WorldWideScience

Sample records for judgment vignettes interview

  1. Vignettes of interviews to enhance an ethnographic account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Jacobsen, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges of applying an ethnographic approach, combining participant observation and interviews, to a study of organizational change. The exploration is connected to reform changes, as they are constructed in the interaction between managers and teachers, in a Danish Upper...

  2. Vignettes of Interviews to Enhance an Ethnographic Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Alice Juel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges of applying an ethnographic approach, combining participant observation and interviews, to a study of organizational change. The exploration is connected to reform changes, as they are constructed in the interaction between managers and teachers, in a Danish Upper Secondary High School. The data material is…

  3. `No One Should Destroy the Forest': Using photo-based vignette interviews to understand Kenyan teachers' views of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens. It requires a society that understands the principles of the environment and can also exemplify them in daily life. In order to create a more environmentally literate world, there has been a push for environmental education integrated into schools. This qualitative study sought to examine Kenyan teachers' perspectives on the human-nature interaction by conducting vignette focus-group interviews. It is a subject not widely explored but vital for conservation not only in this area, but also other areas that seek to have an ecological informed populous. The vignettes were created using photographs and explanations of the photographs that the participants collected and emailed to the authors. For the focus-group vignette interviews, there were a total of 55 participants (30 females and 25 males). After InVivo analysis, we had 6 codes (resentment, pride, perils, blame, pragmatism, and self-interested) within 3 major themes. This study has implications for informing science education to combat these traditions of subjecting students to a science curriculum that demotes Kenyan cultural heritage and lifestyle. By incorporating local knowledge such as the ideas discussed in this paper into Kenyan science education, Kenyans can reach one of most challenging objectives of education, which is to produce children who are fundamentally aware of their environment.

  4. Efficacy of Modified Cognitive Interviewing, Compared to Human Judgments in Detecting Deception Related to Bio-threat Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Charles A. Morgan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available National security professionals have few scientifically valid methods for detecting deception in people who deny being involved in illicit activities relevant to national security. Numerous detecting deception studies have demonstrated that the Modified Cognitive Interviewing (MCI method is one such method - yielding detecting deception rates (i.e. 80-85% that are significantly above those achieved by chance (i.e. 50% or by human judgments (i.e. 54-56%. To date, however, no MCI studies have involved dilemmas of ethological interest to national security professionals. This project begins to address this gap in the scientific literature. In it, we compared the efficacy of MCI to that of human judgments for detecting deception in scientists with expertise in biological materials. Sixty-four scientists were recruited for study; 12 met with a “terrorist” and were paid to make biological materials for illicit purposes. All 64 scientists were interviewed by investigators with law enforcement experience about the bio-threat issue. MCI elicited speech content differences in deceptive, compared to truthful scientists. This resulted in a classification accuracy of 84.4%; Accuracies for Human Judgments (interviewers/raters were 54% and 46%, respectively. MCI required little time and its efficacy suggests it is reasonable to recommend its use to national security experts.

  5. Development of vignettes for learning and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher, Veronika; Mulder, Regina H

    2016-10-12

    Vignettes are short, descriptive stories of an incident of practice. They contain realistic contents and can therefore be a trigger for learning processes. The overall goal of this study is to develop work task vignettes as a trigger for learning processes and the professional development of geriatric nurses. First, the authors analyzed how vignettes have to be designed to use them as a trigger for learning processes and professional development. Second, based on these requirements, the authors developed four vignettes describing the work tasks of geriatric nursing staff and validated them in an interview study with 12 experts in the domain of geriatric nursing. Results indicate that the design of vignettes based on criteria for their style and content and the validation of the vignettes in an interview study with experts is an appropriate way to generate vignettes that can be used for learning and professional development.

  6. Vignettes of Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

  7. Analyses of Acceptability Judgments Made Toward the Use of Nanocarrier-Based Targeted Drug Delivery: Interviews with Researchers and Research Trainees in the Field of New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The assessment of nanotechnology applications such as nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery (TDD) has historically been based mostly on toxicological and safety aspects. The use of nanocarriers for TDD, a leading-edge nanomedical application, has received little study from the angle of experts' perceptions and acceptability, which may be reflected in how TDD applications are developed. In recent years, numerous authors have maintained that TDD assessment should also take into account impacts on ethical, environmental, economic, legal, and social (E(3)LS) issues in order to lead to socially responsible innovation. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with French and Canadian researchers and research trainees with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and involved in research related to emerging technologies. The interviews focussed on scenarios presenting two types of TDD nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer, seasonal flu). Content and inductive analyses of interviews showed how facets of perceived impacts such as health, environment, social cohabitation, economy, life and death, representations of the human being and nature, and technoscience were weighed in acceptability judgments. The analyses also revealed that contextual factors related to device (nature of the treatment), to use (gravity of the disease), and to user (culture) influenced the weighting assigned to perceived impacts and thus contributed to variability in interviewees' judgments of acceptability. Giving consideration to researchers' perspective could accompany first steps of implementation and development of nanomedicine by producing a first, but wide, picture of the acceptability of nanocarrier-based TDD.

  8. Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMR Editors

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Walter Kälin, Representative of the UN Secretary- General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, co-director of the Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, and professor of constitutional and international law at Bern University, Switzerland, was interviewed by the FMR Editors in February 2005.

  9. Interview

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the â€ワpeople at CERN” the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.

  10. Historical Vignettes of Epicanthoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize historical vignettes in regards to epicanthoplasty, systematically.In a PubMed search and a Scopus search, the search terms (epicanthal) AND (fold)and (epicanthoplasty) were used, which resulted in 389 titles found. Among the 480 titles, 74 titles, which were duplicated between PubMed and Scopus were excluded. Excluding 352 titles from the remaining 406 titles, 54 abstracts discussing at least 1 surgical method correcting epicanthal folds were reviewed. By excluding further 6 abstracts, 48 full articles, were reviewed. Finally, 6 mined articles were added, in which 4 studies were excluded resulting in 46 articles being analyzed.Forty-three articles studied eliminating epicanthal folds (93.5%) and 3 discussed reconstructing removed epicanthal folds (6.5%). The methods were categorized into Z-plasty, advancement, skin redraping, excision, and others. Among the 48 methods analyzed, the Z-plasty (21, 43.8%) was written most frequently followed by advancement (14, 29.2%), and excision (7, 14.6%). Redraping was relatively rare (4, 8.3%). The Z-plasty is employed frequently and is increasingly used. Excision has decreased in use and no more articles have been written recently. Advancement has continuously increased but has stabilized from 2010. Redraping has increased recently apparently after Oh's 2007 article was published.Excessive performance of epicanthoplasty causes unwanted results, including overcorrection. Subsequently, reconstruction of the over-corrected cases was needed and restoration methods are now being published. It is expected that new modifications of Z-epicanthoplasty or skin redraping technique will appear. Reconstruction methods will also be developed.

  11. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  12. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  13. Online Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla

    2016-03-01

    Interest in on-line learning is increasing rapidly. A few years ago members of the LivePhoto Physics Group1 received collaborative NSF Grants2 to create short, single-topic, on-line activities that invite introductory physics students to make individual predictions about a phenomenon and test them though video observations or analysis. Each Vignette is designed for web delivery as: (1) an ungraded homework assignment or (2) an exercise to prepare for a class or tutorial session. Sample IVVs are available at the ComPadre website http://www.compadre.org/ivv/. Portions of Vignettes on mechanics topics including Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, the Bullet-Block phenomenon, and Newton's Third Law will be presented. Those attending this talk will be asked to guess what predictions students are likely to make about phenomena in various IVVs. These predictions can be compared to those made by students who completed Vignettes. Finally, research on the impact of Vignettes on student learning and attitudes will be discussed. Co-PI Robert Teese, Rochester Institute of Technology.

  14. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  15. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  16. Using vignettes to study family consumption processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2010-01-01

    The use of vignettes for qualitative consumer research is discussed in this article. More specifically, vignettes are proposed as a useful research technique for conducting systematic and rigorous studies of consumer interaction processes, in particular as these relate to family consumption issues...... for applying the vignette method are outlined and illustrated by two recent studies of proenvironmental consumer behavior in a family context. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits and the possible pitfalls of using vignettes....

  17. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.

  18. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  19. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the…

  20. Understanding HIV Stigma among University Students: Judgment, Blame, and Interpersonal Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria J.; Guagnano, Gregory; Davis, Shannon N.

    2012-01-01

    Using vignettes, levels of HIV stigma among university students (n = 971) were examined to identify the likelihood of judging and blaming or avoiding personal and intimate contact with an HIV-positive individual. Reactions to the vignettes showed judgment and blame and intimate avoidance were higher when HIV was contracted through unprotected sex.…

  1. Using vignettes to study family consumption processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2010-01-01

    . Following an overview of methodological and practical problems of studying consumption interaction processes in families, a discussion of how vignettes may be used to enhance knowledge of family decision-making processes in real-life contexts is presented. Design implications are discussed and strategies......The use of vignettes for qualitative consumer research is discussed in this article. More specifically, vignettes are proposed as a useful research technique for conducting systematic and rigorous studies of consumer interaction processes, in particular as these relate to family consumption issues...... for applying the vignette method are outlined and illustrated by two recent studies of proenvironmental consumer behavior in a family context. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits and the possible pitfalls of using vignettes....

  2. Intelligence and the Development of Moral Judgment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    A moral judgment interview was administered to 100 elementary parochial school children. The relationship of intelligence, age, and sex to the quality of response in four areas of moral judgment was assessed. (MS)

  3. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  4. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  5. Structural flexibility of moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, D L; Denton, K L; Vermeulen, S C; Carpendale, J I; Bush, A

    1991-12-01

    One of the central assumptions of Kohlberg's theory of moral development--that moral judgment is organized in structures of the whole--was examined. Thirty men and 30 women were given 2 dilemmas from Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview, a 3rd involving prosocial behavior, and a 4th involving impaired driving. Half the Ss responded to the prosocial and impaired-driving dilemmas from the perspective of a hypothetical character, and half responded from the perspective of the self. No sex or perspective differences in moral maturity were observed. Ss scored highest in moral maturity on Kohlberg's dilemmas, intermediate on the prosocial dilemma, and lowest on the impaired-driving dilemma. In partial support of Kohlberg's contention that his test assesses moral competence, there was a negative linear relationship between scores on his test and the proportion of Stage 2 judgments on the 2 other dilemmas. An interactional model of moral judgment is advanced.

  6. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kushnick

    Full Text Available The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  7. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... experts (by name and employer) involved in any expert judgment elicitation processes used to support the... judgment elicitation processes and the reasoning behind those results. Documentation of interviews used to...

  8. Clinical Judgment: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, Nancy L.; Weiss, Amy L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of research on clinical judgment and decision making in medicine and psychology and urges the incorporation of clinical judgment into the speech-language pathology field. The accuracy of clinical judgment, methods of its study, and suggestions for incorporating it into professional training are considered.…

  9. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  10. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  11. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  12. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  13. Receptivity and judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Nedelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both judgment and receptivity are important to optimal politics, and both are important to each other. In making this argument, I use an Arendtian conception of judgment and take mindfulness as an example of receptivity. I argue that receptivity offers a needed dimension to addressing the puzzles of what makes Arendtian judgment possible, and that judgment provides a necessary complement to receptivity for action in the world. Exploring this complementary relation between judgment and receptivity also reveals a surprising similarity between what each offers to the practice of politics, in particular to freedom and the possibility of transformation. At the same time, I argue, these important contributions to politics are best understood and realized if judgment and receptivity are thought of as distinct forms of relating to the world.

  14. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  15. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  16. Judgment Pitfalls in Estimating Premorbid Intellectual Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kareken, David A

    1997-01-01

    ... on their judgment. Lezak (1983) proposes that clinicians render an estimate synthesized from interview, anecdotal information, demographic characteristics, and patients' patterns of test performance. Similarly, Vanderploeg (1994) recommends integrating estimates from a number of formulas with past academic performance, occupational success, and con...

  17. Mistaking Judgments of the Agreeable and Judgments of Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Raven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant develops a rigorous formulation of aesthetic judgments, in which he makes a sharp distinction between judgments of taste and judgments of the agreeable (both of which are, I claim, types of aesthetic judgments if only to dismiss judgments of the agreeable as worthy objects of study. Kant is primarily concerned with judgments of taste, the main example of which is judging something to be beautiful (whether it be a work of art or a natural object. He asserts that such judgments are subjective, universal, necessary, disinterested, and do not presuppose a purpose. The other type of aesthetic judgment are judgments of the agreeable, “which are the kind of judgment expressed by saying simply that one likes something or finds it pleasing.” These are judgments of what, in Kant’s words, please “the senses in sensation” as opposed to pleasing ourcognition in reflection.

  18. Analysis of vignette method data in sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the vignette method as a projective technique that can be an alternative for the traditional methods in mass surveys. The authors present an example of the study of the social representations of an intelligent man with the vignette method: identify the meaning of the concept ‘social representations’ suggested by S. Moscovici, a scientist who introduced its conceptualization and empirical interpretation; and describe the structure of social representations which consists of a ‘core’ and a ‘periphery’ according to the theory of J.-C. Abric. The article shows the process of creating vignettes, choosing their number and conditions for the tool application. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data obtained through the vignette method by calculating indices, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the explanation for the application of these three techniques is given. The authors describe the research procedure, the creation of the tool and the sample; compare the results of each method of analysis. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression data confirm each other, which is an important verification of the results of different methods of analysis.

  19. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  20. Judgments in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Charles Alderson

    2009-01-01

    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.

  1. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject "vignette equivalence." "Response consistency"--the respondent uses the same response…

  2. Face-to-Face and Online: An Investigation of Children's and Adolescents' Bullying Behavior through the Lens of Moral Emotions and Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria; Shariff, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of type of aggression (cyberbullying or traditional bullying) and participant role (bystander or perpetrator) on children and adolescents' self-attribution of moral emotions and judgments, while examining the influence of chronological age. Participants (N = 122, 8-16 years) evaluated vignettes and were…

  3. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  4. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  5. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  6. Operating room clinicians' ratings of workload: a vignette simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallston, Kenneth A; Slagle, Jason M; Speroff, Ted; Nwosu, Sam; Crimin, Kimberly; Feurer, Irene D; Boettcher, Brent; Weinger, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    Increased clinician workload is associated with medical errors and patient harm. The Quality and Workload Assessment Tool (QWAT) measures anticipated (pre-case) and perceived (post-case) clinical workload during actual surgical procedures using ratings of individual and team case difficulty from every operating room (OR) team member. The purpose of this study was to examine the QWAT ratings of OR clinicians who were not present in the OR but who read vignettes compiled from actual case documentation to assess interrater reliability and agreement with ratings made by clinicians involved in the actual cases. Thirty-six OR clinicians (13 anesthesia providers, 11 surgeons, and 12 nurses) used the QWAT to rate 6 cases varying from easy to moderately difficult based on actual ratings made by clinicians involved with the cases. Cases were presented and rated in random order. Before rating anticipated individual and team difficulty, the raters read prepared clinical vignettes containing case synopses and much of the same written case information that was available to the actual clinicians before the onset of each case. Then, before rating perceived individual and team difficulty, they read part 2 of the vignette consisting of detailed role-specific intraoperative data regarding the anesthetic and surgical course, unusual events, and other relevant contextual factors. Surgeons had higher interrater reliability on the QWAT than did OR nurses or anesthesia providers. For the anticipated individual and team workload ratings, there were no statistically significant differences between the actual ratings and the ratings obtained from the vignettes. There were differences for the 3 provider types in perceived individual workload for the median difficulty cases and in the perceived team workload for the median and more difficult cases. The case difficulty items on the QWAT seem to be sufficiently reliable and valid to be used in other studies of anticipated and perceived clinical

  7. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a "greater good" outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian ("yes") decisions, but contrary to the model's predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say "no." Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether "yes" or "no" constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model's predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent with the

  8. Timeline interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...... of the timeline should not lead the nterviewer or the interviewee to assume linearity and coherence; it is an rganising principle for the events. It provides an opportunity for linking the story with the wider social, political and environmental context during the interview. hile the method is very suitable...

  9. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... agreements, means of evaluating perform-ance, and so on — can be designed to encourage forms of proxy-entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics, and the economic theory of the firm we...

  10. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then......, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his or her control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncetainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners may delegate a wide range of decision rights...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  11. Clinical Judgments of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated degree to which judges could simulate Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) responses of a clinically depressed patient group. Judgmental profiles of depressed patients indicated very high reliabilities across information conditions, a high association with actual profiles of clinically depressed patients, and differentiation from other…

  12. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  13. Benchmarking Judgmentally Adjusted Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice, usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights given

  14. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights

  15. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  16. Kognitive Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, Peter; Rexroth, Margrit

    2005-01-01

    'In der Umfrageforschung sind kognitive Interviews ein effektives Werkzeug, um potentielle Probleme bei Survey-Fragen zu identifizieren. In diesem Beitrag werden die wichtigsten kognitiven Techniken vorgestellt und Empfehlungen für die Durchführung kognitiver Interviews gegeben.' (Autorenreferat)

  17. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  18. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2016-07-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  19. Positioning identity in clinical interviews with people who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendouzi, Jackie; Williams, Mandy J

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians often rely on ethnographic interviews to make judgments about the effect of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter. This form of interview aids the clinician in assessing specific dimensions of the client's life (e.g. career choice, education, etc.) that might be impacted by dysfluency. Further, the information gathered from ethnographic interviews is used to make professional judgments relating to the client's personality type and behavioral traits. This study used methods associated with discursive psychology to examine data taken from two ethnographic interviews between a clinician and two people who stuttered. The interviews were semi-structured and used probe questions to elicit the participants' viewpoints about the effects of stuttering on their lives. Data taken from the interviews were then examined to investigate the subject positions participants discursively aligned to within their accounts. We discuss the implications of making clinical judgments regarding a client's identity from such interviews.

  20. Addressing gaps in the maturity of judgment literature: age differences and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn

    2008-02-01

    Over the past decade, a majority of states have legislated to expand their capacity to try adolescents as adults [Griffin (2003). Trying and sentencing juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer and blended sentencing laws. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice]. In response, researchers have investigated factors that may affect adolescent culpability [Steinberg and Scott (Am Psychol 58(12):1009-1018, 2003)]. Research on immature judgment posits that psychosocial influences on adolescent decision processes results in reduced criminal responsibility [Cauffman and Steinberg (Behav Sci Law 18(6):741-760, 2000); Scott, Reppucci, and Woolard (Law Hum Behav 19(3):221-244, 1995); Steinberg and Cauffman (Law Hum Behav 20(3):249-272, 1996)]. The current study utilizes hypothetical vignettes and standardized measures of maturity of judgment (responsibility, temperance, and perspective) to examine gaps in previous maturity of judgment findings (Cauffman and Steinberg 2000). This work suggests that adolescents (ages 14-17) display less responsibility and perspective relative to college students (ages 18-21), young-adults (ages 22-27), and adults (ages 28-40). Further, this research finds no maturity of judgment differences between delinquent and non-delinquent youth, but does find significant maturity of judgment differences between high and low delinquency male youth. Finally, results show that maturity of judgment predicts self-reported delinquency beyond the contributions of age, gender, race, education level, SES, and antisocial decision making. Implications for the juvenile justice system are discussed.

  1. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  2. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  3. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  4. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...

  5. Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

  6. Clinical versus actuarial judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, R M; Faust, D; Meehl, P E

    1989-03-31

    Professionals are frequently consulted to diagnose and predict human behavior; optimal treatment and planning often hinge on the consultant's judgmental accuracy. The consultant may rely on one of two contrasting approaches to decision-making--the clinical and actuarial methods. Research comparing these two approaches shows the actuarial method to be superior. Factors underlying the greater accuracy of actuarial methods, sources of resistance to the scientific findings, and the benefits of increased reliance on actuarial approaches are discussed.

  7. The value of case-based teaching vignettes in clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Jennifer O; Kraft, Colleen S; Burd, Eileen M; Armstrong, Wendy S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-03-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a case-based microbiology curriculum during daily microbiology rounds. Vignettes consist of short cases with images and questions that facilitate discussion among microbiologists, pathologists, infectious disease physicians, and trainees (residents and fellows). We performed a survey to assess the value of these vignettes to trainees. Motivation to come to rounds on time increased from 60% to 100%. Trainees attending rounds after implementation of the vignettes perceived the value of microbiology rounds to be significantly higher compared with those who attended rounds before implementation (P = .04). Pathology residents found that vignettes were helpful for retaining knowledge (8.3 of 10 points). The vignettes have enhanced the value of microbiology rounds by serving as a formalized curriculum exposing trainees from multiple specialties to various microbiology topics. Emphasis on interdisciplinary interactions between clinical and laboratory personnel was highlighted with this case-based curriculum.

  8. Do physician outcome judgments and judgment biases contribute to inappropriate use of treatments? Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many examples of physicians using treatments inappropriately, despite clear evidence about the circumstances under which the benefits of such treatments outweigh their harms. When such over- or under- use of treatments occurs for common diseases, the burden to the healthcare system and risks to patients can be substantial. We propose that a major contributor to inappropriate treatment may be how clinicians judge the likelihood of important treatment outcomes, and how these judgments influence their treatment decisions. The current study will examine the role of judged outcome probabilities and other cognitive factors in the context of two clinical treatment decisions: 1 prescription of antibiotics for sore throat, where we hypothesize overestimation of benefit and underestimation of harm leads to over-prescription of antibiotics; and 2 initiation of anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF, where we hypothesize that underestimation of benefit and overestimation of harm leads to under-prescription of warfarin. Methods For each of the two conditions, we will administer surveys of two types (Type 1 and Type 2 to different samples of Canadian physicians. The primary goal of the Type 1 survey is to assess physicians' perceived outcome probabilities (both good and bad outcomes for the target treatment. Type 1 surveys will assess judged outcome probabilities in the context of a representative patient, and include questions about how physicians currently treat such cases, the recollection of rare or vivid outcomes, as well as practice and demographic details. The primary goal of the Type 2 surveys is to measure the specific factors that drive individual clinical judgments and treatment decisions, using a 'clinical judgment analysis' or 'lens modeling' approach. This survey will manipulate eight clinical variables across a series of sixteen realistic case vignettes. Based on the survey responses, we will be

  9. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  10. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  11. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  12. How can we know what we need to know? Reflections on clinical judgment formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fred; Schmidt-Hellerau, Cordelia

    2004-01-01

    What distinguishes a psychoanalyst from any other psychologically minded, empathic human being? This seemingly simple question goes to the heart of our profession, the way we see ourselves as competent clinicians. To understand a patient's material beyond ordinary empathy--that is, to come to a clinical judgment--we need to step out of the dyadic, countertransference situation and reflect what we've experienced in reference to our clinical theories. An analytic vignette shows how a theoretical background can be used to understand and interpret to a patient in a way that is deeply meaningful.

  13. Clinical judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N

    2005-01-01

    When clinical psychologists make judgments, are they likely to be correct or incorrect? The following topics are reviewed: (a) methodological advances in evaluating the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, (b) recent findings on the cognitive processes of clinicians, and (c) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions made by mental health professionals. Results from research on clinical judgment and decision making and their relationship to conflicts within the field of clinical psychology are discussed.

  14. Predication and judgment in Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Landim Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I present an interpretation of Thomas Aquinas's theory of judgment (statement, examining semantic, epistemological and ontological aspects of this theory. Elements of judgment such as concepts, phantasms, predication (combination and division, reflection, affirmation, truth and falsity are explained. The article shows that this interpretation of Aquinas's theory of judgment may contribute to clarify fundamental distinctions (such as the distinctions between being, essence and existence of Aquinas's metaphysics.

  15. Associative processes in intuitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Kahneman, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures: the automatic operations of a 'System 1' generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a 'System 2' fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory--associative coherence, attribute substitution and processing fluency--give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors.

  16. South African Mixed-Race Children's and Mothers' Judgments and Reasoning about Children's Nurturance and Self-Determination Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Martin D.; Tenenbaum, Harriet; Willenberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the understanding of children's rights in 63 (9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds) mixed-race South African children and their mothers. In individual semi-structured interviews participants responded to hypothetical vignettes in which children's nurturance and self-determination rights conflicted with parental authority in the home.…

  17. Interview God

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Come in,"God said to me,"so,you would like to interview Me?" "If you have the time."I said. He smiled through His beard and said:"My time is called eternity and is enough to do everything;what questions do you have in mind to ask me?" "None that are new to you.What's the one thing that surprises you most about mankind?"

  18. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  19. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of ''response consistency'' (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper, we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  20. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...... as a means to re-scale across sample sub-populations critically rests on the assumption of "response consistency" (RC): that vignettes and self-assessments are evaluated on the same scale. In this paper we seek to test this assumption by applying objective measures of health along with subjective measures...

  1. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  2. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823244

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  3. Modeling Rehabilitation Counselor Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluate three proposed models of the rehabilitation counselor judgment process. Counselors made multiple judgments about clients whose information systematically varied across three dimensions. These data were then analyzed using path analytic techniques to determine which of the models was the best description of the process rehabilitation…

  4. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kohlberg's theory about moral judgment development and the instruments used for evaluation of moral judgment and moral competence in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    O presente artigo tem por objetivo abordar as bases, finalidades e composição de dois instrumentos de avaliação de juízo moral: a Moral Judgment Interview (MJI) e o Defining Issues Test (DIT), e um de competência moral: o Moral Judgment Test (MJT). Retoma a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Kohlberg que fundamenta esses instrumentos, assim como os últimos estudos realizados com os mesmos. A MJI é uma entrevista semiestruturada que avalia o nível de juízo moral. O DIT é um teste objetivo que ...

  6. Predicting counseling psychologists attitudes and clinical judgments with respect to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Jody K; Munley, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age, gender, training and experience in aging issues, fear of death, and multicultural competence in predicting counseling psychologists' global attitudes toward older adults and specific clinical judgments concerning a case vignette of an older client. A national sample of 364 practicing counseling psychologists participated in the study. Participants completed a demographic measure, Polizzi's refined version of the Aging Semantic Differential (Polizzi, 2003 ), a survey of professional bias based on a clinical vignette of a 70-year-old woman (James & Haley, 1995), the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale 3.0 (Lester, & Abdel-Khalek, 2003), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and a Training and Experience Questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the extent to which the selected variables predicted more favorable attitudes toward older adults and less professional bias toward an older client beyond prediction by age and gender. Results revealed that older age and higher total scores on the MCKAS predicted less professional bias in clinical judgments. Gender was a significant predictor of global attitudes toward older adults. Findings suggest that multicultural knowledge, awareness, and skills are important in working with older adults.

  7. Moral Evaluations of Organ Transplantation Influence Judgments of Death and Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Gerend, Mary A

    Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants' beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition (vs. bad) were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, regardless of experimental condition. The results are discussed in light of the framework of motivated reasoning, in which motivation influences the selection of cognitive processes and representations applied to a given domain, as well as Knobe's person-as-moralist model, in which many basic concepts are appropriately imbued with moral features. On either explanatory framework, these data cast doubt on the psychological legitimacy of the mainstream justification for vital organ procurement from heart-beating donors, which holds that neurological criteria for death are scientifically justified, independently of concerns about organ transplantation. These data suggest that, rather than concluding that organ removal is permissible because the donor is dead, people may believe that the donor is dead because they believe organ removal to be permissible.

  8. Interview: interview with Gisbert Schneider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gisbert

    2012-10-01

    Gisbert Schneider studied biochemistry and computer science at the Free University of Berlin, Germany, where he received his doctoral degree in 1994. After several international post-doctoral research activities he joined F.Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals in Basel, Switzerland, where he headed the cheminformatics group until 2001. He received his habilitation and venia legendi in biochemistry and bioinformatics from the University of Freiburg, Germany. From 2002 to 2009 he was Full Professor of Chem- and Bioinformatics (Beilstein Endowed Chair) at Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany. In 2010 he joined ETH Zurich, Switzerland, as a Full Professor of Computer-Assisted Drug Design. Professor Schneider spoke to Future Medicinal Chemistry about how he became involved in the field, the effects advances in software have had on research and how computational chemistry is becoming more important in the role of a traditional medicinal chemist. Interview conducted by Isaac Bruce, Commissioning Editor.

  9. Understanding negative feedback from South Asian patients: an experimental vignette study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary; Elmore, Natasha; Lloyd, Cathy; Benson, John; Sarson, Lara; Carluccio, Anna; Campbell, John; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In many countries, minority ethnic groups report poorer care in patient surveys. This could be because they get worse care or because they respond differently to such surveys. We conducted an experiment to determine whether South Asian people in England rate simulated GP consultations the same or differently from White British people. If these groups rate consultations similarly when viewing identical simulated consultations, it would be more likely that the lower scores reported by minority ethnic groups in real surveys reflect real differences in quality of care. Design Experimental vignette study. Trained fieldworkers completed computer-assisted personal interviews during which participants rated 3 video recordings of simulated GP–patient consultations, using 5 communication items from the English GP Patient Survey. Consultations were shown in a random order, selected from a pool of 16. Setting Geographically confined areas of ∼130 households (output areas) in England, selected using proportional systematic sampling. Participants 564 White British and 564 Pakistani adults recruited using an in-home face-to-face approach. Main outcome measure Mean differences in communication score (on a scale of 0–100) between White British and Pakistani participants, estimated from linear regression. Results Pakistani participants, on average, scored consultations 9.8 points higher than White British participants (95% CI 8.0 to 11.7, p55) and where communication was scripted to be poor. Conclusions Substantial differences in ratings were found between groups, with Pakistani respondents giving higher scores than White British respondents to videos showing the same care. Our findings suggest that the lower scores reported by Pakistani patients in national surveys represent genuinely worse experiences of communication compared to the White British majority. PMID:27609844

  10. Cloze, Maze, and Teacher Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.; Pikulski, Edna C.

    1977-01-01

    When cloze and maze scores are compared with teacher judgment in establishing the independent, instructional, and fustration levels of students, both techniques tend to overestimate a child's ability. (HOD)

  11. Beauty and the Eye of the Beholder: Gender and Attractiveness Affect Judgments in Teacher Sex Offense Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Emily; Becker, Judith V

    2015-08-03

    The present study investigated the effects of gender and attractiveness on judgments of bail requirements, incarceration, and sex offender registration lengths, and attitudes toward offenders and victims in a teacher-student sexual perpetration scenario. Researchers presented 432 undergraduate students at a large southwestern university with one of four vignettes detailing a sexual relationship between a 35-year-old teacher and a 14-year-old student. Vignettes varied by both attractiveness and gender of the offender (using heterosexual offender-victim dyads). Results indicate that both gender and attractiveness affect judgments of sex offenders; specifically, female sexual offenders were viewed more leniently and judged less punitively than male sexual offenders. Although attractive female sexual offenders were given particularly lenient treatment, attractiveness did not affect judgments toward male sex offenders. In addition, although male and female participants tended to rate male offenders similarly, male participants were more lenient toward female offenders than were female participants. Finally, post hoc analyses revealed that, for many variables, unattractive female sexual offenders may not be viewed differently from male sexual offenders. These results have serious implications for the legal system, sex offender management, and societal views regarding male and female sexual offenders and their victims.

  12. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  13. Medical Students’ Development of Ethical Judgment – Exploring the Learners’ Perspectives using a mixed methods approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students’ perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners’ experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics.Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient’s parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5. The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant’s preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28% over the study period. Participants’ responses changed overtime. Accepting parents’ autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%. On the contrary, not readily following the parents’ decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%. Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor. Conclusions: Over the course of

  14. Medical Students' Development of Ethical Judgment - Exploring the Learners' Perspectives using a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Jazmati, Danny; Jung, Ole; Schulz, Christian; Schnell, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary healthcare requires physicians to have well developed ethical judgment skills in addition to excellent clinical skills. However, no consensus has been reached on how to best teach ethical judgment skills during medical training. Previous studies revealed inconclusive results and applied varying theoretical frameworks. To date, the students' perspectives on their development in ethical judgment has received less attention. Better insights in the learners' experiences can help to improve educational interventions in medical ethics. Methods: A vignette featuring a challenging case with opposing views between a patient's parents and a physician followed by a questionnaire was presented to a cohort of medical students at a German medical school at three points in time during their medical training (Year 1, 2 and 5). The questionnaire included closed and open-ended questions addressing the participant's preferred, hypothetical actions, their reasoning as well as the resources informing their reasoning. Content analysis was used for qualitative data; frequencies and percentages were used to describe quantitative findings. Results: The response rate remained stable (28%) over the study period. Participants' responses changed overtime. Accepting parents' autonomy in the decision-making process was the majority standpoint of students in year 1 and 2 and became less often cited in year 5 (Year 1/2/5: 68/67/48%). On the contrary, not readily following the parents' decision for medical reasons was a minority standpoint in year 1 and became more prevalent over time (year 1/2/5: 12/17/42%). Judgments were only partly based on ethics training. Instead, participants drew on experiences from their clinical clerkships and their personal lives. Throughout the study, participants did not feel well-prepared to make a judgment in the case (Average 2.7 on a Likert-Scale; 1=very well prepared, 4=very poor). Conclusions: Over the course of their medical training, the

  15. Psychometric properties of virtual reality vignette performance measures: a novel approach for assessing adolescents' social competency skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschall, Mallie J; Fishbein, Diana H; Hubal, Robert C; Eldreth, Diana

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents...

  16. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP.

  17. Feminist Judgments as Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hunter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses feminist judgments as a specific vehicle for teaching students to think critically about law. The analysis of appellate judgments forms a central plank of Anglo-Commonwealth and US jurisprudence and legal education. While academic scholarship generally offers various forms of commentary on decided cases, feminist judgment-writing projects have recently embarked on a new form of critical scholarship. Rather than critiquing judgments from a feminist perspective in academic essays, the participants in these projects have set out instead to write alternative judgments, as if they had been one of the judges sitting on the court at the time. After introducing the UK Feminist Judgments Project and describing what is ‘different’ about the judgments it has produced, the paper explains some of the ways in which these judgments have been used in UK law schools to teach critical thinking. The paper finally speculates on the potential production and application of feminist judgments or their equivalents beyond the common law context. Este artículo analiza las sentencias feministas como un vehículo específico para enseñar a los estudiantes a analizar el derecho desde un punto de vista crítico. El análisis de las sentencias de apelación constituye un elemento central de la jurisprudencia y la enseñanza del derecho en los países angloamericanos y de la Commonwealth. Mientras la comunidad académica ofrece generalmente diversas formas de comentario de casos resueltos, los proyectos de literatura judicial feminista se han embarcado recientemente en un nuevo sistema de crítica académica. En lugar de redactar ensayos académicos criticando las sentencias judiciales desde una perspectiva feminista, los participantes de estos proyectos se han propuesto redactar sentencias alternativas, como si hubieran sido uno de los jueces del tribunal en cuestión. Después de presentar el Proyecto de Sentencias Feministas del Reino Unido y

  18. "I Have Just Understood It from the Story …": Using Vignettes in Educational Research to Investigate Cultural Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadi, Fatma H.; Basit, Tehmina N.

    2017-01-01

    The vignettes approach has emerged as a popular tool in quantitative and qualitative research. It has proven to be particularly effective in measuring sensitive topics. This paper focuses on the construction and validation process of questionnaire-based vignettes, which were used as an instrument to examine Omani secondary school girls' cultural…

  19. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages,…

  20. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from clinical vignettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); Z. Yilma (Zelalem); D. Abebaw (Degnet); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objectives: To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five contextrelevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting: This study is set in 96 villages locate

  1. Whiteness in the Academy: Using Vignettes to Move beyond Safe Silences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm Cross, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This point of departure presents the writings of a White, female teacher educator's experiences in the academy. Through the use of vignettes, the author discusses how four recent experiences--and her writing about those experiences--reveal the insidiousness of silence and Whiteness in the academy.

  2. Using Vignettes as Self-Reflexivity in Narrative Research of Problematised History Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of vignettes as an emergent dimension of narrative research writing. The author draws on doctoral research that problematised history curriculum and pedagogy with pre-service teachers in the context of secondary teacher education in New Zealand. Pedagogic crossings of history education sites, and negotiation of…

  3. 3-D Computer Animation vs. Live-Action Video: Differences in Viewers' Response to Instructional Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dennie; McLaughlin, Tim; Brown, Irving

    2012-01-01

    This study explored computer animation vignettes as a replacement for live-action video scenarios of classroom behavior situations previously used as an instructional resource in teacher education courses in classroom management strategies. The focus of the research was to determine if the embedded behavioral information perceived in a live-action…

  4. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  5. Validation of Assessment Vignettes and Scoring Rubric of Multicultural and International Competency in Faculty Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sheila J.; Horton, Ruth A.; Saito, Paul K.; Shorter-Gooden, Kumea

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a new tool for assessing multicultural and international competency in faculty teaching through vignette scenarios of university classroom critical incidents--across disciplines of clinical and forensics psychology, business, and education. Construct and content validity of the initial draft vignettes…

  6. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…

  7. Case-Based Pedagogy Using Student-Generated Vignettes: A Pre-Service Intercultural Awareness Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy as an instructional tool aimed at increasing cultural awareness and competence in the preparation of 18 pre-service and in-service students enrolled in an Intercultural Education course. Each participant generated a vignette based on an instructional challenge identified…

  8. A Collection of JPME Operational Contract Support Case Studies and Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    negative effects OCS decisions have on the larger, strategic military mission, and on other instruments of power. The case studies and vignettes developed...by this research examine how second- and third-order OCS effects impact the United States military mission and general interests. The products

  9. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...

  10. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  11. Improving Accuracy in a Clinical Judgmental Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Erich L.; Jackson, Douglas N.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to identify kinds of information leading to increased accuracy of clinical judgments. Results confirm the feasibility of increasing accuracy in meaningful clinical judgment tasks through practice and of studying clinical judgment by using construct-oriented personality scales to which targets bear a substantive…

  12. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  13. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  14. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  17. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  18. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  19. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  20. Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social Judgment Theory is a way to explain when persuasive messages are most likely to succeed and how people make judgments about them. This theory is often covered in communication theory and persuasion courses, but is also applicable when discussing persuasion in basic speech and introductory communication courses. Social Judgment Theory…

  1. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  2. Instructional Vignettes in Publication and Journalism Ethics in Radiology Research: Assessment via a Survey of Radiology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ginocchio, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential usefulness of written instructional vignettes relating to publication and journalism ethics in radiology via a survey of radiology trainees. A literature review was conducted to guide the development of vignettes, each describing a scenario relating to an ethical issue in research and publication, with subsequent commentary on the underlying ethical issue and potential approaches to its handling. Radiology trainees at a single institution were surveyed regarding the vignettes' perceived usefulness. A total of 21 vignettes were prepared, addressing institutional review board and human subjects protection, authorship issues, usage of previous work, manuscript review, and other miscellaneous topics. Of the solicited trainees, 24.7% (16/65) completed the survey. On average among the vignettes, 94.0% of the participants found the vignette helpful; 19.9 received prior formal instruction on the issue during medical training; 40.0% received prior informal guidance from a research mentor; and 42.0% indicated that the issue had arisen in their own or a peer's prior research experience. The most common previously experienced specific issue was authorship order (93.8%). Free-text responses were largely favorable regarding the value of the vignettes, although also indicated numerous challenges in properly handling the ethical issues: impact of hierarchy, pressure to publish, internal politics, reluctance to conduct sensitive conversations with colleagues, and variability in journal and professional society policies. Radiology trainees overall found the vignettes helpful, addressing commonly encountered topics for which formal and informal guidance were otherwise lacking. The vignettes are publicly available through the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) website and may foster greater insights by investigators into ethical aspects of the publication and journalism process, thus contributing to higher quality

  3. Interview with Keith Hart

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    One hour interview, filmed and interviewed by Alan Macfarlane, takes the life to 1984... Hopefully to be continued Interview of Keith Hart on 12th April 2006 at the Association of Social Anthropologists Conference at Keele University

  4. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    probably agree that John Updike is a more representative American writer than Norman Mailer. rlearly, such a judgment does not have a frequentistic...example, in an early study we presented people with the following description, " John is 27 years old, with an outgoing personality. At college he was an...outstanding athlete but did not show much ability or interest in in- tellectual matters". We found that John was judged to be more likely to be "a gym

  5. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.

  6. Bridging information requirements and information needs assessment: do scenarios and vignettes provide a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Urquhart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the philosophies of the vignette and critical incident techniques in information behaviour research, with the methodologies used in object oriented analysis such as use case scenarios and CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration cards. The principles of object oriented analysis are outlined, noting the emphasis on obtaining the "storyline" or "scripts" for information requirements analysis through use cases and CRC cards.  The critical incident technique and vignettes are used to obtain valid interpretations of users" information behaviour, using a storyline approach for data collection (and analysis which is similar to that of object oriented analysis. Some examples illustrate how techniques developed in object oriented analysis could be used for data display in information behaviour studies. Concludes that the methods developed by software engineering could be adapted usefully for information behaviour research.

  7. Patient factors that influence clinicians' decision making in self-management support: A clinical vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos-Touwen, Irene D; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; van der Wulp, Ineke; Schuurmans, Marieke J; de Wit, Niek J

    2017-01-01

    Self-management support is an integral part of current chronic care guidelines. The success of self-management interventions varies between individual patients, suggesting a need for tailored self-management support. Understanding the role of patient factors in the current decision making of health professionals can support future tailoring of self-management interventions. The aim of this study is to identify the relative importance of patient factors in health professionals' decision making regarding self-management support. A factorial survey was presented to primary care physicians and nurses. The survey consisted of clinical vignettes (case descriptions), in which 11 patient factors were systematically varied. Each care provider received a set of 12 vignettes. For each vignette, they decided whether they would give this patient self-management support and whether they expected this support to be successful. The associations between respondent decisions and patient factors were explored using ordered logit regression. The survey was completed by 60 general practitioners and 80 nurses. Self-management support was unlikely to be provided in a third of the vignettes. The most important patient factor in the decision to provide self-management support as well as in the expectation that self-management support would be successful was motivation, followed by patient-provider relationship and illness perception. Other factors, such as depression or anxiety, education level, self-efficacy and social support, had a small impact on decisions. Disease, disease severity, knowledge of disease, and age were relatively unimportant factors. This is the first study to explore the relative importance of patient factors in decision making and the expectations regarding the provision of self-management support to chronic disease patients. By far, the most important factor considered was patient's motivation; unmotivated patients were less likely to receive self-management support

  8. A Military Vignette for a Heterogeneous Data Proximity Tool (HDPT) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    with new architectures , and report their experiences directly to developers. Further, Soldiers can offer guidance on technology utility within a...immediate affiliation possibilities with known groups. Further, the collected data may be indirect indicators such as the mosque attended or number of... architectures . The process used to gather person data from the field for the HDPT vignette is shown in figure 9. Initial contact with a person occurs

  9. Why is online piracy ethically different from theft? A vignette experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Hardy; Michał Krawczyk; Joanna Tyrowicz

    2013-01-01

    This study employs a vignette experiment to inquire, which features of online “piracy” make it ethically discernible from a traditional theft. This question is pertinent since the social norm concerning traditional theft is starkly different from the evidence on ethical evaluation of online “piracy”. We specifically distinguish between contextual features of theft, such as for example the physical loss of an item, breach of protection, availability of alternatives, emotional proximity to the ...

  10. Medical Judgments Across the Range of Reported Pain Severity: Clinician and Lay Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Raymond C; Chibnall, John T; House, Kylie; Biehl, Joann

    2016-07-01

    While increasing evidence suggests that observers discount high-severity chronic pain, factors that occasion such discounting are poorly understood, particularly regarding health provider vs lay perspectives. This study examined the effects of supporting medical evidence and comorbid psychological distress (pain behavior) on medical student and lay clinical judgments of increasingly severe patient pain reports. In a 2 × 2 × 2 × (7) mixed between- and within-subject design, participants (medical students vs lay) made clinical judgments after reading vignettes describing a hypothetical patient that varied in levels of medical evidence and pain behavior (low vs high) and pain severity (4/10-10/10). Fourth-year medical students (N = 115) and lay persons in the community (N = 300) participated in this research. While both medical student and lay judgments plateaued at high levels of pain severity, judgments regarding cause (medical vs psychological), treatment (opioid prescription), and disability showed growing divergence as levels of reported pain severity increased. Divergence relative to medical and psychological causes of pain was found irrespective of the level of supporting medical evidence; divergence relative to opioid treatment and support for a disability claim was found when supporting medical evidence was low. The results indicate differing expectations of chronic pain treatment for health care providers relative to the lay public that could impact clinical care, especially at high pain severity levels, where lay expectations diverge significantly from those of health professionals. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Straight from the Horse's Mouth: Using Vignettes to Support Student Learning in Veterinary Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Hanlon, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, the importance of imparting ethical competences to veterinary students has been increasingly acknowledged. Despite its relevance, there are few published descriptions of teaching approaches to veterinary ethics and their effect on student learning. At University College Dublin, veterinary ethics is part of a core module on animal behavior and welfare in the pre-clinical teaching program. The present study describes the implementation of a student-centered, skills-based approach to veterinary ethics teaching using vignettes (i.e., case scenarios). Vignettes were inspired by several resources, including a focus group, and designed to represent significant ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland in addition to cases of potential professional misconduct. In small groups, students had to identify the stakeholders and their conflicting interests and to suggest possible solutions and alternative outcomes to the case scenario. Results from qualitative material from the teaching sessions and from a quantitative post-teaching survey show that student understanding of stakeholders increased as a result of the tutorial, which helped them to clarify possible solutions to the scenario and to propose alternative outcomes to either mitigate or avoid future occurrence of the ethical challenges. These findings suggest that incorporating meaningful vignettes into the teaching of veterinary ethics can support student ethical awareness and skills, while promoting a pluralistic approach to considering ethical issues, making the best of available time and human resources.

  12. Variations in GPs' decisions to investigate suspected lung cancer: a factorial experiment using multimedia vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheringham, Jessica; Sequeira, Rachel; Myles, Jonathan; Hamilton, William; McDonnell, Joe; Offman, Judith; Duffy, Stephen; Raine, Rosalind

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer survival is low and comparatively poor in the UK. Patients with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer commonly consult primary care, but it is unclear how general practitioners (GPs) distinguish which patients require further investigation. This study examined how patients' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics influence GPs' decisions to initiate lung cancer investigations. A factorial experiment was conducted among a national sample of 227 English GPs using vignettes presented as simulated consultations. A multimedia-interactive website simulated key features of consultations using actors ('patients'). GP participants made management decisions online for six 'patients', whose sociodemographic characteristics systematically varied across three levels of cancer risk. In low-risk vignettes, investigation (ie, chest X-ray ordered, computerised tomography scan or respiratory consultant referral) was not indicated; in medium-risk vignettes, investigation could be appropriate; in high-risk vignettes, investigation was definitely indicated. Each 'patient' had two lung cancer-related symptoms: one volunteered and another elicited if GPs asked. Variations in investigation likelihood were examined using multilevel logistic regression. GPs decided to investigate lung cancer in 74% (1000/1348) of vignettes. Investigation likelihood did not increase with cancer risk. Investigations were more likely when GPs requested information on symptoms that 'patients' had but did not volunteer (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.18; 95% CI 2.27 to 4.70). However, GPs omitted to seek this information in 42% (570/1348) of cases. GPs were less likely to investigate older than younger 'patients' (AOR=0.52; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.7) and black 'patients' than white (AOR=0.68; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.95). GPs were not more likely to investigate 'patients' with high-risk than low-risk cancer symptoms. Furthermore, they did not investigate everyone with the same symptoms equally. Insufficient data gathering

  13. What Are They Thinking? The Moral Judgment of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the moral judgment of 12 third- through fifth-grade children with and without emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and to explore how feelings affected their thought processes. Data were gathered via three individually conducted moral dilemma interviews with each child participant. These procedures produced…

  14. What Are They Thinking? The Moral Judgment of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the moral judgment of 12 third- through fifth-grade children with and without emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and to explore how feelings affected their thought processes. Data were gathered via three individually conducted moral dilemma interviews with each child participant. These procedures produced…

  15. Does momentary accessibility influence metacomprehension judgments? The influence of study-judgment lags on accessibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julie M C; Dunlosky, John

    2006-02-01

    In two experiments, we investigated momentary accessibility as a basis for metacomprehension judgments. Momentary accessibility has been cited as a major contributor to these judgments, yet the only previous investigation on the topic used judgments that were delayed a day after study, which have not been used in any other studies in the field and may be necessary for demonstrating accessibility-based effects. As expected, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the time between study and judgments moderates accessibility effects, with the relationship between judgments and access measures being substantially greater for delayed than for immediate judgments. Experiment 2 ruled out a plausible artifactual interpretation for accessibility effects on delayed judgments. In the discussion, we explore why study-judgment lags moderate accessibility effects.

  16. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  17. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  18. Victimological aspects of court judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the review of the results of the research: „Analysis of judgments form the victimological aspect“ of the Basic court Skopje I in Skopje. It is the first research of it’s kind in the Republic of Macedonia, conducted by the project team of the Faculty of Security in Skopje in the period from January to April 2011. By using the content analysis (for this purpose a special instrument was developed 172 irrevocable court judgment brought in the period 2005-2010 were analyzed, for the following criminal offences: murder, crimes against sexual freedom and sexual morality (sexual assault, severe bodily injuries and insult. The aim of the research was to highlight the victimological dimensions of mentioned criminal offences, while special attention was paid to the role of a victim in a crime, victim‘ s interaction with the perpetrator, individual characteristics of the victim, as well as the characteristics of the time when and the space where the crime occurred.

  19. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  20. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  1. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  2. Who makes utilitarian judgments? The influences of emotions on utilitarian judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Choe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.

  3. Interview with Sandra Thompson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-chih

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview of Sandra Thompson on various topics relating to the Chinese language. The interview touches on conversational data on Chinese, the lack of morphological complexity in Mandarin Chinese, and the development of Chinese functionalism. (12 references) (CK)

  4. Interview with Tony Wrigley

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Interviewed and filmed by Aslan Macfarlane on 23rd July 2007 at his house, edited by Sarah Harrison, lasts about one hour. Interview with the geographer and historical demography Sir Anthony Wrigley about his life and work

  5. Interview of Richard Keynes

    OpenAIRE

    Keynes, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Interviewed on 26th September 2007 by Alan Macfarlane at his home. Lasts about one hour. Interview of Richard Keynes, retired Professor of physiology at Cambridge and great grandson of Charles Darwin, on his life and work

  6. Interview of Stephen Cleobury

    OpenAIRE

    Cleobury, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Interviewed and filmed by Alan Macfarlane on 4th July 2008 and edited by Sarah Harrison An interview on the life and work of the musician Stephen Cleobury, Director of Music at King's College, Cambridge

  7. Interview with John Milnor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...

  8. Interview of Brian Harrison

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Interviewed on 21 June 2012 in his home by Alan Macfarlane and edited by Sarah Harrison. As well as the interview, there is an explanation of Professor Harrison's indexing system. Interview on the life and work of Professor Sir Brian Harrison

  9. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  10. Clinical Judgments of Normal Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sally Ann

    1976-01-01

    Decisions regarding normality of childhood behaviors are necessary when clinicians attempt to discriminate which children require psychiatric treatment. Elements affecting clinical judgments include the influence of direct observation of the child and the parents' report of the child's behavior. Results show that judgments depended almost entirely…

  11. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  12. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  13. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  14. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  15. Measuring Concurrency Attitudes: Development and Validation of a Vignette-Based Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catalina; DeVellis, Robert F.; Agans, Robert; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships (partnerships that overlap in time) may contribute to higher rates of HIV transmission in African Americans. Attitudes toward a behavior constitute an important component of most models of health-related behavior and behavioral change. We have developed a scale, employing realistic vignettes that appear to reliably measure attitudes about concurrency in young African American adults. Methods Vignette-based items to assess attitudes about concurrency were developed following focus groups and cognitive testing of items adapted from existing scales assessing psychosocial constructs surrounding related sexual behaviors. The new items were included in a telephone survey of African American adults (18–34 years old) in Eastern North Carolina immediately before and after a radio campaign designed to discourage concurrency. We performed an exploratory factor analysis on each sample (pre- and post-campaign) to cross-validate results. We retained factors with a primary loading of ≥0.50 and no secondary loading >0.30. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was used to evaluate internal reliability. Associations in the predicted direction between the mean responses to items on the final factor and known correlates of concurrency validated the scale. Results Factor analysis in a random pre-campaign subsample yielded a one-factor 6-item scale with acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.79). As expected, the attitude factor was positively associated with participation in concurrent partnerships, whether assessed by self-report (r = 0.298, pnegatively associated with increasing age (r = -0.088, p- = 0.02) and female gender (r = -0.232, pcampaign subsample and post-campaign sample confirmed these results. Conclusion A vignette-based scale may be an effective measure of key attitudes related to concurrency and potentially a useful tool to evaluate interventions addressing this network pattern. PMID:27764104

  16. People's Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Karpoff, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    People's judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people's judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people's judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.

  17. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  18. Interview as intraviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kit Stender

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...

  19. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...... can predict financial performance. Monthly data were collected from frontline employees in three different companies during an 18-month period, and the initial results indicate that the ESOChas predictive power....... of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...

  20. Anchoring the experts: Using vignettes to compare party ideology across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Bakker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expert surveys are a valuable, commonly used instrument to measure party positions. Some critics question the cross-national comparability of these measures, though, suggesting that experts may lack a common anchor for fundamental concepts such as economic left–right. Using anchoring vignettes in the 2010 Chapel Hill Expert Survey, we examine the extent of cross-national difference in expert ideological placements. We find limited evidence of cross-national differences; on the whole, our findings further establish expert surveys as a rigorous instrument for measuring party positions in a cross-national context.

  1. Interview as intraviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kit Stender

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...... do not merely refer to passive entities but must be understood as matter that matters. To illustrate my points I will analyse how bringing a puppet with me to interviews with 4-6 year old children seemed to interfere with the interview situation creating unforeseen diversions in ways that influenced...

  2. Using short vignettes to disentangle perceived capability from motivation: a test using walking and resistance training behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Williams, David M; Mistry, Chetan D

    2016-07-01

    Self-efficacy is arguably the strongest correlate of physical activity, yet some researchers suggest this is because the construct confounds ability with motivation. We examine a more circumscribed construct, called perceived capability (PC), meant to measure ability but not motivation and propose that the construct will not be related to unskilled physical activities but may be linked to skilled behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a PC construct can be stripped of motivation using a vignette approach in both walking and resistance training behaviors. Participants were a random sample of 248 university students, who were then randomly assigned to either answer resistance training or walking behavior questions. Both groups completed a PC measure and reasons for their answer before and after reading a vignette that clarified the phrasing of capability to a literal use of the term. PC was significantly (p  .05) difference in the amount of variance explained pre- to post-vignette. Thought listing showed that participants did not report capability barriers to walking and over half of the sample construed capability as motivation/other priorities pre-vignette. The findings support use of a vignette approach for researchers who wish to disentangle the assessment of PC from motivation while creating no overall loss in explained variance of physical activity.

  3. Coding interview questions concepts, problems, interview questions

    CERN Document Server

    Karumanchi, Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people

  4. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  5. Physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and seeking behavior: a study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Bret S E; Khalifa, Aly; Stone, Bryan L; Nelson, Scott; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs. We performed a formative, mixed-method assessment of physicians' information-seeking process in three pharmacogenomics case vignettes. Interactions of 6 physicians' with online pharmacogenomics resources were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for prominent themes. Quantitative data included information-seeking duration, page navigations, and number of searches entered. We found that participants searched an average of 8 min per case vignette, spent less than 30 s reviewing specific content, and rarely refined search terms. Participants' information needs included a need for clinically meaningful descriptions of test interpretations, a molecular basis for the clinical effect of drug variation, information on the logistics of carrying out a genetic test (including questions related to cost, availability, test turn-around time, insurance coverage, and accessibility of expert support).Also, participants sought alternative therapies that would not require genetic testing. This study of pharmacogenomics information-seeking behavior indicates that content to support their information needs is dispersed and hard to find. Our results reveal a set of themes that information resources can use to help physicians find and apply pharmacogenomics information to the care of their patients.

  6. Validating vignette and conjoint survey experiments against real-world behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik; Yamamoto, Teppei

    2015-02-24

    Survey experiments, like vignette and conjoint analyses, are widely used in the social sciences to elicit stated preferences and study how humans make multidimensional choices. However, there is a paucity of research on the external validity of these methods that examines whether the determinants that explain hypothetical choices made by survey respondents match the determinants that explain what subjects actually do when making similar choices in real-world situations. This study compares results from conjoint and vignette analyses on which immigrant attributes generate support for naturalization with closely corresponding behavioral data from a natural experiment in Switzerland, where some municipalities used referendums to decide on the citizenship applications of foreign residents. Using a representative sample from the same population and the official descriptions of applicant characteristics that voters received before each referendum as a behavioral benchmark, we find that the effects of the applicant attributes estimated from the survey experiments perform remarkably well in recovering the effects of the same attributes in the behavioral benchmark. We also find important differences in the relative performances of the different designs. Overall, the paired conjoint design, where respondents evaluate two immigrants side by side, comes closest to the behavioral benchmark; on average, its estimates are within 2% percentage points of the effects in the behavioral benchmark.

  7. Psychological responses to genetic testing for weight gain: a vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susanne F; Walker, Catherine; Wardle, Jane

    2012-03-01

    Genetic testing for obesity risk is increasingly available to the public but few studies have examined motivational or affective reactions. Here we report findings from a "vignette" study investigating reactions to "higher-risk" and "average-risk" results for the obesity-related FTO gene in two groups: a panel sample of individuals with weight concerns, for whom testing may have treatment implications (n = 306, mean age = 45 years, mean BMI = 35) and a student sample (n = 395, mean age = 25 years, mean BMI = 23), for whom testing would have implications for obesity prevention. Participants were given FTO gene information that described higher-risk alleles as linked with modest weight gain and slightly higher risk of obesity. They responded to both higher- and average-risk vignettes, with order randomized. Interest in genetic testing was high overall, and higher in panel respondents than students (93% vs. 78% would "probably" or "definitely" have the test; P testing has the potential to be a useful clinical or preventive tool when combined with appropriate information.

  8. Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

    2009-07-19

    Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing.

  9. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Hanlon, A

    2016-10-29

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Interview of Terry Doyle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions

    2012-01-01

    An Interview with Terry Doyle, Director of Corporate Development, Nokia. This is part of a series of interviews organized by the SMS Interest Group of Strategy Practice, as part of the preparation for the 2013 SMS Special conference at Lake Geneva which is co-sponsored by ATLAS/CERN. For more information: http://geneva.strategicmanagement.net The purpose of the interviews is to provide input for academics, business practitioners and consultants about fundamental questions of strategy in enterprises.

  11. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  12. Interviewing to detect deception

    OpenAIRE

    Vrij, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    DePaulo et al.’s (2003) meta-analysis of verbal and nonverbal cues to deception showed that cues to deception are faint and unreliable. If liars do not spontaneously display diagnostic cues to deceit, a logical step is to make sure that investigators elicit or enhance such cues in interviews through specific interview technique. Such interview techniques were scarce in the nonverbal and verbal cues to deception domain, but recently researchers have developed alternative protocols that have th...

  13. Das Interview als Beziehungsraum

    OpenAIRE

    Tietel, Erhard

    2000-01-01

    Am Beispiel einer schwierigen Interviewbeziehung wird gezeigt, daß und in welcher Weise das Beziehungsgeschehen im Interview sowie die Verwendung des Beziehungsraums des Interviews durch den Befragten entscheidende heuristische Hinweise zum Aufspüren und Verstehen latenter Aspekte des Forschungsthemas geben können. Die im Interview stattfindende Reduktion des potentiell triadischen Beziehungsraums auf dyadisch-geschlossene Beziehungsebenen und der weitgehende Verlust des eigenen Spielraums un...

  14. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...... a concrete example of its use in a recently completed research project. They discuss several advantages of the interview, among them that it provides information about group interaction and participant behavior, and furnishes additional data on what is discussed when the tape recorder is turned off....

  15. Naturalness judgments by lay Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study directly tests the hypothesis that, at least within the domains of food and drink for Americans, the judgment of naturalness has more to do with the history of an object, that is the processes that it has undergone, as opposed to its material content. Individuals rate the naturalness and acceptability of a natural entity (water or tomato paste, that same entity with a first transformation in which a natural substance is added (or some part removed, and then a second transformation in which the natural additive is removed (or the removed part is replaced. The twice transformed entity is stipulated to be identical to the original natural entity, yet it is rated much less natural and less acceptable. It differs from the original entity only in its history (the reversed processes it has experienced. The twice transformed entity is also rated as less natural than the once-transformed entity, even though the former is identical to the original natural entity, and the latter is not. Therefore, naturalness depends heavily on the process-history of an entity.

  16. Association of unconscious race and social class bias with vignette-based clinical assessments by medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Sexton, Janel; Sriram, N; Cooper, Lisa A; Efron, David T; Swoboda, Sandra; Villegas, Cassandra V; Haut, Elliott R; Bonds, Morgan; Pronovost, Peter J; Lipsett, Pamela A; Freischlag, Julie A; Cornwell, Edward E

    2011-09-07

    Studies involving physicians suggest that unconscious bias may be related to clinical decision making and may predict poor patient-physician interaction. The presence of unconscious race and social class bias and its association with clinical assessments or decision making among medical students is unknown. To estimate unconscious race and social class bias among first-year medical students and investigate its relationship with assessments made during clinical vignettes. A secure Web-based survey was administered to 211 medical students entering classes at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in August 2009 and August 2010. The survey included the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess unconscious preferences, direct questions regarding students' explicit race and social class preferences, and 8 clinical assessment vignettes focused on pain assessment, informed consent, patient reliability, and patient trust. Adjusting for student demographics, multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether responses to the vignettes were associated with unconscious race or social class preferences. Association of scores on an established IAT for race and a novel IAT for social class with vignette responses. Among the 202 students who completed the survey, IAT responses were consistent with an implicit preference toward white persons among 140 students (69%, 95% CI, 61%-75%). Responses were consistent with a preference toward those in the upper class among 174 students (86%, 95% CI, 80%-90%). Assessments generally did not vary by patient race or occupation, and multivariable analyses for all vignettes found no significant relationship between implicit biases and clinical assessments. Regression coefficient for the association between pain assessment and race IAT scores was -0.49 (95% CI, -1.00 to 0.03) and for social class, the coefficient was -0.04 (95% CI, -0.50 to 0.41). Adjusted odds ratios for other vignettes ranged from 0.69 to 3.03 per unit

  17. Interview with Peggy Papp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)

  18. Interview of Clifford Geertz

    OpenAIRE

    Geertz, Clifford

    2004-01-01

    Clifford Geertz interviewed by Alan Macfarlane in Cambridge, 6th May 2004, the interview lasts about two hours. Clifford Geertz talks of his childhood and education. He describes various important figures in American anthropology, and the influence of Weber. he describes his fieldwork in Indonesia and Morocco. He discusses what it is to be an anthropologist.

  19. Doing Dirty Interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...

  20. Legal Interviewing For Paralegals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsky, William P.

    One of the training materials prepared for paralegals, or legal assistants, by the National Paralegal Institute under a Federal grant, the document presents legal interviewing techniques by focusing on an analysis of a particular legal interview conducted by a paralegal on a hypothetical case. From the analysis of the case, a number of problems,…

  1. Interview with Octavio Solis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowell, Bob

    This interview with Mexican-American, Octavio Solis, considers that many facets of his education and experience in the theater. Solis, interviewed by Bob Yowell, Northern Arizona University Theatre Department faculty member and that campus' producer of Solis' play "El Paso Blue," touches on the importance of his acting experience when…

  2. The Dyadic Interview Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, Michael Z.

    2004-01-01

    Interviewing skills are essential for managers and would-be managers. In the interview assignment described in this article, students develop such skills as they also learn communication theories, test those theories in practical applications, think critically, relate new to old information, and have fun. In this assignment, students are required…

  3. Interview of Emmanuel Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Interview of Emmanuel Marx by Dan Rabinowitz and Alan Macfarlane on 7th July 1983, about 20 minutes, poor sound Interview of Emmanuel Marx on his work in Israel, the influence of Emrys Peters and others, and his work among the Bedouin of the Sinai Desert. The future of Israeli anthropology.

  4. Interview, observation og dokumentanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer.......Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer....

  5. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  6. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  7. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  8. Winning the interviewing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M F

    2000-01-01

    Those who don't "interview well" are not likely to receive the job offer, despite their qualifications. A job interview is actually a fierce competitive activity that offers only two grades: an A or F. By nature, physicians are competitive; they like to win. Infrequent interviewees are prone to making easily corrected mistakes, such as showing no enthusiasm or having poor eye contact. The key for interviewing success is preparation--doing research, developing a personal statement, and role-playing practice interviews. View the interview as a sales call whose bottom-line goal is to achieve an offer, or at least to let you leave with the option to return for future discussions.

  9. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modaliti...... for research into intercultural issues to focus on gender and ethnicity, it has to de-center both, gender and ethnicity.......This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...

  10. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  11. Ranking method for the reciprocal judgment matrix based on the unascertained three-valued judgments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Yucheng; Ma Baoguo; Sheng Zhaohan

    2006-01-01

    The ranking problem is studied when the pairwise comparisons values are uncertain in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method of constructing the judgment matrix is presented when the pairwise comparisons values are denoted by the unascrtained three-valued reciprocal scales. By turning the reciprocal judgment matrix into attribute judgment matrix, the method to check the consistency of the pairwise comparisons judgment matrix and the calculation method of weighting coefficients are given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Professional support as a facilitator to the development of Iranian nurses' clinical judgment: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Jamal; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salsali, Mahvash

    2014-02-01

    Nurses' clinical judgment development is essential for the professional nursing practice. The aim of this study was to explore the facilitators to the development of Iranian nurses' clinical judgment. A qualitative design using conventional content analysis method was employed in the study. A purposive sample of 24 participants was recruited from three hospitals located at Sanandaj, Iran. Study data were collected in 2013 by using semi-structured individual interviews. A content analysis approach was used to analyze the study data and MAXQDA was used for coding and categorizing the data. The main theme of the study was "professional support as a facilitator to the development of nurse's clinical judgment." The sub-themes of this main theme included "provision of direct support to nurses" and "provision of clinical judgment resources." The first sub-theme consisted of different types of managerial, clinical, educational, and social supports. The two categories of the second sub-theme included the provision of necessary clinical evidence and the provision of medical equipments. The study findings highlighted the importance of providing nurses with adequate professional support for facilitating the development of their clinical judgment.

  13. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  14. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I argue—with an example—that under certain conditions replacement of audio transcriptions with a combination of simultaneously taken and jointly produced notes can be done without affecting reliability, validity, and transparency. These conditions are: (1) professional or otherwise...... relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...

  15. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  16. Vignettes and differential health reporting: results from the Japanese World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ismail Tareque

    Full Text Available We examined the factors associated with the evaluation of health description vignettes and how Japanese people make decisions related to the eight health dimensions (mobility, emotions, pain, relationship with others, sleep and energy, vision, recognition/remembering abilities, and self-care. We investigated a dataset of 4,959 respondents (≥ 18 years from the Japanese World Health Survey. Ordered probit models were used to identify factors associated with all health dimensions. On all dimensions, older people appraised extreme problems as less problematic than young people did. Compared with men, women reported greater severity in the case of extreme problems on three health dimensions: emotion, pain, and sleep/energy. The study also found negative effects of alcohol consumption in almost all dimensions. Doctors and other health care workers should be careful when assessing severity of health problems in older individuals; in this population, health problems may be more severe than reported.

  17. Psychotropic medication from an object relations theory perspective: an analysis of vignettes from group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Dana Shindel; Sharon, Amos; Moscovici, Lucian; Schreiber, Shaul

    2008-07-01

    In this article we explore the content and dynamics of patients' verbalizations within a "living with medications" group. Patients' perceptions of their psychotropic medications are interpreted and classified within the framework of object relations theory. One's perception of the role of medication in one's life can serve as a gateway to one's inner world and the way that he or she perceives authority figures, peers, and oneself. We suggest that working through patients' relationships with their medications can help them to achieve better integration of internal object relations. Discussing patients' views about medications should therefore be seen as an important part of psychotherapy with many individuals. Such a discussion may enhance and improve efficacy of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. It is of particular importance in group therapy, within milieu environments and with individuals reluctant to explicitly discuss interpersonal matters. Vignettes from the group sessions illustrate the way in which discussing medication advances group process.

  18. Switch from distress to well-being by strong emotions: Speculations on three clinical vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanchini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Starting from three clinical vignettes representing two mental disorders and different approaches to their treatment, we ask whether and how an unexpected event occurring at a particular time in a person's life could provoke such strong emotions as to determine a sudden transition from a state of severe distress to one of well-being. In this transition, we postulate that a major role is played by biological tendencies and brain plasticity under the influence of psychotherapy and positive emotions, emotions--especially trust, the sense of being cared for, and falling in love--that are awakened by openness to novelty and to the Other. Neurobiologically, a sudden improvement could be ascribed to an oxytocinergic action that, combined with dopaminergic circuits, can restore a state of well-being, safe attachment, and gratification.

  19. Tips on writing by interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, S

    1995-01-01

    Personal interviews add spice to publications--a well-written interview can inspire as well as inform. Here are 17 tips on writing by interview that will come in handy whether you are interviewing one person or several.

  20. Measuring Concurrency Attitudes: Development and Validation of a Vignette-Based Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Anna B; Ramirez, Catalina; DeVellis, Robert F; Agans, Robert; Schoenbach, Victor J; Adimora, Adaora A

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships (partnerships that overlap in time) may contribute to higher rates of HIV transmission in African Americans. Attitudes toward a behavior constitute an important component of most models of health-related behavior and behavioral change. We have developed a scale, employing realistic vignettes that appear to reliably measure attitudes about concurrency in young African American adults. Vignette-based items to assess attitudes about concurrency were developed following focus groups and cognitive testing of items adapted from existing scales assessing psychosocial constructs surrounding related sexual behaviors. The new items were included in a telephone survey of African American adults (18-34 years old) in Eastern North Carolina immediately before and after a radio campaign designed to discourage concurrency. We performed an exploratory factor analysis on each sample (pre- and post-campaign) to cross-validate results. We retained factors with a primary loading of ≥0.50 and no secondary loading >0.30. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to evaluate internal reliability. Associations in the predicted direction between the mean responses to items on the final factor and known correlates of concurrency validated the scale. Factor analysis in a random pre-campaign subsample yielded a one-factor 6-item scale with acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.79). As expected, the attitude factor was positively associated with participation in concurrent partnerships, whether assessed by self-report (r = 0.298, pscale may be an effective measure of key attitudes related to concurrency and potentially a useful tool to evaluate interventions addressing this network pattern.

  1. Using vignettes to rethink Latino-white disparities in self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzostek, Sharon; Sastry, Narayan; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne; Duffy, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers often rely on respondents' self-rated health (SRH) to measure social disparities in health, but recent studies suggest that systematically different reporting styles across groups can yield misleading conclusions about disparities in SRH. In this study, we test whether this finding extends to ethnic differences in self-assessments of health in particular domains. We document differences between US-born whites and four Latino subgroups in respondents' assessments of health in six health domains using data from the second wave of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (N = 1468). We use both conventional methods and an approach that uses vignettes to adjust for differential reporting styles. Our results suggest that despite consistent evidence from the literature that Latinos tend to rate their overall health more poorly than whites, and that Latino immigrants report worse SRH than US-born Latinos, this pattern is not true of self-reports in individual health domains. We find that at the bivariate level, US-born whites (and often US-born Mexicans) have significantly more pessimistic reporting styles than Latino immigrants. After adding controls, we find evidence of significantly different reporting styles for only one domain: US-born Mexicans and whites consistently interpret head pain more severely than the other Latino subgroups. Finally, we find that both before and after adjusting for differences in rating styles across groups, non-Mexican Latino immigrants report better social and physical functioning and less pain than other groups. Our findings underscore the advantages of domain-specific ratings when evaluating ethnic differences in self-assessments of health. We encourage researchers studying social disparities in health to consider respondents' self-assessments in a variety of domains, and to also investigate (when possible) potential biases in their findings due to different reporting styles. The anchoring vignettes approach we use is

  2. Assessing pharmacists' readiness to prescribe oral antibiotics for limited infections using a case-vignette technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Elizabeth; Czarniak, Petra; Sunderland, Bruce; Parsons, Richard; Hoti, Kreshnik

    2017-02-01

    Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Setting Community pharmacies, Western Australia. Method Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire also containing case vignettes. These were distributed to a random sample of metropolitan and rural community pharmacies in Western Australia. A Generalised Estimating Equation was used to compare respondents' level of confidence in treating various infections and to assess appropriateness of prescribing. Main outcome measure Appropriateness and confidence of antibiotic prescribing. Results A response rate of 34.2% (i.e. 425 responses to case vignettes) was achieved from 240 pharmacies. There were high levels of confidence to treat simple infections such as uncomplicated UTIs (n = 73; 89.0%), impetigo (n = 65; 79.3%), mild bacterial skin infections (n = 62; 75.6%) and moderate acne (n = 61; 72.4%). Over 80% of respondents were confident to prescribe amoxicillin (n = 73; 89%), trimethoprim (n = 72; 87.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (n = 70; 85.4%), flucloxacillin (n = 70; 85.4%) and cephalexin (n = 68; 82.9%). High levels of appropriate antibiotic prescribing were shown for uncomplicated UTI (97.2%), cellulitis (98.2%) and adolescent acne (100.0%). Conclusion This study identified key limited infections and antibiotics for which pharmacists were supportive and confident to prescribe. This role could lead to better use of antibiotics in the community and minimisation of resistance.

  3. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Dumesnil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD and the factors associated with their decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%. We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar and disease intensity (mild/severe. GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8% or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%. They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27, patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98, GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81 and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82. The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52, patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18, and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89. These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GPs' choices for

  4. The Career Success/Personal Failure Phenomenon as Perceived in Others: Comparing Vignettes of Male and Female Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mina; Etzion, Dalia

    1990-01-01

    Reactions to 4 versions of a vignette describing a successful manager were obtained from 233 management students, including 50 executives in an extension course. Career success was perceived as a major cause of personal failure. The personal price paid by successful people was perceived differently depending on gender and marital status. (SK)

  5. Using Video Vignettes of Historical Episodes for Promoting Pre-Service Teachers' Ideas about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin

    2017-01-01

    This study used video vignettes of historical episodes from documentary films as a context and instructional tool to promote pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants received explicit-reflective NOS instruction, and were introduced to techniques to be able to use scenes from documentary…

  6. Decision making by pension fund trustees in the face of demographic and economic shocks: a vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Koedijk, C.G.; Slager, A.

    2012-01-01

    How do pension fund trustees deal with demographic and economic shocks? We examine this issue by using a vignette study among pension fund trustees in the Netherlands. Trustees show asymmetric reactions to shocks in the level of reserves of pension funds. Pension premiums are upwardly flexible but t

  7. Diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis: an international expert survey and case vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, J. (Janneke); S. van Brunschot (Sandra); P. Fockens (Paul); J. van Grinsven (Janneke); O.J. Bakker (Olaf ); van Santvoort, H.C. (Hjalmar C.); T.L. Bollen (Thomas); M.A. Boermeester (Marja); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); M.G. Besselink (Marc); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H. Dejong (Cees); K.D. Horvath (Karen); van Eijck, C.H. (Casper H.); H. van Goor (Harry); H.G. Gooszen (Hein); Horvath, K.D. (Karen D.); K.P. van Lienden (Krijn); Abdelhafez, M.; Andersson, R.; Andren-Sandberg, A.; Ashley, S.; M.C. van Baal (Mark); Baron, T.; C. Bassi (Claudio); Bradley, E.; M.W. Buchler (M.); V.C. Cappendijk; Carter, R.; Charnley, R.; Coelho, D.; Connor, S.; Dellinger, P.; C. Dervenis (Christos); J. Devière (J.); Doctor, N.; Dudeja, V.; En-qiang, M.; Escourrou, J.; Fagenholz, P.; Farkas, G.; Forsmark, C.; Freeman, M.; P.C. Freeny (Patrick); French, J.; H. Friess; Gardner, T.; Goetzinger, P.; J.W. Haveman; S. Hofker (Sijbrand); Imrie, C.; Isaji, S.; Isenmann, R.; E. Klar (Ernst); J.S. Laméris (Johan ); M. Lerch (M.); P. Lévy (Philippe); Lillemoe, K.; Löhr, M.; J. Mayerle (Julia); Mayumi, T.; Mittal, A.; Moessner, J.; Morgan, D.; K.J. Mortele (Koenraad); Nealon, W.; J.P. Neoptolemos (John); V.B. Nieuwenhuijs (Vincent); Nordback, I.; Olah, A.; K. Oppong (K.); Padbury, R.; Papachristou, G.; Parks, R.; J.-W. Poley (Jan-Werner); Radenkovic, D.; Raraty, M.; Rau, B.; V. Rebours (Vinciane); Rische, S.; Runzi, M.; Sainani, N.; Sarr, M.; Schaapherder, S.; S. Seewald (Stefan); Seifert, H.; Shimosegawa, T.; Silverman, S.; Singh, V.; Siriwardena, A.; Steinberg, W.; Sutton, R.; Takeda, K.; R. Timmer (Robin); Vege, S.; R.P. Voermans (Rogier); J.J. De Waele (Jan J.); Wang, C. (Ch.); Warshaw, A.; J. Werner (Jens Martin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); Whitcomb, D.; Wig, J.; Windsor, J.; Zyromski, N.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis is subject to debate. We performed a survey on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists. Methods An online survey including case vignettes was sent to

  8. Silence that can be dangerous: a vignette study to assess healthcare professionals' likelihood of speaking up about safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Gehring, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns. 1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers' errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate). Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder's evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics. Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%-96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%-81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%-94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%-92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up. Clinicians' willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns.

  9. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  10. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    across cultures and disciplines and for my work as a management consultant. Naturally, I would include the tool for my students in educational psychology when I began teaching a course on qualitative interviews last semester. Large was my surprise when I failed to find any references to the specific time...... line tool. I wondered where I had first read about this type of interview and looked through my old books on development research. While I was sure the inspiration came from Britha Mikkelsen’s Methods for Development Work and Research, I did not succeed in finding to find any instruction to the use......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...

  11. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  12. Resistance to Temptation and Moral Judgment: Behavioral Correlates of Kohlberg's Measure of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Edward A.; And Others

    This study was designed to assess and compare the roles of intelligence and moral judgment in relation to patterns of behavior in temptation situations. Six Resistance to Temptation (RTT) tasks were administered to 106 sixth grade students. One year later, four Kohlberg Moral Judgment (MJ) tasks were administered to 100 of the same subjects. IQ…

  13. The influence of addiction risk on nursing students' expectations of patients' pain reports: a clinical vignette approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Paula C; Katz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of addiction risk (substance abuse history [SAH]) and pain relief (PR) on nursing and non-nursing students' perceptions of pain in a postoperative vignette patient. Using a 2 x 2 design, the independent variables SAH (present/+, absent/-) and PR (adequate, little) were varied systematically to produce four vignettes. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of the four vignettes that described a 45-year-old man after a total hip replacement. Participants rated the vignette patient's experienced and reported pain intensity (PI) on a 0 mm to 100 mm visual analogue scale and addiction risk on a 0 mm to 100 mm visual analogue scale. A pain congruence (PC) score was calculated (PC = reported PI -- experienced PI), and was interpreted as congruent (+/-2 mm) or incongruent (+2 mm to +100 mm for expected pain over-reporting; -2 mm to -100 mm for expected pain under-reporting). Responses from undergraduate nursing (n=89) and non-nursing (n=88) students were analyzed. The estimated addiction risk was significantly lower in nursing (14% to 45%) versus non-nursing students (50%). Nursing students' mean PC scores were not significantly altered by SAH alone. Expectations of pain over-reporting were observed under conditions of SAH+/adequate PR, but not SAH+/little PR. In non-nursing students, SAH and PR were significant and independent factors influencing mean PC scores in the direction of pain over-reporting. Under most conditions, nursing students expected pain under-reporting by the postoperative vignette patient. However, nursing students did expect pain to be over-reported when addiction risk was high and PR was adequate. These data suggest that nursing students' expectations regarding pain over- and under-reporting were sensitive to perceptions of addiction risk, but involved additional factors (eg, level of PR).

  14. A teoria de Kohlberg sobre o desenvolvimento do raciocínio moral e os instrumentos de avaliação de juízo e competência moral em uso no Brasil Kohlberg's theory about moral judgment development and the instruments used for evaluation of moral judgment and moral competence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Unger Raphael Bataglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo abordar as bases, finalidades e composição de dois instrumentos de avaliação de juízo moral: a Moral Judgment Interview (MJI e o Defining Issues Test (DIT, e um de competência moral: o Moral Judgment Test (MJT. Retoma a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Kohlberg que fundamenta esses instrumentos, assim como os últimos estudos realizados com os mesmos. A MJI é uma entrevista semiestruturada que avalia o nível de juízo moral. O DIT é um teste objetivo que mede a proporção de respostas pós-convencionais. O MJT é um instrumento objetivo, que avalia a competência moral. Destaca-se a crescente utilização desses instrumentos em pesquisas sobre moralidade.This paper presents intends to address the objectives and composition of two instruments for evaluation of moral judgment: the "Moral Judgment Interview" (MJI and the "Defining Issues Test" (DIT and one for moral competence measurement: the "Moral Judgment Test" (MJT. It retakes Kohlberg's moral development theory which gives the foundation for these instruments. Presents Brazilian studies with each instrument. MJI is a semi-structured interview that evaluates the stage of moral judgment. DIT is an objective test that measures the percentage of post-conventional answers. MJT is an objective instrument that measures the moral judgment competence. Researches have used more and more these instruments.

  15. Judgment sampling: a health care improvement perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P

    2012-01-01

    Sampling plays a major role in quality improvement work. Random sampling (assumed by most traditional statistical methods) is the exception in improvement situations. In most cases, some type of "judgment sample" is used to collect data from a system. Unfortunately, judgment sampling is not well understood. Judgment sampling relies upon those with process and subject matter knowledge to select useful samples for learning about process performance and the impact of changes over time. It many cases, where the goal is to learn about or improve a specific process or system, judgment samples are not merely the most convenient and economical approach, they are technically and conceptually the most appropriate approach. This is because improvement work is done in the real world in complex situations involving specific areas of concern and focus; in these situations, the assumptions of classical measurement theory neither can be met nor should an attempt be made to meet them. The purpose of this article is to describe judgment sampling and its importance in quality improvement work and studies with a focus on health care settings.

  16. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  17. Judgment in an auditor's materiality assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rikke Holmslykke

    2015-01-01

    ‘Materiality’ is considered a key audit concept both theoretically and in practice, but regulation enforcers are concerned about the different views on materiality held by preparers, auditors, users and enforcers, respectively, because different levels of materiality could result in users having...... a heterogeneous decision basis. This may seem surprising considering that the rule-of-thumb is simply to calculate materiality as 5% of net income before taxes. By analysing the prior audit materiality literature through a comprehensive literature review, this paper identifies the important quantitative...... and qualitative components of materiality judgments, which include both task, person and interpersonal interactions in line with general audit judgment and decision-making theory. This analysis offers an enhanced understanding of what the »black box« of professional materiality judgment contains. The analysis...

  18. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  19. Judgment in an auditor's materiality assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rikke Holmslykke

    2015-01-01

    a heterogeneous decision basis. This may seem surprising considering that the rule-of-thumb is simply to calculate materiality as 5% of net income before taxes. By analysing the prior audit materiality literature through a comprehensive literature review, this paper identifies the important quantitative......‘Materiality’ is considered a key audit concept both theoretically and in practice, but regulation enforcers are concerned about the different views on materiality held by preparers, auditors, users and enforcers, respectively, because different levels of materiality could result in users having...... and qualitative components of materiality judgments, which include both task, person and interpersonal interactions in line with general audit judgment and decision-making theory. This analysis offers an enhanced understanding of what the »black box« of professional materiality judgment contains. The analysis...

  20. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  1. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  2. Interview with Christoph Wulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the articles published in Designs for Learning, each issue will also include an interview with a person who is prominent within any of the fields that relate to the themes of the journal. The readers of this issue have already made acquaintance with professor Christoph Wulf through his article on mimetic learning. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests and influences that form a background to his theoretical work. A further contextualisation of his article, so to speak.

  3. Interview with Hagen Keller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Guglielmotti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this interview addresses the cultural, social and political milieu that shaped Hagen Keller’s education in Germany, the relations with both his mentor Gerd Tellenbach and the other scholars; the approach to prosopography to understand the power structures. Then the interview examines the Roman experience in the Sixties (a scientific and also human one; the book Adelsherrschaft und ständische Gesellschaft and the debate that has attracted; the relationship between local history, regional history and general history; the Ottonian dynasty, the pragmatic use of writing and the symbolic communication; and finally how research is organized and evalueted in Germany.

  4. Research Tips: Interview Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Dale T.

    2005-01-01

    Interviewing is a popular way of gathering qualitative research data because it is perceived as "talking," and talking is natural. This column discusses the type of interview most often used in educational evaluation: the semistructured interview. A semistructured interview means questions are predetermined, but the interviewer is free to ask for…

  5. Interview with Gianfranco Giuntoli

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntoli, G; Edwards, A.

    2011-01-01

    On Wednesday 14 December 2011, Gianfranco Giuntoli was interviewed by Andrew Edwards in his ‘drive show’ on BBC Leeds on the results of his study ‘Mental health, resilience and the recession in Bradford’ that was published in July by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

  6. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  7. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  8. Interview with Mogens Jacobsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    environments, experience time, and develop identities individually and socially. Interviews with working media artists lend further perspectives on these cultural transformations. Drawing on cultural theory, new media art studies, human-computer interaction theory, and software studies, this cutting-edge book...

  9. Interview with Jessica Utts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…

  10. Milton Friedman: "TECHNOS" Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNOS, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…

  11. Interview with Christine Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  12. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  13. Interview with Pierre Deligne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...

  14. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third...

  15. Client Verbal and Nonverbal Reinforcement of Counselor Behavior: Its Impact on Interviewing Behavior and Postinterview Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of client reinforcement on counselor behavior and on attitudinal judgments about the client. Counselor-trainees interviewed a standard client. Counselors in verbal and verbal plus nonverbal conditions showed increases in reflection of feeling statements. Differences in counselor attraction and clinical impression of the client…

  16. On the Merits of Clinical Judgment: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.; Grove, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on the article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger , which criticized academic clinical psychologists for being cynical about clinical judgment and clinical practice. In the authors' view, it seems unlikely that more than a few academic clinical psychologists believe that they have little to learn from clinical practice or…

  17. Comment: Effects of Experience on Judgment Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James W.

    2009-01-01

    However intuitively appealing the notion is that therapists learn from clinical experience (presumably both successes and failures), whether clinical judgment actually is enhanced by experience remains a matter on which there continues to be disagreement. The author discusses the meta-analysis of P.M. Spengler et al. that demonstrates a supportive…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  19. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Sherrill

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder, the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect, which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality. In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  20. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  1. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920...

  2. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  3. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section...

  4. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48 maj

  5. Apprentices' Learning of Occupationally Informed Practical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Learning to become trade workers requires developing the ability to make practical workplace-based judgments, often centred around difficult to articulate trade "know-how" or tacit knowledge. Apprentices learn discipline specific ways of doing, thinking, feeling and being from experts, peers and through interactions with occupational…

  6. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  7. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  8. Judgment: The Nurse's Key to Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Examples of nurses in ancient Greek literature--Euryclea in Homer's "Odyssey," Cilissa in Aeschylus'"Oresteia," and the nurse in Euripides'"Medea"--illustrate the personal commitment in judgment and the obligation of nurses to move from doubt and opinion toward knowledge and certitude. (SK)

  9. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  10. ASL or Contact Signing: Issues of Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil; Valli, Clayton

    1991-01-01

    Reports on one aspect of an ongoing study of language contact in the American deaf community. The ultimate goal of the study is a linguistic description of contact signing and a reexamination of claims that it is a pidgin. Patterns of language use are reviewed and the role of demographic information in judgments is examined. (29 references) (GLR)

  11. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  12. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  13. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare AM Sutherland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers’ faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1,000 highly varying ‘ambient image’ face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  14. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  15. The Development of Toddlers' Moral and Conventional Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Braeges, Judith L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the development of toddlers' moral and conventional judgments and effects of language development on such judgments. Rudimentary distinctions between familiar moral, social and conventional transgressions are made during the child's third year. (Author/BB)

  16. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Investigating the Performance of Second Language Medical Students on Lengthy Clinical Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Mark R; Ling, Yu; Grabovsky, Irina

    2016-10-19

    This study evaluated the extent to which medical students with limited English-language experience are differentially impacted by the additional reading load of test items consisting of long clinical vignettes. Participants included 25,012 examinees who completed Step 2 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination®. Test items were categorized into five levels based on the number of words per item, and examinee scores at each level were evaluated as a function of English-language experience (English as a second language [ESL] status and scores on a test of English-speaking proficiency). The longest items were more difficult than the shortest items across all examinee groups, and examinees with more English-language experience scored higher than those with less experience across all five levels of word count. The effect of primary interest-the interaction of word count with English-language experience-was statistically significant, indicating that score declines for longer items were larger for examinees with less English-language experience; however, the magnitude of this interaction effect was barely detectable (η(2) = .0004, p language experience was small but worthy of continued monitoring.

  18. Using case studies and videotaped vignettes to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are an essential component of nursing and crucial to nursing practice. Case studies with videotaped vignettes were used to help facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses. Results revealed a statistically significant increase (p = .041) on the overall Health Sciences Reasoning Test score. It is essential for educators to be aware of educational strategies that can affect the development of critical thinking skills.

  19. Silence that can be dangerous: a vignette study to assess healthcare professionals' likelihood of speaking up about safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L B Schwappach

    Full Text Available To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns.1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers' errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate. Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder's evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics.Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%-96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%-81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%-94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%-92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up.Clinicians' willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns.

  20. Silence That Can Be Dangerous: A Vignette Study to Assess Healthcare Professionals’ Likelihood of Speaking up about Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L. B.; Gehring, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the likelihood of speaking up about patient safety in oncology and to clarify the effect of clinical and situational context factors on the likelihood of voicing concerns. Patients and Methods 1013 nurses and doctors in oncology rated four clinical vignettes describing coworkers’ errors and rule violations in a self-administered factorial survey (65% response rate). Multiple regression analysis was used to model the likelihood of speaking up as outcome of vignette attributes, responder’s evaluations of the situation and personal characteristics. Results Respondents reported a high likelihood of speaking up about patient safety but the variation between and within types of errors and rule violations was substantial. Staff without managerial function provided significantly higher levels of decision difficulty and discomfort to speak up. Based on the information presented in the vignettes, 74%−96% would speak up towards a supervisor failing to check a prescription, 45%−81% would point a coworker to a missed hand disinfection, 82%−94% would speak up towards nurses who violate a safety rule in medication preparation, and 59%−92% would question a doctor violating a safety rule in lumbar puncture. Several vignette attributes predicted the likelihood of speaking up. Perceived potential harm, anticipated discomfort, and decision difficulty were significant predictors of the likelihood of speaking up. Conclusions Clinicians’ willingness to speak up about patient safety is considerably affected by contextual factors. Physicians and nurses without managerial function report substantial discomfort with speaking up. Oncology departments should provide staff with clear guidance and trainings on when and how to voice safety concerns. PMID:25116338

  1. Creativity in ethnographic interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....

  2. Amalia Ballarino s interview

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Interview to Amalia Ballarino (CERN, TE) on the development of new electric power cables based on the superconducting material magnesium diboride (MgB2) for the Hi-Lumi LHC and for the transport of electricity from clean power plants . The development was carried out in collaboration with a team led by prof. Carlo Rubbia at the IASS (Institute for Advanced Sustainable Studies), Potsdam, Germany.

  3. Creativity in ethnographic interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....

  4. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  5. Can students' reasons for choosing set answers to ethical vignettes be reliably rated? Development and testing of a method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John; Schwartz, Lisa; McConnachie, Alex; Jolly, Brian; Morrison, Jillian

    2004-12-01

    Although ethics is an important part of modern curricula, measures of students' ethical disposition have not been easy to develop. A potential method is to assess students' written justifications for selecting one option from a preset range of answers to vignettes and compare these justifications with predetermined 'expert' consensus. We describe the development of and reliability estimation for such a method -- the Ethics in Health Care Instrument (EHCI). Seven raters classified the responses of ten subjects to nine vignettes, on two occasions. The first stage of analysis involved raters' judging how consistent with consensus were subjects' justifications using generalizability theory, and then rating consensus responses on the action justification and values recognition hierarchies. The inter-rater reliability was 0.39 for the initial rating. Differential performance on questions was identified as the largest source of variance. Hence reliability was investigated also for students' total scores over the nine consensus vignettes. Rater effects were the largest source of variance identified. Examination of rater performance showed lack of rater consistency. D-studies were performed which showed acceptable reliability could nevertheless be obtained using four raters per EHCI. This study suggests that the EHCI has potential as an assessment instrument although further testing is required of all components of the methodology.

  6. Clinical Judgment Accuracy: From Meta-Analysis to Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R.; Shaw-Ridley, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Clinical judgment is foundational to psychological practice. Accurate judgment forms the basis for establishing reasonable goals and selecting appropriate treatments, which in turn are essential in achieving positive therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, Spengler and colleagues' meta-analytic finding--clinical judgment accuracy improves marginally with…

  7. Affection for Patients as a Factor in Therapists' Outcome Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility of separating psychotherapists' judgments of treatment outcome from their affective reactions to their patients. If therapists' judgments of symptom remission cannot be utilized independently of their affection for their patients, this would present reason to doubt the utility of such judgments despite their current…

  8. The Appropriateness of Confidence Ratings in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed studies in which clinicians made judgments and then rated the degree of confidence that they had in each of their judgments. Results reveal little support for the hypothesis that clinicians are overconfident. Confidence ratings were related positively to the validity of judgments in a number of studies. Experienced clinicians made more…

  9. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  10. Using vignettes to tap into moral reasoning in public health policy: practical advice and design principles from a study on food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Taylor, Emily; Hoang, Sylvia; Cook, Brian

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a process for designing and applying vignettes in public health policy research and practice. We developed this methodology for a study on moral reasoning underpinning policy debate on food advertising to children. Using vignettes prompted policy actors who were relatively entrenched in particular ways of speaking professionally about a controversial and ethically challenging issue to converse in a more authentic and reflective way. Vignettes hold benefits and complexities. They can focus attention on moral conflicts, draw out different types of evidence to support moral reasoning, and enable simultaneous consideration of real and ideal worlds. We suggest a process and recommendations on design features for crafting vignettes for public health policy.

  11. "No One Should Destroy the Forest": Using Photo-Based Vignette Interviews to Understand Kenyan Teachers' Views of the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens.…

  12. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change Through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to overcome them. This study is based on prior research reported in the literature which has found that a curricular framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect (ECRR) is important for changing student conceptions (McDermott, 2001). This framework includes four essential parts such that during an instructional event student conceptions should be elicited, incorrect conceptions confronted, these conflicts resolved, and then students should be prompted to reflect on their learning. Twenty-two undergraduate student participants who completed either or both IVVs were studied to determine whether or not they experienced components of the ECRR framework at multiple points within the IVVs. A fully integrated, mixed methods design was used to address the study purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected iteratively for each participant. Successive data collections were informed by previous data collections. All data were analyzed concurrently. The quantitative strand included a pre/post test that participants took before and after completing a given IVV and was used to measure the effect of each IVV on learning. The qualitative strand included video of each participant completing the IVV as well as an audio-recorded video elicitation interview after the post-test. The qualitative data collection was designed to describe student experiences with each IVV as well as to observe how the ECRR framework was experienced. Collecting and analyzing data using this mixed methods approach helped develop a more complete understanding of how student conceptions of Newtons Second and Third Laws changed through completion of

  13. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  14. Intersubjectivity in video interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouk, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The concept of relationship has rapidly evolved over the past few years, since the emergence of the internet network and the development of remote communication and exchanges. The emergence of cyberculture with the development of the internet has led to a new representation of the social link, in which communication never stops. In this context, computer mediated intersubjective relationships represent a main line of thinking and research. Thus, can we consider for example that relationship is only composed of an informational exchange? Would there be other dimensions possibly missing in computer mediated relationships? In this case, how could we re-introduce these aspects, "re-humanize" the remote relationships? New practices in psychology emerge with the ICT usage, both in the fields of research and for therapeutic purposes. Some fields like medicine already use remote health platforms that have proven useful in certain situations. In the field of remote clinical psychology, different media are used that contribute to the framework definition of the remote clinical interview, where the concept of relation holds a central place. Videoconference enables the introduction of an important element from the point of view of sensoriality: the body image, which engages the subjects' interaction in a different way than in a written or verbal exchange. But is the use of videoconference sufficient to establish a clinical framework comparable to the traditional one? How can the computer-mediated relationship enable and establish a potential object relation, rather than a mirrored one? Thinking through an online adaptation of the clinical interview framework led to the elaboration of a specific tool dedicated to this purpose and to research into the access to intersubjectivity in clinical video interview. This study's encouraging results have fostered the pursuit of this experience in the form of a platform dedicated to the conduction of clinical interviews through

  15. Interview: Dale Whittaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Sliker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interview with A. Dale Whittaker, professor in Purdue's College of Agriculture and vice provost for undergraduate academic affairs. At Purdue, he leads undergraduate education, admissions, enrollment management, academic planning, program evaluation, and general academic policy development and implementation. Dr. Whittaker has been involved in numerous college- and university-wide committees. He has worked with the state and other state-supported universities to develop courses that introduce college-bound students to the science of agriculture. And he has collaborated with Ivy Tech, Vincennes University and the Commission for Higher Education to develop associate programs in agriculture that transfer to Purdue or meet work force needs.

  16. Interview: Joseph Agassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Agassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.

  17. The influence of group discussion on performance judgments: rating accuracy, contrast effects, and halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jerry K; Loveland, James M

    2008-03-01

    The authors investigated the effect of group discussion, such as may occur formally in panel interview scenarios, assessment centers, or 360-degree feedback situations, on judgments of performance. Research on group polarization suggests that the effect of group discussion combined with raters' preexisting impressions of ratees or interviewees should result in an extremitization of impressions. Thus, the authors hypothesized that group discussion would (a) make ratings less accurate, (b) polarize impressions that were already good or poor as reflected by greater contrast effects, and (c) increase positive halo. Results indicated that group discussion resulted in less accurate ratings and greater contrast effects. Additional analyses suggested that group discussion increased positive halo. The authors discuss implications for research on group or panel judgments.

  18. The brain's specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, T; Zeki, S

    2013-05-01

    We recorded brain activity when 21 subjects judged the beauty (aesthetic or affective judgment) and brightness (perceptual or cognitive judgment) of simultaneously presented paintings. Aesthetic judgments engaged medial and lateral subdivisions of the orbitofrontal cortex as well as subcortical stations associated with affective motor planning (globus pallidus, putamen-claustrum, amygdala, and cerebellar vermis), whereas the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, as well as the anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were engaged by both kinds of judgment. The results lead us to conclude: (i) that there is a functional specialization for judgment, with aesthetic judgments engaging distinct systems, in addition to those that they share with perceptual judgments; (ii) that the systems engaged by affective judgments are those in which activity correlates with polar experiences (e.g. love-hate, beauty-ugliness, and attraction-repulsion); and (iii) that there is also a functional specialization in the motor pathways, with aesthetic judgments engaging motor systems not engaged by perceptual judgments, in addition to those engaged by both kinds of judgment.

  19. Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M Sprenger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas, Dougherty, Sprenger, & Harbison, 2008 that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later probability judgment made under full attention. The effect of divided attention at encoding on judgment was completely mediated by the number of hypotheses participants generated, indicating that limitations in both encoding and recall can cascade into biases in judgments.

  20. Differential diagnosis and the suspension of judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ashley Graham

    2013-10-01

    In this paper I argue that ethics and evidence are intricately intertwined within the clinical practice of differential diagnosis. Too often, when a disease is difficult to diagnose, a physician will dismiss it as being "not real" or "all in the patient's head." This is both an ethical and an evidential problem. In the paper my aim is two-fold. First, via the examination of two case studies (late-stage Lyme disease and Addison's disease), I try to elucidate why this kind of dismissal takes place. Then, I propose a potential solution to the problem. I argue that instead of dismissing a patient's illness as "not real," physicians ought to exercise a compassionate suspension of judgment when a diagnosis cannot be immediately made. I argue that suspending judgment has methodological, epistemic, and ethical virtues and therefore should always be preferred to patient dismissal in the clinical setting.

  1. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  2. Judgments of culpability in a filicide scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Miller-Stratton, Heather; Heinrich, Emily; Fritz, Stacey; Smith, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that potential jurors are likely to use personal biases, such as those based on gender and ethnicity, in their judgments of culpability of criminal defendants in addition to, or instead of, the facts of the crime. The present paper seeks to extend this literature to the crime of filicide; to examine whether male defendants are judged more harshly than female defendants, as is the case for domestic violence and sexual abuse. 214 participants were provided with a scenario of filicide in which the gender of the perpetrator, the gender of the child, and the family's social class were randomly assigned. Participants were asked to rate the culpability of the defendant in the case. Results indicated that, unlike for other violent crimes, participants did not use gender or social class biases in their judgments of criminal culpability.

  3. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.

  4. Interview with Karol Modzelewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Guglielmotti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .

  5. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...

  6. Judgmental forecasting from graphs and from experience

    OpenAIRE

    Theochari, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of forecasting suggests that judgmental forecasts are typically subject to a number of biases. These biases may be related to the statistical characteristics of the data series, or to the characteristics of the forecasting task. Here, a number of understudied forecasting paradigms have been investigated and these revealed interesting ways of improving forecasting performance. In a series of experiments, by controlling parameters such as the horizon and direction of the f...

  7. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Michael H Connors; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  8. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Connors, Michael H.; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  9. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  10. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Lauren E Rowley; Unity T Amoaku; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Andrew W Young

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  11. Interview: Drew Feustel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Sliker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Andrew J. (Drew Feustel, Purdue alum, geophysicist and NASA astronaut. Dr. Feustel's first spaceflight in May 2009 (STS-125 repaired the Hubble Space Telescope. His second spaceflight in May 2011 (STS-134 was the penultimate journey of the Space Shuttle program. At Purdue University, Feustel served as a Residence Hall Counselor for two years at Cary Quadrangle and he was a Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. His MS thesis investigated physical property measurements of rock specimens under elevated hydrostatic pressures simulating Earth’s deep crustal environments. While at Purdue, Feustel served for three years as Grand Prix Chairman and team Kart driver for Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity.

  12. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2010-01-01

    -subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......As virtual worlds become increasingly utilized for purposes of entertainment, information and retail, how people understand, think, feel, act and make decisions about them likewise become important research considerations.  This essay reports on the methodology and methods used to study these sense......-making processes in relatively inexperienced people as they engage with virtual worlds.  In order to understand the sense-making of virtual worlds, a method to record the interpretive process, as well as physical actions, was required.  In order to understand the sense-making processes involved in new experiences...

  13. Interview with Clive Phillpot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maroto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clive Phillpot is an English curator, writer, and librarian. Between 1977 and 1994 he was the Director of the Library at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA in New York, where he founded and curated the Artist Book´s Collection. Previously, he was the librarian at the Chelsea School of Art in London. He has written and edited numerous articles and books on the topic of the artist’s book, whose concept he decisively contributed to define. In the 1960s and 1970s the artist’s book emerged as an accessible art medium by being cheap, portable, and mass distributed. In this interview I try to learn whether those expectations have survived, updated and transformed in the contemporary phenomenon of the artist’s novel.

  14. Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Charles M; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2005-12-01

    In seems there are two dimensions that underlie most judgments of traits, people, groups, and cultures. Although the definitions vary, the first makes reference to attributes such as competence, agency, and individualism, and the second to warmth, communality, and collectivism. But the relationship between the two dimensions seems unclear. In trait and person judgment, they are often positively related; in group and cultural stereotypes, they are often negatively related. The authors report 4 studies that examine the dynamic relationship between these two dimensions, experimentally manipulating the location of a target of judgment on one and examining the consequences for the other. In general, the authors' data suggest a negative dynamic relationship between the two, moderated by factors the impact of which they explore.

  15. Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia – testing assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhivinayak Hirve

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH. Objective: This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE and response consistency (RC that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design: We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results: There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India. Conclusion: We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa.

  16. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  17. Neural correlates of explicit social judgments on vocal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Lukas; Bzdok, Danilo; Müller, Veronika I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging research on the neural basis of social evaluation has traditionally focused on face perception paradigms. Thus, little is known about the neurobiology of social evaluation processes based on auditory cues, such as voices. To investigate the top-down effects of social trait judgments on voices, hemodynamic responses of 44 healthy participants were measured during social trait (trustworthiness [TR] and attractiveness [AT]), emotional (happiness, HA), and cognitive (age, AG) voice judgments. Relative to HA and AG judgments, TR and AT judgments both engaged the bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC; area PGa) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) extending into the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. This dmPFC activation overlapped with previously reported areas specifically involved in social judgments on 'faces.' Moreover, social trait judgments were expected to share neural correlates with emotional HA and cognitive AG judgments. Comparison of effects pertaining to social, social-emotional, and social-cognitive appraisal processes revealed a dissociation of the left IPC into 3 functional subregions assigned to distinct cytoarchitectonic subdivisions. In total, the dmPFC is proposed to assume a central role in social attribution processes across sensory qualities. In social judgments on voices, IPC activity shifts from rostral processing of more emotional judgment facets to caudal processing of more cognitive judgment facets.

  18. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  19. news interview talk: Organisational properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language practices that govern the organisation of news interview talk ..... second principle - that of recipient design - stipulates that a descriptive item must be ..... design language activities for South African business-news interviewer trainees.

  20. Planning for the Job Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Offers advice from middle school educators (a principal, a supervisor, and a teacher) on job interviews for teaching positions: how applicants are selected from the stack of applications, what happens during an interview, and what truly makes a difference. (SR)

  1. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  2. Using Standardized Case Vignettes to Evaluate Nursing Home Staff Recognition of Delirium and Delirium Superimposed on Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Hill, Nikki L.; Yevchak, Andrea; DiMeglio, Brittney; Mulhall, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe nursing home staff knowledge regarding delirium detection and the most common causes of delirium. Specific aims that guided this study include identifying the rate of nurse recognition of delirium and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD), including different motoric subtypes of delirium, using standardized case vignettes, and exploring what nursing home staff describe as the potential causes of delirium. The study showed overall poor recognition of delirium and DSD, which did not improve over time. Interventions have the potential to increase the early detection of delirium and DSD by the staff and warrant development. PMID:25400513

  3. Interview with Peter Jenni

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Newsletter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter.   Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...

  4. The James Baldwin Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Bobia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From Rosa Bobia’s The Critical Reception of James Baldwin in France (Peter Lang, 1998; and a special note of thanks to editor Stephen Mazur, Reprise reprints Bobia’s 1985 interview with Baldwin in Atlanta, shortly before his death in France in 1987. Here, as Bobia and Baldwin enter into a brief discussion of his perception of how he was received in France in the 1950s, Baldwin seems to embrace the fact that he was at that time in France largely unknown, an outsider: “I was a maverick.” In light of the fact that in his later years Baldwin came to speak French with great ease and to live comfortably in his home in France, it may seem surprising that his tone in these pages seems to suggest a hint of disinterest in how French critics perceived him—or perhaps it is simply indicative of his deeper affiliations, just as his final burial in the US seems to indicate.

  5. Interview with Benjamin Halligan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bergamin Conter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Halligan is Director of the Graduate Programme for the School of Media, Music and Performance at the University of Salford. His publications include Michael Reeves (Manchester University Press, 2003, Mark E. Smith and The Fall: Art, Music and Politics (Ashgate, 2010; co-edited with Michael Goddard, The Music Documentary: Acid Rock to Electropop (Routledge, 2013, co-edited with Rob Edgar and Kirsty Fairclough-Isaacs. He has published on disco music music and and science fiction, The Sarajevo Documentary School, Dušan Makavejev, Frank Zappa, Andrei Tarkovsky and the British Royal Family. Resonances: Noise and Contemporary Music, co-edited with Michael Goddard and Nicola Spelman, has been published by Bloomsbury in 2013, and is the companion volume to Reverberations: The Philsophy, Aesthetics and Politics of Noise (Continuum, 2013; co-edited with Michael Goddard and Paul Hegarty. The following interview occurred at The Cornerhouse, in the city of Manchester, England, in june 2013. Benjamin speaks about topics related to the two books he recently organized with co-workers at the University of Salford, Reverberations: the philosophy, aesthetics and politics of noise, and Resonances: noise and contemporary music.

  6. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, David C; Brooks, Logan C; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Burke, Donald S; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based "Epicast" forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  7. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  8. Exploring Clinical Reasoning Strategies and Test-Taking Behaviors During Clinical Vignette Style Multiple-Choice Examinations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Brian Sanjay; Gonzalo, Jed David; Durning, Steven; Torre, Dario; Elnicki, David Michael

    2014-12-01

    Clinical vignette multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are widely used in medical education, but clinical reasoning (CR) strategies employed when approaching these questions have not been well described. The aims of the study were (1) to identify CR strategies and test-taking (TT) behaviors of physician trainees while solving clinical vignette MCQs; and (2) to examine the relationships between CR strategies and behaviors, and performance on a high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examination. Thirteen postgraduate year-1 level trainees completed 6 clinical vignette MCQs using a think-aloud protocol. Thematic analysis employing elements of grounded theory was performed on data transcriptions to identify CR strategies and TT behaviors. Participants' CR strategies and TT behaviors were then compared with their US Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge scores. Twelve CR strategies and TT behaviors were identified. Individuals with low performance on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased premature closure and increased faulty knowledge, and showed comparatively less ruling out of alternatives or admission of knowledge deficits. High performers on Step 2 Clinical Knowledge demonstrated increased ruling out of alternatives and admission of knowledge deficits, and less premature closure, faulty knowledge, or closure prior to reading the alternatives. Different patterns of CR strategies and TT behaviors may be used by high and low performers during high-stakes clinical vignette MCQ examinations.

  9. "Wha'd She Think?"--A Comparison of the Role Perspectives, Evaluative Judgment Criteria Cognitive Maps, & Written Records of Three University Student Teacher Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joanne M.

    Case study methodology using structured interviewing and cognitive mapping techniques has been used to reveal the contrasting role perspectives and evaluative judgment criteria of three university student teacher supervisors with different professional backgrounds. This study extends an earlier investigation by comparing these role perspectives…

  10. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH OVER THE PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT OF THE FINANCIAL ANALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela ŞTEFAN-DUICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional judgment is emblematical at a decisional level. This paper aims to highlight the valences of the professional judgment of the financial analyst by describing the components of its activity and also through highlighting the typologies of the mechanisms involved. Within this paper we have presented the types of financial analysts, the responsibilities that guide the professional judgment and also the interdependent elements of their activity.

  11. Application of a Judgment Model toward Measurement of Clinical Judgment in Senior Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongmarutai, Tiwaporn

    2010-01-01

    Clinical judgment, defined as "the application of the nurse's knowledge and experience in making decisions about client care" (The National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005, p. 2), has been recognized as a vital and essential skill for healthcare providers when caring for clients. Undisputedly, nurses represent the largest…

  12. Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2009). Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Paper presented at the International Center for Learning, Education and Performance Systems (ICLEPS). Talahassee, Florida: Florida State Univer

  13. Electrophysiological difference between the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Liang, Xiuling; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Causally related concepts like "virus" and "epidemic" and general associatively related concepts like "ring" and "emerald" are represented and accessed separately. The Evoked Response Potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory. Participants were required to remember a task cue (causal or associative) presented at the beginning of each trial, and assess whether the relationship between subsequently presented words matched the initial task cue. The ERP data showed that an N400 effect (250-450 ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, the N400 effect elicited by causal relations was more positive than for associative relations in causal cue condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the associative cue condition. The centrally distributed late ERP component (650-750 ms) elicited by the causal cue condition was more positive than for the associative cue condition. These results suggested that the processing of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory recruited different degrees of attentional and executive resources.

  14. Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Van den Bosch, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009). Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Poster presented at the international conference on cognitive load theory. March, 2-4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. [Post

  15. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of ‘emotional’ responses to technological risk as opposed to their own ‘rational’ judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias (e.g. Slovic et. al. 2004), and with the Kantian view of emoti

  16. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of ‘emotional’ responses to technological risk as opposed to their own ‘rational’ judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias (e.g. Slovic et. al. 2004), and with the Kantian view of emoti

  17. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  18. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  19. Predictors of mental illness stigma and attitudes among college students: using vignettes from a campus common reading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Prager, Laura S; Moylan, Lois B; Smith, Kathleen Maurer; Cullinan, Meritta

    2014-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that stigmatizing mentally ill individuals is prevalent and often results in lack of adherence to or avoidance of treatment. The present study sought to examine attitudes of college students regarding mental illness as part of a campus-wide "common readings" program. The book selected was a non-fiction account of a young girl with mental illness and the program was developed to initiate dialogue about young people with mental problems. Faculty from multiple disciplines collaborated on the project. A sample of 309 students completed a web-based survey after reading a vignette about an adolescent girl with mental illness. The vignette description was based on a character in the book selected in the program. The instruments measured attribution of stigma, social distance, and familiarity with people who have mental illness. Results demonstrated that younger students and those who are less familiar with mental illness were more likely to stigmatize and maintain social distance from those who are mentally ill. Awareness of the study findings can assist health professionals and mental health workers to identify interventions that can decrease stigma. Psychiatric mental health nurses are well positioned to lead the education effort aimed at reducing stigmatizing attitudes among the public.

  20. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  1. Psychometric properties of virtual reality vignette performance measures: a novel approach for assessing adolescents' social competency skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J; Fishbein, Diana H; Hubal, Robert C; Eldreth, Diana

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents. Performance data were collected from 117 African-American male 15-17 year olds. Data for 18 performance measures were obtained, based on adolescents' interaction with a provocative virtual teenage character. Twelve of the 18 performance measures loaded on two factors corresponding to emotional control and interpersonal communication skills, providing support for their factorial validity. The internal reliability coefficients for the two multi-item measures were 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. Additional analyses with established measures of three psychosocial factors (beliefs supporting aggression, aggressive conflict-resolution style and hostility) and behavioral criteria (e.g., self-reported behavioral misconduct and drug use) provided limited support for the construct and criterion-related validity of the performance measures. Study findings suggest that the virtual reality vignette exercises may represent a promising approach for assessing adolescents' social competency skills.

  2. Vignette methodology and culture-relevance: lessons learned through a project on successful aging with Iranian immigrants to Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    It is a well-known fact that cultural values play an important role in the construction of aging and old-age related understandings. This is why ethnogerontologists have tried to expand the gerontological imagination by arguing that research needs to become more culturally-relevant. Tapping into the values that people uphold and the understandings of aging that are shaped by them is a challenging endeavor. This is especially the case if one does not share the cultural background of the people whose values one is studying. The same holds true when one wants to shed light on understandings that mainstream social gerontology regards as deviations from the norm. It is after all relatively easy to "impose the Western template" under such circumstances. Vignette methodology has been found to be particularly useful when studying value-laden understandings. This is why it is an appropriate method to consider when designing research that aims to avoid the imposition of the Western template. This article focuses on the pros and cons of this methodology while discussing some of the lessons learned from a project that explored how the construct of successful aging is understood by a group of Iranian immigrants to Sweden. It will be argued that vignettes are particularly useful when trying to shed culturally-relevant light on aging and old age-related understandings.

  3. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  4. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Langdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure required participants to judge whether various social behaviors were normal or reasonable in the context in which the behaviors occurred. Whereas patients demonstrated clear deficits in theory-of-mind, they performed similarly to controls when judging socially appropriate behaviors and violations of social norms. Patients, however, were less likely than controls to judge social behavior as reasonable when the behavior was impolite but understandable if the characters’ thoughts were taken into account. This latter difficulty correlated with patients’ performance deficits on the theory-of-mind tasks. Overall, findings suggest that basic social knowledge is intact in schizophrenia, though judgments of social behavior are affected by patients’ theory-of-mind deficits.

  5. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of musical backgrounds were asked to compare 2 recordings of the same composition (15 pairs, grouped in 3 musical genres), 1 of which was tempo-transformed (manipulating the expressive timing). The results show that expressive timing judgments are not so much influenced by expertise levels, as is suggested by the expertise hypothesis, but by exposure to a certain musical idiom, as is suggested by the exposure hypothesis. As such, the current study provides evidence for the idea that some musical capabilities are acquired through mere exposure to music, and that these abilities are more likely enhanced by active listening (exposure) than by formal musical training (expertise).

  6. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  7. Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Anzures

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cultural differences in socialization can lead to characteristic differences in how we perceive the world. Consistent with this influence of differential experience, our perception of faces (e.g., preference, recognition ability is shaped by our previous experience with different groups of individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examined whether cultural differences in social practices influence our perception of faces. Japanese, Chinese, and Asian-Canadian young adults made relative age judgments (i.e., which of these two faces is older? for East Asian faces. Cross-cultural differences in the emphasis on respect for older individuals was reflected in participants' latency in facial age judgments for middle-age adult faces--with the Japanese young adults performing the fastest, followed by the Chinese, then the Asian-Canadians. In addition, consistent with the differential behavioural and linguistic markers used in the Japanese culture when interacting with individuals younger than oneself, only the Japanese young adults showed an advantage in judging the relative age of children's faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that different sociocultural practices shape our efficiency in processing facial age information. The impact of culture may potentially calibrate other aspects of face processing.

  8. Phenomenology of consciousness from apprehension to judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, F Tito

    2011-07-01

    We explore two different moments of human cognition, namely apprehension (A), whereby a coherent perception emerges by recruitment of large neuron groups and judgment (B), whereby memory retrieval of different (A) units coded in a suitable language and comparison of them leads to the formulation of a judgment. The first one has a duration around 1 sec (from 0.5 to 3 sec), it appears as an a-temporal present and its neural correlate is a wide synchronization in the EEG gamma band. It may be described as an interpretation of sensorial stimuli in terms of some stored algorithm, via a Bayes procedure. The second one entails the comparison of two apprehensions acquired at different times, coded in a given language, and retrieved by memory. It lasts around 3 sec and requires self-consciousness, as the judging agent must be well aware that he/she is the same one who faces the two coded apprehensions under scrutiny in order to extract a mutual relation. At variance with (A), (B) does not presuppose an algorithm, but it rather builds a new behavioural model by an inverse Bayes procedure. It will be shown how this build up of a novel model is related to creativity and free will.

  9. Olympic Medals as Fruits of Comparison? Assimilation and Contrast in Sequential Performance Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas; Plessner, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the evaluative consequences of sequential performance judgments. Recent social comparison research has suggested that performance judgments may be influenced by judgments about a preceding performance. Specifically, performance judgments may be assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on…

  10. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    Interviewing. Second Edition. London. SAGE.Miller, W.R. & Rollnick, S. (1995). What is Motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(4), 325-34.Miller, W.R. & Rose, G.S. (2009). Toward a Theory of Motivational interviewing. American Psychologist, 64(6), 527-537. Morrison-Sandberg, L......Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...

  11. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  12. Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating Web pages in a learning style perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Chariste; Zijlema, Annemarie F.; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study of searcher's relevance criteria used for assessments of Web pages in a perspective of learning style. 15 test persons participated in the experiments based on two simulated work tasks that provided cover stories to trigger their information needs. Two...... learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior. Findings reveal that with respect to use......, they are statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria....

  13. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  14. Mediational Inferences in the Process of Counselor Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Replicates research on the process of moving from observations to clinical judgments. Counselors (N=20) made status inferences, attributional inferences, and diagnostic classification of clients based on case folders. Results suggest the clinical judgment process was stagewise mediated, and attributional inferences had little direct impact on…

  15. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth…

  16. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth semesters…

  17. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  18. Text cohesion and metacomprehension: immediate and delayed judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, N; Lories, G

    2004-12-01

    In three experiments, we examined comprehension judgments made after a piece of text had been read. We propose that such metacognitive judgments are based on the content of working memory at the exact moment of assessment. Generally speaking, this working metacognition hypothesis is in agreement with Koriat's cue utilization approach, which implies that different elements of information will be available (and used) depending on the moment at which a judgment is made. More specifically, our hypothesis focuses on the management of working memory during reading as a cause for cue (un)availability. In support of these views, the results of Experiment 1 showed that a cohesion manipulation affecting the comprehension of specific paragraphs influences judgments only on these paragraphs, and not on judgments on the whole text. In Experiment 2, we showed that an interfering task that takes place just before this paragraph judgment is made wipes out this cohesion effect. Experiment 3 showed, on the other hand, that the whole-text judgment may, nevertheless, be affected by text cohesion, provided that the readers keep an access to the text when the judgment is made. These results support the idea that working memory management makes different cues available for metacognitive ratings at different delays.

  19. Judgments of Vocal Affect by Language-Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Sybil

    1983-01-01

    The judgment of vocal affect was studied in 19 language delayed children and 19 children with normal language. The children identified utterances spoken in an angry, happy, or sad tone of voice. The language delayed children made significantly fewer correct judgments. (Author/SEW)

  20. The modular neuroarchitecture of social judgments on faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Turetsky, Bruce I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-04-01

    Face-derived information on trustworthiness and attractiveness crucially influences social interaction. It is, however, unclear to what degree the functional neuroanatomy of these complex social judgments on faces reflects genuine social versus basic emotional and cognitive processing. To disentangle social from nonsocial contributions, we assessed commonalities and differences between the functional networks activated by judging social (trustworthiness, attractiveness), emotional (happiness), and cognitive (age) facial traits. Relative to happiness and age evaluations, both trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments selectively activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, forming a core social cognition network. Moreover, they also elicited a higher amygdalar response than even the emotional control condition. Both social judgments differed, however, in their top-down modulation of face-sensitive regions: trustworthiness judgments recruited the posterior superior temporal sulcus, whereas attractiveness judgments recruited the fusiform gyrus. Social and emotional judgments converged and, therefore, likely interact in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Social and age judgments, on the other hand, commonly engaged the anterior insula, inferior parietal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which appear to subserve more cognitive aspects in social evaluation. These findings demonstrate the modularity of social judgments on human faces by separating the neural correlates of social, face-specific, emotional, and cognitive processing facets.

  1. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  2. Leadership Styles and Moral Judgment Competence of Community College Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Cheryl; Miller, Brian; Sypawka, William; Clay, Maria; Hoover-Plonk, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the convergence of leadership styles and moral judgment competence of community college personnel participating in a leadership institute using the Leadership Orientation Instrument (Bolman & Deal, 1984) and the Moral Judgment Test (Lind, 1978). Results indicated that the human resource and structural frames were the…

  3. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  4. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  5. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  6. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  7. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others' behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  8. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment...

  9. Air Target Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Threat-Judgment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童幼堂; 王建明

    2003-01-01

    Threat-judgment is a complicated fuzzy inference problem. Up to now no relevant unified theory and measuring standard have been developed. It is very difficult to establish a threat-judgment model with high reliability in the air defense system for the naval warships. Air target threat level judgment is an important component in naval warship combat command decision-making systems. According to the threat level judgment of air targets during the air defense of single naval warship, a fuzzy pattern recognition model for judging the threat from air targets is established. Then an algorithm for identifying the parameters in the model is presented. The model has an adaptive feature and can dynamically update its parameters according to the state change of the attacking targets and the environment. The method presented here can be used for the air defense system threat judgment in the naval warships.

  10. Systematic Underreproduction of Time Is Independent of Judgment Certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riemer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed that systematic underreproduction of time is caused by a general judgment bias towards earlier responses, instead of reflecting a genuine misperception of temporal intervals. Here we tested whether this bias can be explained by the uncertainty associated with temporal judgments. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to inhibit neuronal processes in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC and tested its effects on time discrimination and reproduction tasks. The results show increased certainty for discriminative time judgments after PPC inhibition. They suggest that the right PPC plays an inhibitory role for time perception, possibly by mediating the multisensory integration between temporal stimuli and other quantities. Importantly, this increased judgment certainty had no influence on the degree of temporal underreproduction. We conclude that the systematic underreproduction of time is not caused by uncertainty for temporal judgments.

  11. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    .... the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA...

  12. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  13. Grammaticality judgments in autism: deviance or delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-11-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the heterogeneity in language skills at younger ages, this assumption merits further investigation. Participants with autism (n=21, aged nine to seventeen years), matched on chronological age, receptive vocabulary and IQ, to 22 typically developing individuals, completed a grammaticality judgment task. Participants with autism were significantly less sensitive than controls, specifically for third person singular and present progressive marking. Performance interacted with sentence length, with lower sensitivity to errors occurring at the end of the longest stimulus sentences. Performance sensitivity was associated with onset of single word and phrase speech, and with severity of autistic symptomatology. Implications of findings are discussed.

  14. Exemplary Goods: Exemplars as Judgment Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Dekker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion of exemplars is developed to study valuation processes. It argues that exemplary goods are an important "judgment device" on markets of singular goods, which has so far been ignored in the literature. The article draws on Hannah Arendt's theory of exemplars, as well as literature from the philosophy of science and psychology to construct the new concept. Exemplars are particular goods that become focal points in markets that facilitate the mutual coordination of consumers and producers. From these exemplars norms of quality emerge which are otherwise hard or impossible to explicate. These exemplars and the norms of quality which emerge from them help shape the expectations of both producers and consumers with regard to new goods that are introduced to the market. Two illustrative cases, on classic literature and hip-hop music, are presented to demonstrate the relevance of the concept.

  15. Motivational Interviewing in Relational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to M. Stanton's comments on the current author's original article. One of the puzzles of motivational interviewing is why it works at all. How can it be that an individual interview or two yields change in a long-standing problem behavior even without any effort to alter social context? The time involved is such a tiny part of the…

  16. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN JOB INTERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    AGEEVA JULIA VICTOROVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of job interview transcripts from the perspective of dominant communicant’s (HR manager) communicative behavior. The interviewer uses various etiquette forms that facilitate a more productive dialogue and stipulate cooperative strategies and tactics in order to achieve the main goal - to determine whether the job applicant meets the requirements of the employer.

  17. An Interview with Noam Chomsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…

  18. An Interview with Noam Chomsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…

  19. Interview with Theo van Leeuwen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue features an interview with professor Theo van Leeuwen, who is known to most of our readers as one of the main contributors to the field of multimodality and social semiotics. As always, our intention with the interview is to give some further insights regarding interests and influences that form a background to his theoretical work.

  20. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  1. Aikido Politics in Interview Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…

  2. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants' effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies.

  3. A history of the American Board of Surgery: vignettes from the certifying examination: The Edgar J. Poth Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The American Board of Surgery was established in 1937 to certify surgeons who through training, experience, and examination meet the highest standards of surgical care. This lecture was given as the Edgar Poth lecture at the April 2015 meeting of the Southwestern Surgical Congress. Dr Poth was a surgical educator from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston who was President of the Southwestern in 1963. The paper presents the history of the founding of the American Board of Surgery, with particular emphasis on the certifying examination-Part 2. Vignettes of occurrences associated with the "Oral" examination are given. The examination has changed substantially from a 2-day event involving an actual surgical procedure to the 90-minute quiz given today. The oral examinations remain an important part in the process of certification of surgeons of the highest quality.

  4. Diverging illness perceptions between physicians about patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis: a vignette-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Seher; Moons, Philip; Vandenberghe, Joris; Lenaerts, Jan L; de Vlam, Kurt; Westhovens, René

    2017-02-28

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) are complex chronic auto-immune diseases characterized by multiple organ involvement, comorbidities, and complications. This complexity results in a need for a multidisciplinary management and treatment of SLE and SSc by physicians from a number of medical disciplines, all of who may have different perceptions concerning the condition of a particular patient. The aim of this study was to explore differences in physicians' perceptions on the illness of SLE and SSc patients. Physicians from nine disciplines working at three hospitals in Belgium completed illness perception questionnaires for healthcare professionals based on four patient vignettes, i.e., two vignettes per disease (SLE-SSc). Statistical analysis was carried out by a k-means clustering technique for clustering physicians according to their illness perceptions. Fifty physicians, 62% men with a mean age of 42.8 years (SD 11.3) and mean working experience of 12.7 years (SD 11.6), participated. For each disease, three clusters of physicians with different scores in illness perceptions were identified. For SLE, these clusters were specified as the 'optimistic' group, the 'realistic' group, and the 'overwhelming impact by disease' group. For SSc, the clusters were characterized as the 'optimistic' group, the 'realistic' group, and the 'skeptical' group. We found divergent illness perceptions across physicians of the same and other disciplines. Our study yielded three clusters of physicians per disease with a large variability in illness perceptions. Further studies should focus on the factors that determine these differences and their consequences for patient care.

  5. Client, needs assessor and agency-related factors predicting allocation of electric scooters to community-dwelling elderly in The Netherlands : a vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, Frederike; Borgers, Natacha; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; Jorg, Frederike

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what client factors predict allocation of an electric scooter and to determine what needs assessor and agency factors explain variation in decision-making by long-term care needs assessors concerning clients requesting electric scooters. METHOD: Hypothetical case vignettes were

  6. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Superintendent Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived ethics of the decisions superintendents make in response to a situation with a teacher that was value-laden, potentially volatile, and potentially affected by the teachers' gender or ethnicity. Superintendents (N = 123) each read one of 12 versions of a vignette depicting a sexting incident between a…

  7. Does Using a Standardised Mental Health Triage Assessment Alter Nurses Assessment of Vignettes of People Presenting with Deliberate Self-Harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tanner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Manchester Triage Scale is used in Irish emergency departments. This fails to provide guidance on triaging psychiatric presentations. A Mental Health Triage scale is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Aim. To examine the effectiveness of a Mental Health Triage scale in assessing patients presenting with self-harm. Method. Ten vignettes were created, detailing cases of deliberate self-harm. Nurses (n=49 were given five vignettes and asked to assign each vignette to a triage category, using The Manchester Triage Scale. Each nurse was subsequently asked to reevaluate the same vignettes using the Mental Health Triage Scale. Triage with each method was deemed safe or unsafe, using the benchmark triage categories assigned by a consultant in psychiatry and a consultant in emergency medicine departments. Results. 245 cases were triaged. There was a significant change in the categories assigned when the Mental Health Triage scale was in use, P<0.001. The triage categories assigned using the Mental Health Triage scale were significantly safer than under the Manchester Triage Scale (79% versus 60% safe, respectively, P<0.001.

  8. Perceived Interviewer Expertness and Attractiveness: Effects of Interviewer Behavior and Attire and Interview Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Dell, Don M.

    1976-01-01

    Students (N=80) rated the interviewers on a counselor rating form. Only counselor role behavior significantly affected students' perceptions of interviewer attractiveness, while perceptions of expertness seemed to have been affected jointly by role and attire. The relative magnitude of expertness as compared to attractiveness ratings was…

  9. Job interviews: tips and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, P G

    1997-10-01

    This paper outlines appropriate preparation for a job interview, including preparing yourself to focus on your own personal assets and on what you can bring to the job. The various kinds of interview questions are examined: the traditional- 'tell me about yourself'; questions you dread because they will home in on 'weaknesses' and the unusual, open-ended questions intended to uncover specific information. Suggestions are given on how to use the experience of an interview to your own advantage, whether your application is successful or not.

  10. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  11. The effect of chance variability in blood pressure readings on the decision making of general practitioners: an internet-based case vignette study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Mohammed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guidelines for the management of blood pressure (BP in primary care generally suggest that decisions be made on the basis of specific threshold values (e.g. BP 140/90 mmHg; but this fails to adequately accommodate a common cause of variation--the play of chance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of chance variability in BP readings on the clinical decision making of general practitioners (GPs regarding anti-hypertensive treatment and cardiovascular risk management. METHOD: We used an internet based study design, where 109 GPs were assigned to manage one of eight case vignettes (guidelines would recommend treatment for only one of the eight and presented with blood pressure readings that were randomly selected from an underlying population. RESULTS: Seventeen (15.6%, 17/109 GPs consulted the vignette for whom treatment was recommended, but only 7/17 (41.2% GPs prescribed treatment, whereas 14/92 (15.2% GPs prescribed medication to the other vignettes. When deciding to follow-up a vignette GPs were influenced by threshold values for systolic and diastolic BP, but not by the overall cardiovascular risk. If the first reading was a low BP (systolic 90 or systolic BP≥140. Similar factors predicted the decision to prescribe a drug, although the vignette's cardiovascular risk (>20% was now statistically significant (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: GP decision making, whilst generally consistent with guidelines, appears to be compromised by chance variation leading to under and over treatment. Interventions to adequately accommodate chance variability into clinical decision making are required.

  12. An Interview with Jonathan Piel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Diane J.

    1992-01-01

    This transcript of an interview with Jonathan Piel, editor of "Scientific American," discusses communication between scientists and readers; scientific research publications and the publishing industry; universities as research publishers; library budget reductions and purchasing decisions; electronic publishing; NREN (National Research…

  13. BBB Interviews Wallace D. Muhammad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Books Bulletin, 1979

    1979-01-01

    In this interview, subjects covered include: changes in Islam, the spiritual greatness of America, Muslim businesses, interracial marriage, the World Community of Islam, and opening the doors of Islam to Caucasians. (WI)

  14. Interview with Theo van Leeuwen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilaria Moschini

    2014-01-01

    This issue of LEA features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen, where – starting from the fundamental role of the Hallidayan socio-semiotic approach to language in the development of Multimodality...

  15. Interview with Martha C. Nussbaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Abbate

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here's the interview granted by Martha Nussbaum to Fabrizia Abbate about the role of preference in social dynamics. How important are aesthetic preferences in the development of moral attitudes and choices ?

  16. Interviewing College Students in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Jeffrey B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a five-step model of a crisis interview and the special considerations in working with the suicidal and assaultive student for use by college counseling professionals. Discusses the special cases of suicidal and homocidal/assaultive potential. (LLL)

  17. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  18. The case for interactive interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Christopher; Kenny, Christine

    1994-04-01

    It is reported in the Penguin Book of Interviews ( 1 ) that Marlon Brando recalled an interview with Truman Capote as follows: 'The little bastard spent half the night telling me all his problems, I figured the least I could do was tell him a few of mine.' In sharing experiences with his interviewee, Capote had managed to extract information he would otherwise not have gained.

  19. The facial width-to-height ratio shares stronger links with judgments of aggression than with judgments of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Molnar, Danielle S; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-08-01

    Variation in the facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio) is associated with judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness made by observers when viewing men's faces. Although judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness are correlated, they represent distinct constructs. We thus investigated the hypothesis that judgments of aggression share stronger associations with the face ratio than judgments of trustworthiness, and that judgments of aggression mediate the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Across 4 separate studies, involving 129 observers rating subsets of 141 photographs (original photographs of individuals who provided consent for their use) of clean-shaven (65 faces), unshaved (22 faces), or digitized male faces (54 faces; digitized faces were creating using facial modeling software), this hypothesis was supported. The correlations between the face ratio and judgments of aggression were moderate to strong in all 4 studies (rs = .45 to .70). Reaction time was measured in Study 4: Participants judged aggression faster than trustworthiness; thus, temporal precedence also supports the hypothesis that aggression mediates the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Sensitivity to the face ratio may therefore be part of a perceptual mechanism specialized to assess aggressiveness rather than trustworthiness in others, likely because of the greater necessity for rapid judgments of aggressive potential than trustworthiness.

  20. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekter...

  1. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hollesen, Laika

    2011-01-01

    Det såkaldte humboldtske universitetsideal står i frit fald. Så det burde ikke komme som nogen overraskelse, at det demokratiske fundament slår revner. Det kommer i hvert fald ikke bag på Laura Louise Sarauw fra Københavns Universitet, der i sin ph.d.-afhandling har sat stort spørgsmålstegn ved d...

  2. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  3. Transparency and Expert Judgment in Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    An example of expert panel elicitation is mentioned to give some insight in important aspects of the views of the experts, without discussion of the elicited quantity. There are a number of issues such as bias and the discussion between, and rating of, experts, which have not been discussed. It can be seen however, that the structured approach given by the subjective probabilities is an excellent point of reference for further discussion and communication between experts and lay persons. A presentation of a structured approach of the elicitation procedure in itself has potential for further confidence building and transparence in decision-making. In the field of radioactive waste management, or in the nuclear industry as a whole, formal expert judgment elicitation has been used primarily in the US and not in Europe, with a few exceptions such as work carried out at the Delft University of Technology, promoted by professor Cook and others. The author considers the technique valuable in several applications for high-level waste and hopes that the technique will be used in this area.

  4. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  5. Religiosity, Ethical Judgments and Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture is often cited as one of the powerful determinants in shaping the personality and behaviour of individuals. Religion, being an important element of culture, is seen as playing an important role in determining how people behave in certain situations. Various authors have suggested religion as an important dimension in Malaysian ethical behaviour studies especially for the Malays. Yet this construct is generally ignored or incorporated into other constructs. This study investigates the influence of religious education on the perceptions of unethical business practices among final year students in one of the local universities in Malaysia. In particular, this study examines the impact of education stream on the level of religious commitment among Malay Muslim students and how these two variables influence their ethical judgment. It was found that the level of religiosity is negative and significantly related to the level of tolerant towards unethical business practices. The findings also establish that more students from the religious education stream are found to be more religious and consequently, are less tolerance towards unethical business practices.

  6. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  8. Application of cognitive interviewing to improve self-administered questionnaires used in small scale social pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Validating questionnaires for social pharmacy research with smaller sample sizes can be unnecessarily time-consuming and costly, a solution to this is cognitive interviewing with 2 interviews per iteration. This paper shows how cognitive interviewing with pairs of interviews per iteration of the questionnaire can be used to identify overt and covert issues with comprehension, retrieval, judgment and response experienced by respondents when attempting to answer a question or navigate around the questionnaire. When used during questionnaire development in small scale social pharmacy research studies cognitive interviewing can reduce both respondent burden and response error and should result in more reliable survey results. The process of cognitive interviewing is illustrated by a case study from the development of the Perspectives on Progesterone questionnaire. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. FOREIGN JUDGMENTS PROJECT OF HAGUE CONFERENCE: FOR A GLOBAL REGIME OF INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATION OF JUDGMENTS ON CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia de Araujo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hague Conference on Private International Law is promoting the adoption of rules designed to circumvent usual obstacles to the international circulation of judgments. The Judgments Project initiated in the nineties aims at mitigating uncertainties and risks associated with the international commerce by setting forth a simple and safe system according to which foreign judgments may circulate from country to country. The purpose of this article is to preserve the historical moment of the negotiations taking place at the Hague, as well as to pinpoint some technical issues raised in the course of the project that may be of general interest to those involved in the subject of international jurisdiction.

  10. HCMR interviews physician administrator leaders. Interview by Michael J. Enright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C; Henry, R A; Kiser, W S; Mayberry, W E; Kaufman, R P

    1984-01-01

    This interview departs from HCMR's usual format, interviewing several leaders in health care administration for their ideas on current economic pressures, the impact of competition and joint ventures, attitudes toward equity and capital formation, and competition between the interest of clinical medicine and the cost of care. The physician administrators interviewed hold senior administrative positions: Charles Edwards, President and Chief Executive Officer of Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation; Robert A. Henry, President and Chief Executive Officer of Swedish-American Corporation; William S. Kiser, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Cleveland Clinic Foundation; W. Eugene Mayberry, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Mayo Clinic; and Ronald P. Kaufman, Vice-President for Medical Affairs of George Washington University Hospital. All are members of the Board of Regents or Fellows of the American College of Physician Executives.

  11. Predicting Political Elections from Rapid and Unreflective Face Judgments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles C. Ballew; Alexander Todorov

    2007-01-01

    Here we show that rapid judgments of competence based solely on the facial appearance of candidates predicted the outcomes of gubernatorial elections, the most important elections in the United States...

  12. Memory for incidentally perceived social cues: Effects on person judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawling, Ralph; Kirkham, Alexander J; Tipper, Steven P; Over, Harriet

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time. The current study demonstrates that in some circumstances changes in pupil size in another person are indeed encoded into memory and influence judgments of that individual at a later time. Furthermore, these judgments interact with the perceived trustworthiness of the individual and the nature of the social context. The effect is somewhat variable, however, possibly reflecting individual differences and the inherent ambiguity of pupil dilation/constriction. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Interpersonal orientation and the accuracy of personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne S; Colvin, C Randall

    2003-04-01

    Are those who are more invested in developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships able to provide more accurate judgments of others' personality characteristics? Previous research has produced mixed findings. In the present study, a conceptual framework was presented and methods were used that overcome many of the problems encountered in past research on judgmental accuracy. On four occasions, 102 judges watched a 12-min videotaped dyadic interaction and described the personality of a designated target person. Judges' personality characteristics were described by self, parents, and friends. Results revealed that psychological communion was positively associated with judges' accuracy in rating targets' personality characteristics. In addition, whereas women were more communal and provided more accurate judgments than men, the relationship between communion and accuracy held after controlling for the effect of gender. Finally, preliminary findings suggested that interpersonally oriented individuals may sometimes draw on information about themselves and about stereotypical others to facilitate accurate judgments of others.

  14. Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges. PMID:23593213

  15. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors...

  16. Experienced and novice officers' generalized communication suspicion and veracity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions.

  17. Belief Merging and Judgment Aggregation in Fuzzy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how judgment aggregation and belief merging in the framework of fuzzy logic can help resolve the “Doctrinal Paradox.” We also illustrate the use of fuzzy aggregation functions in social choice theory.

  18. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  19. Interviewing Suspects in Denial: On How Different Evidence Disclosure Modes Affect the Elicitation of New Critical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Lennart; Granhag, Pär Anders; Tekin, Serra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how different evidence disclosure modes affect the elicitation of new critical information. Two modes derived from the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework were compared against an early disclosure mode (i.e., the evidence was disclosed at the outset of the interview). Participants (N = 88) performed a mock crime consisting of several actions before they were interviewed as suspects. In both SUE conditions the interviewer elicited and disclosed statement-evidence inconsistencies in two phases after an introductory phase. For the SUE-Confrontation (SUE-C) condition, the interview was introduced in a business-like manner, and the interviewer confronted the suspects with the in/consistencies without giving them a chance to comment on these. For the SUE-Introduce-Present-Respond (SUE-IPR) condition, the interviewer introduced the interview in a non-guilt-presumptive way, presented the in/consistencies and allowed the suspects to comment on these, and then responded to their comments; at all times in a non-judgmental manner. Both SUE conditions generated comparatively more statement-evidence inconsistencies. The SUE-IPR condition resulted in more new critical information about the phase of the crime for which the interviewer lacked information, compared to the Early disclosure condition. A likely explanation for this was that (for the SUE-IPR condition) the interviewer used the inconsistencies to create a fostering interview atmosphere and made the suspects overestimate the interviewer's knowledge about the critical phase of the crime. In essence, this study shows that in order to win the game (i.e., obtaining new critical information), the interviewer needs to keep the suspect in the game (i.e., by not being too confrontational and judgmental). PMID:28769829

  20. Kant's Critique of Judgment and the Scientific Investigation of Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rothbart; Irmgard Scherer

    1997-01-01

    Kant's theory of judgment establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the subtle relationships between the experimental scientist, the modern instrument, and nature's atomic particles. The principle of purposiveness which governs judgment has also a role in implicitly guiding modern experimental science. In Part 1 we explore Kant's philosophy of science as he shows how knowledge of material nature and unobservable entities is possible. In Part 2 we examine the way in which Kant's t...

  1. Research Workshop on Expert Judgment, Human Error, and Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop brought together 20 computer scientists, psychologists, and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to exchange results and views on human error and judgment bias. Human error is typically studied when operators undertake actions, but judgment bias is an issue in thinking rather than acting. Both topics are generally ignored by the HCI community, which is interested in designs that eliminate human error and bias tendencies. As a result, almost no one at the workshop had met...

  2. Supporting patients treated for prostate cancer: a video vignette study with an email-based educational program in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwa, Moyez; Halkett, Georgia; Meng, Xingqiong; Pillai, Vinita; Berg, Melissa; Shaw, Tim

    2014-02-26

    Men who have been treated for prostate cancer in Australia can consult their general practitioner (GP) for advice about symptoms or side effects at any time following treatment. However, there is no evidence that such men are consistently advised by GPs and patients experience substantial unmet need for reassurance and advice. The intent of the study was to evaluate a brief, email-based educational program for GPs to manage standardized patients presenting with symptoms or side effects months or years after prostate cancer treatment. GPs viewed six pairs of video vignettes of actor-patients depicting men who had been treated for prostate cancer. The actor-patients presented problems that were attributable to the treatment of cancer. In Phase 1, GPs indicated their diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. These responses were compared to the management decisions for those vignettes as recommended by a team of experts in prostate cancer. After Phase 1, all the GPs were invited to participate in an email-based education program (Spaced Education) focused on prostate cancer. Participants received feedback and could compare their progress and their performance with other participants in the study. In Phase 2, all GPs, regardless of whether they had completed the program, were invited to view another set of six video vignettes with men presenting similar problems to Phase 1. They again offered a diagnosis and stated if they would prescribe, refer, or order tests based on that diagnosis. In total, 64 general practitioners participated in the project, 57 GPs participated in Phase 1, and 45 in Phase 2. The Phase 1 education program was completed by 38 of the 57 (59%) participants. There were no significant differences in demographics between those who completed the program and those who did not. Factors determining whether management of cases was consistent with expert opinion were number of sessions worked per week (OR 0

  3. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  4. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Design Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. Setting A total of 14 countries. Subjects Consensus groups of PCPs. Main outcome measures Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. Results There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = −0.16, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = −0.57, 95% CI −0.83 to −0.12; ovary: r = −0.13, 95% CI −0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI −0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI −0.31 to 0.62). Conclusions There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a “PCP-as-gatekeeper” system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. Key points European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European

  5. An interview with Steve Wilson. Interview by Kathryn Senior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Stephen Wilson is Professor of Developmental Genetics at University College, London, UK. He was recently awarded the Remedios Caro Almela Prize for Research in Developmental Neurobiology. We interviewed Steve to find out about how he started on the road to developmental biology research, how he got interested in the brain, his achievements and future challenges.

  6. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  7. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  8. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    , and practitioners of school health services. Implications :Motivational interviewing spirit and techniques seem to be adaptable and useful for school nurses in counselling children and parents. However, further research and development should address the issues of adjusting the method to counselling families......Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...

  9. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  10. Quantification of health by scaling similarity judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M M Arons

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A new methodology is introduced to scale health states on an interval scale based on similarity responses. It could be well suited for valuation of health states on specific regions of the health continuum that are problematic when applying conventional valuation techniques. These regions are the top-end, bottom-end, and states around 'dead'. METHODS: Three samples of approximately 500 respondents were recruited via an online survey. Each sample received a different judgmental task in which similarity data were elicited for the top seven health states in the dementia quality of life instrument (DQI. These states were '111111' (no problems on any domain and six others with some problems (level 2 on one domain. The tasks presented two (dyads, three (triads, or four (quads DQI health states. Similarity data were transformed into interval-level scales with metric and non-metric multidimensional scaling algorithms. The three response tasks were assessed for their feasibility and comprehension. RESULTS: In total 532, 469, and 509 respondents participated in the dyads, triads, and quads tasks respectively. After the scaling procedure, in all three response tasks, the best health state '111111' was positioned at one end of the health-state continuum and state '111211' was positioned at the other. The correlation between the metric scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.95, while the non-metric scales ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, indicating strong to near perfect associations. There were no apparent differences in the reported difficulty of the response tasks, but the triads had the highest number of drop-outs. DISCUSSION: Multidimensional scaling proved to be a feasible method to scale health-state similarity data. The dyads and especially the quads response tasks warrant further investigation, as these tasks provided the best indications of respondent comprehension.

  11. The relationship in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic relationship in motivational interviewing is hypothesized to have both a direct impact on client outcomes as well as facilitating the emergence of client language in favor of change. The nature of this relationship is characterized by empathy, partnership, and support of the client's autonomy commonly called the spirit of the method. This article explores the implications of this spirit on the practice and understanding of motivational interviewing, including common misconceptions attributable to a misunderstanding of the role of the relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Turning the spotlight: Looking at the interviewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg

    an explanation for variations in interviewer behaviour? The point of departure of the study is two interviewers - a female and a male - who have conducted a range of sociolinguistic interviews for the LANCHART Centre. The studies show clear differences in what the interviewers classify as their best and worst...... worst. It also seems that face-work is carried out more carefully in her best interview than in her worst. Moreover, studying the female interviewer's best and worst interview show clear differences in the number of dispreferred responses to assessments and next turn repair initiators as responses...... interviewers reveal consistencies in the two interviewers' interview style. I conclude that the female interviewer has features which may be characterized as a risky and potentially face-threatening interview style, whereas the male interviewer has a less risky and rather flexible style. I find...

  13. Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen...

  14. Conducting Successful Interviews: Tips for Intrepid Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates how nonacademic interviewing talents can inform how qualitative researchers perform and produce interviews, outlining key concepts and practices for better qualitative interviewing from journalists and other researchers and examining four elements of interview practice (background information, interview analysis, protocol creation and…

  15. Situational judgment tests reliably measure professional attributes important for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petty-Saphon K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Katie Petty-Saphon,1 Kim A Walker,2 Fiona Patterson,3,4 Vicki Ashworth,4 Helena Edwards4 1Medical Schools Council, London, UK; 2United Kingdom Foundation Programme Office, Birmingham, UK; 3Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 4Work Psychology Group, Derby, UK Abstract: Over the course of more than 40 years, international research has consistently shown situational judgment tests (SJTs to be a reliable and valid selection method for assessing a range of professional attributes. However, SJTs still represent a relatively new selection method within the medical profession, and as such it is to be expected that applicant reactions will vary. In this Expert Opinion piece, we respond to Najim et al’s article “The situational judgement test: a student’s worst nightmare” by highlighting three key clarifications. We outline that 1 the UK Foundation Programme’s SJT deliberately measures only a subset (five of the nine professional attributes important for the role of Foundation Trainee doctor, 2 these attributes are measured in addition to academic attainment, and 3 the SJT represents a cost-effective approach to selection rather than attempting to interview approximately 8,000 candidates each year, which would be logistically impossible. We present these points to inform future research and encourage debate, and conclude that the SJT is an appropriate and fair measurement method to be used as one part of selection to the UK Foundation Programme. Keywords: situational judgment test, reliability, validity, fairness, candidate perceptions

  16. Enhancing nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation through socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.

    There is a distinct divide between theory and practice in American science education. Research indicates that a constructivist philosophy, in which students construct their own knowledge, is conductive to learning, while in many cases teachers continue to present science in a more traditional manner. This study sought to explore possible relationships between a socioscientific issues based curriculum and three outcome variables: nature of science understanding, reflective judgment, and argumentation skill. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine both whole class differences as well as individual differences between the beginning and end of a semester of high school Biology I. Results indicated that the socioscientific issues based curriculum did not produce statistically significant changes over the course of one semester. However, the treatment group scored better on all three instruments than the comparison group. The small sample size may have contributed to the inability to find statistical significance in this study. The qualitative interviews did indicate that some students provided more sophisticated views on nature of science and reflective judgment, and were able to provide slightly more complex argumentation structures. Theoretical implications regarding the use of explicit use of socioscientific issues in the classroom are presented.

  17. The Absence of Generosity and Obedience to Authority: Judgments of Teachers and Students From Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Akemi Kawashima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preschool Education can provide conditions for the construction of moral values in children. This study’s objective was to investigate the judgment of teachers and students in Primary Education regarding the virtue of generosity and whether, in this judgment, it is valued more than obedience to authority. Interviews were held with 26 teachers and 90 children from four municipal schools, using a stimulus-story about an activity using modeling clay. The results indicated that, for the majority of participants, the attitude of the teacher in the stimulus-story, in not helping the child and demanding obedience in first place, is wrong. In relation to the reasons, for the majority of the teachers, the lack of help is justified because the activity with the modeling clay should be free, prioritizing the child’s wishes. For the majority of the children, however, the teachers’ lack of help is felt as failure to attribute postive value. Furthermore, it was observed that the strength of the virtue of generosity among the participants in this study is weak.

  18. Dynamics of moral judgments in young soldiers during the period of military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevskiy D.S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an empirical study of the dynamics of the level of moral judgments in the military. Two groups of Missile Defense Force soldiers present the sample: preparing for demobilization (n=30 and new recruits (n=25. As the methods we used specially developed semi-structured interview modeling the situation of moral choice, and the questionnaire in order to assess the socio-psychological characteristics of the military and their attitude to service. The young soldiers have a positive trend in the development of moral judgments and a greater differentiation in the estimates. It is shown that the old-timers in comparison with newcomers have intensive development of group-oriented and prosocial moral reasoning. It presumably connected with successful adaptation to military service, following the manual, the ability to cope with aggressive impulses, flexibility and value assessments in decision-making. It is noted that educational work with young recruits should include measures to increase group cohesion in the army.

  19. An Interview with Lance Olsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Segal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.

  20. An Interview with Randy Powell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Don

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Randy Powell, an author who has published several novels about teenagers who are finding their way through unsettled lives. Shares his belief that when you write from the heart, you do not have any choice about the themes and stories you write; they choose you as much as you choose them. (SG)

  1. Mathematical people profiles and interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.

  2. Job Interviews: Keys for Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald S.; Catt, Stephen E.; Slocombe, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Many students seem disinterested in learning to handle employment interviews effectively. This article discusses students' motivation to become skilled interviewees and steps educators and counselors can take to increase students' interest in this crucial career activity. The article also discusses mistakes students frequently make during…

  3. Zum Interview mit Arthur Schnitzler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkert, Ernst-Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar til et interview med Schnitzler, som dagbladet Politiken publicerede i 1923 og som E.U.Pinkert oversatte til tysk. Oversættelsen udkom den 28.11.2015 i Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung med titlen "Eine Gefahr für die Jugend?"...

  4. Decision for Southeastern: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, W. Ronald; Harper, William A.

    1979-01-01

    William Harper interviews W. Ronald McCarter, President of Southeastern Community College, North Carolina, about a suit brought against the college by a hearing-impaired woman who was refused admission to the nursing program resulting in a Supreme Court decision permitting colleges to require reasonable physical qualifications. (AYC)

  5. Interviews with Infopros: Sarah Warner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Melissa

    1997-01-01

    Sarah Warner is manager of content licensing for Amulet, which provides an Internet-based automated research service in information technology (InfoWizard). In this interview, she discusses her work experience as a cataloger and information center manager, carry over skills from past positions, her present responsibilities in content management,…

  6. Interview med avatar Gunhild Soderstrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.

    2009-01-01

    Interview med avatar Gunhild Soderstrom Bag avataren Gunhild Soderstrom gemmer sig lektor i filosofi Cynthia Grund fra SDU, som avataren Inga Miles alias Inger-Marie Christensen i anden optagelse har interviewet i Second Life. Det er blevet til en diskussion om læringspotentialet i virtuelle verd...

  7. Interview with Andrew C. Kadak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabes, D. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This article is an interview with the president and Chief Executive Officer of the Yankee Atomic Electric Company about a wide variety of aspects of the decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power plant. Included are discussions of political aspects, decommissioning schedules, local impacts, technical issues of decommissioning, personnel management during decommissioning, etc.

  8. General practitioner attitudes towards referral of eating-disordered patients: a vignette study based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Helen; Johnston, Olwyn; Cabrini, Sara; Fornai, Gemma; Kendrick, Tony

    2008-12-01

    Objective The study examined individual differences between general practitioners (GPs) to determine their impact on variations in intention to refer a hypothetical patient with disordered eating to specialist eating disorder services. The study also examined the impact of patient weight on intention to refer.Method GPs within three primary care trusts (PCTs) were posted a vignette depicting a patient with disordered eating, described as either normal weight or underweight. A questionnaire was developed from the theory of planned behaviour to assess the GPs' attitudes, perception of subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention to refer the patient. Demographic details were also collected.Results Responses were received from 88 GPs (33%). Intention to refer the patient was significantly related to subjective norms and cognitive attitudes. Together these predictors explained 86% of the variance in the intention to refer. GP or practice characteristics did not have a significant effect on the GPs' intention to refer, and nor did the patient's weight.Conclusion Despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence current guidance, patient weight did not influence GPs' decisions to refer. Much of the variance in actual referral behaviour may be explained by cognitive attitudes and subjective norms. Interventions to reduce this variation should be focused on informing GPs about actual norms, and best practice guidelines.

  9. Being an outsider: nurses' statements about a vignette of an elderly resident with a schizophrenia diagnosis and dementia behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellzén, O; Kristiansen, L; Norbergh, K G

    2004-04-01

    In an exploratory study of nurses' approach to elderly people with a diagnosis of long-term schizophrenia, the aim was to investigate nurses' views of the care of an elderly fictitious person with long-term schizophrenia. All the nurses in one municipality in northern Sweden working at seven different units were investigated. A vignette, which was based on a case description in a previous study of an 84-year-old woman with severe dementia and problematic behaviour, was used after a minor alteration. In this study, the woman's age in the case description was changed from 84 to 68 years and the diagnosis was changed from severe dementia to long-term schizophrenia; otherwise, the description was the same as in the original case. The main finding was the nurses' inability to see the resident as anything other than what the 'label', the diagnosis, said. The nurses are interpreted as being caught in a dilemma of loyalty - on the one hand, the loyalty to the organization with its traditional goals and means and, on the other hand, the loyalty to the resident with her wishes in the forefront of their minds.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognostication in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury: a vignette-based study of Canadian specialty physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne; Yager, Jerome Y; Majnemer, Annette; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chouinard, Isabelle; Racine, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve prognostication in neonatal brain injury; however, factors beyond technical or scientific refinement may impact its use and interpretation. We surveyed Canadian neonatologists and pediatric neurologists using general and vignette-based questions about the use of MRI for prognostication in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was inter- and intra-vignette variability in prognosis and in ratings about the usefulness of MRI. Severity of predicted outcome correlated with certainty about the outcome. A majority of physicians endorsed using MRI results in discussing prognosis with families, and most suggested that MRI results contribute to end-of-life decisions. Participating neonatologists, when compared to participating pediatric neurologists, had significantly less confidence in the interpretation of MRI by colleagues in neurology and radiology. Further investigation is needed to understand the complexity of MRI and of its application. Potential gaps relative to our understanding of the ethical importance of these findings should be addressed.

  11. An interview with Angela Nieto. Interviewed by Eva Amsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.

  12. Do Consultation Psychiatrists, Forensic Psychiatrists, Psychiatry Trainees, and Health Care Lawyers Differ in Opinion on Gray Area Decision-Making Capacity Cases? A Vignette-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armontrout, James; Gitlin, David; Gutheil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in the area of medical decision-making capacity has demonstrated relatively poor agreement between experienced evaluators in "gray area" cases. We performed a survey to determine the level of agreement about gray area decision-making capacity case scenarios within and between individuals of different professional backgrounds. Participants received a survey consisting of 3 complicated decision-making capacity vignettes with an accompanying "yes/no" question regarding capacity and a certainty scale for each vignette. Participants were identified from mailing lists of professional organizations and local hospitals. We received responses from psychiatry trainees, consultation-liaison psychiatrists, forensic psychiatrists, and lawyers with experience in health care law. Results were analyzed using SPSS. Across the 3 vignettes, the percentage agreeing that the individual described had capacity to refuse medical treatment ranged between 35% and 40% for trainees, 33% and 67% for consult psychiatrists, 41% and 76% for forensic psychiatrists, and 40% and 83% for health care lawyers. Only question 2 reached significance between-group differences (Pearson χ(2) = 11.473, p decision-making than were forensic psychiatrists and lawyers. As found in previous research, agreement among experienced evaluators appears generally low in gray area capacity cases. It is noteworthy that individuals of different professional backgrounds at times offer divergent between-group opinions on capacity. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of clinical experience, diagnosis, and theoretical orientation in the treatment of posttraumatic and dissociative disorders: A vignette and survey investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Krüger, Christa; Brand, Bethany L; Şar, Vedat; Ewing, Jan; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Stavropoulos, Pam; Middleton, Warwick

    2017-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the merits of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a phased approach when prominent dissociative symptoms are present. The first aim of this study was to examine the degree to which diagnosing dissociation in two traumatized patients' vignettes influenced clinicians' preference for phase-oriented treatment and whether clinicians' treatment experience contributed to their treatment preference. The second aim was to assess the extent to which participants had observed traumatized patients worsen when treated with exposure therapy or phase-oriented therapy and whether the theoretical orientation and treatment experience of the clinician were related to the observed deterioration. In the tradition of expert and practitioner surveys, 263 clinicians completed a survey of their diagnoses and treatment preferences for two vignettes and their treatment experience, theoretical orientation, and observations of patients' deterioration. When a marked degree of dissociation was noted in the PTSD vignette, respondents favored phased approaches regardless of the diagnosis given. Reports of having observed patient deterioration during both exposure and phased therapy were predicted by years of experience. Psychodynamic therapists reported more observations of worsening during exposure therapy than cognitive behavior therapy therapists. Clinical experience treating PTSD may heighten awareness of negative therapeutic effects, potentially because experienced clinicians have a lower threshold for detecting such effects and because they are referred more challenging cases.

  14. Latent Fairness in Adults' Relationship-Based Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous

  15. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the

  16. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eHao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally

  17. Overdistribution illusions: Categorical judgments produce them, confidence ratings reduce them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Nakamura, K; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E

    2017-01-01

    Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e.g., presented on List 1, presented on List 2), rather than by making the usual categorical judgments about those states. The central prediction, which was derived from the task calibration principle of fuzzy-trace theory, was that confidence ratings should reduce overdistribution by diminishing subjects' reliance on noncompensatory gist memories. The data of 3 experiments agreed with that prediction. In Experiment 1, there were reliable disjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, both response formats produced reliable disjunction illusions, but those for confidence ratings were much smaller than those for categorical judgments. In Experiment 3, there were reliable conjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. Apropos of recent controversies over confidence-accuracy correlations in memory, such correlations were positive for hits, negative for correct rejections, and the 2 types of correlations were of equal magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise.

  19. Physician judgment in clinical settings: methodological influences and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, N V

    1993-07-01

    Understanding the quality of physicians' intuitive judgments is essential in determining the appropriate use of their judgments in medical decision-making (vis-a-vis analytical or actuarial approaches). As part of this process, the quality of physicians' predictions must be assessed because prediction is fundamental to common clinical tasks: determining diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy; establishing monitoring intervals; performing screening and preventive maneuvers. Critical evaluation of predictive capabilities requires an assessment of the components of the prediction process: the data available for prediction, the method used for prediction, and the accuracy of prediction. Although variation in and uncertainty about the underlying data elements are often acknowledged as a source of inaccurate predictions, prediction also can be confounded by both methodological and cognitive limitations. During the past two decades, numerous factors have been recognized that may bias test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). These same factors may also produce bias in intuitive judgments. The use of cognitive processes to simplify judgment tasks (e.g., the availability and representativeness heuristics) and the presence of certain biases in the judgment process (e.g., ego, regret) may present obstacles to accurate estimation of probabilities by physicians. Limitations on the intuitive use of information (cognitive biases) have been demonstrated in both medical and nonmedical decision-making settings. Recent studies have led to a deepening understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of intuitive and analytical approaches to decision making. Here, many aspects of the basis for this understanding are reviewed.

  20. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  1. Music Reading Expertise Selectively Improves Categorical Judgment with Musical Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetta Kwailing Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different domains of perceptual expertise often lead to different hemispheric engagement (e.g. Kanwisher et al., 1997. Recent work suggests that the neural substrates engaged in musical reading are shifted from left hemisphere novice processing to bilateral processing in experts (Wong & Gauthier, 2010. To relate this shift to behavior, we tested whether music-reading training improves categorical and coordinate perceptual judgments, which are argued to rely on the left and right hemisphere respectively (Kosslyn et al., 1989. Music-reading experts and novices judged whether two sequentially presented music sequences were identical. The notes were either on a staff (categorical or without a staff (coordinate in either trained or untrained (90° rotated orientations. Experts performed better than novices for categorical judgments, and the advantage was larger for the trained than untrained orientation. The two groups performed similarly for coordinate judgments. Music-reading fluency predicted performance in categorical judgments in the trained orientation in experts, while it predicted performance in all conditions in novices. This suggests that music-reading training selectively improves categorical judgments in the trained orientation, while music-reading ability in novices reflects general perceptual ability with notes. Future studies will clarify how these findings are related to the hemispheric shift in music-reading expertise.

  2. The development of moral judgment during nursing education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Jaana; Suominen, Tarja; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Helkama, Klaus

    2004-10-01

    This study describes moral judgment among first- and last-year nursing students in Finland and examines the effects of ethics teaching on the development of moral judgment. The data for this quantitative cross-sectional study were collected using the Defining Issues Test (DIT), which is based on Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning stages. The questionnaires were sent to four polytechnics, which offer nursing education in southern Finland. A total of 52 first-year students and 54 last-year students participated. The results showed that students who had had to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practical training had higher moral judgment than students who did not. Last-year students had higher moral judgment than first-year students. Last-year students resorted to principle-based thinking more often than first-year students in resolving DIT dilemmas. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The results indicate that nursing education may has an effect upon students' moral judgment.

  3. An ethical facade? Medical students' miscomprehensions of substituted judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farr A Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied how well first-year medical students understand and apply the concept of substituted judgment, following a course on clinical ethics. METHOD: Students submitted essays on one of three ethically controversial scenarios presented in class. One scenario involved a patient who had lost decisional capacity. Through an iterative process of textual analysis, the essays were studied and coded for patterns in the ways students misunderstood or misapplied the principle of substituted judgment. RESULTS: Students correctly articulated course principles regarding patient autonomy, substituted judgment, and non-imposition of physician values. However, students showed misunderstanding by giving doctors the responsibility of balancing the interests of the patient against the interests of the family, by stating doctors and surrogates should be guided primarily by a best-interest standard, and by suggesting that patient autonomy becomes the guiding principle only when patients can no longer express their wishes. CONCLUSION: Students did not appear to internalize or correctly apply the substituted judgment standard, even though they could describe it accurately. This suggests the substituted judgment standard may run counter to students' moral intuitions, making it harder to apply in clinical practice.

  4. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  5. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  6. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  7. Combining Dual Scaling with Semi-Structured Interviews to Interpret Rating Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Childs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual scaling, a variation of multidimensional scaling, can reveal the dimensions underlying scores, such as raters' judgments. This study illustrates the use of a dual scaling analysis with semi-structured interviews of raters to investigate the differences among the raters as captured by the dimensions. Thirty applications to a one-year post-Bachelor's degree teacher education program were rated by nine teacher educators. Eight of the raters were subsequently interviewed about how they rated the responses. A three-dimensional model was found to explain most of the variance in the ratings for two of the questions and a two-dimensional model was most interpretable for the third question. The interviews suggested that the dimensions reflected, in addition to differences in raters' stringency, differences in their beliefs about their roles as raters and about the types of insights that were required of applicants.

  8. The accuracy of auditors' and layered voice Analysis (LVA) operators' judgments of truth and deception during police questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank; McCloughan, Jamie; Weatherman, Dan; Slowik, Stanley

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if auditors could identify truthful and deceptive persons in a sample (n = 74) of audio recordings used to assess the effectiveness of layered voice analysis (LVA). The LVA employs an automated algorithm to detect deception, but it was not effective here. There were 31 truthful and 43 deceptive persons in the sample and two LVA operators averaged 48% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 25% on deceivers. Subsequent to the LVA analysis the recordings were audited by three interviewers, each independently rendering a decision of truthful or deceptive and indicating their confidence. Auditors' judgments averaged 68% correct decisions on truth-tellers and 71% on deceivers. Auditors' detection rates, generally, exceeded chance and there was significantly (p < 0.05) greater confidence on correct than incorrect judgments of deceivers but not on truth-tellers. These results suggest that the success reported for LVA analysis may be due to operator's judgment.

  9. Interview accuracy in partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Garcia, María del Carmen

    2009-11-01

    The statistical concept of accuracy has never been applied to verify the history data collected on seizure disorders by open format interview. We compared patients'/witnesses' descriptions of epileptic seizures with videotaped seizure characteristics and analyzed the accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), false-positive rate (FPR), and false-negative rate (FNR) of various components of the semiology in patients with partial epilepsy. Language disturbances, complex automatisms, and autonomic signs have high ACC and intermediate FNRs. This means that these manifestations are most obvious to the witness/patient and, therefore, are memorized easily. Dystonic posturing and upper limb automatisms have the highest FNRs, leading to low ACC. These are very subtle signs, not vigorous enough to be paid attention to, but their predictive value in partial epilepsy syndromes is relatively high. We believe these signs need to be directly sought in the interview, because often the patient/witness pays limited attention to them.

  10. An Interview with Roy Ellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejm Benessaiah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I decided to undertake this interview with Professor Ellen, simply because I thought such a distinguished career deserved to be marked as he was retiring. Roy was happy to make time for our interviews, in the form of loosely structured conversation which, like the Arabian Nights, Roy pointed out, could have gone on forever, but I decided to draw the line at three sessions. Perhaps it could, and will go on to form part of a more in-depth biography, as I continued to discover other aspects and adventures of Roy’s interesting life in the course of other contexts, much as one does in the field. Much is known about what ethnobiologists and anthropologists say about another people’s lives; less is known about their own, apart from rare reflections, diaries and memoires. I found Roy’s reflections a source of comfort as I embarked on my own PhD fieldwork, reassuring me as I fumbled around, making my own unique but comparable mistakes among the insights I gleaned. The following is an edited version of the original interview. I hope it will be as enjoyable to the reader as it was to me working on it.

  11. In praise of clinical judgment: Meehl's forgotten legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Drew; Weinberger, Joel

    2005-10-01

    Although Paul E. Meehl demonstrated the limits of informal aggregation of data and prognostication by presumed experts, he remained convinced that clinical experience confers expertise of some kind. The authors explore this forgotten side of Meehl's legacy by reconsidering the validity of clinical judgment in its natural context, everyday clinical work. Three domains central to clinical practice are examined: diagnosis, interpretation of meaning, and intervention. It is argued that a more sanguine picture of clinical expertise emerges when the focus shifts from prediction at high levels of inference to (a) judgments at a moderate level of inference, (b) contexts for which clinical training and experience are likely to confer expertise, and (c) conditions that optimize the expression of that expertise (e.g., use of instruments designed for expert observers). The authors conclude by examining domains in which clinical judgment could prove useful in knowledge generation (e.g., hypothesis generation, identification of falsifying instances, item development). 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  13. Moral judgment competence of nursing students in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, Radka; Sikorová, Lucie

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the level of moral judgment competence in students of nursing at the University of Ostrava Faculty of Medicine, and whether it is influenced by the field of study, type of study, current year of study and age. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The survey sample comprised 662 full-time and part-time students of General Nursing and Midwifery. To measure ethical competence, Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT, 1995) was used. The nursing students showed low C-index scores (the mean C-index was 14.24 ± 9.56). The C-index was significantly influenced only by the type of study and age (pmoral judgment, that is the post-conventional level. Due to the nursing students' lower C-index scores, methods developing ethical argumentation should be introduced into nursing ethics courses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age differences in the accuracy of confidence judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, R M; Mutter, S A

    1996-01-01

    Age differences in accuracy were investigated by having older (M = 68.6 years) and younger (M = 21.5 years) adults make confidence judgments about the correctness of their responses to two sets of general knowledge items. For one set, prior to making their confidence judgments, subjects made mental strategy judgements indicating how they had selected their answers (i.e., they guessed, used intuition, made an inference, or immediately recognized the response as correct). Results indicate that older subjects were more accurate than younger subjects in predicting the correctness of their responses; however, making mental strategy judgments did not result in increased accuracy for either age group. Additional analyses explored the relationship between accuracy and other individual difference variables. The results of this investigation are consistent with recent theories of postformal cognitive development that suggest older adults have greater insight into the limitations of their knowledge.

  15. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2017-03-06

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure.

  17. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  18. Dutch Pain Specialists' Adherence to the Multidisciplinary Guideline on Treating Pain in Patients with Cancer: A Case Vignette Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Kees; Steegers, Monique; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    Many patients with cancer suffer from pain, which is often not optimally treated. In 2008, the evidence-based, multidisciplinary Dutch guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of pain in this patient group was published. We assessed knowledge about and adherence to the guideline by pain specialists. A cross-sectional case vignette survey describing a palliative patient with intractable pancreatic cancer and pain was sent to all 350 Dutch anesthesiologists registered as pain specialists at the Netherlands Association of Anesthesiology. Descriptive statistics were conducted. Ninety-three pain specialists completed the questionnaire (27%). The majority appeared to follow the guideline recommendations on pharmacological (99%) and invasive treatment (95%) in the diverse stages of the disease. However, the recommendation to use a one-dimensional pain scale to evaluate the effect of pain treatment and the recommendation to perform a multidimensional pain assessment if the patient in pain is in a deteriorating stage were only followed by a minority of the respondents (23% and 15%, respectively). Regarding most recommendations, Dutch pain specialists know and intend to follow the national multidisciplinary cancer pain guideline. Yet, only a minority of them perform structural pain assessment of the patient with cancer pain. However, as the response rate was low (27%), the results should be interpreted with caution and cannot be generalized to the entire population of pain specialists in the Netherlands. We recommend that, in the guideline update and implementation programs, more attention be given to thorough assessment of the patient with pain and cancer. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Comparison of treatment selections by Japanese and US psychiatrists for major depressive disorder: A case vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Atsuo; Williams, Aya; Sado, Mitsuhiro; Oguchi, Yoshiyo; Mischoulon, David; Smith, Felicia; Mimura, Masaru; Sato, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    A review of the published work on treatments for major depressive disorder suggests that there is an alarming gap between guideline recommendations and actual clinical practices worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare early-career psychiatrists' selections of treatment for mild to moderate major depression in Japan and the USA. The authors surveyed 120 early-career psychiatrists from two residency programs in Japan and the USA using web-based questionnaires. In response to two case vignettes of mild to moderate major depression, the subjects selected treatment modalities and first- and second-line pharmacotherapy. Eighty-one psychiatrists (68%) returned surveys, of whom 42 (52%) were Japanese and 39 (48%) American. Fewer Japanese subjects selected psychotherapy than Americans. The Japanese psychiatrists favored benzodiazepine monotherapy for the treatment of mild depression, whereas the American psychiatrists favored antidepressant monotherapy. For the initial treatment of moderate depression, approximately half of the Japanese selected antidepressant monotherapy, and a quarter selected benzodiazepine monotherapy, whereas the Americans unanimously selected selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors monotherapy. As a second-line strategy, the Japanese were more likely to augment medication and less likely to increase dosage for moderate depression than their American counterparts. Differences were found between the treatment selections of early-career psychiatrists in Japan and the USA, despite comparable guidelines and postgraduate training. The results suggest that the gap between guidelines and practice may also be shaped by physician workload, attitudes toward side-effects, and the sociocultural contexts in which clinical decisions are made. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  1. Effects of Meaning and Symmetry on Judgments of Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T.; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts...... to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we...

  2. The Contrabassist and the CEO: Moral Judgment and Collective Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How much is a moral judgment on a single act influenced by circumstances which have little to do with the nature of the act itself? How much have certain moral judgments to do with the common history and shared experience of a certain group of individuals? Using two cases taken from life (a German musician and a German CEO behaving both in a morally wrong way but with very different consequences from the point of view of moral judgement and with very different reactions from the German public, the article tries to give an answer to these questions, touching issues like: guilt, moral responsibility, collective responsibility, and collective identity.

  3. Turning the spotlight: Looking at the interviewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg

    Very often, the speech of the person being interviewed is taken as the outcome of an interview. In this thesis, interviews are approached dialogically with a special focus on the interviewer. Rather than a monologue, the interview is viewed as a dialogue. In the thesis, I address the following qu...... that their charact eristic interactional features are (vaguely) in line with the results in a NEO PI-R personality test; however, the connection is too vague to anticipate or account fully for their special characteristics......Very often, the speech of the person being interviewed is taken as the outcome of an interview. In this thesis, interviews are approached dialogically with a special focus on the interviewer. Rather than a monologue, the interview is viewed as a dialogue. In the thesis, I address the following...... interviewers reveal consistencies in the two interviewers' interview style. I conclude that the female interviewer has features which may be characterized as a risky and potentially face-threatening interview style, whereas the male interviewer has a less risky and rather flexible style. I find...

  4. Interview with Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This interview has appeared also in EMS Newsletter no. 53 The interview took place in Oslo on the 24th of May 2004 prior to the Abel prize celebrations.......This interview has appeared also in EMS Newsletter no. 53 The interview took place in Oslo on the 24th of May 2004 prior to the Abel prize celebrations....

  5. Interview with Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This interview has appeared also in EMS Newsletter no. 53 The interview took place in Oslo on the 24th of May 2004 prior to the Abel prize celebrations.......This interview has appeared also in EMS Newsletter no. 53 The interview took place in Oslo on the 24th of May 2004 prior to the Abel prize celebrations....

  6. 8 CFR 245.6 - Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 245.6 Section 245.6 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be waived in the case of a...

  7. 37 CFR 1.133 - Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interviews. 1.133 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Interviews § 1.133 Interviews. (a)(1) Interviews with examiners concerning applications and other matters pending before...

  8. 8 CFR 245a.19 - Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interviews. 245a.19 Section 245a.19 Aliens... Interviews. (a) All aliens filing applications for adjustment of status with the Service under this section must be personally interviewed, except that the adjudicative interview may be waived for a child...

  9. 49 CFR 1018.22 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a...

  10. 8 CFR 1245.6 - Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 1245.6 Section 1245.6 Aliens and... OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may...

  11. 10 CFR 15.25 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR... interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...; or (3) An agreement for payment might be negotiated. (b) The NRC shall grant an interview with...

  12. Use of interviews in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary

    2015-06-24

    Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.

  13. New Perspectives From Unstructured Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.

  14. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  15. Engaging families through motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adrienne A; Wright, Katherine S

    2014-10-01

    Helping parents change key behaviors may reduce the risk of child maltreatment. However, traditional provider-centered approaches to working with the parents of pediatric patients may increase resistance to behavioral change. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered communication technique that helps address problems of provider-centered approaches. In this article, evidence for use of MI to address several risk factors for child maltreatment is reviewed, including parental substance abuse, partner violence, depression treatment, harsh punishment, and parental management of children's health. Fundamental components of MI that may be incorporated into clinical practice are presented.

  16. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Carey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 pilot Duane G. Carey is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, as well as an extended description of his role in the Orbiter's return landing. As its primary objective, this mission has the maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Following the Columbia Orbiter's rendezvous with the telescope, extravehicular activities (EVA) will focus on repairs to and augmentation of the HST.

  17. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Carey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 pilot Duane G. Carey is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, as well as an extended description of his role in the Orbiter's return landing. As its primary objective, this mission has the maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Following the Columbia Orbiter's rendezvous with the telescope, extravehicular activities (EVA) will focus on repairs to and augmentation of the HST.

  18. Leaning in to "muddy" interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...

  19. An interview with Olivier Pourquie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, James

    2010-02-01

    Olivier Pourquié is the new director of the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology (IGBMC) in Strasbourg, France, and as of this month takes on another crucially important role in the developmental community - that of Development's new Editor in Chief. Recently, we asked James Briscoe, in his capacity as a director of the Company of Biologists, to interview Olivier and to discover more about his research career and interests and how they will shape the future content and directions of Development.

  20. An Interview with Steven Millhauser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Février

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Février : I would like to begin this interview with a question about architecture. Images of architecture appear frequently in your fiction, from Martin Dressler to more recent collections like Dangerous Laughter. In that collection’s “thirteen stories,” we find a tower reaching all the way to heaven, a life-size replica of a town so precise that even the “levels of salt in the saltshakers” match those of the original town, and a series of outwardly expanding domes—covering a house, f...

  1. How to Win a Job Interview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    Taking an interview is an important step in job application. The paper starts from resume preparation and understand⁃ing of the company culture. Common issues are analyzed, generalized and summarized in the interview. It is necessary to conduct a mock interview in advance. Suggestions on applicant’s dressing, eye contact, courtesy and responses are made and a thank-you note should be sent to the interviewer after the interview.

  2. Interview with Lisa Shipley. Interviewed by Lisa Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Lisa Shipley is Vice President of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism at Merck Research Laboratories. She is responsible for preclinical and clinical ADME activities and molecular biomarker assay development activities at all Merck research sites and support of all programs from discovery through to post-product launch. Prior to joining Merck in 2008, Shipley spent over 20 years at Eli Lilly and Company in roles of increasing responsibility, including the positions of executive director at Lean Six Sigma and vice president of Drug Disposition, PK/PD and Trial Simulations. Shipley obtained her undergraduate degree from McDaniel College and her doctoral degree in Pharmacology and Toxicology from the University of Maryland at Baltimore. This interview was conducted by Lisa Parks, Assistant Commissioning Editor of Bioanalysis.

  3. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  4. Sex Bias in Clinical Judgment among School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Frederickson, Anne K.

    1991-01-01

    Used analogue case study format to examine sex bias in clinical judgment among school psychologists. Varied sex of adolescent and problem type in 2 X 2 design. School psychologists read case study and rated perceived disturbance and importance of intervention. Psychologists rated it more important to intervene when subject was male; no differences…

  5. Cognitive Differentiation and Affective Stimulus Value in Vocational Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jack L.; Klein, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive differentiation level and the affective stimulus value of various occupations. Findings of the present investigation, conducted with upper-class college males, were consistent with the findings obtained in previous clinical and social judgment studies. Subjects were cognitively more…

  6. Context effects in the measurement of optimism in probability judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of contextual information such as comparison standard on self-other probability judgments regarding the occurrence of negative life events, which tend to be characterized by optimism. In Study 1, 80 undergraduates (mean age 19.5 yrs) completed a questionnaire on preventive

  7. Clinical Judgment And The Strong Vocational Interest Blank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, E. Robert; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Forty subjects (highly qualified and experienced in clinical judgment) were used to psychologically scale the extent to which SVIB scores and profiles supported an expressed vocational choice. Moderately high agreement was demonstrated across judges, although they differed considerably in the weights assigned to scores and configural patterns.…

  8. Time Keeps on Ticking: The Experience of Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Paul M.; White, Michael J.; Aegisdottir, Stefania; Maugherman, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions by Ridley and Shaw-Ridley (EJ832451) and Lichtenberg (EJ832452) to the authors' meta-analysis on the effects of experience on judgment accuracy add positively to what is hoped will become an ever more focused discourse on this most basic question: How can mental health clinical decision making be improved? In this rejoinder, the…

  9. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  10. Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions about Exclusion in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Gasser, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…

  11. Children's Temporal Judgments for Autobiographical Past and Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith A.; Mayhew, Estelle M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of twenty 5-7-year-olds on two spatial-temporal judgment tasks. In a semantic task, children located temporal distances from today that were described using conventional, temporal terms on a spatial timeline. In an autobiographical task, children judged temporal distances on the same spatial timeline for events that…

  12. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valnea Žauhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II and III according to Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961. The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar.

  13. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

  14. Distinct information critically distinguishes judgments of face familiarity and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Volna, Blanka; Ewing, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Accurately determining the familiarity of another and correctly establishing their identity are vital social skills. A considerable body of work has explored their perceptual and neural underpinnings and debate remains regarding whether they are dissociable, that is, separable parts of a dual process, or different aspects of a common retrieval process. Less is known about the specific visual information that guides familiarity judgments and how this compares to the information used to identify a face by name. Here we sought to establish the critical information underlying participants' judgments of facial familiarity and identification. We created a new standardized stimulus set comprising 6 personally familiar and 12 unfamiliar faces and applied the Bubbles reverse-correlation methodology to establish the information driving correct performance in each task. Results revealed that markedly different information underlies familiarity and identity judgments. When categorizing familiarity, participants relied more upon lower spatial-frequency, broad facial cues (eye and face shape) than when categorizing identity, which relied on fine details in the internal features (eyes and mouth). These results provide novel evidence of qualitatively distinct information use in familiarity and identification judgments and emphasize the importance of considering the task set for participants and their processing strategy when investigating face recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  16. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  17. Lux et Verisimilitudo: Judgment Data in SLA Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    A discussion of the data obtained from grammaticality judgment tasks argues that despite the light shed by these data on problems of second language acquisition theory, there is not yet adequate knowledge of how to interpret those data within a coherent model of performance of the tasks. Therefore, it is concluded, there is no basis for deciding…

  18. 28 CFR 0.171 - Judgments, fines, penalties, and forfeitures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims and Responsibility for Judgments, Fines... that the division will assume such enforcement responsibilities. (b) Each U.S. Attorney shall designate... section that such division will assume responsibility for enforcement of a criminal monetary penalty,...

  19. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  20. Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments for Beatles songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2012-04-01

    Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments of different tempos were demonstrated in three experiments using Beatles songs. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explored how listening to versions of the same song that were played at different tempos affected tempo and pleasantness ratings. In both experiments, contrast effects were found on judgments of tempo, with target tempos rated faster when context tempos were slow than when they were fast. In both experiments, we also showed that the peak of the pleasantness rating function shifted toward the values of the context tempos, reflecting disordinal context effects on pleasantness relationships. Familiarity with the songs did not moderate these effects, and shifts in tempo ratings did not correlate with shifts in most pleasant target tempos when context was manipulated within subjects. In Experiment 3, we examined how manipulations of context tempos for one song affected judgments of the same song as compared with judgments of other more or less similar songs. For tempo ratings, contrast effects transferred to ratings of a similar song, but for pleasantness ratings, assimilative shifts of ideals were found only for the same song and not for similar songs. This pattern of results was supportive of independent bases for the two context effects.