2005, 2008, and 2009 in 11 Mexican cities, 3 of which implemented the reform in 2007 and 2008. This analysis shows that judicial reform not only reduces victimization but also lowers perceptions of security. Although we find that judicial reform has a negative effect on trust in the local and federal police, judicial reform reduces the probability of being asked by the transit police for a bribe.

  1. Major risk factors of maternal adverse outcome in women with two or more previous cesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Maternal morbidity is defined as any condition that is attributed to or aggravated by pregnancy and childbirth that has a negative impact on the woman's wellbeing. In recent years, a growing trend of cesarean section rates can be seen throughout the world. The aim of this study was to assess factors that might have major impact on maternal adverse outcome in women with two or more previous cesarean sections. Methods. This retrospective study included women with single term pregnancy after two or more cesarean deliveries in a 10-year period (2004−2013 in the University Clinic “Narodni front” in Belgrade, Serbia. Medical records were reviewed for clinical data for maternal intraoperative and early postoperative complications regarding gestational age at delivery, the number of previous cesarean sections and mode of surgery (elective or emergency. Results. A total of 551 patients were included in the study. At 37 completed weeks delivered 14.1%, at 38 delivered 45.2% and at 39 completed weeks 40.7% patients. Women younger than 35 years more often delivered after 39 completed weeks compared with those over 35 years (69.2% vs 30.8%, p < 0.05. The overall rate of maternal complications in the study group was 16.5% with no statistical difference by gestational age at delivery. The overall rate of maternal adverse outcome was significantly less in the patients with three as compared with those with four or more cesareans (10.4% vs 66.7%, p < 0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between these groups of women regarding complications: scar dehiscence, the presence of adhesions, blood transfusion and admission in intensive care unit. Elective cesarean delivery was with less maternal complications compared with emergency cesarean deliveries (12.9% vs 27.3%, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Termination of pregnancy before completed 39 weeks does not decrease maternal morbidity. The major impact on maternal complications has the

  2. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... FHM had a 15% higher cesarean section rate (not planned) than units not using FHM (p ... a technology index was calculated for eight regions in Denmark, weighting the index of each unit in a region according to its number of deliveries. There was no association between the technology index in these eight regions in Denmark and their cesarean section rates. Use of FHM, technology index...

  3. Urinary bladder injury during cesarean delivery: Maternal outcome from a contemporary large case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Lina; Aharony, Shachar; Shmueli, Anat; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Chen, Rony; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2017-06-01

    Urinary bladder injury is a rare complication during cesarean delivery. Little is known on maternal outcome following this injury. To evaluate short and long-term maternal outcome following bladder injury during cesarean delivery. A retrospective case series of all pregnancies complicated by full-thickness bladder injury during cesarean delivery in a single university affiliated tertiary medical center (August 2007-June 2016). Data on demographics, labor and surgery parameters, postpartum sequelae, and cystography were collected and reviewed by study personnel. Short-term maternal outcome included catheterization period, cystography results (if performed), any febrile illness and/or need for second operation prior to maternal discharge. Long term maternal outcome was obtained by searching our urology departmental and ambulatory database for follow up for all women. Univariate analysis was used to compare maternal outcome following first or repeat cesarean delivery. Of 17,326 cesarean deliveries performed during study period, 81 (0.47%) were complicated by bladder injury. Of them, 8 cases (9.9%) occurred during primary cesarean delivery (overall risk in primary cesarean 0.07%). Of the other 73 cases that followed repeated cesarean, adhesions were documented in 55 (75.3%) of them. Six cases (8.2%) had placenta accreta. Bladder injury occurred at peritoneal entry in 55 (67.9%) cases, and involved the bladder dome in 49 (60.5%) of them. Injury was diagnosed during cesarean delivery in all but 3 women, in whom abdominal pain and bloating prompted evaluation on first to third postoperative day. All 3 underwent re-laparotomy with bladder closure without further adverse sequelae. Cystography was performed in 35 patients on median postoperative day 8 (6-11 days). Eleven patients had abnormal findings as follows: 5 urinary leakage, 4 bladder wall irregularity and two urinary reflux. Two of the 11 patients (18%) required additional interventions: One patient required

  4. Case report: Anesthesia management for emergency cesarean section in a patient with dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Duan, Hongjun; Zuo, Mingzhang

    2015-04-28

    Dwarfism is characterized by short stature. Pregnancy in women with dwarfism is uncommon and cesarean section is generally indicated for delivery. Patients with dwarfism are high-risk population for both general and regional anesthesia, let alone in an emergency surgery. In this case report we present a 27-year-old Chinese puerpera with dwarfism who underwent emergency cesarean section under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia. It is an original case report, which provides instructive significance for anesthesia management especially combined spinal and epidural anesthesia in this rare condition. There was only one former article that reported a puerpera who underwent combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for a selective cesarean section.

  5. Successful treatment of uterine prolapse by abdominal hysteropexy performed during cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataylı, Rengin; Gezginç, Kazım; Kantarcı, Ali Haydar; Acar, Ali

    2013-02-01

    Uterine prolapse complicating pregnancy is extremely rare. This report presents the surgical correction of uterine prolapse during cesarean section. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with twin gestation who admitted to obstetric clinic with labor pain and total uterine prolapse at 33 weeks of gestation. An emergent cesarean section was performed for the indication of acute fetal distress. At the same operation, following cesarean delivery, abdominal hysteropexy using rectus fascia strips was performed successfully. On control performed 6 months later, patient was examined and it was detected uterine prolapse had regressed and babies were uneventful. This surgical method offers effective treatment of uterine prolapse.

  6. 28 CFR 8.3 - Designation of the investigative bureau having administrative forfeiture authority; claims for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... having administrative forfeiture authority; claims for awards, offers in compromise and matters relating to bonds. 8.3 Section 8.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.3 Designation of the investigative bureau having administrative forfeiture...

  7. Effects of acupuncture on post-cesarean section pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hung-chien; LIU Yu-chi; OU Keng-liang; CHANG Yung-hsien; HSIEH Ching-liang; TSAI Angela Hsin-chieh; TSAI Hong-te; CHIU Tsan-hung; HUNG Chih-jen; LEE Chien-chung; LIN Jaung-geng

    2009-01-01

    Background Post-operation pain is a very subjective phenomenon.The aim of this study was to find out the effects of acupuncture or electro-acupuncture on post-cesarean pain.Methods Sixty women,who had had spinal anesthesia during cesarean section at the Department of Obstetrics of China Medical University Hospital,were randomly assigned to the control group,the acupuncture group,and the electro-acupuncture group.After the operation,we applied subjects with acupuncture or electro-acupuncture on the bilateral acupuncture point,San Yin Jiao(Sp6),and the patient controlled analgesia(PCA).The first time of requesting morphine,the frequency of PCA demands in 24 hours,and the doses of PCA used were recorded double blindly.In addition,monitoring the subjects' vital signs,the opioid-related side effects,and the pain scores was done.Results The results showed that the acupuncture group and the electro-acupuncture group could delay the time of requesting morphine up to 10-11 minutes when compared with the control group.The total dose of PCA used within the first 24 hours was 30%-35%less in the acupuncture group and the electro-acupuncture group when compared with the control group,which was indicated in statistical significance.However,there was no significant difference between the acupuncture group and the electro-acupuncture group.The electro-acupuncture group's and the acupuncture group's pain scores were lower than the control group's within the first 2 hours.Both were statistically significant.However,two hours later,there were no significant differences of the visual analogue scale(VAS)scores between either of the treatment groups and the control group.Finally,the incidence of opioid-related side effects,such as dizziness,was less in the acupuncture group and electro-acupuncture group than in the control group.Conclusions This study shows that the application of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture could definitely delay the time of requesting pain relief medication

  8. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M; Landy, Helain J; Iqbal, Sara N; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index (kg/m(2)) classes to identify the factors contributing to the increased rate of cesarean among obese women. In the Consortium of Safe Labor study from 2002 through 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, HIV or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese classes I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage trend test and χ(2) tests were performed. Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7329 multiparous (9.5%) women underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, overweight, and classes I, II, and III obesity in nulliparous women: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46.4%, 47.4%, and 48.9% [P cesarean for

  9. 28 CFR 0.64-1 - Central or Competent Authority under treaties and executive agreements on mutual assistance in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.64-1 Central... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central or Competent Authority under... Department of Justice as such authority. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized...

  10. Planned cesarean delivery and urinary retention associated with spinal morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Cesarean delivery (CD) is the second most commonly performed surgery in the United States. As such, prevention of complications associated with this procedure is a top priority in nursing care. Nurses at the study institution perceived that postcesarean patients experienced increased urinary retention after use of spinal morphine for postoperative pain relief. This observation prompted a review of the literature indicating that limited research had been conducted in this area. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of postelective CD urinary retention and dose of spinal morphine. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, three-group design was used. Records of 150 patients, ages 17 to 39, undergoing elective primary or repeat CD were examined. Morphine doses included 100, 150, and 200 mcg. No statistically significant differences were found between the three groups.

  11. Management of Hepatic Rupture Diagnosed after an Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Raffaello Damiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management.

  12. Cesarean section and the manipulation of exact delivery time.

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    Fabbri, Daniele; Monfardini, Chiara; Castaldini, Ilaria; Protonotari, Adalgisa

    2016-07-01

    Physicians are often alleged responsible for the manipulation of delivery timing. We investigate this issue in a setting that negates the influence of financial incentives on physician's behavior. Working on a sample of women admitted at the onset of labor in a big public hospital in Italy we estimate a model for the exact time of delivery as driven by individual Indication to Cesarean Section (ICS) and covariates. We find that ICS does not affect the day of delivery but leads to a circadian rhythm in the likelihood of delivery. The pattern is consistent with the postponement of high ICS deliveries in the late night\\early morning shift. Our evidence hardly supports the manipulation of timing of births as driven by medical staff's "demand for leisure". Physicians seem to manipulate the exact timing of delivery to reduce exposure to risk factors extant during off-peak periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Vesical endometriosis after cesarean section: diagnostico-therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J I; Extramiana Cameno, J; Esteban Calvo, J M; Díez Rodríguez, J M; Esteban Artiaga, R; Arrizabalaga Moreno, M; Paniagua Andrés, P

    1997-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign condition with an aggressive behaviour defined by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, outside the uterus. It occurs in 15-20% women with child bearing potential. Most commonly it affects organs such as the ovaries, uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, rectum and the cervico-vaginal region. Involvement of the urinary tract, however, is rare. It can be seen in just about 1% cases, vesical location being the most frequent of these presentations (84% cases). We describe one case of vesical endometriosis that developed after a cesarean section. The intra-operative findings confirmed the existence of infiltration of the detrusor muscle and the vesical mucosa by endometrial tissue from the area of the uterine incision. A discussion of the different diagnostic and therapeutic options is also included.

  14. Cesarean section rates in Italian regions: 1998-2002

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    Maria Pia Fantini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Cesarean section (c-section rates have been increasing in many countries, and too frequently this rise does not seem to be justified by clinical grounds. To reduce c-section rates and achieve a proportion of 20% is among the goals of the Italian National Health Plan.

    In the following paper we provide an update on the distribution of rates amongst Italian regions and describe the association between regional hospital volumes and c-section rates. The national c-section rate increased from 31% in 1998 to 36% in 2002.

    The rates varied among regions and ranged from 20% in the Province of Bolzano to 56% in Campania. A significant association was observed between the regional hospital volumes for deliveries and c-section rates, regions with low hospital volumes performed more c-sections than high volume regions.

  15. Maternal obesity and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery.

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    Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Boggess, Kim A; Manuck, Tracy A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between maternal obesity and postoperative complications, but there is a dearth of information about the impact of obesity on intraoperative complications. To estimate the association between maternal obesity at delivery and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery (CD). This is a secondary analysis of the deidentified Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry of women with singleton pregnancies. Maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery was categorized as BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2). The primary outcome, any intraoperative complication, was defined as having at least 1 major intraoperative complication, including perioperative blood transfusion, intraoperative injury (bowel, bladder, ureteral injury; broad ligament hematoma), atony requiring surgical intervention, repeat laparotomy, and hysterectomy. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios of intraoperative complication in 2 models: model 1 adjusting for maternal race, and preterm delivery obese women, there was evidence of effect modification by emergency CD. Compared with nonobese women, neither super obese women undergoing nonemergency CD (ARR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.52) nor those undergoing emergency CD (ARR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.10) had an increased risk of intraoperative complication. In contrast to the risk for postcesarean complications, the risk of intraoperative complication does not appear to be increased in obese women, even among those with super obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal morbidity at first repeat cesarean: a sub-analysis of Interceed™ barrier placed at primary cesarean section

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    Chapa HO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hector O Chapa, Gonzalo Venegas Women's Specialty Center Dallas, Chapa Medical Consulting, Dallas, TX, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to compare maternal morbidity at repeat cesarean section (CS between use of a Gynecare Interceed™ Absorbable Adhesion Barrier (Gynecare, Somerville, NJ, USA and non-use at primary cesarean delivery. Design: This was a retrospective study of patients in whom an absorbable adhesion barrier was/was not used at their primary CS. Methods: Mean and excessive blood loss, the need for adhesiolysis, and postoperative fever were compared between those in whom a barrier was used at first CS and those in whom a barrier was not used. Visceral injury at repeat cesarean was also compared between the two groups. Results: No statistically significant difference in mean blood loss was noted between the two groups. However, significantly more patients in whom a barrier was not used had excessive intraoperative blood loss (barrier group, 1/53 [1.9%]; no-barrier group, 6/59 [10.1%]; P = 0.04. All seven cases of excessive blood loss had adhesiolysis. Significantly more patients in the no-barrier group underwent adhesiolysis (no-barrier group, 35/59 [59.3%]; barrier group, 7/53 [13.2%]; P = 0.03. No statistical difference in postoperative metritis was noted (1/59 [1.8%] in the barrier group and 1/59 [1.7%] in the no-barrier group; P = 0.99. Only one deserosalization of the bladder dome occurred in a patient in the no-barrier group. Conclusion: Those in whom a barrier was not used at primary CS were more likely to have adhesiolysis and excessive blood loss (>1250 mL at repeat CS. No significant difference in postoperative metritis/fever was noted between groups. Adhesion barrier at primary CS may reduce some aspects of maternal morbidity at repeat CS. Keywords: excessive blood loss, adhesiolysis, postoperative metritis, postoperative fever, visceral injury

  17. Practice variation of vaginal birth after cesarean and the influence of risk factors at patient level: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, Emy; Schoorel, Ellen N; van Kuijk, Sander M; Mol, Ben-Willem J; Nijhuis, Jan G; Aardenburg, Robert; Alink, Marleen; de Boer, Karin; Delemarre, Friso M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van Dooren, Ivo M; Franssen, Maureen T M; Kaplan, Mesrure; Kleiverda, Gunilla; Kuppens, Simone M I; Kwee, Anneke; Langenveld, Josje; Lim, Frans T; Melman, Sonja; Sikkema, Marko J; Smits, Luc J; Visser, Harry; Woiski, Mallory; Scheepers, Hubertina C; Hermens, Rosella P

    2017-02-01

    Large practice variation exists in mode of delivery after cesarean section, suggesting variation in implementation of contemporary guidelines. We aim to evaluate this practice variation and to what extent this can be explained by risk factors at patient level. This retrospective cohort study was performed among 17 Dutch hospitals in 2010. Women with one prior cesarean section without a contraindication for a trial of labor were included. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to develop models for risk factor adjustments. One model was derived to adjust the elective repeat cesarean section rates; a second model to adjust vaginal birth after cesarean rates. Standardized rates of elective repeat cesarean section and vaginal birth after cesarean per hospital were compared. Pseudo-R(2) measures were calculated to estimate the percentage of practice variation explained by the models. Secondary outcomes were differences in practice variation between hospital types and the correlation between standardized elective repeat cesarean section and vaginal birth after cesarean rates. In all, 1068 women had a history of cesarean section, of whom 71% were eligible for inclusion. A total of 515 women (67%) had a trial of labor, of whom 72% delivered vaginally. The elective repeat cesarean section rate at hospital level ranged from 6 to 54% (mean 29.8, standard deviation 11.8%). Vaginal birth after cesarean rates ranged from 50 to 90% (mean 71.8%, standard deviation 11.1%). More than 85% of this practice variation could not be explained by risk factors at patient level. A large practice variation exists in elective repeat cesarean section and vaginal birth after cesarean rates that can only partially be explained by risk factors at patient level. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. The Ombudsman and the Judicial Power. The Romanian Experience

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    Emil BĂLAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paperconsists in evaluating the judicial actions of theOmbudsman and in determining its position inthe framework of the legal instruments placedat his/hers disposal for carrying out the missionsconferred by the legal norms and the publicexpectances.The paper aims at (1 identifying the historicalstages during which were introduce the legalinstruments at the Ombudsman’s disposal, (2studying the institutional reforms generated bythe modifications of the Romanian Constitutionfrom 2003, (3 analyzing the Romanian practiceconcerning the People’s Advocate (RomanianOmbudsman intervention into the constitutionaljustice and in front of the administrative reviewcourts, and (4 effectuating a foray in the Europeanpractice and achieving a comparative study inthe field.The research is conducted within the projectentitled “The right to a good administration andits impact on public administration’s procedures”(PN II CCSIS ID_698 financed by the RomanianNational University Research Council.

  19. THE IMPACT OF COURTROOM CAMERAS ON THE JUDICIAL PROCESS

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    Scott Campbell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensational trial of Richard Bruno Hauptmann for the kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindberg’s young son in 1935 marked the starting point of the debate regarding the propriety of allowing cameras in courtrooms during judicial proceedings. This debate intensified during and following the 1994-1997 trial of O.J. Simpson. At issue is how a court must weigh the Sixth Amendment right of the accused to a public trial and the First Amendment right to a free press, as well as its own interest in preserving the dignity and decorum of the courtroom. This paper examines the history, Federal rules, seminal court cases, and California rules concerning cameras in the courtroom in the context of these important Constitutional issues. This research provides qualitative data from 208 California judges that help explain some of the thinking by those who are empowered to accept or reject requests to record court proceedings.

  20. ELABORATION OF A JUDICIAL ACCOUNTING EXPERTISE REPORT. AN EXAMPLE

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    DEACONU SORIN-CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting expert profession should be a noble one. It should be respected by third parties as well as the accounting professional in question. The work of a professional accountant involves, among other responsibilities, the elaboration of judicial accounting expertise reports. Unfortunately, the content of certain reports filed in court is not entirely professionally written and eloquent for the judge. The elaboration of a report has to be done according to the rules stipulated in professional standard no. 35 Accounting expertise. One sensitive point in the elaboration of expertise reports is the submission of the lists from the local offices to the courts of law. Most of the times these lists only include some of the experts whose reports are incondite. This article presents an expertise reports with two objectives formulated by the court