WorldWideScience

Sample records for judgment property induction

  1. People's Judgments About Classic Property Law Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Karpoff, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    People's judgments about property shape how they relate to other people with respect to resources. Property law cases can provide a valuable window into ownership judgments because disputants often use conflicting rules for ownership, offering opportunities to distinguish these basic rules. Here we report a series of ten studies investigating people's judgments about classic property law cases dealing with found objects. The cases address a range of issues, including the relativity of ownership, finder versus landowner rights, object location, objects below- versus above-ground, mislaid versus lost objects, contracts between landowners and finders, and the distinction between public and private space. The results show nuanced patterns in ownership judgments that are not well-explained by previous psychological theories. Also, people's judgments often conflict with court decisions and legal principles. These empirical patterns can be used to generate and test novel hypotheses about the intuitive logic of ownership.

  2. Inductive reasoning and judgment interference: experiments on Simpson's paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; Walther, Eva; Freytag, Peter; Nickel, Stefanie

    2003-01-01

    In a series of experiments on inductive reasoning, participants assessed the relationship between gender, success, and a covariate in a situation akin to Simpson's paradox: Although women were less successful then men according to overall statistics, they actually fared better then men at either of two universities. Understanding trivariate relationships of this kind requires cognitive routines similar to analysis of covariance. Across the first five experiments, however, participants generalized the disadvantage of women at the aggregate level to judgments referring to the different levels of the covariate, even when motivation was high and appropriate mental models were activated. The remaining three experiments demonstrated that Simpson's paradox could be mastered when the salience of the covariate was increased and when the salience of gender was decreased by the inclusion of temporal cues that disambiguate the causal status of the covariate.

  3. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  4. Influência do conhecimento conceitual sobre o raciocínio indutivo Influence of conceptual knowledge on inductive judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goiara Mendonça de Castilho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou se o conhecimento sobre diferentes tipos de categorias, propriedades e a tipicidade influenciam os julgamentos indutivos. O primeiro estudo pré-experimental identificou diferentes tipos de categorias segundo 3 tipos de instruções. Somente na instrução "forçada com definição" identificaram-se categorias ontologicamente distintas. No segundo estudo pré-experimental, participantes fizeram julgamentos classificatórios quanto ao tipo de propriedade. Os resultados indicaram que as propriedades diferiam quanto à generalidade, sendo classificadas em superficiais ou essenciais. O experimento 1 investigou se tipos de categorias e propriedades, assim como exemplos que variavam na tipicidade influenciavam a estimativa de ocorrência de eventos. Os resultados confirmaram que informações de natureza conceitual influenciaram os julgamentos indutivos.This work investigated whether knowledge about different types of categories, properties and tipicality affects inductive judgments. The first pre-experimental study identified different types of categories according to 3 types of instructions. Only in the forced without definition condition distinct ontological categories were identified. In the second pre-experimental study participants made classificatory judgments about property types. The results indicated that properties were judged to be different regarding to generality, being classified in either superficial or essencial. the experiment 1 investigated wether category and property types and examples wich varied in tipicaliy influenced the estimatives about occurrence of events. The results confirmed that conceptual information influenced inductive judgments.

  5. Proof-irrelevant model of CC with predicative induction and judgmental equality

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gyesik

    2011-01-01

    We present a set-theoretic, proof-irrelevant model for Calculus of Constructions (CC) with predicative induction and judgmental equality in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with an axiom for countably many inaccessible cardinals. We use Aczel's trace encoding which is universally defined for any function type, regardless of being impredicative. Direct and concrete interpretations of simultaneous induction and mutually recursive functions are also provided by extending Dybjer's interpretations on the basis of Aczel's rule sets. Our model can be regarded as a higher-order generalization of the truth-table methods. We provide a relatively simple consistency proof of type theory, which can be used as the basis for a theorem prover.

  6. Broadening the study of inductive reasoning: confirmation judgments with uncertain evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya

    2010-10-01

    Although evidence in real life is often uncertain, the psychology of inductive reasoning has, so far, been confined to certain evidence. The present study extends previous research by investigating whether people properly estimate the impact of uncertain evidence on a given hypothesis. Two experiments are reported, in which the uncertainty of evidence is explicitly (by means of numerical values) versus implicitly (by means of ambiguous pictures) manipulated. The results show that people's judgments are highly correlated with those predicted by normatively sound Bayesian measures of impact. This sensitivity to the degree of evidential uncertainty supports the centrality of inductive reasoning in cognition and opens the path to the study of this issue in more naturalistic settings.

  7. Inductive Reasoning about Causally Transmitted Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2008-01-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates'…

  8. Judgments of damage to public versus private property in Chinese children at different historical times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Huichang; Zhao, Siman

    2016-12-15

    This study examined children's judgments of damage to public versus private property in China at two historical times. Participants were two cohorts (1980 and 2012) of elementary school children at ages 7, 9, and 11 years. The children were administered paired stories that described a protagonist who damaged public or private property with a good or bad intention. The results showed that children in the 2012 cohort were less likely than their counterparts in the 1980 cohort to judge damage to public property as more culpable than damage to private property. The cohort differences were more evident in older children than in younger children. The results suggest that macro-level contexts may play an important role in shaping children's judgments.

  9. Task- and age-dependent effects of visual stimulus properties on children's explicit numerosity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defever, Emmy; Reynvoet, Bert; Gebuis, Titia

    2013-10-01

    Researchers investigating numerosity processing manipulate the visual stimulus properties (e.g., surface). This is done to control for the confound between numerosity and its visual properties and should allow the examination of pure number processes. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that, despite different visual controls, visual cues remained to exert their influence on numerosity judgments. This study, therefore, investigated whether the impact of the visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments is dependent on the task at hand (comparison task vs. same-different task) and whether this impact changes throughout development. In addition, we examined whether the influence of visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments plays a role in the relation between performance on numerosity tasks and mathematics achievement. Our findings confirmed that the visual stimulus manipulations affect numerosity judgments; more important, we found that these influences changed with increasing age and differed between the comparison and the same-different tasks. Consequently, direct comparisons between numerosity studies using different tasks and age groups are difficult. No meaningful relationship between the performance on the comparison and same-different tasks and mathematics achievement was found in typically developing children, nor did we find consistent differences between children with and without mathematical learning disability (MLD).

  10. Explaining prompts children to privilege inductively rich properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M; Lombrozo, Tania; Legare, Cristine H; Gopnik, Alison

    2014-11-01

    Four experiments with preschool-aged children test the hypothesis that engaging in explanation promotes inductive reasoning on the basis of shared causal properties as opposed to salient (but superficial) perceptual properties. In Experiments 1a and 1b, 3- to 5-year-old children prompted to explain during a causal learning task were more likely to override a tendency to generalize according to perceptual similarity and instead extend an internal feature to an object that shared a causal property. Experiment 2 replicated this effect of explanation in a case of label extension (i.e., categorization). Experiment 3 demonstrated that explanation improves memory for clusters of causally relevant (non-perceptual) features, but impairs memory for superficial (perceptual) features, providing evidence that effects of explanation are selective in scope and apply to memory as well as inference. In sum, our data support the proposal that engaging in explanation influences children's reasoning by privileging inductively rich, causal properties.

  11. Disgust as Embodied Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Simone; Haidt, Jonathan; Clore, Gerald L.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2008-01-01

    How, and for whom, does disgust influence moral judgment? In 4 experiments participants made moral judgments while experiencing extraneous feelings of disgust. Disgust was induced in Experiment 1 by exposure to a bad smell, in Experiment 2 by working in a disgusting room, in Experiment 3 by recalling a physically disgusting experience, and in Experiment 4 through a video induction. In each case, the results showed that disgust can increase the severity of moral judgments relative to controls. Experiment 4 found that disgust had a different effect on moral judgment than did sadness. In addition, Experiments 2-4 showed that the role of disgust in severity of moral judgments depends on participants’ sensitivity to their own bodily sensations. Taken together, these data indicate the importance - and specificity - of gut feelings in moral judgments. PMID:18505801

  12. [Induction mechanism of shock: applying the etiology in judgment of the cause of death in forensic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriyuki

    2004-09-01

    In the field of forensic medicine, shock has been identified as a cause of death owing to various kinds of exogenous insults. The etiology and pathogenesis of shock cannot be explained well by the usual gross appearance in medicolegal autopsies, because it is now generally established that the shock is a functional reaction of the vascular system to bodily injury, and that several organs are secondarily impaired during shock. Thus it seemed to forensic pathologists that these morphological changes in several organs after shock did not reveal any significant differences among the causes of death. We approached to the induction mechanism of shock, and we investigated what etiology induced these morphological changes after shock in order to identify shock as the cause of death. It is now generally accepted that the kidney is a target organ of shock, so we mainly investigated the cause of kidney disorder in a case of burn shock and hemorrhagic shock. 1. Consequences of bacterial translocation (BT) in the shock. The concept of BT indicates that the beginning of shock is induced by the loss of gut barrier function and consequent translocation of bacteria. In general, impaired gut barrier function can be caused either during the shock period by decreased intestinal blood flow and reduced oxygen delivery, resulting during reperfusion in a stage of increased intestinal blood flow, or at a later stage again by reduced flow. A variety of physiological stresses, such as trauma, hemorrhage, thermal injury, surgical operation, various kinds of drags and mental stress, have been shown to cause failure of the gut mucosal barrier, with translocation of bacteria/endotoxin from the gastrointestinal into the mesenteric lymph nodes, and translocation into remote organs and systemic circulation. 2. Burn shock. We designed to evaluate the BT in a burn shock rat model (following 20% full-thickness scald injury). The p38 MAPK pathway is an important stress-responsive signal molecule

  13. Effects of driving frequency on properties of inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) can be maintained over a wide range of driving frequencies from 50 Hz up to GHz. In this paper, we analyze how the properties of ICP depend on driving frequency ω. With respect to the time of ion transport to the walls, τd and the electron energy relaxation time τɛ three operating regimes are distinguished. The quasi-static regime, ωτd > 1 and the intermediate dynamic regime, 1 /τd helical coil with the plasma current flowing outside the coil, Bc = 0 , while when the plasma current flows inside the coil, Bc ≠ 0 . We show that in the latter case, in the quasi-static regimes, electrons become magnetized over a significant part of the period that may strongly affect the plasma properties. Examples of ICP simulations in different frequency regimes will be demonstrated in this paper.

  14. Characterizing subsurface textural properties using electromagnetic induction mapping and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Hiruy

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil textural properties at the watershed scale is important for understanding spatial patterns of water movement, and in determining soil moisture storage and soil hydraulic transport properties. Capturing the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface without exhaustive and costly sampling presents a significant challenge. Soil scientists and geologists have adapted geophysical methods that measure a surrogate property related to the vital underlying process. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is such a proxy, providing a measure of charge mobility due to application of an electric field, and is highly correlated to the electrical conductivity of the soil solution, clay percentage, and water content. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) provides the possibility of obtaining high resolution images of ECa across a landscape to identify subtle changes in subsurface properties. The aim of this study was to better characterize subsurface textural properties using EMI mapping and geostatistical analysis techniques. The effect of variable temperature environments on EMI instrumental response, and EC a -- depth relationship were first determined. Then a procedure of repeated EMI mapping at varying soil water content was developed and integrated with temporal stability analysis to capture the time invariant properties of spatial soil texture on an agricultural field. In addition, an EMI imaging approach of densely sampling the subsurface of the Reynolds Mountain East watershed was presented using kriging to interpolate, and Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate the uncertainty in the maps. Due to the relative time-invariant characteristics of textural properties, it was possible to correlate clay samples collected over three seasons to ECa data of one mapping event. Kriging methods [ordinary kriging (OK), cokriging (CK), and regression kriging (RK)] were then used to integrate various levels of information (clay percentage, ECa

  15. Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Elkjaer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning.......The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning....

  16. The Well-Ordering Property as an Alternative to Mathematical Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Paul S.

    1974-01-01

    Mathematical Induction is used for direct proofs of many theorems; its logical equivalent, the Well-Ordering Property, replaced it to yield indirect proofs by contradiction. The author claims the later property is easier to comprehend and that it affords a non-geometrical example of proof by contradiction. (JP)

  17. Influence of Tempering on Mechanical Properties of Induction Bents below 540°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankejech Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes basic principles of induction bending and the change of mechanical properties from as received (straight pipe made from HSLA steel to induction bend. The main purpose of this article is to experiment with tempering temperatures below 540°C. After tempering at 540°C which is the lowest recommended temperature for post bend heat treatment (PBHT according to CSA specifications (Canadian Standards Association the induction bend area in many cases does not achieve the minimum required mechanical properties and therefore it is not accepted for usage. In this article mechanical properties such as tensile, toughness, hardness are evaluated. Also the article contains microstructural analyses and comparison of bended and heat treated samples.

  18. Noninvasive induction implant heating: an approach for contactless altering of mechanical properties of shape memory implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Ronny; Hustedt, Michael; Wesling, Volker; Hurschler, Christoph; Olender, Gavin; Mach, Martin; Gösling, Thomas; Müller, Christian W

    2013-01-01

    This article shows an approach to change the properties of an orthopaedic shape memory implant within biological tissue, using contactless induction heating. Due to inducing the one way-memory effect, triggered by the rise of temperature within the implant, the geometry and hence the mechanical properties of the implant itself, are altered. The power uptake of the implant, depending on the induction parameters as well as on its position within the induction coil, is shown. Thermographic measurements are carried out in order to determine the surface temperature distribution of the implant. In order to simulate biological tissue, the implant was embedded in agarose gel. Suitable heating parameters, in terms of a short heating process in combination with a reduced heat impact on the surrounding environment, were determined.

  19. Induction of Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Colon Cancer Cells by Defined Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Nobu

    2014-01-01

    Oshima N, Yamada Y, Nagayama S, Kawada K, Hasegawa S, et al. (2014) Induction of Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Colon Cancer Cells by Defined Factors. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101735

  20. Clinical Judgment: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, Nancy L.; Weiss, Amy L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of research on clinical judgment and decision making in medicine and psychology and urges the incorporation of clinical judgment into the speech-language pathology field. The accuracy of clinical judgment, methods of its study, and suggestions for incorporating it into professional training are considered.…

  1. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  2. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  3. Marking as Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of assessment which has received little attention compared with perennial concerns, such as standards or reliability, is the role of judgment in marking. This paper explores marking as an act of judgment, paying particular attention to the nature of judgment and the processes involved. It brings together studies which have explored…

  4. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  5. Induction and properties of guinea pig serum interferon. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolewajka, E; Mikolajski, K; Kapp-Burzyńska, Z; Trzeciak, J; Wrona, M

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs, 250-350 g body weight, both sexes, were injected with 5X10(8.5) EID50 NDV (Radom strain) intracardially and intraperitoneally simultaneously. The animals were bled by cardiac puncture 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after injection. After virus inactivation, serum interferon titration was performed in cultures of guinea pig embryo kidney cells with 50 percent plaque inhibition test using VSV. The highest interferon titer (64 u./ml) was found after 6 hours of inductor injection. Interferon titer decreased quickly and after 12 hours it was lower than 16 u./ml. Guinea pig serum interferon induced by NDV was resistant to pH 2 and 56 degrees C during 1 hour. Interferon was inactivated by trypsin. The decribed interferon did not protect heterologous species cells (swine) against Teschen Disease Virus infection. Other properties of this interferon are being studied.

  6. Alternative oxidase: distribution, induction, properties, structure, regulation, and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, A G; Sukhanova, E I; Uralskaya, L A; Aliverdieva, D A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2014-12-01

    The respiratory chain in the majority of organisms with aerobic type metabolism features the concomitant existence of the phosphorylating cytochrome pathway and the cyanide- and antimycin A-insensitive oxidative route comprising a so-called alternative oxidase (AOX) as a terminal oxidase. In this review, the history of AOX discovery is described. Considerable evidence is presented that AOX occurs widely in organisms at various levels of organization and is not confined to the plant kingdom. This enzyme has not been found only in Archaea, mammals, some yeasts and protists. Bioinformatics research revealed the sequences characteristic of AOX in representatives of various taxonomic groups. Based on multiple alignments of these sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to infer their possible evolution. The ways of AOX activation, as well as regulatory interactions between AOX and the main respiratory chain are described. Data are summarized concerning the properties of AOX and the AOX-encoding genes whose expression is either constitutive or induced by various factors. Information is presented on the structure of AOX, its active center, and the ubiquinone-binding site. The principal functions of AOX are analyzed, including the cases of cell survival, optimization of respiratory metabolism, protection against excess of reactive oxygen species, and adaptation to variable nutrition sources and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is emphasized that different AOX functions complement each other in many instances and are not mutually exclusive. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX is an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals. This is the first comprehensive review on alternative oxidases of various organisms ranging from yeasts and protists to vascular plants.

  7. Effects of induction heat treatment on mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭超群; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉

    2002-01-01

    The effects of rapid heating cyclic heat treatment on mechanical properties of a TiAl-based alloy (Ti-33Al-3Cr) were studied by means of an induction heating machine. The results show that: 1) fine fully-lamellar microstructure with colony size of about 50 μm and lamellar spacing of about 0.12 μm can be obtained; 2) the compression mechanical properties can be improved to a large extent and the best comprehensive compression mechanical properties can reach the yield stress 745 MPa, the large flow stress 1 672 MPa and the compression ratio 19.4%; and 3) the compression fracture at room temperature after induction heat treatment and aging is still typical cleavage fracture.

  8. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    , in this paper, been characterized for their temperature-dependent magnetic properties. The properties have been measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, able to reach to 350 °C. The established material database comprises the B–H loops, from which the mean B–H curve, relative permeability versus magnetic......To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  9. Receptivity and judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Nedelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both judgment and receptivity are important to optimal politics, and both are important to each other. In making this argument, I use an Arendtian conception of judgment and take mindfulness as an example of receptivity. I argue that receptivity offers a needed dimension to addressing the puzzles of what makes Arendtian judgment possible, and that judgment provides a necessary complement to receptivity for action in the world. Exploring this complementary relation between judgment and receptivity also reveals a surprising similarity between what each offers to the practice of politics, in particular to freedom and the possibility of transformation. At the same time, I argue, these important contributions to politics are best understood and realized if judgment and receptivity are thought of as distinct forms of relating to the world.

  10. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  11. Mistaking Judgments of the Agreeable and Judgments of Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Raven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant develops a rigorous formulation of aesthetic judgments, in which he makes a sharp distinction between judgments of taste and judgments of the agreeable (both of which are, I claim, types of aesthetic judgments if only to dismiss judgments of the agreeable as worthy objects of study. Kant is primarily concerned with judgments of taste, the main example of which is judging something to be beautiful (whether it be a work of art or a natural object. He asserts that such judgments are subjective, universal, necessary, disinterested, and do not presuppose a purpose. The other type of aesthetic judgment are judgments of the agreeable, “which are the kind of judgment expressed by saying simply that one likes something or finds it pleasing.” These are judgments of what, in Kant’s words, please “the senses in sensation” as opposed to pleasing ourcognition in reflection.

  12. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  13. Judgments in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Charles Alderson

    2009-01-01

    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.

  14. Inductive heat property of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in AC magnetic field for local hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Donglin; ZENG Xianwei; XIA Qisheng; TANG Jintian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with different magnetic properties were prepared by coprecipitation of Fe3+ and Fe2+ with aqueous NaOH solution.The inductive heat properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in an alternating current (AC) magnetic field were investigated for local hyperthermia. The maximum saunder the optimum conditions of Fe3+:Fe2+ molar ratio at 1.8:1. The Ms of Fe3O4 nanoparticles decreased as the Fe3+ /Fe2+ molar ratio increased. But the coercivity Hc increases with the increasing of Fe3+ /Fe2+ molar ratio. Exposed in the AC magnetic field for 29 min, the temperatures of physiological saline suspension containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were 42-97.5 ℃.The inductive heat property of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in AC magnetic field decreases as Hc increases, but increases with the increasing of Ms. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles would be useful as good thermoseeds for localized hyperthermia treatment of cancers.

  15. A new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier and its physical and biological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nano-carbon and iron composite―carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (CCINs) produced by carbon arc method can be used as a new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier for cancer therapy. The structure and morphology of CCINs are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mossbauer spectra of these nanoparticles show that they contain only iron and carbon, without ferric carbide and ferric oxide. CCINs can be used as the magnetic drug carrier, with the effect of targeting magnetic induction heating in its inner core and higher drug adsorption in its nano-carbon shell outside because of its high specific surface area. CCINs can absorb Epirubicin (EPI) of 160 μg/mg measured by an optical spectrometer. In acute toxicity experiment with mice, the median lethal dose (LD50) of EPI is 16.9 mg/kg, while that of EPI-CCINs mixture is 20.7 mg/kg and none of the mice died after pure CCINs medication. The results show that pure CCINs belong to non-toxic grade and EPI delivery in mixture with CCINs can reduce its acute toxicity in mice. The magnetic properties of CCINs and their magnetic induction heating are investigated. The iron nanoparticle in its inner core has better magnetism with a good effect on targeting magnetic induction heating. When the CCINs are mixed with physiological salt water and are injected uniformly in pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 48℃. While in the case that CCINs are filled in a certain section of pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 52℃. In both cases the temperature is high enough to kill the cancer cell. CCINs have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  16. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  17. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  18. Clinical Judgment and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Addressed the limitations of previous work on counselor clinical judgment in a study involving 20 counselors who were asked to make a series of judgments. Results suggested the judgment processes of experienced counselors making diagnoses of affective disorders differs depending on the type of judgment. (JAC)

  19. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T. Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y. M.

    2011-11-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  20. Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster Model with Time-Evolution of Energy and State Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sankaran, Kamesh

    2012-01-01

    A model for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration is presented that consists of a set of circuit equations coupled to both a one-dimensional equation of motion and an equation governing the partitioning of energy. The latter two equations are obtained for the plasma current sheet by treating it as a single element of finite volume and integrating the governing equations over that volume. The integrated terms are replaced where necessary by physically-equivalent quantities that are calculated through the solution of other parts of the governing equation set. The model improves upon previous one-dimensional performance models by permitting the time-evolution of the energy and state properties of the plasma, the latter allowing for the tailoring of the model to different gases that may be chosen as propellants. The time evolution of the various energy modes in the system and the associated plasma properties, calculated for argon propellant, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the model. The model produces a result where efficiency is maximized at a given value of the electrodynamic scaling term known as the dynamic impedance parameter. Qualitatively and quantitatively, the model compares favorably with performance measured for two separate inductive pulsed plasma thrusters, with disagreements attributable to simplifying assumptions employed in the generation of the model solution.

  1. The optoelectronic properties of silicon films deposited by inductively coupled plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Yanli; Yan Hengqing; Li Fei; Qiao Li; Liu Qiming [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films were deposited by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) at low substrate temperatures using H{sub 2}-diluted SiH{sub 4} as a source gas. High-density plasma generated by inductively coupled excitation facilitates the crystallization of silicon films at low temperatures, and microcrystalline silicon films were obtained at the substrate temperature as low as 180 deg. C. The columnar structure of the films becomes more and more compact with an increase of their crystallinity. The reduction of hydrogen content in the films causes a narrowing of the optical bandgap and an enhancement of the absorption with increasing the substrate temperature. The microcrystalline silicon films show two electronic transport mechanisms: one is related to the density of state distribution in the temperature region near room temperature and the other is the variable range hopping between localized electronic states close to the Fermi level below 170 K. A reasonable explanation is presented for the dependence of the optoelectronic properties on the microstructure of the silicon films. The films prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 deg. C have highly crystalline and compact columnar structure, high optical absorption coefficient and electrical conductivity, and a low hydrogen content of 3.8%.

  2. Apoptosis-Like Cell Death Induction and Aberrant Fibroblast Properties in Human Incisional Hernia Fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ramon; Quiles, Maria T.; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Lopez-Cano, Manuel; Huguet, Pere; Ramon-y-Cajal, Santiago; Reventos, Jaume; Armengol, Manel; Arbos, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Incisional hernia often occurs following laparotomy and can be a source of serious problems. Although there is evidence that a biological cause may underlie its development, the mechanistic link between the local tissue microenvironment and tissue rupture is lacking. In this study, we used matched tissue-based and in vitro primary cell culture systems to examine the possible involvement of fascia fibroblasts in incisional hernia pathogenesis. Fascia biopsies were collected at surgery from incisional hernia patients and non-incisional hernia controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histology and immunoblotting methods. Fascia primary fibroblast cultures were assessed at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. We document tissue and fibroblast loss coupled to caspase-3 activation and induction of apoptosis-like cell-death mechanisms in incisional hernia fascia. Alterations in cytoskeleton organization and solubility were also observed. Incisional hernia fibroblasts showed a consistent phenotype throughout early passages in vitro, which was characterized by significantly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, reduced adhesion, and altered cytoskeleton properties, as compared to non-incisional hernia fibroblasts. Moreover, incisional hernia fibroblasts displayed morphological and ultrastructural alterations compatible with autophagic processes or lysosomal dysfunction, together with enhanced sensitivity to proapoptotic challenges. Overall, these data suggest an ongoing complex interplay of cell death induction, aberrant fibroblast function, and tissue loss in incisional hernia fascia, which may significantly contribute to altered matrix maintenance and tissue rupture in vivo. PMID:21641387

  3. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of firm using the Knightian concept of entrepreneurship as judgment. When judgment is complementary to other as-sets, and these assets or their services are traded in well-functioning markets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labor...... and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...... agreements, means of evaluating perform-ance, and so on — can be designed to encourage forms of proxy-entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics, and the economic theory of the firm we...

  4. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then......, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his or her control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncetainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners may delegate a wide range of decision rights...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  5. Clinical Judgments of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated degree to which judges could simulate Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) responses of a clinically depressed patient group. Judgmental profiles of depressed patients indicated very high reliabilities across information conditions, a high association with actual profiles of clinically depressed patients, and differentiation from other…

  6. Variability of Creativity Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Xavier; Besancon, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), developed by Amabile [Amabile, T.M. (1982). "Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 43, 997-1013], is frequently used to evaluate the creativity of productions. Judgments obtained with CAT are usually reliable and valid.…

  7. Benchmarking Judgmentally Adjusted Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice, usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights given

  8. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights

  9. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  10. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  11. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  12. Crime and Punishment: Distinguishing the Roles of Causal and Intentional Analyses in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Fiery

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in moral psychology has attempted to characterize patterns of moral judgments of actions in terms of the causal and intentional properties of those actions. The present study directly compares the roles of consequence, causation, belief and desire in determining moral judgments. Judgments of the wrongness or permissibility of…

  13. Judgments about Judgments: The Dissociation of Consideration Price and Transaction Commitment Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Chris; Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Belyavsky, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There are many contexts in which people make judgments about prior judgments. For example, Internet shopping bots (e.g., NexTag.com) allow consumers to search for products and, if the price is too high, list a price at which they would consider making the purchase (i.e., base judgment). If the price drops to this level, the vendor generates an…

  14. Clinical versus actuarial judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, R M; Faust, D; Meehl, P E

    1989-03-31

    Professionals are frequently consulted to diagnose and predict human behavior; optimal treatment and planning often hinge on the consultant's judgmental accuracy. The consultant may rely on one of two contrasting approaches to decision-making--the clinical and actuarial methods. Research comparing these two approaches shows the actuarial method to be superior. Factors underlying the greater accuracy of actuarial methods, sources of resistance to the scientific findings, and the benefits of increased reliance on actuarial approaches are discussed.

  15. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Effect of Induction Heat Bending Process on the Properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C Carbon Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Recently, the bending process is greatly applied to fabricate the pipe line. Bending process can reduce welding joints and then decrease the number of inspection. Thus, the maintenance cost will be reduced. Induction heat bending process is composed of bending deformation by repeated local heat and cooling. By this thermal process, corrosion properties and microstructure can be affected. This work focused on the effect of induction heating bending process on the properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C low carbon steel pipes. Microstructure analysis, hardness measurements, and immersion corrosion test were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. Hardness was measured using a Rockwell B scale. Induction heat bending process has influenced upon the size and distribution of ferrite and pearlite phases which were transformed into finer structure than those of base metal. Even though the fine microstructure, every bent area showed a little lower hardness than that of base metal. It is considered that softening by the bending process may be arisen. Except of I2, intrados area, the others showed a similar corrosion rate to that of base metal. But even relatively high rate of intrados area was very low and acceptable. Therefore, it is judged that induction heat bending process didn't affect boric acid corrosion behaviour of carbon steel.

  17. Clinical judgment and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N

    2005-01-01

    When clinical psychologists make judgments, are they likely to be correct or incorrect? The following topics are reviewed: (a) methodological advances in evaluating the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, (b) recent findings on the cognitive processes of clinicians, and (c) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions made by mental health professionals. Results from research on clinical judgment and decision making and their relationship to conflicts within the field of clinical psychology are discussed.

  18. Predication and judgment in Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Landim Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I present an interpretation of Thomas Aquinas's theory of judgment (statement, examining semantic, epistemological and ontological aspects of this theory. Elements of judgment such as concepts, phantasms, predication (combination and division, reflection, affirmation, truth and falsity are explained. The article shows that this interpretation of Aquinas's theory of judgment may contribute to clarify fundamental distinctions (such as the distinctions between being, essence and existence of Aquinas's metaphysics.

  19. Associative processes in intuitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Kahneman, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Dual-system models of reasoning attribute errors of judgment to two failures: the automatic operations of a 'System 1' generate a faulty intuition, which the controlled operations of a 'System 2' fail to detect and correct. We identify System 1 with the automatic operations of associative memory and draw on research in the priming paradigm to describe how it operates. We explain how three features of associative memory--associative coherence, attribute substitution and processing fluency--give rise to major biases of intuitive judgment. Our article highlights both the ability of System 1 to create complex and skilled judgments and the role of the system as a source of judgment errors.

  20. How similar are recognition memory and inductive reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, memory and reasoning are seen as different types of cognitive activities driven by different processes. In two experiments, we challenged this view by examining the relationship between recognition memory and inductive reasoning involving multiple forms of similarity. A common study set (members of a conjunctive category) was followed by a test set containing old and new category members, as well as items that matched the study set on only one dimension. The study and test sets were presented under recognition or induction instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inductive property being generalized was varied in order to direct attention to different dimensions of similarity. When there was no time pressure on decisions, patterns of positive responding were strongly affected by property type, indicating that different types of similarity were driving recognition and induction. By comparison, speeded judgments showed weaker property effects and could be explained by generalization based on overall similarity. An exemplar model, GEN-EX (GENeralization from EXamples), could account for both the induction and recognition data. These findings show that induction and recognition share core component processes, even when the tasks involve flexible forms of similarity.

  1. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823244

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  2. Modeling Rehabilitation Counselor Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluate three proposed models of the rehabilitation counselor judgment process. Counselors made multiple judgments about clients whose information systematically varied across three dimensions. These data were then analyzed using path analytic techniques to determine which of the models was the best description of the process rehabilitation…

  3. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Improved magnetic induction heating of nanoferrites for hyperthermia applications: Correlation with colloidal stability and magneto-structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khot, V.M., E-mail: wish_khot@yahoo.co.in [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006 (India); Salunkhe, A.B. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule University of Pune (India); Ruso, J.M. [Soft Matter and Molecular Biophysics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pawar, S.H. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D. Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Nanoferrites with compositions Mn{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Co{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (MZF, CZF and NZF respectively) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared in a single step. These nanoparticles are highly water dispersible with zeta potential values between 14 and 21 mV. Magnetic induction heating characteristics of these NPs have been studied as a function of magnetic field amplitude from 6.7 to 26.7 kA m{sup −1} (at fixed frequency 265 kHz) and concentration of nanoparticles. Notable enhancement in specific absorption rate (334.5 W g{sup −1}) by CZF nanoparticles has been observed. This enhanced induction heating properties have been studied and correlated with colloidal stability and magnetostructural properties such as tuned magnetic anisotropy arising from zinc substitution. Cytotoxicity of synthesized mixed ferrites has been evaluated in vitro on HeLa cell lines using MTT assay to explore their use as heating agents in magnetic hyperthermia. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoferrites (sizes 8–12 nm) with improved specific absorption rate (334.5 W g{sup −1}) at lowest particle concentration have been prepared • The results have been explained by correlating colloidal stability and magnetostructural properties such as magnetocrystalline anisotropy. • It has been shown that substitution of zinc tunes anisotropy of cobalt iron oxide within the value optimized previously in achieving high throughput in magnetic induction heating. • In vitro cytotoxicity proves nanoparticles are non-toxic suggesting their use as a potential heating agent in hyperthermia therapy.

  5. Flow-field differences and electromagnetic-field properties of air and N2 inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A numerical model for simulating air and nitrogen inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) was developed considering thermochemical nonequilibrium and the third-order electron transport properties. A modified far-field electromagnetic model was introduced and tightly coupled with the flow field equations to describe the Joule heating and inductive discharge phenomena. In total, 11 species and 49 chemical reactions of air, which include 5 species and 8 chemical reactions of nitrogen, were employed to model the chemical reaction process. The internal energy transfers among translational, vibrational, rotational, and electronic energy modes of chemical species were taken into account to study thermal nonequilibrium effects. The low-Reynolds number Abe-Kondoh-Nagano k-ɛ turbulence model was employed to consider the turbulent heat transfer. In this study, the fundamental characteristics of an ICP flow, such as the weak ionization, high temperature but low velocity in the torch, and wide area of the plasma plume, were reproduced by the developed numerical model. The flow field differences between the air and nitrogen ICP flows inside the 10-kW ICP wind tunnel were made clear. The interactions between the electromagnetic and flow fields were also revealed for an inductive discharge.

  6. Role of kinetic inductance in transport properties of shunted superconducting nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Roy, Dibyendu

    2013-08-14

    Recently, transport measurements have been carried out in resistively shunted long superconducting nanowires (Brenner et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 224507). The measured voltage-current (V-I) characteristics were explained by the appearance of the phase slip centers in the shunted wire, and the whole wire was modeled as a single Josephson junction. The kinetic inductance of the long nanowires used in experiments is generally large. Here we argue that the shunted superconducting nanowire acts as a Josephson junction in series with an inductor. The inductance depends on the length and the cross section of the wire. The inclusion of inductance in our analysis modifies the V-I curves, and increases the rate of switching from the superconducting state to the resistive state. The quantitative differences can be quite large in some practical parameter sets, and might be important to properly understand the experimental results. Our proposed model can be verified experimentally by studying the shunted superconducting nanowires of different lengths and cross sections.

  7. Cloze, Maze, and Teacher Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.; Pikulski, Edna C.

    1977-01-01

    When cloze and maze scores are compared with teacher judgment in establishing the independent, instructional, and fustration levels of students, both techniques tend to overestimate a child's ability. (HOD)

  8. Structural flexibility of moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, D L; Denton, K L; Vermeulen, S C; Carpendale, J I; Bush, A

    1991-12-01

    One of the central assumptions of Kohlberg's theory of moral development--that moral judgment is organized in structures of the whole--was examined. Thirty men and 30 women were given 2 dilemmas from Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview, a 3rd involving prosocial behavior, and a 4th involving impaired driving. Half the Ss responded to the prosocial and impaired-driving dilemmas from the perspective of a hypothetical character, and half responded from the perspective of the self. No sex or perspective differences in moral maturity were observed. Ss scored highest in moral maturity on Kohlberg's dilemmas, intermediate on the prosocial dilemma, and lowest on the impaired-driving dilemma. In partial support of Kohlberg's contention that his test assesses moral competence, there was a negative linear relationship between scores on his test and the proportion of Stage 2 judgments on the 2 other dilemmas. An interactional model of moral judgment is advanced.

  9. Magnetic properties of zero-magnetostrictive nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-Nb-B soft magnetic alloys with high magnetic induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, A.; Bitoh, T. E-mail: teruo_bitoh@akita-pu.ac.jp; Kojima, A.; Inoue, A.; Masumoto, T

    2000-06-02

    The soft magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-Nb-B alloys have been investigated. The best soft magnetic properties have been obtained for the Fe{sub 85.5}Zr{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 8.5} alloy. The alloy shows a high permeability of 60,000 at 1 kHz, a high magnetic induction of 1.64 T and zero magnetostriction, simultaneously. The alloy also exhibits a very low core loss of 0.09 W/kg at 1.4 T and 50 Hz, which is extremely lower than that of Fe-Si-B amorphous. The nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-Nb-B alloy is therefore suitable for a core material for pole transformers.

  10. Influence of induction hardening parameters on the GS30Mn5 weld properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines parameters of post-weld heat treatment on the test specimens made of cast steel GS30Mn5. The welding is performed with shielded metal arc welding (SMAW process. The aim is to obtain the surface without illicit cracks, with hardness ranging from 320 up to 400 HB. After induction heating, the specimens are cooled alternately with air and water. Decreased speed of quenching results in avoiding the occurrence of illicit splashes, while the hardness is maintained within the prescribed limits.

  11. Research on Judgment Aggregation Based on Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preference aggregation and judgment aggregation are two basic research models of group decision making. And preference aggregation has been deeply studied in social choice theory. However, researches of social choice theory gradually focus on judgment aggregation which appears recently. Judgment aggregation focuses on how to aggregate many consistent logical formulas into one, from the perspective of logic. We try to start with judgment aggregation model based on logic and then explore different solutions to problem of judgment aggregation.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties control of γ-TiAl(Nb, Cr, Zr) intermetallic alloy by induction float zone processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, A.V., E-mail: karta@korolev-net.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (TISNCM), 7a Centralnaya str., 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Asnis, E.A.; Piskun, N.V.; Statkevich, I.I. [The E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, 11 Bozhenko str., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gorshenkov, M.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Induction float zoning of as-synthesized Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr (at.%) alloy. • Special ordered phase microstructure engineering by FZ conditions. • Refining effect by FZ with respect to dissolved oxygen. • Comparative compression testing. • Drastic enhancement of mechanical properties. - Abstract: Advanced Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr (at.%) structural alloy was previously synthesized by the electron beam semi-continuous casting technique. The rod-shaped blanks of raw alloy with irregular coarse microstructure have been directionally upward re-solidified by the vertical induction float zone (FZ) technique in argon flow. FZ processing led to specific duplex microstructure creation consisting of (γ + α{sub 2}) lamellar colonies and γ grains with minor intergranular fraction of B2 phase. The grain size, interlamellar spacing and ordered axial alignment of lamellae along the applied thermal gradient were controlled by FZ conditions. Structure, phase and elemental composition were analyzed with XRD, SEM, EBSD and hot gas extraction techniques. Mechanical properties were comparatively examined by uniaxial compression testing at ambient temperature. It was shown that (1) fine submicron interlamellar spacing; (2) ordered lamellae alignment; (3) relative volumetric ratio of (γ + α{sub 2})/γ/B2 structural-phase constituents and (4) dissolved oxygen content are the key parameters for controlling the compressive properties of FZ-alloy. Both yield strength, and ultimate compressive strength enhance drastically as a result of the FZ processing, being in correlation with the duplex microstructure development and refining of the material from oxygen.

  13. Feminist Judgments as Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hunter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses feminist judgments as a specific vehicle for teaching students to think critically about law. The analysis of appellate judgments forms a central plank of Anglo-Commonwealth and US jurisprudence and legal education. While academic scholarship generally offers various forms of commentary on decided cases, feminist judgment-writing projects have recently embarked on a new form of critical scholarship. Rather than critiquing judgments from a feminist perspective in academic essays, the participants in these projects have set out instead to write alternative judgments, as if they had been one of the judges sitting on the court at the time. After introducing the UK Feminist Judgments Project and describing what is ‘different’ about the judgments it has produced, the paper explains some of the ways in which these judgments have been used in UK law schools to teach critical thinking. The paper finally speculates on the potential production and application of feminist judgments or their equivalents beyond the common law context. Este artículo analiza las sentencias feministas como un vehículo específico para enseñar a los estudiantes a analizar el derecho desde un punto de vista crítico. El análisis de las sentencias de apelación constituye un elemento central de la jurisprudencia y la enseñanza del derecho en los países angloamericanos y de la Commonwealth. Mientras la comunidad académica ofrece generalmente diversas formas de comentario de casos resueltos, los proyectos de literatura judicial feminista se han embarcado recientemente en un nuevo sistema de crítica académica. En lugar de redactar ensayos académicos criticando las sentencias judiciales desde una perspectiva feminista, los participantes de estos proyectos se han propuesto redactar sentencias alternativas, como si hubieran sido uno de los jueces del tribunal en cuestión. Después de presentar el Proyecto de Sentencias Feministas del Reino Unido y

  14. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  15. A Study on the Development of Social Thinking Abilities and Judgment Abilities in Junior High School Students I : Through the Analysis of the Questionnaire Using Contents of the History

    OpenAIRE

    梅津, 正美; 加藤, 寿朗; 前田, 健一; 新見,直子; 大島, 悟; 竹崎, 葉子; 原, 義昭; 前島, 美佐江

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify developmental transformations in social perception through a developmental survey which focuses on social thinking abilities and judgment abilities in junior high school students. This survey and analysis, while assuming social thinking abilities and judgment abilities in the context of social sciences to be composed of the five elements of actual judgment abilities, inductive inference abilities, deductive reasoning abilities, social judgment abiliti...

  16. Unexpected properties of the inductively coupled plasma induced defect in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, S.M.M., E-mail: sergio@up.ac.za; Auret, F.D.; Janse van Rensburg, P.J.; Nel, J.M.

    2014-04-15

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of germanium introduces a single defect, the E{sub 0.31} electron trap, for a large range of argon partial pressures from 4×10{sup –3} to 6.5×10{sup –4} mbar that correspond to ion energies of 8 to 60 eV. Ge of three crystallographic orientations, (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1), treated with 20 and 60 eV ICP had defect concentration profiles that were similar in appearance, with a maximum concentration of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} extending more than a µm into the material, approximately three orders of magnitude deeper than what TRIM simulations predicted. All profiles were measured using Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy (L-DLTS), a technique that is sensitive to defect concentrations as low as 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}. Isochronal annealing of samples showed concentration curves broadening after a 400 K anneal and decreasing to the 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} level after a 450 K anneal. Unannealed samples measured after a year exhibited similar decreases in defect concentration without broadening of their profiles. A 550 K anneal lowered the defect concentration to levels below the L-DLTS detection limit. Thereafter additional plasma treatment of the surface failed to reintroduce this defect indicating that the structure required for the formation of E{sub 0.31} was no longer present in the region under observation.

  17. Choriodecidual Cells from Term Human Pregnancies Show Distinctive Functional Properties Related to the Induction of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martín; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Problem Human parturition is associated with an intrauterine pro-inflammatory environment in the choriodecidua. Evidence that some mediators of this signaling cascade also elicit responses leading to labor prompted us to characterize the cellular sources of these mediators in the human choriodecidua. Method of study Leukocyte-enriched preparations from human choriodecidua (ChL) and intervillous placental blood leukocytes (PL) were maintained in culture. Secretions of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and MMP-9 were documented. Leukocyte phenotype of ChL and PL was determined by flow cytometry using specific fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. Results and Conclusions ChL showed a distinct pro-inflammatory secretion pattern of cytokines and chemokines when compared with PL, including higher amounts of TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased secretions of IL-4 and IL-1ra. ChL also secreted more MIP-1α and MCP-1 and MMP-9 than PL. No significant differences were found in leukocytes subsets between compartments. Based on our findings, we propose that ChL isolated from fetal membranes at term are functionally different from PL and may collaborate to modulate the microenvironment linked to induction and progression of human labor. PMID:24286217

  18. Measuring atomic oxygen densities and electron properties in an Inductively Coupled Plasma for thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, David; Gibson, Andrew; Booth, Jean-Paul; Wagenaars, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Plasma Enhanced Pulsed Laser Deposition (PE-PLD) is an advanced way of depositing thin films of oxide materials by using a laser to ablate a target, and passing the resulting plasma plume through a background Inductively-Coupled Plasma (ICP), instead of a background gas as is done in traditional PLD. The main advantage of PE-PLD is the control of film stoichiometry via the direct control of the reactive oxygen species in the ICP instead of relying on a neutral gas background. The aim is to deposit zinc oxide films from a zinc metal target and an oxygen ICP. In this work, we characterise the range of compositions of the reactive oxygen species achievable in ICPs; in particular the atomic oxygen density. The density of atomic oxygen has been determined within two ICPs of two different geometries over a range of plasma powers and pressures with the use of Energy Resolved Actinometry (ERA). ERA is a robust diagnostic technique with determines both the dissociation degree and average electron energy by comparing the excitation ratios of two oxygen and one argon transition. Alongside this the electron densities have been determined with the use of a hairpin probe. This work received financial support from the EPSRC, and York-Paris CIRC.

  19. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.C.; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N.; Groot, J. de; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solutio

  20. Induction of cancer stem cell properties in colon cancer cells by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobu Oshima

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered to be responsible for the dismal prognosis of cancer patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition and maintenance of CSC properties in cancer cells because of their rarity in clinical samples. We herein induced CSC properties in cancer cells using defined factors. We retrovirally introduced a set of defined factors (OCT3/4, SOX2 and KLF4 into human colon cancer cells, followed by culture with conventional serum-containing medium, not human embryonic stem cell medium. We then evaluated the CSC properties in the cells. The colon cancer cells transduced with the three factors showed significantly enhanced CSC properties in terms of the marker gene expression, sphere formation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. We designated the cells with CSC properties induced by the factors, a subset of the transduced cells, as induced CSCs (iCSCs. Moreover, we established a novel technology to isolate and collect the iCSCs based on the differences in the degree of the dye-effluxing activity enhancement. The xenografts derived from our iCSCs were not teratomas. Notably, in contrast to the tumors from the parental cancer cells, the iCSC-based tumors mimicked actual human colon cancer tissues in terms of their immunohistological findings, which showed colonic lineage differentiation. In addition, we confirmed that the phenotypes of our iCSCs were reproducible in serial transplantation experiments. By introducing defined factors, we generated iCSCs with lineage specificity directly from cancer cells, not via an induced pluripotent stem cell state. The novel method enables us to obtain abundant materials of CSCs that not only have enhanced tumorigenicity, but also the ability to differentiate to recapitulate a specific type of cancer tissues. Our method can be of great value to fully understand CSCs and develop new therapies targeting CSCs.

  1. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, A C; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N; de Groot, J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solution with ribose to induce the formation of AGEs or in a control solution. Portions of cartilage samples were assayed for biochemical indices of AGEs and tested to assess their tensile biomechanical p...

  2. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  3. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...

  4. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people w

  5. Effect of continuous induction annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper-clad aluminum flat bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-hua; Jiang, Yan-bin; Zhang, Hong-jie; Xie, Jian-xin

    2016-12-01

    Copper-clad aluminum (CCA) flat bars produced by the continuous casting-rolling process were subjected to continuous induction heating annealing (CIHA), and the effects of induction heating temperature and holding time on the microstructure, interface, and mechanical properties of the flat bars were investigated. The results showed that complete recrystallization of the copper sheath occurred under CIHA at 460°C for 5 s, 480°C for 3 s, or 500°C for 1 s and that the average grain size in the copper sheath was approximately 10.0 μm. In the case of specimens subjected to CIHA at 460-500°C for longer than 1 s, complete recrystallization occurred in the aluminum core. In the case of CIHA at 460-500°C for 1-5 s, a continuous interfacial layer with a thickness of 2.5-5.5 μm formed and the thickness mainly increased with increasing annealing temperature. After CIHA, the interfacial layer consisted primarily of a Cu9Al4 layer and a CuAl2 layer; the average interface shear strength of the CCA flat bars treated by CIHA at 460-500°C for 1-5 s was 45-52 MPa. After full softening annealing, the hardness values of the copper sheath and the aluminum core were HV 65 and HV 24, respectively, and the hardness along the cross section of the CCA flat bar was uniform.

  6. Improving Accuracy in a Clinical Judgmental Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Erich L.; Jackson, Douglas N.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to identify kinds of information leading to increased accuracy of clinical judgments. Results confirm the feasibility of increasing accuracy in meaningful clinical judgment tasks through practice and of studying clinical judgment by using construct-oriented personality scales to which targets bear a substantive…

  7. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  8. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  9. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  12. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  13. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  14. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  15. Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Social Judgment Theory is a way to explain when persuasive messages are most likely to succeed and how people make judgments about them. This theory is often covered in communication theory and persuasion courses, but is also applicable when discussing persuasion in basic speech and introductory communication courses. Social Judgment Theory…

  16. Brain correlates of aesthetic judgment of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Höfel, Lea; Cramon, D Yves V

    2006-01-01

    Functional MRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of aesthetic judgments of beauty of geometrical shapes. Participants performed evaluative aesthetic judgments (beautiful or not?) and descriptive symmetry judgments (symmetric or not?) on the same stimulus material. Symmetry was employed because aesthetic judgments are known to be often guided by criteria of symmetry. Novel, abstract graphic patterns were presented to minimize influences of attitudes or memory-related processes and to test effects of stimulus symmetry and complexity. Behavioral results confirmed the influence of stimulus symmetry and complexity on aesthetic judgments. Direct contrasts showed specific activations for aesthetic judgments in the frontomedian cortex (BA 9/10), bilateral prefrontal BA 45/47, and posterior cingulate, left temporal pole, and the temporoparietal junction. In contrast, symmetry judgments elicited specific activations in parietal and premotor areas subserving spatial processing. Interestingly, beautiful judgments enhanced BOLD signals not only in the frontomedian cortex, but also in the left intraparietal sulcus of the symmetry network. Moreover, stimulus complexity caused differential effects for each of the two judgment types. Findings indicate aesthetic judgments of beauty to rely on a network partially overlapping with that underlying evaluative judgments on social and moral cues and substantiate the significance of symmetry and complexity for our judgment of beauty.

  17. Investigating the Effect of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl on the Properties of Unleaded Motor Gasoline (1):Induction Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Changbo; Xiong Chunhua; Liu Huiying; Wei Rui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of MMT on the induction period of unleaded motor gasoline was studied, the manganese concentration, storage period of MMT-blended gasoline and environmental variables such as temperature and radiation intensity were considered to be main factors affecting the induction period of gasoline,when MMT-blended gasoline was exposed to light. It is found from experiments that the addition of MMT can improve the induction period of gasoline that is shielded from light, and reduce the induction period remarkably,when the gasoline is exposed to light. However, the radiation intensity is proved to be the leading influencing factor among all the environmental variables investigated.

  18. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece......Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...

  19. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    probably agree that John Updike is a more representative American writer than Norman Mailer. rlearly, such a judgment does not have a frequentistic...example, in an early study we presented people with the following description, " John is 27 years old, with an outgoing personality. At college he was an...outstanding athlete but did not show much ability or interest in in- tellectual matters". We found that John was judged to be more likely to be "a gym

  20. To Push or Not to Push? Affective Influences on Moral Judgment Depend on Decision Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Gleixner, Sabine; Neuhauser, Theresa; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2013-01-01

    People's moods can influence moral judgment. Such influences may arise because moods affect moral emotion, or because moods affect moral thought. The present study provides evidence that, at least in the footbridge dilemma, moods affect moral thought. The results of two experiments are reported in which, after induction of positive, negative, or…

  1. Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Jens, E-mail: J.Hirsch@emw.hs-anhalt.de [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Gaudig, Maria; Bernhard, Norbert [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Lausch, Dominik [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of black silicon through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing. • Suppressed formation a self-bias and therefore a reduced ion bombardment of the silicon sample. • Reduction of the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8% within 5 min ICP process time. • Reflection is almost independent of the angle of incidence up to 60°. • 2.5 ms effective lifetime at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} MCD after ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation. - Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60°. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique

  2. Children's judgments about ownership rights and body rights: Evidence for a common basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Meinz, Paul; Friedman, Ori

    2017-03-01

    We report two experiments supporting the theory that children's understanding of ownership rights is related to their notions of body rights. Experiment 1 investigated 4- to 7-year-olds' (N=123) developing sensitivity to physical contact in their judgments about the acceptability of behaving in relation to owned objects and body parts. Experiment 2 used a simpler design to investigate this in 3- and 4-year-olds (N=112). Findings confirmed two predictions of the theory. First, in both experiments, children's judgments about ownership and body rights were similarly affected by physical contact. Second, judgments about both kinds of rights were yoked in development; age-related changes in judgments about ownership rights were paralleled by changes in judgments about body rights. Our findings have additional import for theories of ownership rights because they suggest that physical contact may be a crucial factor in whether behaviors targeting property are judged to be permissible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  4. Does momentary accessibility influence metacomprehension judgments? The influence of study-judgment lags on accessibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julie M C; Dunlosky, John

    2006-02-01

    In two experiments, we investigated momentary accessibility as a basis for metacomprehension judgments. Momentary accessibility has been cited as a major contributor to these judgments, yet the only previous investigation on the topic used judgments that were delayed a day after study, which have not been used in any other studies in the field and may be necessary for demonstrating accessibility-based effects. As expected, Experiment 1 demonstrated that the time between study and judgments moderates accessibility effects, with the relationship between judgments and access measures being substantially greater for delayed than for immediate judgments. Experiment 2 ruled out a plausible artifactual interpretation for accessibility effects on delayed judgments. In the discussion, we explore why study-judgment lags moderate accessibility effects.

  5. Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.

  6. Judging the Probability of Hypotheses Versus the Impact of Evidence: Which Form of Inductive Inference Is More Accurate and Time-Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Chater, Nick; Crupi, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Inductive reasoning requires exploiting links between evidence and hypotheses. This can be done focusing either on the posterior probability of the hypothesis when updated on the new evidence or on the impact of the new evidence on the credibility of the hypothesis. But are these two cognitive representations equally reliable? This study investigates this question by comparing probability and impact judgments on the same experimental materials. The results indicate that impact judgments are more consistent in time and more accurate than probability judgments. Impact judgments also predict the direction of errors in probability judgments. These findings suggest that human inductive reasoning relies more on estimating evidential impact than on posterior probability.

  7. Victimological aspects of court judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačanović Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the review of the results of the research: „Analysis of judgments form the victimological aspect“ of the Basic court Skopje I in Skopje. It is the first research of it’s kind in the Republic of Macedonia, conducted by the project team of the Faculty of Security in Skopje in the period from January to April 2011. By using the content analysis (for this purpose a special instrument was developed 172 irrevocable court judgment brought in the period 2005-2010 were analyzed, for the following criminal offences: murder, crimes against sexual freedom and sexual morality (sexual assault, severe bodily injuries and insult. The aim of the research was to highlight the victimological dimensions of mentioned criminal offences, while special attention was paid to the role of a victim in a crime, victim‘ s interaction with the perpetrator, individual characteristics of the victim, as well as the characteristics of the time when and the space where the crime occurred.

  8. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  9. Judgment Confidence and Judgment Accuracy of Teachers in Judging Self-Concepts of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Anna-Katharina; Berner, Valerie-Danielle; Zeinz, Horst; Scheunpflug, Annette; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Accurate teacher judgments of student characteristics are considered to be important prerequisites for adaptive instruction. A theoretically important condition for putting these judgments into operation is judgment confidence. Using a German sample of 96 teachers and 1,388 students, the authors examined how confident teachers are in their…

  10. Who makes utilitarian judgments? The influences of emotions on utilitarian judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Choe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.

  11. Graph-based inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses methods of inductive inferences that are methods of visualizations designed in such a way that the "eye" can be employed as a reliable tool for judgment. The term "eye" is used as a stand-in for visual cognition and perceptual processing. In this paper "meaningfulness" has a particular meaning, namely accuracy, which is closeness to truth. Accuracy consists of precision and unbiasedness. Precision is dealt with by statistical methods, but for unbiasedness one needs expert judgment. The common view at the beginning of the twentieth century was to make the most efficient use of this kind of judgment by representing the data in shapes and forms in such a way that the "eye" can function as a reliable judge to reduce bias. The need for judgment of the "eye" is even more necessary when the background conditions of the observations are heterogeneous. Statistical procedures require a certain minimal level of homogeneity, but the "eye" does not. The "eye" is an adequate tool for assessing topological similarities when, due to heterogeneity of the data, metric assessment is not possible. In fact, graphical assessments precedes measurement, or to put it more forcefully, the graphic method is a necessary prerequisite for measurement.

  12. Full-waveform modeling of Zero-Offset Electromagnetic Induction for Accurate Characterization of Subsurface Electrical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, D.; André, F.; Vereecken, H.; Lambot, S.

    2009-04-01

    Water is a vital resource for human needs, agriculture, sanitation and industrial supply. The knowledge of soil water dynamics and solute transport is essential in agricultural and environmental engineering as it controls plant growth, hydrological processes, and the contamination of surface and subsurface water. Increased irrigation efficiency has also an important role for water conservation, reducing drainage and mitigating some of the water pollution and soil salinity. Geophysical methods are effective techniques for monitoring the vadose zone. In particular, electromagnetic induction (EMI) can provide in a non-invasive way important information about the soil electrical properties at the field scale, which are mainly correlated to important variables such as soil water content, salinity, and texture. EMI is based on the radiation of a VLF EM wave into the soil. Depending on its electrical conductivity, Foucault currents are generated and produce a secondary EM field which is then recorded by the EMI system. Advanced techniques for EMI data interpretation resort to inverse modeling. Yet, a major gap in current knowledge is the limited accuracy of the forward model used for describing the EMI-subsurface system, usually relying on strongly simplifying assumptions. We present a new low frequency EMI method based on Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) technology and advanced forward modeling using a linear system of complex transfer functions for describing the EMI loop antenna and a three-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in multilayered media. VNA permits simple, international standard calibration of the EMI system. We derived a Green's function for the zero-offset, off-ground horizontal loop antenna and also proposed an optimal integration path for faster evaluation of the spatial-domain Green's function from its spectral counterpart. This new integration path shows fewer oscillations compared with the real path and permits to avoid the

  13. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  14. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements... experts (by name and employer) involved in any expert judgment elicitation processes used to support the... judgment elicitation processes and the reasoning behind those results. Documentation of interviews used to...

  15. Clinical Judgments of Normal Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sally Ann

    1976-01-01

    Decisions regarding normality of childhood behaviors are necessary when clinicians attempt to discriminate which children require psychiatric treatment. Elements affecting clinical judgments include the influence of direct observation of the child and the parents' report of the child's behavior. Results show that judgments depended almost entirely…

  16. Adult Metacomprehension: Judgment Processes and Accuracy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize two interrelated topics in the adult metacomprehension literature: the bases of metacomprehension judgment and the constraints on metacomprehension accuracy. Our review shows that adult readers base their metacomprehension judgments on different types of information, including experiences…

  17. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  18. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  19. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  20. Effects of Induction Heat Bending Process on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of ASME SA312 Gr.TP304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam In; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soo; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Sung, Gi Ho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The usage of bending products recently have increased since many industries such as automobile, aerospace, shipbuilding, and chemical plants need the application of pipings. Bending process is one of the inevitable steps to fabricate the facilities. Induction heat bending is composed of compressive bending process by local heating and cooling. This work focused on the effect of induction heat bending process on the properties of ASME SA312 Gr. TP304 stainless steel pipes. Tests were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. In order to determine intergranular corrosion resistance, Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test and ASTM A262 practice A and C tests were done. Every specimen revealed non-metallic inclusion free under the criteria of 1.5i of the standard and the induction heat bending process did not affect the non-metallic inclusion in the alloys. Also, all the bended specimens had finer grain size than ASTM grain size number 5 corresponding to the grain sizes of the base metal and thus the grain size of the pipe bended by induction heat bending process is acceptable. Hardness of transition start, bend, and transition end areas of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel was a little higher than that of base metal. Intergranular corrosion behavior was determined by ASTM A262 practice A and C and DL-EPR test, and respectively step structure, corrosion rate under 0.3 mm/y, and Degree of Sensitization (DOS) of 0.001 - 0.075 % were obtained. That is, the induction heat bending process didn't affect the intergranular corrosion behavior of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel.

  1. Individual moral judgment and cultural ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J

    1999-03-01

    Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).

  2. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...... can predict financial performance. Monthly data were collected from frontline employees in three different companies during an 18-month period, and the initial results indicate that the ESOChas predictive power....... of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...

  3. A Three Step B2B Sales Model Based on Satisfaction Judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2015-01-01

    . The insights produces can be applied for selling companies to craft close collaborative customer relationships in a systematic a d efficient way. The process of building customer relationships will be guided through actions that yields higher satisfaction judgments leading to loyal customers and finally......This paper aims to provide a coherent, detailed and integrative understanding of the mental processes (i.e. dimensions) that industrial buyers apply when forming satisfaction judgments in adjacent to new task buying situations. A qualitative inductive research strategy is utilized in this study...... companies’ perspective. The buying center members applied satisfaction dimension when forming satisfaction judgments. Moreover, the focus and importance of the identified satisfaction dimensions fluctuated pending on the phase of the buying process. Based on the findings a three step sales model is proposed...

  4. Using Continuity Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here is a technique for proving the fundamental theorems of analysis that provides a unified way to pass from local properties to global properties on the real line, just as ordinary induction passes from local implication (if true for "k", the theorem is true for "k" + 1) to a global conclusion in the natural numbers.

  5. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that "ought implies can." We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1-3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the "ought implies can" principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a "blame implies can" principle.

  6. On the internal structures of inductive types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the internal structures of hereditary inductive types in logical type theory. By defining a bisimulation equality on the inhabitants of each hereditary inductive type, one is able to show that the inhabitants of a hereditary inductive type satisfy the basic properties of sets. A hereditary inductive type can therefore be conceived as a universe of sets.

  7. Naturalness judgments by lay Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study directly tests the hypothesis that, at least within the domains of food and drink for Americans, the judgment of naturalness has more to do with the history of an object, that is the processes that it has undergone, as opposed to its material content. Individuals rate the naturalness and acceptability of a natural entity (water or tomato paste, that same entity with a first transformation in which a natural substance is added (or some part removed, and then a second transformation in which the natural additive is removed (or the removed part is replaced. The twice transformed entity is stipulated to be identical to the original natural entity, yet it is rated much less natural and less acceptable. It differs from the original entity only in its history (the reversed processes it has experienced. The twice transformed entity is also rated as less natural than the once-transformed entity, even though the former is identical to the original natural entity, and the latter is not. Therefore, naturalness depends heavily on the process-history of an entity.

  8. Gravitational induction

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

  9. Individualistic and social motives for justice judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem

    2013-09-01

    Justice judgments are subjective by nature, and are influenced substantially by motivational processes. In the present contribution, two motives underlying justice judgments are examined: individualistic motives to evaluate solutions to social problems that benefit the self in material or immaterial ways as fair versus social motives to conceptualize justice in terms of the well-being of others, such as a desire for equality, adherence to in-group norms, and a concern for the collective interest. A review of relevant research reveals evidence for both motivations when people make evaluations of justice. Moreover, which motive is most dominant in the justice judgment process depends on perceptual salience: whereas individualistic motives are activated when a perceiver's own needs and goals are perceptually salient, social motives are activated when others' needs and goals are perceptually salient. It is concluded that both individualistic and social motives contribute in predictable ways to justice judgments.

  10. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  11. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  12. Known Unknowns in Judgment and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how people make inferences about missing information. Whereas most prior literature focuses on how people process known information, I show that the extent to which people make inferences about missing information impacts judgments and choices. Specifically, I investigate how (1) awareness of known unknowns affects overconfidence in judgment in Chapter 1, (2) beliefs about the knowability of unknowns impacts investment strategies in Chapter 2, and (3) inferences...

  13. Ranking method for the reciprocal judgment matrix based on the unascertained three-valued judgments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Yucheng; Ma Baoguo; Sheng Zhaohan

    2006-01-01

    The ranking problem is studied when the pairwise comparisons values are uncertain in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method of constructing the judgment matrix is presented when the pairwise comparisons values are denoted by the unascrtained three-valued reciprocal scales. By turning the reciprocal judgment matrix into attribute judgment matrix, the method to check the consistency of the pairwise comparisons judgment matrix and the calculation method of weighting coefficients are given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  15. Resistance to Temptation and Moral Judgment: Behavioral Correlates of Kohlberg's Measure of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Edward A.; And Others

    This study was designed to assess and compare the roles of intelligence and moral judgment in relation to patterns of behavior in temptation situations. Six Resistance to Temptation (RTT) tasks were administered to 106 sixth grade students. One year later, four Kohlberg Moral Judgment (MJ) tasks were administered to 100 of the same subjects. IQ…

  16. Properties and etching rates of negative ions in inductively coupled plasmas and dc discharges produced in Ar/SF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draghici, Mihai; Stamate, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    Negative ion production is investigated in a chamber with transversal magnetic filter operated in dc or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) modes in Ar/SF6 gas mixtures. Plasma parameters are evaluated by mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe for different discharge conditions. The density ratio...... of negative ion to electron exceeded 300 in dc mode while it was below 100 in the ICP mode. The possibility to apply a large positive bias to an electrode without affecting the plasma potential and the transition from a negative sheath to anodic glow are also investigated. The etching rates by positive...... and negative ions are evaluated on silicon substrate for different Ar/SF6 gas ratios. The etching rate by negative ions was with less than 5% smaller than that by positive ions....

  17. Inductive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴信东

    1993-01-01

    Machine learning(ML)is a major subfield of artificial intelligence(AI).It has been seen as a feasible way of avoiding the knowledge bottleneck problem in knowledge-based systems development.Research on ML has concentrated in the main on inductive learning,a paradigm for inducing rules from unordered sets of exmaples.AQ11 and ID3,the two most widespred algorithms in ML,are both inductive.This paper first summarizes AQ11,ID3 and the newly-developed extension matrix approach based HCV algorithm;and then reviews the recent development of inductive learing and automatic knowledge acquisition from data bases.

  18. Judgment sampling: a health care improvement perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Provost, Lloyd P

    2012-01-01

    Sampling plays a major role in quality improvement work. Random sampling (assumed by most traditional statistical methods) is the exception in improvement situations. In most cases, some type of "judgment sample" is used to collect data from a system. Unfortunately, judgment sampling is not well understood. Judgment sampling relies upon those with process and subject matter knowledge to select useful samples for learning about process performance and the impact of changes over time. It many cases, where the goal is to learn about or improve a specific process or system, judgment samples are not merely the most convenient and economical approach, they are technically and conceptually the most appropriate approach. This is because improvement work is done in the real world in complex situations involving specific areas of concern and focus; in these situations, the assumptions of classical measurement theory neither can be met nor should an attempt be made to meet them. The purpose of this article is to describe judgment sampling and its importance in quality improvement work and studies with a focus on health care settings.

  19. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  20. Variations between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars revealed by simultaneous measurements of 820 nm transmission signal and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Saber; Qu, Mingnan; Xin, Chang-Peng; Li, Ming; Chu, Chengcai; Govindjee; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The difference between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars was studied, using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction (mostly a monitor of Photosystem II activity) and I820 transmission signal (mostly a monitor of Photosystem I activity) to identify potential photosynthetic features differentiating these two groups, which show different degrees of artificial selection and grain yields. A higher fluorescence (related to PSII) IP rise phase and a lower P700(+) (related to PSI) accumulation were observed in the elite cultivars as compared to the landraces. Using these data, together with simulation data from a kinetic model of fluorescence induction, we show that the high IP rise phase and the low P700(+) accumulation can be a result of transient block on electron transfer and traffic jam on the electron acceptor side of PSI under a high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio. Considering that the ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transcript levels of XS134 (a representative elite cultivars) remains unaffected during the first few minutes of light/dark transition compared to Q4145 (a representative landrace cultivars), which shows a strong decline during the same time range, we propose that the FNR of elite cultivars may take more time to be inactivated in darkness. During this time the FNR enzyme can continue to reduce NADP(+) molecules, leading to initially high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio during OJIP transient. These data suggested a potential artificial selection of FNR during the breeding process of these examined elite rice cultivars.

  1. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  2. Gravitational induction

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrod...

  3. Effect of Silver Content on Microstructure and Properties of Brass/steel Induction Brazing Joint Using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Cao; L.X. Zhang; H.Q. Wang; L.Z. Wu; C. Feng

    2011-01-01

    The induction brazing of brass to steel using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal was investigated in this study. The influence of Ag content on the microstructure and properties were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Defect free joint was achieved using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal. The microstructure of the joint was mainly composed of Ag-based solid solution and Cu-based solid solution. The increase of Ag content and the cooling rate both led to the increase of the needle like eutectic structure. The tensile strength decreased with the increase of Ag content. The tensile strength at room temperature using Ag25CuZnSn filler metal reached 445 MPa. All fractures using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal presented ductile characteristic.

  4. Judgment in an auditor's materiality assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rikke Holmslykke

    2015-01-01

    ‘Materiality’ is considered a key audit concept both theoretically and in practice, but regulation enforcers are concerned about the different views on materiality held by preparers, auditors, users and enforcers, respectively, because different levels of materiality could result in users having...... a heterogeneous decision basis. This may seem surprising considering that the rule-of-thumb is simply to calculate materiality as 5% of net income before taxes. By analysing the prior audit materiality literature through a comprehensive literature review, this paper identifies the important quantitative...... and qualitative components of materiality judgments, which include both task, person and interpersonal interactions in line with general audit judgment and decision-making theory. This analysis offers an enhanced understanding of what the »black box« of professional materiality judgment contains. The analysis...

  5. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  6. Judgment in an auditor's materiality assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rikke Holmslykke

    2015-01-01

    a heterogeneous decision basis. This may seem surprising considering that the rule-of-thumb is simply to calculate materiality as 5% of net income before taxes. By analysing the prior audit materiality literature through a comprehensive literature review, this paper identifies the important quantitative......‘Materiality’ is considered a key audit concept both theoretically and in practice, but regulation enforcers are concerned about the different views on materiality held by preparers, auditors, users and enforcers, respectively, because different levels of materiality could result in users having...... and qualitative components of materiality judgments, which include both task, person and interpersonal interactions in line with general audit judgment and decision-making theory. This analysis offers an enhanced understanding of what the »black box« of professional materiality judgment contains. The analysis...

  7. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  8. Personality judgments based on physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Laura P; Vazire, Simine; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2009-12-01

    Despite the crucial role of physical appearance in forming first impressions, little research has examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on appearance alone. This study examined the accuracy of observers' impressions on 10 personality traits based on full-body photographs using criterion measures based on self and peer reports. When targets' posture and expression were constrained (standardized condition), observers' judgments were accurate for extraversion, self-esteem, and religiosity. When targets were photographed with a spontaneous pose and facial expression (spontaneous condition), observers' judgments were accurate for almost all of the traits examined. Lens model analyses demonstrated that both static cues (e.g., clothing style) and dynamic cues (e.g., facial expression, posture) offered valuable personality-relevant information. These results suggest that personality is manifested through both static and expressive channels of appearance, and observers use this information to form accurate judgments for a variety of traits.

  9. Mapping patterns of soil properties and soil moisture using electromagnetic induction to investigate the impact of land use changes on soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Jérémy; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Govers, Gerard; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    As highlighted by many authors, classical or geophysical techniques for measuring soil moisture such as destructive soil sampling, neutron probes or Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) have some major drawbacks. Among other things, they provide point scale information, are often intrusive and time-consuming. ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) instruments are often cited as a promising alternative hydrogeophysical methods providing more efficiently soil moisture measurements ranging from hillslope to catchment scale. The overall objective of our research project is to investigate whether a combination of geophysical techniques at various scales can be used to study the impact of land use change on temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and soil properties. In our work, apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) patterns are obtained with an EM multiconfiguration system. Depth profiles of ECa were subsequently inferred through a calibration-inversion procedure based on TDR data. The obtained spatial patterns of these profiles were linked to soil profile and soil water content distributions. Two catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) were selected in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. On selected slopes within the catchments, combined EMI and TDR measurements were carried out simultaneously, under different atmospheric and soil moisture conditions. Ground-truth data for soil properties were obtained through soil sampling and auger profiles. The comparison of these data provided information about the potential of the EMI technique to deliver qualitative and quantitative information about the variability of soil moisture and soil properties.

  10. On the Merits of Clinical Judgment: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.; Grove, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on the article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger , which criticized academic clinical psychologists for being cynical about clinical judgment and clinical practice. In the authors' view, it seems unlikely that more than a few academic clinical psychologists believe that they have little to learn from clinical practice or…

  11. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  12. Judgment Pitfalls in Estimating Premorbid Intellectual Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kareken, David A

    1997-01-01

    ... on their judgment. Lezak (1983) proposes that clinicians render an estimate synthesized from interview, anecdotal information, demographic characteristics, and patients' patterns of test performance. Similarly, Vanderploeg (1994) recommends integrating estimates from a number of formulas with past academic performance, occupational success, and con...

  13. Comment: Effects of Experience on Judgment Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James W.

    2009-01-01

    However intuitively appealing the notion is that therapists learn from clinical experience (presumably both successes and failures), whether clinical judgment actually is enhanced by experience remains a matter on which there continues to be disagreement. The author discusses the meta-analysis of P.M. Spengler et al. that demonstrates a supportive…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  15. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Sherrill

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder, the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect, which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality. In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  16. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  17. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920...

  18. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  19. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section...

  20. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48 maj

  1. Apprentices' Learning of Occupationally Informed Practical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2015-01-01

    Learning to become trade workers requires developing the ability to make practical workplace-based judgments, often centred around difficult to articulate trade "know-how" or tacit knowledge. Apprentices learn discipline specific ways of doing, thinking, feeling and being from experts, peers and through interactions with occupational…

  2. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  3. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  4. Judgment: The Nurse's Key to Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Examples of nurses in ancient Greek literature--Euryclea in Homer's "Odyssey," Cilissa in Aeschylus'"Oresteia," and the nurse in Euripides'"Medea"--illustrate the personal commitment in judgment and the obligation of nurses to move from doubt and opinion toward knowledge and certitude. (SK)

  5. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  6. ASL or Contact Signing: Issues of Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil; Valli, Clayton

    1991-01-01

    Reports on one aspect of an ongoing study of language contact in the American deaf community. The ultimate goal of the study is a linguistic description of contact signing and a reexamination of claims that it is a pidgin. Patterns of language use are reviewed and the role of demographic information in judgments is examined. (29 references) (GLR)

  7. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  8. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  9. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare AM Sutherland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers’ faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1,000 highly varying ‘ambient image’ face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  10. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  11. The Development of Toddlers' Moral and Conventional Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Braeges, Judith L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the development of toddlers' moral and conventional judgments and effects of language development on such judgments. Rudimentary distinctions between familiar moral, social and conventional transgressions are made during the child's third year. (Author/BB)

  12. Intelligence and the Development of Moral Judgment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    A moral judgment interview was administered to 100 elementary parochial school children. The relationship of intelligence, age, and sex to the quality of response in four areas of moral judgment was assessed. (MS)

  13. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    . The method has proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel. A new design of an adjustable flux concentrator for induction heating tube-to-plate joints is proposed and tested on a variety......Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...

  14. Refining Inductive Types

    CERN Document Server

    Atkey, Robert; Ghani, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Dependently typed programming languages allow sophisticated properties of data to be expressed within the type system. Of particular use in dependently typed programming are indexed types that refine data by computationally useful information. For example, the N-indexed type of vectors refines lists by their lengths. Other data types may be refined in similar ways, but programmers must produce purpose-specific refinements on an ad hoc basis, developers must anticipate which refinements to include in libraries, and implementations must often store redundant information about data and their refinements. In this paper we show how to generically derive inductive characterisations of refinements of inductive types, and argue that these characterisations can alleviate some of the aforementioned difficulties associated with ad hoc refinements. Our characterisations also ensure that standard techniques for programming with and reasoning about inductive types are applicable to refinements, and that refinements can the...

  15. Properties of inductively coupled N2 plasma processed AlInN thin film prepared by post annealing of rf sputtered Al/InN stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, S.; Mutharasu, D.

    2016-12-01

    InN is a potential material for low cost tandem solar cells and its combination with Si could make the cell conversion efficiency over 30%. Doping into InN is a promising method which alters the properties of InN thin film. In this work, InN thin film was deposited on Si substrate and the doping was achieved by stacking Al elemental layer on InN thin film followed by annealing process. The doped InN (AlInN) thin film was characterized and confirmed the formation of (002) and (103) oriented phases. The prepared AlInN thin film was plasma processed using Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in presence of N2 gas and the surface and structural properties was modified. The N2 plasma was influenced the preferred orientation of AlInN thin film and their structural parameters such as crystallite size, strain and dislocation density noticeably. Very smooth surface (<4 nm) with small particle size (97 nm) of AlInN thin film was achieved for 15 sccm flow rate during the plasma process. Very low value in leakage current was confirmed for AlInN thin film processed at 15 sccm N2 flow by current-voltage (IV) characteristics.

  16. Sulforaphane targets cancer stemness and tumor initiating properties in oral squamous cell carcinomas via miR-200c induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ming; Peng, Chih-Yu; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lu, Ming-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Yeh, Jung-Chun; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are deemed as the driving force of tumorigenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic effect of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli sprouts, on targeting OSCC-CSCs. The effect of sulforaphane on normal oral epithelial cells (SG) and sphere-forming OSCC-CSCs isolated from SAS and GNM cells was examined. ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity assays of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment were presented. We observed that the sulforaphane dose-dependently eliminated the proliferation rate of OSCC-CSCs, whereas the inhibition on SG cells proliferation was limited. Cancer stemness properties including self-renewal, CD44 positivity, and ALDH1 activity were also decreased in OSCC-CSCs with different doses of sulforaphane treatment. Moreover, sulforaphane treatment of OSCC-CSCs decreased the migration, invasion, clonogenicity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of xenograghts. Sulforaphane treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the levels of tumor suppressive miR200c. These lines of evidence suggest that sulforaphane can suppress the cancer stemness and tumor-initiating properties in OSCC-CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Osteopontin Overexpression Induced Tumor Progression and Chemoresistance to Oxaliplatin through Induction of Stem-Like Properties in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide. The poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients is due to development of chemoresistance and cancer metastasis. Recently osteopontin (OPN has been associated with stem-like properties in colorectal cancer. This study further examined the clinicopathological significance of OPN in CRC and its effect on chemoresistance and transcription of stem cell markers. We examined the transcription level of OPN in 84 CRC patients and correlated the expression with their clinicopathological parameters. The associations of OPN overexpression with transcription of stem cell markers and response to chemotherapy in DLD1-OPN overexpressing clones and CRC patients were also investigated. Our results showed that OPN was significantly overexpressed in CRC, and its overexpression correlated with tumor stage and poor prognosis. Overexpression of CRC induced OCT4 and SOX2 expression in vitro and correlated with SOX2 overexpression in CRC patients. In addition, DLD1-OPN overexpressing cells showed enhanced ability to survive upon oxaliplatin treatment, and OPN expression was higher in CRC patients who were resistant to oxaliplatin-involved chemotherapy treatment. Thus, CRC cells overexpressing OPN demonstrated stem-like properties and OPN inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach to combat CRC progression and chemoresistance.

  18. Clinical Judgment Accuracy: From Meta-Analysis to Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R.; Shaw-Ridley, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Clinical judgment is foundational to psychological practice. Accurate judgment forms the basis for establishing reasonable goals and selecting appropriate treatments, which in turn are essential in achieving positive therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, Spengler and colleagues' meta-analytic finding--clinical judgment accuracy improves marginally with…

  19. Affection for Patients as a Factor in Therapists' Outcome Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility of separating psychotherapists' judgments of treatment outcome from their affective reactions to their patients. If therapists' judgments of symptom remission cannot be utilized independently of their affection for their patients, this would present reason to doubt the utility of such judgments despite their current…

  20. The Appropriateness of Confidence Ratings in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    1986-01-01

    Reviewed studies in which clinicians made judgments and then rated the degree of confidence that they had in each of their judgments. Results reveal little support for the hypothesis that clinicians are overconfident. Confidence ratings were related positively to the validity of judgments in a number of studies. Experienced clinicians made more…

  1. 25 CFR 87.11 - Investment of judgment funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment of judgment funds. 87.11 Section 87.11 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.11 Investment of judgment funds. As soon as possible after the appropriation of... distribution of the funds, the Commissioner shall invest such funds pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 162a. Investments...

  2. Effect of ion bombardment on the structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited from oxygen/titanium tetraisopropoxide inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Carette, M.; Granier, A.; Landesman, J.P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Goullet, A., E-mail: antoine.goullet@univ-nantes.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-08-31

    Titanium dioxide films were deposited on silicon substrates from oxygen/titanium tetraisopropoxide inductively coupled radiofrequency plasmas in a helicon reactor operated at low temperature (< 150 °C) and low pressure (0.4 Pa). The effect of the ion energy (E{sub i}), varied in the 15–175 eV range, on the morphology, microstructure and optical properties of the films is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that at low energy (E{sub i} = 15 eV), the film exhibits a columnar morphology consisting of a bottom dense layer, an intermediate gradient layer and a top roughness layer. Increasing the ion energy results in more homogeneous films along the growth direction as confirmed by the in-situ kinetic ellipsometry measurements and post deposition spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. In addition, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements reveal that the film top surface becomes smoother as E{sub i} is increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) diagrams show that only anatase is identified in the film deposited at 15 eV, whereas the complete phase transformation from anatase to rutile occurs at E{sub i} = 75 eV. These results are in good agreement with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra which also show that the hydroxyl groups absorbed in the films deposited at 15 eV, are greatly decreased for E{sub i} ≥ 45 eV. Suitable structural models combined with the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion law have been found to accurately fit the spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The results in good agreement with SEM and AFM measurements are also consistent with the structural properties evidenced by XRD and FTIR. The refractive index (n) can be increased significantly by increasing the ion energy from 15 eV to 75 eV, reaching a value of 2.49 at 1.96 eV. Upon increasing the ion energy above 75 eV n is shown to decrease due to micropores which are formed in the films. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited in inductively

  3. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  4. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  5. The brain's specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, T; Zeki, S

    2013-05-01

    We recorded brain activity when 21 subjects judged the beauty (aesthetic or affective judgment) and brightness (perceptual or cognitive judgment) of simultaneously presented paintings. Aesthetic judgments engaged medial and lateral subdivisions of the orbitofrontal cortex as well as subcortical stations associated with affective motor planning (globus pallidus, putamen-claustrum, amygdala, and cerebellar vermis), whereas the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, as well as the anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were engaged by both kinds of judgment. The results lead us to conclude: (i) that there is a functional specialization for judgment, with aesthetic judgments engaging distinct systems, in addition to those that they share with perceptual judgments; (ii) that the systems engaged by affective judgments are those in which activity correlates with polar experiences (e.g. love-hate, beauty-ugliness, and attraction-repulsion); and (iii) that there is also a functional specialization in the motor pathways, with aesthetic judgments engaging motor systems not engaged by perceptual judgments, in addition to those engaged by both kinds of judgment.

  6. Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber M Sprenger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas, Dougherty, Sprenger, & Harbison, 2008 that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later probability judgment made under full attention. The effect of divided attention at encoding on judgment was completely mediated by the number of hypotheses participants generated, indicating that limitations in both encoding and recall can cascade into biases in judgments.

  7. Differential diagnosis and the suspension of judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ashley Graham

    2013-10-01

    In this paper I argue that ethics and evidence are intricately intertwined within the clinical practice of differential diagnosis. Too often, when a disease is difficult to diagnose, a physician will dismiss it as being "not real" or "all in the patient's head." This is both an ethical and an evidential problem. In the paper my aim is two-fold. First, via the examination of two case studies (late-stage Lyme disease and Addison's disease), I try to elucidate why this kind of dismissal takes place. Then, I propose a potential solution to the problem. I argue that instead of dismissing a patient's illness as "not real," physicians ought to exercise a compassionate suspension of judgment when a diagnosis cannot be immediately made. I argue that suspending judgment has methodological, epistemic, and ethical virtues and therefore should always be preferred to patient dismissal in the clinical setting.

  8. Weighting Mean and Variability during Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gardelle, Vincent; Mamassian, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Humans can not only perform some visual tasks with great precision, they can also judge how good they are in these tasks. However, it remains unclear how observers produce such metacognitive evaluations, and how these evaluations might be dissociated from the performance in the visual task. Here, we hypothesized that some stimulus variables could affect confidence judgments above and beyond their impact on performance. In a motion categorization task on moving dots, we manipulated the mean and the variance of the motion directions, to obtain a low-mean low-variance condition and a high-mean high-variance condition with matched performances. Critically, in terms of confidence, observers were not indifferent between these two conditions. Observers exhibited marked preferences, which were heterogeneous across individuals, but stable within each observer when assessed one week later. Thus, confidence and performance are dissociable and observers’ confidence judgments put different weights on the stimulus variables that limit performance. PMID:25793275

  9. Judgments of culpability in a filicide scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Miller-Stratton, Heather; Heinrich, Emily; Fritz, Stacey; Smith, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that potential jurors are likely to use personal biases, such as those based on gender and ethnicity, in their judgments of culpability of criminal defendants in addition to, or instead of, the facts of the crime. The present paper seeks to extend this literature to the crime of filicide; to examine whether male defendants are judged more harshly than female defendants, as is the case for domestic violence and sexual abuse. 214 participants were provided with a scenario of filicide in which the gender of the perpetrator, the gender of the child, and the family's social class were randomly assigned. Participants were asked to rate the culpability of the defendant in the case. Results indicated that, unlike for other violent crimes, participants did not use gender or social class biases in their judgments of criminal culpability.

  10. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...... of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay that takes place in particular induction events and analyze the "dance" through the lens of learning. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications for practitioners and the challenges and future research prospects we have encountered....... We draw on an empirical enquiry in two organizational settings, a Danish management consulting company and a German retail bank....

  11. Judgmental forecasting from graphs and from experience

    OpenAIRE

    Theochari, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of forecasting suggests that judgmental forecasts are typically subject to a number of biases. These biases may be related to the statistical characteristics of the data series, or to the characteristics of the forecasting task. Here, a number of understudied forecasting paradigms have been investigated and these revealed interesting ways of improving forecasting performance. In a series of experiments, by controlling parameters such as the horizon and direction of the f...

  12. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Michael H Connors; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  13. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Connors, Michael H.; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  14. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  15. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    OpenAIRE

    Clare AM Sutherland; Lauren E Rowley; Unity T Amoaku; Ella eDaguzan; Kate A Kidd-Rossiter; Ugne eMaceviciute; Andrew W Young

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big ...

  16. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN)-induction of the intrinsic antioxidative system heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Organic nitrates are among the oldest and yet most commonly employed drugs in the chronic therapy of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. While they have long been used in clinical practise, our understanding of their mechanism of action and of their side effects remains incomplete. To date, the most commonly employed nitrates are isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nitroglycerin (GTN). Another nitrate, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), has long been employed in eastern European countries and is currently being reintroduced also in western countries. So far, PETN is the only organic nitrate in clinical use, which is devoid of induction of oxidative stress and related side-effects such as endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance. Some of these effects are related to special pharmacokinetics of PETN, but upon chronic administration, PETN also induces antioxidative pathways at the genomic level, resulting in increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ferritin, both possessing highly protective properties. There is good experimental evidence that at least part of the beneficial profile of long-term PETN treatment is based on activation of the heme oxygenase-1/ferritin system.

  17. Developing Digital Privacy: Children's Moral Judgments Concerning Mobile GPS Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Martinez, Megan; Davidson, Natalie S; Noles, Nicholaus S

    2017-05-07

    New technology poses new moral problems for children to consider. We examined whether children deem object tracking with a mobile GPS device to be a property right. In three experiments, 329 children (4-10 years) and adults were asked whether it is acceptable to track the location of either one's own or another person's possessions using a mobile GPS device. Young children, like adults, viewed object tracking as relatively more acceptable for owners than nonowners. However, whereas adults expressed negative evaluations of someone tracking another person's possessions, young children expressed positive evaluations of this behavior. These divergent moral judgments of digital tracking at different ages have profound implications for how concepts of digital privacy develop and for the digital security of children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Charles M; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2005-12-01

    In seems there are two dimensions that underlie most judgments of traits, people, groups, and cultures. Although the definitions vary, the first makes reference to attributes such as competence, agency, and individualism, and the second to warmth, communality, and collectivism. But the relationship between the two dimensions seems unclear. In trait and person judgment, they are often positively related; in group and cultural stereotypes, they are often negatively related. The authors report 4 studies that examine the dynamic relationship between these two dimensions, experimentally manipulating the location of a target of judgment on one and examining the consequences for the other. In general, the authors' data suggest a negative dynamic relationship between the two, moderated by factors the impact of which they explore.

  19. The neural basis of intuitive and counterintuitive moral judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on moral decision-making have thus far largely focused on differences between moral judgments with opposing utilitarian (well-being maximizing) and deontological (duty-based) content. However, these studies have investigated moral dilemmas involving extreme situations, and did not control for two distinct dimensions of moral judgment: whether or not it is intuitive (immediately compelling to most people) and whether it is utilitarian or deontological in content. By contrasting dilemmas where utilitarian judgments are counterintuitive with dilemmas in which they are intuitive, we were able to use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of intuitive and counterintuitive judgments across a range of moral situations. Irrespective of content (utilitarian/deontological), counterintuitive moral judgments were associated with greater difficulty and with activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that such judgments may involve emotional conflict; intuitive judgments were linked to activation in the visual and premotor cortex. In addition, we obtained evidence that neural differences in moral judgment in such dilemmas are largely due to whether they are intuitive and not, as previously assumed, to differences between utilitarian and deontological judgments. Our findings therefore do not support theories that have generally associated utilitarian and deontological judgments with distinct neural systems. PMID:21421730

  20. Neural correlates of explicit social judgments on vocal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Lukas; Bzdok, Danilo; Müller, Veronika I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging research on the neural basis of social evaluation has traditionally focused on face perception paradigms. Thus, little is known about the neurobiology of social evaluation processes based on auditory cues, such as voices. To investigate the top-down effects of social trait judgments on voices, hemodynamic responses of 44 healthy participants were measured during social trait (trustworthiness [TR] and attractiveness [AT]), emotional (happiness, HA), and cognitive (age, AG) voice judgments. Relative to HA and AG judgments, TR and AT judgments both engaged the bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC; area PGa) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) extending into the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex. This dmPFC activation overlapped with previously reported areas specifically involved in social judgments on 'faces.' Moreover, social trait judgments were expected to share neural correlates with emotional HA and cognitive AG judgments. Comparison of effects pertaining to social, social-emotional, and social-cognitive appraisal processes revealed a dissociation of the left IPC into 3 functional subregions assigned to distinct cytoarchitectonic subdivisions. In total, the dmPFC is proposed to assume a central role in social attribution processes across sensory qualities. In social judgments on voices, IPC activity shifts from rostral processing of more emotional judgment facets to caudal processing of more cognitive judgment facets.

  1. Feature Centrality and Property Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Sloman, Steven; Stevenson, Rosemary; Over, David

    2004-01-01

    A feature is central to a concept to the extent that other features depend on it. Four studies tested the hypothesis that people will project a feature from a base concept to a target concept to the extent that they believe the feature is central to the two concepts. This centrality hypothesis implies that feature projection is guided by a…

  2. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, David C; Brooks, Logan C; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Burke, Donald S; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based "Epicast" forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  3. Inductive Supervised Quantum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monràs, Alex; Sentís, Gael; Wittek, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In supervised learning, an inductive learning algorithm extracts general rules from observed training instances, then the rules are applied to test instances. We show that this splitting of training and application arises naturally, in the classical setting, from a simple independence requirement with a physical interpretation of being nonsignaling. Thus, two seemingly different definitions of inductive learning happen to coincide. This follows from the properties of classical information that break down in the quantum setup. We prove a quantum de Finetti theorem for quantum channels, which shows that in the quantum case, the equivalence holds in the asymptotic setting, that is, for large numbers of test instances. This reveals a natural analogy between classical learning protocols and their quantum counterparts, justifying a similar treatment, and allowing us to inquire about standard elements in computational learning theory, such as structural risk minimization and sample complexity.

  4. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Denise Dellarosa; Cummins, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a) decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b) the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a "greater good" outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian ("yes") decisions, but contrary to the model's predictions, (a) vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b) violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say "no." Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether "yes" or "no" constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model's predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent with the

  5. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH OVER THE PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT OF THE FINANCIAL ANALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mirela ŞTEFAN-DUICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional judgment is emblematical at a decisional level. This paper aims to highlight the valences of the professional judgment of the financial analyst by describing the components of its activity and also through highlighting the typologies of the mechanisms involved. Within this paper we have presented the types of financial analysts, the responsibilities that guide the professional judgment and also the interdependent elements of their activity.

  6. Application of a Judgment Model toward Measurement of Clinical Judgment in Senior Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongmarutai, Tiwaporn

    2010-01-01

    Clinical judgment, defined as "the application of the nurse's knowledge and experience in making decisions about client care" (The National Council of State Boards of Nursing, 2005, p. 2), has been recognized as a vital and essential skill for healthcare providers when caring for clients. Undisputedly, nurses represent the largest…

  7. Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2009). Training complex judgment: The effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Paper presented at the International Center for Learning, Education and Performance Systems (ICLEPS). Talahassee, Florida: Florida State Univer

  8. Electrophysiological difference between the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Liang, Xiuling; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2015-05-01

    Causally related concepts like "virus" and "epidemic" and general associatively related concepts like "ring" and "emerald" are represented and accessed separately. The Evoked Response Potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the representations of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory. Participants were required to remember a task cue (causal or associative) presented at the beginning of each trial, and assess whether the relationship between subsequently presented words matched the initial task cue. The ERP data showed that an N400 effect (250-450 ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, the N400 effect elicited by causal relations was more positive than for associative relations in causal cue condition, whereas no significant difference was found in the associative cue condition. The centrally distributed late ERP component (650-750 ms) elicited by the causal cue condition was more positive than for the associative cue condition. These results suggested that the processing of causal judgment and associative judgment in semantic memory recruited different degrees of attentional and executive resources.

  9. Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and complex judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Van den Bosch, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Van den Bosch, K. (2009). Training complex judgment: the effects of critical thinking and contextual interference. Poster presented at the international conference on cognitive load theory. March, 2-4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. [Post

  10. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of ‘emotional’ responses to technological risk as opposed to their own ‘rational’ judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias (e.g. Slovic et. al. 2004), and with the Kantian view of emoti

  11. Risk Emotions and Risk Judgments: Passive Bodily Experience and Active Moral Reasoning in Judgmental Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Experts typically accuse lay people of ‘emotional’ responses to technological risk as opposed to their own ‘rational’ judgment. This attitude is in tune with risk perception research that qualifies lay people’s responses in terms of bias (e.g. Slovic et. al. 2004), and with the Kantian view of emoti

  12. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  13. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  14. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  15. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Langdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure required participants to judge whether various social behaviors were normal or reasonable in the context in which the behaviors occurred. Whereas patients demonstrated clear deficits in theory-of-mind, they performed similarly to controls when judging socially appropriate behaviors and violations of social norms. Patients, however, were less likely than controls to judge social behavior as reasonable when the behavior was impolite but understandable if the characters’ thoughts were taken into account. This latter difficulty correlated with patients’ performance deficits on the theory-of-mind tasks. Overall, findings suggest that basic social knowledge is intact in schizophrenia, though judgments of social behavior are affected by patients’ theory-of-mind deficits.

  16. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of musical backgrounds were asked to compare 2 recordings of the same composition (15 pairs, grouped in 3 musical genres), 1 of which was tempo-transformed (manipulating the expressive timing). The results show that expressive timing judgments are not so much influenced by expertise levels, as is suggested by the expertise hypothesis, but by exposure to a certain musical idiom, as is suggested by the exposure hypothesis. As such, the current study provides evidence for the idea that some musical capabilities are acquired through mere exposure to music, and that these abilities are more likely enhanced by active listening (exposure) than by formal musical training (expertise).

  17. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  18. Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelle Anzures

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cultural differences in socialization can lead to characteristic differences in how we perceive the world. Consistent with this influence of differential experience, our perception of faces (e.g., preference, recognition ability is shaped by our previous experience with different groups of individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examined whether cultural differences in social practices influence our perception of faces. Japanese, Chinese, and Asian-Canadian young adults made relative age judgments (i.e., which of these two faces is older? for East Asian faces. Cross-cultural differences in the emphasis on respect for older individuals was reflected in participants' latency in facial age judgments for middle-age adult faces--with the Japanese young adults performing the fastest, followed by the Chinese, then the Asian-Canadians. In addition, consistent with the differential behavioural and linguistic markers used in the Japanese culture when interacting with individuals younger than oneself, only the Japanese young adults showed an advantage in judging the relative age of children's faces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that different sociocultural practices shape our efficiency in processing facial age information. The impact of culture may potentially calibrate other aspects of face processing.

  19. Phenomenology of consciousness from apprehension to judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, F Tito

    2011-07-01

    We explore two different moments of human cognition, namely apprehension (A), whereby a coherent perception emerges by recruitment of large neuron groups and judgment (B), whereby memory retrieval of different (A) units coded in a suitable language and comparison of them leads to the formulation of a judgment. The first one has a duration around 1 sec (from 0.5 to 3 sec), it appears as an a-temporal present and its neural correlate is a wide synchronization in the EEG gamma band. It may be described as an interpretation of sensorial stimuli in terms of some stored algorithm, via a Bayes procedure. The second one entails the comparison of two apprehensions acquired at different times, coded in a given language, and retrieved by memory. It lasts around 3 sec and requires self-consciousness, as the judging agent must be well aware that he/she is the same one who faces the two coded apprehensions under scrutiny in order to extract a mutual relation. At variance with (A), (B) does not presuppose an algorithm, but it rather builds a new behavioural model by an inverse Bayes procedure. It will be shown how this build up of a novel model is related to creativity and free will.

  20. Inductive reasoning in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E E; Rhee, J; Dennis, K; Grossman, M

    2001-12-01

    We evaluated knowledge of basic level and superordinate semantic relations and the role of cognitive resources during inductive reasoning in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nineteen mildly demented AD patients and 17 healthy control subjects judged the truthfulness of arguments with a premise and a conclusion that contain familiar concepts coupled with "blank" predicates, such as "Spiders contain phosphatidylcholine; therefore all insects contain phosphatidylcholine." Like healthy control subjects, AD patients were relatively insensitive to the typicality of the premise category when judging the strength of arguments with a conclusion containing a basic-level concept, but were relatively sensitive to typicality during judgments of arguments containing a superordinate in the conclusion. Moreover, AD patients resembled control subjects in judging arguments with an immediate superordinate in the conclusion compared to arguments with a distant superordinate. AD patients differed from control subjects because they could not take advantage of two premises in an argument containing basic-level concepts. We conclude that semantic knowledge is sufficiently preserved in AD to support inductive reasoning, but that limited cognitive resources may interfere with AD patients' ability to consider the entire spectrum of information available during semantic challenges.

  1. Olympic Medals as Fruits of Comparison? Assimilation and Contrast in Sequential Performance Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas; Plessner, Henning

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the evaluative consequences of sequential performance judgments. Recent social comparison research has suggested that performance judgments may be influenced by judgments about a preceding performance. Specifically, performance judgments may be assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on…

  2. CHILDREN'S AND ADULTS' JUDGMENTS OF FACIAL TRUSTWORTHINESS: THE RELATIONSHIP TO FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2015-08-01

    Existing research suggests that adults make effective trustworthiness judgments based on facial attractiveness during initial interactions. However, little is known about how children judge trustworthiness from faces. The present study examined the facial features that contributed to judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness by three groups of Chinese children aged 8 years old (n=34; 17 boys), 10 years old (n=34; 17 boys), and 12 years old (n = 34; 17 boys) and a comparison group of 37 undergraduates (M age=20.2 yr.; 16 men). Using FaceGen Modeler 3.1, a total of 400 East Asian adult faces (200 male, 200 female) portraying neutral emotions with direct gazes were generated. The faces were represented by 61 shape features and were presented for a maximum of 3,000 msec. in the center of the computer screen in randomized order. The participants were asked to judge whether each person was trustworthy and to rate the level of trustworthiness; 1 month later, the attractiveness of the same faces was judged using a similar procedure. The children and the adults used similar facial features to judge trustworthiness (e.g., the brow ridge, nose, and chin). Some of the facial features used by the different age groups as the basis for the trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments were similar. Facial attractiveness accounted for roughly 30 to 60% of the variance in the groups' trustworthiness judgments. Thus, facial attractiveness may serve as a heuristic property that signals trustworthiness and guides adaptive social decisions. More importantly, even children as young as 8 years old use a strategy similar to that of adults to make trustworthiness judgments, although some differences in the use of specific facial features were observed among the age groups.

  3. Modeling judgment of sequentially presented categories using weighting and sampling without replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; van Schaik, Paul; Chater, Nick

    2012-12-01

    In a series of experiments, Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011) studied relative-frequency judgments of items drawn from two distinct categories. The experiments showed that the judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by the properties of the experienced sequences. Specifically, a first-run effect was observed, whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence. Here, we (1) interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns, (2) present mathematical definitions of the sequences used in Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011), and (3) present a mathematical formalization of the first-run effect-the judgments-relative-to-patterns model-to account for the judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli. The model parameter w accounts for the effect of the length of the first run on frequency estimates, given the total sequence length. We fitted data from Kusev et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37:1874-1886, 2011) to the model parameters, so that with increasing values of w, subsequent items in the first run have less influence on judgments. We see the role of the model as essential for advancing knowledge in the psychology of judgments, as well as in other disciplines, such as computer science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and human-computer interaction.

  4. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  5. Mediational Inferences in the Process of Counselor Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Replicates research on the process of moving from observations to clinical judgments. Counselors (N=20) made status inferences, attributional inferences, and diagnostic classification of clients based on case folders. Results suggest the clinical judgment process was stagewise mediated, and attributional inferences had little direct impact on…

  6. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth…

  7. Moral Judgment Competence of Medical Students: A Transcultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Helvécio Neves; Rego, Sergio; Bataglia, Patricia Unger Raphael; Sancho, Karlos Frederico Castelo Branco; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional short-term study using Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT) to compare moral judgment competence (C-score) among students from a medical school in the Northeast region of Brazil and a medical school in the Northern region of Portugal. This study compares the C-scores of groups in the first and eighth semesters…

  8. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  9. Text cohesion and metacomprehension: immediate and delayed judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, N; Lories, G

    2004-12-01

    In three experiments, we examined comprehension judgments made after a piece of text had been read. We propose that such metacognitive judgments are based on the content of working memory at the exact moment of assessment. Generally speaking, this working metacognition hypothesis is in agreement with Koriat's cue utilization approach, which implies that different elements of information will be available (and used) depending on the moment at which a judgment is made. More specifically, our hypothesis focuses on the management of working memory during reading as a cause for cue (un)availability. In support of these views, the results of Experiment 1 showed that a cohesion manipulation affecting the comprehension of specific paragraphs influences judgments only on these paragraphs, and not on judgments on the whole text. In Experiment 2, we showed that an interfering task that takes place just before this paragraph judgment is made wipes out this cohesion effect. Experiment 3 showed, on the other hand, that the whole-text judgment may, nevertheless, be affected by text cohesion, provided that the readers keep an access to the text when the judgment is made. These results support the idea that working memory management makes different cues available for metacognitive ratings at different delays.

  10. Judgments of Vocal Affect by Language-Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Sybil

    1983-01-01

    The judgment of vocal affect was studied in 19 language delayed children and 19 children with normal language. The children identified utterances spoken in an angry, happy, or sad tone of voice. The language delayed children made significantly fewer correct judgments. (Author/SEW)

  11. The modular neuroarchitecture of social judgments on faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Langner, Robert; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Turetsky, Bruce I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-04-01

    Face-derived information on trustworthiness and attractiveness crucially influences social interaction. It is, however, unclear to what degree the functional neuroanatomy of these complex social judgments on faces reflects genuine social versus basic emotional and cognitive processing. To disentangle social from nonsocial contributions, we assessed commonalities and differences between the functional networks activated by judging social (trustworthiness, attractiveness), emotional (happiness), and cognitive (age) facial traits. Relative to happiness and age evaluations, both trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments selectively activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, forming a core social cognition network. Moreover, they also elicited a higher amygdalar response than even the emotional control condition. Both social judgments differed, however, in their top-down modulation of face-sensitive regions: trustworthiness judgments recruited the posterior superior temporal sulcus, whereas attractiveness judgments recruited the fusiform gyrus. Social and emotional judgments converged and, therefore, likely interact in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Social and age judgments, on the other hand, commonly engaged the anterior insula, inferior parietal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which appear to subserve more cognitive aspects in social evaluation. These findings demonstrate the modularity of social judgments on human faces by separating the neural correlates of social, face-specific, emotional, and cognitive processing facets.

  12. (Process Models of Counselor Judgment: Proposal and Reactions.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Studied competing process models of counselors' clinical judgment for their capacity to account for variance in prognostic judgments and further tested for parsimony. Patton discusses problems of logic and data analysis in the model's formulation. Provides Stromer's response to the critique. (RC)

  13. Leadership Styles and Moral Judgment Competence of Community College Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Cheryl; Miller, Brian; Sypawka, William; Clay, Maria; Hoover-Plonk, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the convergence of leadership styles and moral judgment competence of community college personnel participating in a leadership institute using the Leadership Orientation Instrument (Bolman & Deal, 1984) and the Moral Judgment Test (Lind, 1978). Results indicated that the human resource and structural frames were the…

  14. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  15. Plausibility Judgments in Conceptual Change and Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Nussbaum, E. Michael; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility judgments rarely have been addressed empirically in conceptual change research. Recent research, however, suggests that these judgments may be pivotal to conceptual change about certain topics where a gap exists between what scientists and laypersons find plausible. Based on a philosophical and empirical foundation, this article…

  16. Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A popular distinction in cognitive and social psychology has been between "intuitive" and "deliberate" judgments. This juxtaposition has aligned in dual-process theories of reasoning associative, unconscious, effortless, heuristic, and suboptimal processes (assumed to foster intuitive judgments) versus rule-based, conscious, effortful, analytic,…

  17. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  18. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others' behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment.

  19. 40 CFR 94.221 - Application of good engineering judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... judgment in making all decisions called for under this part, including but not limited to selections... was not made in good faith, or that the decision was not made with a rational basis, the Administrator... Administrator may reject any such decision by a manufacturer if it is not based on good engineering judgment...

  20. Air Target Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Threat-Judgment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童幼堂; 王建明

    2003-01-01

    Threat-judgment is a complicated fuzzy inference problem. Up to now no relevant unified theory and measuring standard have been developed. It is very difficult to establish a threat-judgment model with high reliability in the air defense system for the naval warships. Air target threat level judgment is an important component in naval warship combat command decision-making systems. According to the threat level judgment of air targets during the air defense of single naval warship, a fuzzy pattern recognition model for judging the threat from air targets is established. Then an algorithm for identifying the parameters in the model is presented. The model has an adaptive feature and can dynamically update its parameters according to the state change of the attacking targets and the environment. The method presented here can be used for the air defense system threat judgment in the naval warships.

  1. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  2. Systematic Underreproduction of Time Is Independent of Judgment Certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riemer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed that systematic underreproduction of time is caused by a general judgment bias towards earlier responses, instead of reflecting a genuine misperception of temporal intervals. Here we tested whether this bias can be explained by the uncertainty associated with temporal judgments. We applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to inhibit neuronal processes in the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC and tested its effects on time discrimination and reproduction tasks. The results show increased certainty for discriminative time judgments after PPC inhibition. They suggest that the right PPC plays an inhibitory role for time perception, possibly by mediating the multisensory integration between temporal stimuli and other quantities. Importantly, this increased judgment certainty had no influence on the degree of temporal underreproduction. We conclude that the systematic underreproduction of time is not caused by uncertainty for temporal judgments.

  3. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    .... the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA...

  4. Grammaticality judgments in autism: deviance or delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa

    2009-11-01

    Language in autism has been the subject of intense interest, because communication deficits are central to the disorder, and because autism serves as an arena for testing theories of language acquisition. High-functioning older children with autism are often considered to have intact grammatical abilities, despite pragmatic impairments. Given the heterogeneity in language skills at younger ages, this assumption merits further investigation. Participants with autism (n=21, aged nine to seventeen years), matched on chronological age, receptive vocabulary and IQ, to 22 typically developing individuals, completed a grammaticality judgment task. Participants with autism were significantly less sensitive than controls, specifically for third person singular and present progressive marking. Performance interacted with sentence length, with lower sensitivity to errors occurring at the end of the longest stimulus sentences. Performance sensitivity was associated with onset of single word and phrase speech, and with severity of autistic symptomatology. Implications of findings are discussed.

  5. Exemplary Goods: Exemplars as Judgment Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Dekker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion of exemplars is developed to study valuation processes. It argues that exemplary goods are an important "judgment device" on markets of singular goods, which has so far been ignored in the literature. The article draws on Hannah Arendt's theory of exemplars, as well as literature from the philosophy of science and psychology to construct the new concept. Exemplars are particular goods that become focal points in markets that facilitate the mutual coordination of consumers and producers. From these exemplars norms of quality emerge which are otherwise hard or impossible to explicate. These exemplars and the norms of quality which emerge from them help shape the expectations of both producers and consumers with regard to new goods that are introduced to the market. Two illustrative cases, on classic literature and hip-hop music, are presented to demonstrate the relevance of the concept.

  6. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants' effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies.

  7. Induction, Space and Positive Ethics : Induction, Space, Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    4 pages, 0 figures, 1 reference; International audience; One may purport that ones' awareness of space for scientific purposes comes about from a potential awareness of its' absence that is derived from times when ones attention is not focused on it. Yet simply one might extract the notion that space and entailed properties of it are elemental —i.e. conceptually non reducible and that from which all emanates. The words non-ethical induction, entailing the existence of ethical induction, if co...

  8. Do physician outcome judgments and judgment biases contribute to inappropriate use of treatments? Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many examples of physicians using treatments inappropriately, despite clear evidence about the circumstances under which the benefits of such treatments outweigh their harms. When such over- or under- use of treatments occurs for common diseases, the burden to the healthcare system and risks to patients can be substantial. We propose that a major contributor to inappropriate treatment may be how clinicians judge the likelihood of important treatment outcomes, and how these judgments influence their treatment decisions. The current study will examine the role of judged outcome probabilities and other cognitive factors in the context of two clinical treatment decisions: 1 prescription of antibiotics for sore throat, where we hypothesize overestimation of benefit and underestimation of harm leads to over-prescription of antibiotics; and 2 initiation of anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF, where we hypothesize that underestimation of benefit and overestimation of harm leads to under-prescription of warfarin. Methods For each of the two conditions, we will administer surveys of two types (Type 1 and Type 2 to different samples of Canadian physicians. The primary goal of the Type 1 survey is to assess physicians' perceived outcome probabilities (both good and bad outcomes for the target treatment. Type 1 surveys will assess judged outcome probabilities in the context of a representative patient, and include questions about how physicians currently treat such cases, the recollection of rare or vivid outcomes, as well as practice and demographic details. The primary goal of the Type 2 surveys is to measure the specific factors that drive individual clinical judgments and treatment decisions, using a 'clinical judgment analysis' or 'lens modeling' approach. This survey will manipulate eight clinical variables across a series of sixteen realistic case vignettes. Based on the survey responses, we will be

  9. The facial width-to-height ratio shares stronger links with judgments of aggression than with judgments of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Molnar, Danielle S; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2014-08-01

    Variation in the facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio) is associated with judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness made by observers when viewing men's faces. Although judgments of aggression and of trustworthiness are correlated, they represent distinct constructs. We thus investigated the hypothesis that judgments of aggression share stronger associations with the face ratio than judgments of trustworthiness, and that judgments of aggression mediate the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Across 4 separate studies, involving 129 observers rating subsets of 141 photographs (original photographs of individuals who provided consent for their use) of clean-shaven (65 faces), unshaved (22 faces), or digitized male faces (54 faces; digitized faces were creating using facial modeling software), this hypothesis was supported. The correlations between the face ratio and judgments of aggression were moderate to strong in all 4 studies (rs = .45 to .70). Reaction time was measured in Study 4: Participants judged aggression faster than trustworthiness; thus, temporal precedence also supports the hypothesis that aggression mediates the link between the face ratio and trustworthiness. Sensitivity to the face ratio may therefore be part of a perceptual mechanism specialized to assess aggressiveness rather than trustworthiness in others, likely because of the greater necessity for rapid judgments of aggressive potential than trustworthiness.

  10. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  11. Transparency and Expert Judgment in Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    An example of expert panel elicitation is mentioned to give some insight in important aspects of the views of the experts, without discussion of the elicited quantity. There are a number of issues such as bias and the discussion between, and rating of, experts, which have not been discussed. It can be seen however, that the structured approach given by the subjective probabilities is an excellent point of reference for further discussion and communication between experts and lay persons. A presentation of a structured approach of the elicitation procedure in itself has potential for further confidence building and transparence in decision-making. In the field of radioactive waste management, or in the nuclear industry as a whole, formal expert judgment elicitation has been used primarily in the US and not in Europe, with a few exceptions such as work carried out at the Delft University of Technology, promoted by professor Cook and others. The author considers the technique valuable in several applications for high-level waste and hopes that the technique will be used in this area.

  12. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  13. Religiosity, Ethical Judgments and Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture is often cited as one of the powerful determinants in shaping the personality and behaviour of individuals. Religion, being an important element of culture, is seen as playing an important role in determining how people behave in certain situations. Various authors have suggested religion as an important dimension in Malaysian ethical behaviour studies especially for the Malays. Yet this construct is generally ignored or incorporated into other constructs. This study investigates the influence of religious education on the perceptions of unethical business practices among final year students in one of the local universities in Malaysia. In particular, this study examines the impact of education stream on the level of religious commitment among Malay Muslim students and how these two variables influence their ethical judgment. It was found that the level of religiosity is negative and significantly related to the level of tolerant towards unethical business practices. The findings also establish that more students from the religious education stream are found to be more religious and consequently, are less tolerance towards unethical business practices.

  14. Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Sampo V

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage  = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self-report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex-of-rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex-of-target effects (p desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self-reports, and the construction of desirability-reduced personality inventories. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  16. FOREIGN JUDGMENTS PROJECT OF HAGUE CONFERENCE: FOR A GLOBAL REGIME OF INTERNATIONAL CIRCULATION OF JUDGMENTS ON CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia de Araujo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Hague Conference on Private International Law is promoting the adoption of rules designed to circumvent usual obstacles to the international circulation of judgments. The Judgments Project initiated in the nineties aims at mitigating uncertainties and risks associated with the international commerce by setting forth a simple and safe system according to which foreign judgments may circulate from country to country. The purpose of this article is to preserve the historical moment of the negotiations taking place at the Hague, as well as to pinpoint some technical issues raised in the course of the project that may be of general interest to those involved in the subject of international jurisdiction.

  17. Predicting Political Elections from Rapid and Unreflective Face Judgments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles C. Ballew; Alexander Todorov

    2007-01-01

    Here we show that rapid judgments of competence based solely on the facial appearance of candidates predicted the outcomes of gubernatorial elections, the most important elections in the United States...

  18. Memory for incidentally perceived social cues: Effects on person judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawling, Ralph; Kirkham, Alexander J; Tipper, Steven P; Over, Harriet

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time. The current study demonstrates that in some circumstances changes in pupil size in another person are indeed encoded into memory and influence judgments of that individual at a later time. Furthermore, these judgments interact with the perceived trustworthiness of the individual and the nature of the social context. The effect is somewhat variable, however, possibly reflecting individual differences and the inherent ambiguity of pupil dilation/constriction. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Interpersonal orientation and the accuracy of personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne S; Colvin, C Randall

    2003-04-01

    Are those who are more invested in developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships able to provide more accurate judgments of others' personality characteristics? Previous research has produced mixed findings. In the present study, a conceptual framework was presented and methods were used that overcome many of the problems encountered in past research on judgmental accuracy. On four occasions, 102 judges watched a 12-min videotaped dyadic interaction and described the personality of a designated target person. Judges' personality characteristics were described by self, parents, and friends. Results revealed that psychological communion was positively associated with judges' accuracy in rating targets' personality characteristics. In addition, whereas women were more communal and provided more accurate judgments than men, the relationship between communion and accuracy held after controlling for the effect of gender. Finally, preliminary findings suggested that interpersonally oriented individuals may sometimes draw on information about themselves and about stereotypical others to facilitate accurate judgments of others.

  20. Low Levels of Empathic Concern Predict Utilitarian Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Young, Liane

    2013-01-01

    Is it permissible to harm one to save many? Classic moral dilemmas are often defined by the conflict between a putatively rational response to maximize aggregate welfare (i.e., the utilitarian judgment) and an emotional aversion to harm (i.e., the non-utilitarian judgment). Here, we address two questions. First, what specific aspect of emotional responding is relevant for these judgments? Second, is this aspect of emotional responding selectively reduced in utilitarians or enhanced in non-utilitarians? The results reveal a key relationship between moral judgment and empathic concern in particular (i.e., feelings of warmth and compassion in response to someone in distress). Utilitarian participants showed significantly reduced empathic concern on an independent empathy measure. These findings therefore reveal diminished empathic concern in utilitarian moral judges. PMID:23593213

  1. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors...

  2. Experienced and novice officers' generalized communication suspicion and veracity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions.

  3. Belief Merging and Judgment Aggregation in Fuzzy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Beg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how judgment aggregation and belief merging in the framework of fuzzy logic can help resolve the “Doctrinal Paradox.” We also illustrate the use of fuzzy aggregation functions in social choice theory.

  4. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  5. Gender differences in global-local perception? Evidence from orientation and shape judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Amishav, Rama; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Direct examinations of gender differences in global-local processing are sparse, and the results are inconsistent. We examined this issue with a visuospatial judgment task and with a shape judgment task. Women and men were presented with hierarchical stimuli that varied in closure (open or closed shape) or in line orientation (oblique or horizontal/vertical) at the global or local level. The task was to classify the stimuli on the basis of the variation at the global level (global classification) or at the local level (local classification). Women's classification by closure (global or local) was more accurate than men's for stimuli that varied in closure on both levels, suggesting a female advantage in discriminating shape properties. No gender differences were observed in global-local processing bias. Women and men exhibited a global advantage, and they did not differ in their speed of global or local classification, with only one exception. Women were slower than men in local classification by orientation when the to-be-classified lines were embedded in a global line with a different orientation. This finding suggests that women are more distracted than men by misleading global oriented context when performing local orientation judgments, perhaps because women and men differ in their ability to use cognitive schemes to compensate for the distracting effects of the global context. Our findings further suggest that whether or not gender differences arise depends not only on the nature of the visual task but also on the visual context.

  6. Kant's Critique of Judgment and the Scientific Investigation of Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rothbart; Irmgard Scherer

    1997-01-01

    Kant's theory of judgment establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the subtle relationships between the experimental scientist, the modern instrument, and nature's atomic particles. The principle of purposiveness which governs judgment has also a role in implicitly guiding modern experimental science. In Part 1 we explore Kant's philosophy of science as he shows how knowledge of material nature and unobservable entities is possible. In Part 2 we examine the way in which Kant's t...

  7. Research Workshop on Expert Judgment, Human Error, and Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop brought together 20 computer scientists, psychologists, and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to exchange results and views on human error and judgment bias. Human error is typically studied when operators undertake actions, but judgment bias is an issue in thinking rather than acting. Both topics are generally ignored by the HCI community, which is interested in designs that eliminate human error and bias tendencies. As a result, almost no one at the workshop had met...

  8. Scoring best-worst data in unbalanced many-item designs, with applications to crowdsourcing semantic judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff

    2017-05-27

    Best-worst scaling is a judgment format in which participants are presented with a set of items and have to choose the superior and inferior items in the set. Best-worst scaling generates a large quantity of information per judgment because each judgment allows for inferences about the rank value of all unjudged items. This property of best-worst scaling makes it a promising judgment format for research in psychology and natural language processing concerned with estimating the semantic properties of tens of thousands of words. A variety of different scoring algorithms have been devised in the previous literature on best-worst scaling. However, due to problems of computational efficiency, these scoring algorithms cannot be applied efficiently to cases in which thousands of items need to be scored. New algorithms are presented here for converting responses from best-worst scaling into item scores for thousands of items (many-item scoring problems). These scoring algorithms are validated through simulation and empirical experiments, and considerations related to noise, the underlying distribution of true values, and trial design are identified that can affect the relative quality of the derived item scores. The newly introduced scoring algorithms consistently outperformed scoring algorithms used in the previous literature on scoring many-item best-worst data.

  9. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference.

  10. The role of early stages of cortical visual processing in size and distance judgment: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago L; Costa, Marcelo F; Magalhães, Adsson; Rêgo, Gabriel G; Nagy, Balázs V; Boggio, Paulo S; Ventura, Dora F

    2015-02-19

    Recent research suggests that V1 plays an active role in the judgment of size and distance. Nevertheless, no research has been performed using direct brain stimulation to address this issue. We used transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to directly modulate the early stages of cortical visual processing while measuring size and distance perception with a psychophysical scaling method of magnitude estimation in a repeated-measures design. The subjects randomly received anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in separate sessions starting with size or distance judgment tasks. Power functions were fit to the size judgment data, whereas logarithmic functions were fit to distance judgment data. Slopes and R(2) were compared with separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with two factors: task (size vs. distance) and tDCS (anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham). Anodal tDCS significantly decreased slopes, apparently interfering with size perception. No effects were found for distance perception. Consistent with previous studies, the results of the size task appeared to reflect a prothetic continuum, whereas the results of the distance task seemed to reflect a metathetic continuum. The differential effects of tDCS on these tasks may support the hypothesis that different physiological mechanisms underlie judgments on these two continua. The results further suggest the complex involvement of the early visual cortex in size judgment tasks that go beyond the simple representation of low-level stimulus properties. This supports predictive coding models and experimental findings that suggest that higher-order visual areas may inhibit incoming information from the early visual cortex through feedback connections when complex tasks are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inductive and Deductive Justification of Knowledge: Flexible Judgments underneath Stable Beliefs in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Benjamin; Leuders, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemological beliefs are considered to play an important role for processes of learning and teaching. However, research on personal epistemology is confronted with theoretical issues as there is conflicting evidence regarding the structure, stability, and context-dependence of epistemological beliefs. We give evidence how theoretical…

  12. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction...... an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  13. [Beauty judgment: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jacques; Bolender, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Esthetic judgments are surely subjective, but as surely, that does not preclude them being studied objectively through rigorous scientific methods. The factual basis of a science of esthetics is not to settle whether some person or image is "objectively beautiful" but rather to determine whether some representative set or sets of individuals judge or experience him/her/it as beautiful or unattractive. The aim of this paper is to review the definitional, theoretical and methodological aspects pertaining to the perception of facial/dental attractiveness by a group of representative individuals. The first part lays down the basic principles of the perception of facial/dental attractiveness: the perception involves a jury, a field of investigation and a test providing quantitative data; the following general determinants of beauty perception are reviewed: the average morphology, the judge's cultural background, the numerology, the judge's ethnical origin. Indirect determinants are the dentition, the osseous architecture and the muscular envelope. Some disruptive factors might alter the judges' facial perception. They might be qualified as either peripheral to the face or psycho-social factors. Peripheral factors include hair style and color, skin hue, wrinkles, lips color... Psycho-social factors cover the personality of the subject being evaluated, his/her intelligence or behavior. The second part deals specifically with the methodology used to determine facial attractiveness and to correlate this latter with a specific morphology. Typically such a study aims to determine average esthetic preferences for some set of visual displays among a particular jury, given a specific task to judge esthetic quality or qualities. The sample being studied, the displays, the jury or jurys, the rating procedure must all be specified prior to collecting data. A specific emphasis will be given to the rating process and the associated morphometrics, the ultimate goal being to

  14. Quantification of health by scaling similarity judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M M Arons

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A new methodology is introduced to scale health states on an interval scale based on similarity responses. It could be well suited for valuation of health states on specific regions of the health continuum that are problematic when applying conventional valuation techniques. These regions are the top-end, bottom-end, and states around 'dead'. METHODS: Three samples of approximately 500 respondents were recruited via an online survey. Each sample received a different judgmental task in which similarity data were elicited for the top seven health states in the dementia quality of life instrument (DQI. These states were '111111' (no problems on any domain and six others with some problems (level 2 on one domain. The tasks presented two (dyads, three (triads, or four (quads DQI health states. Similarity data were transformed into interval-level scales with metric and non-metric multidimensional scaling algorithms. The three response tasks were assessed for their feasibility and comprehension. RESULTS: In total 532, 469, and 509 respondents participated in the dyads, triads, and quads tasks respectively. After the scaling procedure, in all three response tasks, the best health state '111111' was positioned at one end of the health-state continuum and state '111211' was positioned at the other. The correlation between the metric scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.95, while the non-metric scales ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, indicating strong to near perfect associations. There were no apparent differences in the reported difficulty of the response tasks, but the triads had the highest number of drop-outs. DISCUSSION: Multidimensional scaling proved to be a feasible method to scale health-state similarity data. The dyads and especially the quads response tasks warrant further investigation, as these tasks provided the best indications of respondent comprehension.

  15. Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen...

  16. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  17. Inductive situation calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Denecker, Marc; Ternovska, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    Temporal reasoning has always been a major test case for knowledge representation formalisms. In this paper, we develop an inductive variant of the situation calculus in ED-logic, classical logic extended with inductive definitions. This logic has been proposed recently and is an extension of classical logic. It allows for a uniform representation of various forms of definitions, including monotone inductive definitions and non-monotone forms of inductive definitions such as iterated inductio...

  18. Hypotheses and Inductive Predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROMEYN, J.-W.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper studies the use of hypotheses schemes in generating inductive predictions. After discussing Carnap–Hintikka inductive logic, hypotheses schemes are defined and illustrated with two partitions. One partition results in the Carnapian continuum of inductive methods, the other resul

  19. Hypotheses and Inductive Predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROMEYN, J.-W.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper studies the use of hypotheses schemes in generating inductive predictions. After discussing Carnap–Hintikka inductive logic, hypotheses schemes are defined and illustrated with two partitions. One partition results in the Carnapian continuum of inductive methods, the other resul

  20. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  1. Latent Fairness in Adults' Relationship-Based Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous

  2. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the

  3. Latent Fairness in Adults’ Relationship-Based Moral Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eHao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults’ relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults’ genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults’ moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults’ deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally

  4. A Critical Ear: Analysis of Value Judgments in Reviews of Beethoven's Piano Sonata Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Elena; Williamson, Victoria J; Eiholzer, Hubert; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    What sets a great music performance apart? In this study, we addressed this question through an examination of value judgments in written criticism of recorded performance. One hundred reviews of recordings of Beethoven's piano sonatas, published in the Gramophone between 1934 and 2010, were analyzed through a three-step qualitative analysis that identified the valence (positive/negative) expressed by critics' statements and the evaluation criteria that underpinned their judgments. The outcome is a model of the main evaluation criteria used by professional critics: aesthetic properties, including intensity, coherence, and complexity, and achievement-related properties, including sureness, comprehension, and endeavor. The model also emphasizes how critics consider the suitability and balance of these properties across the musical and cultural context of the performance. The findings relate directly to current discourses on the role of evaluation in music criticism and the generalizability of aesthetic principles. In particular, the perceived achievement of the performer stands out as a factor that drives appreciation of a recording.

  5. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  6. Cut Elimination for a Logic with Induction and Co-induction

    CERN Document Server

    Tiu, Alwen

    2010-01-01

    Proof search has been used to specify a wide range of computation systems. In order to build a framework for reasoning about such specifications, we make use of a sequent calculus involving induction and co-induction. These proof principles are based on a proof theoretic (rather than set-theoretic) notion of definition. Definitions are akin to logic programs, where the left and right rules for defined atoms allow one to view theories as "closed" or defining fixed points. The use of definitions and free equality makes it possible to reason intentionally about syntax. We add in a consistent way rules for pre and post fixed points, thus allowing the user to reason inductively and co-inductively about properties of computational system making full use of higher-order abstract syntax. Consistency is guaranteed via cut-elimination, where we give the first, to our knowledge, cut-elimination procedure in the presence of general inductive and co-inductive definitions.

  7. Overdistribution illusions: Categorical judgments produce them, confidence ratings reduce them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Nakamura, K; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E

    2017-01-01

    Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e.g., presented on List 1, presented on List 2), rather than by making the usual categorical judgments about those states. The central prediction, which was derived from the task calibration principle of fuzzy-trace theory, was that confidence ratings should reduce overdistribution by diminishing subjects' reliance on noncompensatory gist memories. The data of 3 experiments agreed with that prediction. In Experiment 1, there were reliable disjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, both response formats produced reliable disjunction illusions, but those for confidence ratings were much smaller than those for categorical judgments. In Experiment 3, there were reliable conjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. Apropos of recent controversies over confidence-accuracy correlations in memory, such correlations were positive for hits, negative for correct rejections, and the 2 types of correlations were of equal magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise.

  9. Physician judgment in clinical settings: methodological influences and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, N V

    1993-07-01

    Understanding the quality of physicians' intuitive judgments is essential in determining the appropriate use of their judgments in medical decision-making (vis-a-vis analytical or actuarial approaches). As part of this process, the quality of physicians' predictions must be assessed because prediction is fundamental to common clinical tasks: determining diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy; establishing monitoring intervals; performing screening and preventive maneuvers. Critical evaluation of predictive capabilities requires an assessment of the components of the prediction process: the data available for prediction, the method used for prediction, and the accuracy of prediction. Although variation in and uncertainty about the underlying data elements are often acknowledged as a source of inaccurate predictions, prediction also can be confounded by both methodological and cognitive limitations. During the past two decades, numerous factors have been recognized that may bias test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). These same factors may also produce bias in intuitive judgments. The use of cognitive processes to simplify judgment tasks (e.g., the availability and representativeness heuristics) and the presence of certain biases in the judgment process (e.g., ego, regret) may present obstacles to accurate estimation of probabilities by physicians. Limitations on the intuitive use of information (cognitive biases) have been demonstrated in both medical and nonmedical decision-making settings. Recent studies have led to a deepening understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of intuitive and analytical approaches to decision making. Here, many aspects of the basis for this understanding are reviewed.

  10. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  11. Music Reading Expertise Selectively Improves Categorical Judgment with Musical Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetta Kwailing Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Different domains of perceptual expertise often lead to different hemispheric engagement (e.g. Kanwisher et al., 1997. Recent work suggests that the neural substrates engaged in musical reading are shifted from left hemisphere novice processing to bilateral processing in experts (Wong & Gauthier, 2010. To relate this shift to behavior, we tested whether music-reading training improves categorical and coordinate perceptual judgments, which are argued to rely on the left and right hemisphere respectively (Kosslyn et al., 1989. Music-reading experts and novices judged whether two sequentially presented music sequences were identical. The notes were either on a staff (categorical or without a staff (coordinate in either trained or untrained (90° rotated orientations. Experts performed better than novices for categorical judgments, and the advantage was larger for the trained than untrained orientation. The two groups performed similarly for coordinate judgments. Music-reading fluency predicted performance in categorical judgments in the trained orientation in experts, while it predicted performance in all conditions in novices. This suggests that music-reading training selectively improves categorical judgments in the trained orientation, while music-reading ability in novices reflects general perceptual ability with notes. Future studies will clarify how these findings are related to the hemispheric shift in music-reading expertise.

  12. The development of moral judgment during nursing education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Jaana; Suominen, Tarja; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Helkama, Klaus

    2004-10-01

    This study describes moral judgment among first- and last-year nursing students in Finland and examines the effects of ethics teaching on the development of moral judgment. The data for this quantitative cross-sectional study were collected using the Defining Issues Test (DIT), which is based on Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning stages. The questionnaires were sent to four polytechnics, which offer nursing education in southern Finland. A total of 52 first-year students and 54 last-year students participated. The results showed that students who had had to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practical training had higher moral judgment than students who did not. Last-year students had higher moral judgment than first-year students. Last-year students resorted to principle-based thinking more often than first-year students in resolving DIT dilemmas. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant. The results indicate that nursing education may has an effect upon students' moral judgment.

  13. An ethical facade? Medical students' miscomprehensions of substituted judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farr A Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied how well first-year medical students understand and apply the concept of substituted judgment, following a course on clinical ethics. METHOD: Students submitted essays on one of three ethically controversial scenarios presented in class. One scenario involved a patient who had lost decisional capacity. Through an iterative process of textual analysis, the essays were studied and coded for patterns in the ways students misunderstood or misapplied the principle of substituted judgment. RESULTS: Students correctly articulated course principles regarding patient autonomy, substituted judgment, and non-imposition of physician values. However, students showed misunderstanding by giving doctors the responsibility of balancing the interests of the patient against the interests of the family, by stating doctors and surrogates should be guided primarily by a best-interest standard, and by suggesting that patient autonomy becomes the guiding principle only when patients can no longer express their wishes. CONCLUSION: Students did not appear to internalize or correctly apply the substituted judgment standard, even though they could describe it accurately. This suggests the substituted judgment standard may run counter to students' moral intuitions, making it harder to apply in clinical practice.

  14. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  15. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  16. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  17. Mathematical Induction and Recursive Definition in Teaching Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vármonostory, Endre

    2009-01-01

    The method of proof by mathematical induction follows from Peano axiom 5. We give three properties which are often used in the proofs by mathematical induction. We show that these are equivalent. Supposing the well-ordering property we prove the validity of this method without using Peano axiom 5. Finally, we introduce the simplest form of…

  18. In praise of clinical judgment: Meehl's forgotten legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Drew; Weinberger, Joel

    2005-10-01

    Although Paul E. Meehl demonstrated the limits of informal aggregation of data and prognostication by presumed experts, he remained convinced that clinical experience confers expertise of some kind. The authors explore this forgotten side of Meehl's legacy by reconsidering the validity of clinical judgment in its natural context, everyday clinical work. Three domains central to clinical practice are examined: diagnosis, interpretation of meaning, and intervention. It is argued that a more sanguine picture of clinical expertise emerges when the focus shifts from prediction at high levels of inference to (a) judgments at a moderate level of inference, (b) contexts for which clinical training and experience are likely to confer expertise, and (c) conditions that optimize the expression of that expertise (e.g., use of instruments designed for expert observers). The authors conclude by examining domains in which clinical judgment could prove useful in knowledge generation (e.g., hypothesis generation, identification of falsifying instances, item development). 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  20. Moral judgment competence of nursing students in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, Radka; Sikorová, Lucie

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the level of moral judgment competence in students of nursing at the University of Ostrava Faculty of Medicine, and whether it is influenced by the field of study, type of study, current year of study and age. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The survey sample comprised 662 full-time and part-time students of General Nursing and Midwifery. To measure ethical competence, Lind's Moral Judgment Test (MJT, 1995) was used. The nursing students showed low C-index scores (the mean C-index was 14.24 ± 9.56). The C-index was significantly influenced only by the type of study and age (pmoral judgment, that is the post-conventional level. Due to the nursing students' lower C-index scores, methods developing ethical argumentation should be introduced into nursing ethics courses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Age differences in the accuracy of confidence judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, R M; Mutter, S A

    1996-01-01

    Age differences in accuracy were investigated by having older (M = 68.6 years) and younger (M = 21.5 years) adults make confidence judgments about the correctness of their responses to two sets of general knowledge items. For one set, prior to making their confidence judgments, subjects made mental strategy judgements indicating how they had selected their answers (i.e., they guessed, used intuition, made an inference, or immediately recognized the response as correct). Results indicate that older subjects were more accurate than younger subjects in predicting the correctness of their responses; however, making mental strategy judgments did not result in increased accuracy for either age group. Additional analyses explored the relationship between accuracy and other individual difference variables. The results of this investigation are consistent with recent theories of postformal cognitive development that suggest older adults have greater insight into the limitations of their knowledge.

  2. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2017-03-06

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure.

  4. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  5. Processing Parameter Effects and Thermal Properties of Y2Si2O7 Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings Synthesized by Solution Precursor Induction Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Laduye, Guillaume; Gitzhofer, François

    2016-09-01

    The solution precursor plasma spray process, in which a solution of metal salts is axially injected into an induction thermal plasma, is suitable for deposition of nanostructured environmental barrier coatings. The effects of main processing parameters, namely the solution precursor concentration, spraying distance, reactor pressure, and atomization gas flow rate, have been analyzed using D-optimal design of experiments regarding the deposition rate and coating porosity responses. Among these four parameters, the solution precursor concentration had the greatest influent on the coating structure, followed by the spraying distance and reactor pressure, and finally the atomization gas flow rate with a small contribution. It is pointed out that the species that impact on the substrate are agglomerates of nanoparticles. The equivalent thermal conductivity of selected coatings was computed from experimental temperature evolution curves obtained by laser flash thermal diffusivity analysis, using two methods: a multilayer finite-element model with optimization, and a multilayer thermal diffusion model. The results of the two models agree, with coatings exhibiting low thermal conductivity between 0.7 and 1 W/(m K) at 800 °C.

  6. Properties of the phage-shock-protein (Psp) regulatory complex that govern signal transduction and induction of the Psp response in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Goran; Engl, Christoph; Mayhew, Antony J; Burrows, Patricia C; Buck, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The phage-shock-protein (Psp) response maintains the proton-motive force (pmf) under extracytoplasmic stress conditions that impair the inner membrane (IM) in bacterial cells. In Escherichia coli transcription of the pspABCDE and pspG genes requires activation of σ(54)-RNA polymerase by the enhancer-binding protein PspF. A regulatory network comprising PspF-A-C-B-ArcB controls psp expression. One key regulatory point is the negative control of PspF imposed by its binding to PspA. It has been proposed that under stress conditions, the IM-bound sensors PspB and PspC receive and transduce the signal(s) to PspA via protein-protein interactions, resulting in the release of the PspA-PspF inhibitory complex and the consequent induction of psp. In this work we demonstrate that PspB self-associates and interacts with PspC via putative IM regions. We present evidence suggesting that PspC has two topologies and that conserved residue G48 and the putative leucine zipper motif are determinants required for PspA interaction and signal transduction upon stress. We also establish that PspC directly interacts with the effector PspG, and show that PspG self-associates. These results are discussed in the context of formation and function of the Psp regulatory complex.

  7. Processing Parameter Effects and Thermal Properties of Y2Si2O7 Nanostructured Environmental Barrier Coatings Synthesized by Solution Precursor Induction Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Laduye, Guillaume; Gitzhofer, François

    2016-10-01

    The solution precursor plasma spray process, in which a solution of metal salts is axially injected into an induction thermal plasma, is suitable for deposition of nanostructured environmental barrier coatings. The effects of main processing parameters, namely the solution precursor concentration, spraying distance, reactor pressure, and atomization gas flow rate, have been analyzed using D-optimal design of experiments regarding the deposition rate and coating porosity responses. Among these four parameters, the solution precursor concentration had the greatest influent on the coating structure, followed by the spraying distance and reactor pressure, and finally the atomization gas flow rate with a small contribution. It is pointed out that the species that impact on the substrate are agglomerates of nanoparticles. The equivalent thermal conductivity of selected coatings was computed from experimental temperature evolution curves obtained by laser flash thermal diffusivity analysis, using two methods: a multilayer finite-element model with optimization, and a multilayer thermal diffusion model. The results of the two models agree, with coatings exhibiting low thermal conductivity between 0.7 and 1 W/(m K) at 800 °C.

  8. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  9. Effects of Meaning and Symmetry on Judgments of Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T.; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts...... to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we...

  10. The Contrabassist and the CEO: Moral Judgment and Collective Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How much is a moral judgment on a single act influenced by circumstances which have little to do with the nature of the act itself? How much have certain moral judgments to do with the common history and shared experience of a certain group of individuals? Using two cases taken from life (a German musician and a German CEO behaving both in a morally wrong way but with very different consequences from the point of view of moral judgement and with very different reactions from the German public, the article tries to give an answer to these questions, touching issues like: guilt, moral responsibility, collective responsibility, and collective identity.

  11. Inductive Data Types Based on Fibrations Theory in Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decheng Miao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods including algebra and category theory have some deficiencies in analyzing semantics properties and describing inductive rules of inductive data types, we present a method based on Fibrations theory aiming at those questions above. We systematically analyze some basic logical structures of inductive data types about a fibration such as re-indexing functor, truth functor and comprehension functor, make semantics models of non-indexed fibration, single-sorted indexed fibration and many-sorted indexed fibration respectively. On this basis, we thoroughly discuss semantics properties of fibred, single-sorted indexed and many-sorted indexed inductive data types, and abstractly describe their inductive rules with universality. Furthermore, we briefly introduce applications of the three inductive dana types for analyzing semantics properties and describing inductive rules based on Fibrations theory via some examples. Compared with traditional methods, our works have the following three advantages. Firstly, brief descriptions and flexible expansibility of Fibrations theory can analyze semantics properties of inductive data types accurately, whose semantics are computed automatically. Secondly, superior abstractness of Fibrations theory does not rely on particular computing environments to depict inductive rules of inductive data types with universality. Thirdly, its rigorousness and consistence provide sound basis for testing and maintenance of software development.

  12. Common and dissociable neural correlates associated with component processes of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Lu, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng

    2011-06-15

    The ability to draw numerical inductive reasoning requires two key cognitive processes, identification and extrapolation. This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component processes of numerical inductive reasoning using event-related fMRI. Three kinds of tasks: rule induction (RI), rule induction and application (RIA), and perceptual judgment (Jud) were solved by twenty right-handed adults. Our results found that the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) extending into the precuneus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were commonly recruited in the two components. It was also observed that the fronto-parietal network was more specific to identification, whereas the striatal-thalamic network was more specific to extrapolation. The findings suggest that numerical inductive reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple brain areas including the prefrontal, parietal, and subcortical regions, of which some are more specific to demands on only one of these two component processes, whereas others are sensitive to both.

  13. Kohlberg's theory about moral judgment development and the instruments used for evaluation of moral judgment and moral competence in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    O presente artigo tem por objetivo abordar as bases, finalidades e composição de dois instrumentos de avaliação de juízo moral: a Moral Judgment Interview (MJI) e o Defining Issues Test (DIT), e um de competência moral: o Moral Judgment Test (MJT). Retoma a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Kohlberg que fundamenta esses instrumentos, assim como os últimos estudos realizados com os mesmos. A MJI é uma entrevista semiestruturada que avalia o nível de juízo moral. O DIT é um teste objetivo que ...

  14. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    -process is the high deposition temperature, consequently the properties of steel substrates are negatively influenced. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment of the coated steels is necessary to restore the properties of steels ready for operation. Induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment....... The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore......, the scratch test is used to estimate critical loads for cohesive and adhesive failure of the coatings. Additionally, distortion measurements are carried out. The results emphasize the advantage of induction surface hardening as a method of subsequent heat treatment of CVD-coated steels....

  15. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  16. Sex Bias in Clinical Judgment among School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Frederickson, Anne K.

    1991-01-01

    Used analogue case study format to examine sex bias in clinical judgment among school psychologists. Varied sex of adolescent and problem type in 2 X 2 design. School psychologists read case study and rated perceived disturbance and importance of intervention. Psychologists rated it more important to intervene when subject was male; no differences…

  17. Cognitive Differentiation and Affective Stimulus Value in Vocational Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jack L.; Klein, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cognitive differentiation level and the affective stimulus value of various occupations. Findings of the present investigation, conducted with upper-class college males, were consistent with the findings obtained in previous clinical and social judgment studies. Subjects were cognitively more…

  18. Context effects in the measurement of optimism in probability judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of contextual information such as comparison standard on self-other probability judgments regarding the occurrence of negative life events, which tend to be characterized by optimism. In Study 1, 80 undergraduates (mean age 19.5 yrs) completed a questionnaire on preventive

  19. Clinical Judgment And The Strong Vocational Interest Blank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, E. Robert; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Forty subjects (highly qualified and experienced in clinical judgment) were used to psychologically scale the extent to which SVIB scores and profiles supported an expressed vocational choice. Moderately high agreement was demonstrated across judges, although they differed considerably in the weights assigned to scores and configural patterns.…

  20. Time Keeps on Ticking: The Experience of Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Paul M.; White, Michael J.; Aegisdottir, Stefania; Maugherman, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions by Ridley and Shaw-Ridley (EJ832451) and Lichtenberg (EJ832452) to the authors' meta-analysis on the effects of experience on judgment accuracy add positively to what is hoped will become an ever more focused discourse on this most basic question: How can mental health clinical decision making be improved? In this rejoinder, the…

  1. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  2. Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions about Exclusion in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Gasser, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…

  3. Children's Temporal Judgments for Autobiographical Past and Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith A.; Mayhew, Estelle M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the performance of twenty 5-7-year-olds on two spatial-temporal judgment tasks. In a semantic task, children located temporal distances from today that were described using conventional, temporal terms on a spatial timeline. In an autobiographical task, children judged temporal distances on the same spatial timeline for events that…

  4. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valnea Žauhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II and III according to Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961. The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar.

  5. People's conditional probability judgments follow probability theory (plus noise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation. Two experiments strongly confirm these predictions, with people's estimates on average agreeing with probability theory for the noise-cancelling identities, but deviating from probability theory (in just the way predicted by the model) for other identities. This new model subsumes an earlier model of unconditional or 'direct' probability judgment which explains a number of systematic biases seen in direct probability judgment (Costello & Watts, 2014). This model may thus provide a fully general account of the mechanisms by which people estimate probabilities.

  6. Distinct information critically distinguishes judgments of face familiarity and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Volna, Blanka; Ewing, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Accurately determining the familiarity of another and correctly establishing their identity are vital social skills. A considerable body of work has explored their perceptual and neural underpinnings and debate remains regarding whether they are dissociable, that is, separable parts of a dual process, or different aspects of a common retrieval process. Less is known about the specific visual information that guides familiarity judgments and how this compares to the information used to identify a face by name. Here we sought to establish the critical information underlying participants' judgments of facial familiarity and identification. We created a new standardized stimulus set comprising 6 personally familiar and 12 unfamiliar faces and applied the Bubbles reverse-correlation methodology to establish the information driving correct performance in each task. Results revealed that markedly different information underlies familiarity and identity judgments. When categorizing familiarity, participants relied more upon lower spatial-frequency, broad facial cues (eye and face shape) than when categorizing identity, which relied on fine details in the internal features (eyes and mouth). These results provide novel evidence of qualitatively distinct information use in familiarity and identification judgments and emphasize the importance of considering the task set for participants and their processing strategy when investigating face recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Monitoring Communication with Patients: Analyzing Judgments of Satisfaction (JOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela; de Bruin, Anique; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Medical students struggle to put into practice communication skills learned in medical school. In order to improve our instructional designs, better insight into the cause of this lack of transfer is foundational. We therefore explored students' cognitions by soliciting self-evaluations of their history-taking skills, coined "judgments of…

  8. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  9. Lux et Verisimilitudo: Judgment Data in SLA Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    A discussion of the data obtained from grammaticality judgment tasks argues that despite the light shed by these data on problems of second language acquisition theory, there is not yet adequate knowledge of how to interpret those data within a coherent model of performance of the tasks. Therefore, it is concluded, there is no basis for deciding…

  10. 28 CFR 0.171 - Judgments, fines, penalties, and forfeitures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims and Responsibility for Judgments, Fines... that the division will assume such enforcement responsibilities. (b) Each U.S. Attorney shall designate... section that such division will assume responsibility for enforcement of a criminal monetary penalty,...

  11. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  12. Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments for Beatles songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2012-04-01

    Context effects on tempo and pleasantness judgments of different tempos were demonstrated in three experiments using Beatles songs. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explored how listening to versions of the same song that were played at different tempos affected tempo and pleasantness ratings. In both experiments, contrast effects were found on judgments of tempo, with target tempos rated faster when context tempos were slow than when they were fast. In both experiments, we also showed that the peak of the pleasantness rating function shifted toward the values of the context tempos, reflecting disordinal context effects on pleasantness relationships. Familiarity with the songs did not moderate these effects, and shifts in tempo ratings did not correlate with shifts in most pleasant target tempos when context was manipulated within subjects. In Experiment 3, we examined how manipulations of context tempos for one song affected judgments of the same song as compared with judgments of other more or less similar songs. For tempo ratings, contrast effects transferred to ratings of a similar song, but for pleasantness ratings, assimilative shifts of ideals were found only for the same song and not for similar songs. This pattern of results was supportive of independent bases for the two context effects.

  13. On Designing Construct Driven Situational Judgment Tests: Some Preliminary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Weekly, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Situational judgment tests (SJTs) are widely agreed to be a measurement technique. It is also widely agreed that SJTs are a questionable methodological choice for measurement of psychological constructs, such as behavioral competencies, due to a lack of evidence supporting appropriate factor structures and high internal consistencies.…

  14. Judgments of Learning Are Influenced by Memory for Past Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid; Metcalfe, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The Underconfidence with Practice (UPW) effect [Koriat, A., Sheffer, L., & Ma'ayan, H. (2002). Comparing objective and subjective learning curves: Judgment of learning exhibit increased underconfidence with practice. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131", 147-162.], found in multi-trial learning, is marked by a pattern of…

  15. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  16. A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Early studies of intuitive judgment and decision making conducted with the late Amos Tversky are reviewed in the context of two related concepts: an analysis of accessibility, the ease with which thoughts come to mind; a distinction between effortless intuition and deliberate reasoning. Intuitive thoughts, like percepts, are highly accessible.…

  17. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  18. Detestable or Marvelous? Neuroanatomical Correlates of Character Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Katie E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Kovach, Christopher K.; Anderson, Steven W.; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    As we learn new information about the social and moral behaviors of other people, we form and update character judgments of them, and this can profoundly influence how we regard and act towards others. In the study reported here, we capitalized on two interesting neurological patient populations where this process of complex "moral…

  19. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  20. A person-centered approach to moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Pizarro, David A; Diermeier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Both normative theories of ethics in philosophy and contemporary models of moral judgment in psychology have focused almost exclusively on the permissibility of acts, in particular whether acts should be judged on the basis of their material outcomes (consequentialist ethics) or on the basis of rules, duties, and obligations (deontological ethics). However, a longstanding third perspective on morality, virtue ethics, may offer a richer descriptive account of a wide range of lay moral judgments. Building on this ethical tradition, we offer a person-centered account of moral judgment, which focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis for moral evaluations rather than on acts. Because social perceivers are fundamentally motivated to acquire information about the moral character of others, features of an act that seem most informative of character often hold more weight than either the consequences of the act or whether a moral rule has been broken. This approach, we argue, can account for numerous empirical findings that are either not predicted by current theories of moral psychology or are simply categorized as biases or irrational quirks in the way individuals make moral judgments.

  1. Teleological judgment and instrumental reason in Kant and Horkheimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2006-01-01

    Early in his career, Max Horkheimer occupied himself twice with Kant's "Critique of judgment". In both cases he focussed on Kant's teleology, not his aesthetics. The article takes at the question, whether there is a connection between Horkheimer's early occupation with "the critique of teleological...

  2. Moral Judgment as a Function of Age, Sex, and Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sue J. M.; Giebink, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Provides data in support of Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory. Shows comparable moral judgments for boys and girls at ages 11 and 17, but higher moral reasoning in 14-year-old girls than in their male peers. (Author/RL)

  3. Back view of beauty: a bias in attractiveness judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Keiichi; Ono, Fuminori; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Attractiveness judgment based on visual appearance seems easy and almost automatic. However, it becomes difficult when we need to rely on glances of a person's back view (eg while passing on the street). How is attractiveness judgment from the back view consistent with that from full-front view? In experiment 1 participants rated the attractiveness of human heads photographed from behind and from the front. Attractiveness ratings between the back and front views were weakly but significantly correlated. However, on average, the back-view photographs were rated more attractive than the front-view photographs. The tendency was most conspicuous when the male participants viewed the photographs of women. In experiment 2 participants were explicitly asked to predict the facial attractiveness of each head's front view based on the back view. Again, the predicted attractiveness based on the back view was higher than the actual rating of the front-view photographs, and the difference reached significance when the male participants viewed the women photographs. These biases in attractiveness judgment would be related to attractiveness judgments in everyday situations where straight full-frontal encounters are rare.

  4. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  5. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Controllability of Cognitive Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-grade children's and adults' judgments related to the controllability of cognitive activities, including object recognition, inferential reasoning, counting, and pretending. In Experiment 1, fifth-grade children and adults rated transitive inference and interpretation of ambiguous pictures as more…

  6. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  7. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  8. Context Effects in Valuation, Judgment and Choice: A Neuroscientific Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hytönen (Kaisa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt is well known that our choices and judgments depend on the context. For instance, prior experiences can influence subsequent decisions. People tend to make riskier decisions if they have a chance to win back a previous loss or if they can gamble with previously won money. Another exam

  9. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  10. Confidence and Professional Judgment in Assessing Children's Risk of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Shlonsky, Aron; LeBlanc, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child welfare agencies have moved toward standardized risk assessment measures to improve the reliability with which child's risk of abuse is predicted. Nevertheless, these tools require a degree of subjective judgment. Research to date has not substantially investigated the influence of specific context and worker characteristics on…

  11. Developmental Changes and Individual Differences in Young Children's Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Rote, Wendy M.; Jambon, Marc; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Villalobos, Myriam; Comer, Jessamy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental trajectories and individual differences in 70 American middle-income 2.5- to 4-year olds' moral judgments were examined 3 times across 1 year using latent growth modeling. At Wave 1, children distinguished hypothetical moral from conventional transgressions on all criteria, but only older preschoolers did so when rating deserved…

  12. Beyond smile dynamics: mimicry and beliefs in judgments of smiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maringer, M.; Krumhuber, E.G.; Fischer, A.H.; Niedenthal, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The judgment that a smile is based on "true," usually positive, feelings affects social interaction. However, the processes underlying the interpretation of a smile as being more or less genuine are not well understood. The aim of the present research was to test predictions of the Simulation of Smi

  13. Perceptions of Teacher Characteristics and Student Judgments of Teacher Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1988-01-01

    Uses a seven point Likert scale to examine the relationship between perceived teacher attractiveness, expertness, and trustworthiness and student judgment of teacher effectiveness. Correlations suggest that a more accurate view of teaching may be as an instance of social influence process. Urges further research to identify those cues that infer…

  14. Culture and Probability Judgment Accuracy: The Influence of Holistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Wiebe, John S

    2011-08-01

    A well-established phenomenon in the judgment and decision-making tradition is the overconfidence one places in the amount of knowledge that one possesses. Overconfidence or probability judgment accuracy varies not only individually but also across cultures. However, research efforts to explain cross-cultural variations in the overconfidence phenomenon have seldom been made. In Study 1, the authors compared the probability judgment accuracy of U.S. Americans (N = 108) and Mexican participants (N = 100). In Study 2, they experimentally primed culture by randomly assigning English/Spanish bilingual Mexican Americans (N = 195) to response language. Results of both studies replicated the cross-cultural variation of probability judgment accuracy previously observed in other cultural groups. U.S. Americans displayed less overconfidence when compared to Mexicans. These results were then replicated in bilingual participants, when culture was experimentally manipulated with language priming. Holistic reasoning did not account for the cross-cultural variation of overconfidence. Suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  15. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  16. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct…

  17. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  18. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations.

  19. Children's Moral and Affective Judgments Regarding Provocation and Retaliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Yell, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Children's moral judgments, attributions of emotion, and their associations were examined in hypothetical, prototypical situations and situations of provocation and peer retaliation. Children judged prototypical and provoked moral transgressions (hitting and teasing). Hypothetical moral transgressions were judged to be more serious and deserving…

  20. Preschool Children's Judgments about Hypothetical and Actual Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined three and four year olds' judgments about transgressions. Children judged moral transgressions to be more serious, punishable, and wrong than conventional transgressions; hypothetical transgressions to be more wrong independent of rules than actual transgressions; and hypothetical moral transgressions to be more independent of rules than…

  1. A neuroscientific approach to normative judgment in law and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Oliver R; Prehn, Kristin

    2004-11-29

    Developments in cognitive neuroscience are providing new insights into the nature of normative judgment. Traditional views in such disciplines as philosophy, religion, law, psychology and economics have differed over the role and usefulness of intuition and emotion in judging blameworthiness. Cognitive psychology and neurobiology provide new tools and methods for studying questions of normative judgment. Recently, a consensus view has emerged, which recognizes important roles for emotion and intuition and which suggests that normative judgment is a distributed process in the brain. Testing this approach through lesion and scanning studies has linked a set of brain regions to such judgment, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Better models of emotion and intuition will help provide further clarification of the processes involved. The study of law and justice is less well developed. We advance a model of law in the brain which suggests that law can recruit a wider variety of sources of information and paths of processing than do the intuitive moral responses that have been studied so far. We propose specific hypotheses and lines of further research that could help test this approach.

  2. Moral Judgment Development across Cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg's Universality Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.; Snarey, John R.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits Kohlberg's cognitive developmental claims that stages of moral judgment, facilitative processes of social perspective-taking, and moral values are commonly identifiable across cultures. Snarey [Snarey, J. (1985). "The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research."…

  3. Context Effects in Valuation, Judgment and Choice: A Neuroscientific Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hytönen (Kaisa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt is well known that our choices and judgments depend on the context. For instance, prior experiences can influence subsequent decisions. People tend to make riskier decisions if they have a chance to win back a previous loss or if they can gamble with previously won money. Another

  4. Audiovisual Simultaneity Judgment and Rapid Recalibration throughout the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Niear, Matthew; Van der Burg, Erik; Wallace, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory interactions are well established to convey an array of perceptual and behavioral benefits. One of the key features of multisensory interactions is the temporal structure of the stimuli combined. In an effort to better characterize how temporal factors influence multisensory interactions across the lifespan, we examined audiovisual simultaneity judgment and the degree of rapid recalibration to paired audiovisual stimuli (Flash-Beep and Speech) in a sample of 220 participants ranging from 7 to 86 years of age. Results demonstrate a surprisingly protracted developmental time-course for both audiovisual simultaneity judgment and rapid recalibration, with neither reaching maturity until well into adolescence. Interestingly, correlational analyses revealed that audiovisual simultaneity judgments (i.e., the size of the audiovisual temporal window of simultaneity) and rapid recalibration significantly co-varied as a function of age. Together, our results represent the most complete description of age-related changes in audiovisual simultaneity judgments to date, as well as being the first to describe changes in the degree of rapid recalibration as a function of age. We propose that the developmental time-course of rapid recalibration scaffolds the maturation of more durable audiovisual temporal representations. PMID:27551918

  5. [Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; E Reichman, Marsha; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data,we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  6. Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; Reichman, Marsha E; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data, we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  7. Context Effects in Valuation, Judgment and Choice: A Neuroscientific Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hytönen (Kaisa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIt is well known that our choices and judgments depend on the context. For instance, prior experiences can influence subsequent decisions. People tend to make riskier decisions if they have a chance to win back a previous loss or if they can gamble with previously won money. Another exam

  8. Is AIDS a Biasing Factor in Teacher Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David W.; Hulecki, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    Regular-education, third-grade teachers (n=91) in Indiana reviewed one of two psychological reports, identical except that one reported a diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and one reported a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. AIDS was not found to be a biasing factor in teachers' judgments regarding special education placement.…

  9. Evolving Judgments of Terror Risks: Foresight, Hindsight, and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch; Gonzalez, Roxana M.; Lerner, Jennifer S.; Small, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the evolution of cognitive and emotional responses to terror risks for a nationally representative sample of Americans between late 2001 and late 2002. Respondents' risk judgments changed in ways consistent with their reported personal experiences. However, they did not recognize these changes, producing hindsight bias in…

  10. Sex Differences in Judgments of Male and Female Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.

    This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…

  11. Source Effects and Plausibility Judgments When Reading about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Doug; Seyranian, Viviane; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Gaps between what scientists and laypeople find plausible may act as a barrier to learning complex and/or controversial socioscientific concepts. For example, individuals may consider scientific explanations that human activities are causing current climate change as implausible. This plausibility judgment may be due-in part-to individuals'…

  12. Studying Mental Health Counselor Clinical Judgment: A Response to Falvey and Colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Spengler, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews material related to American Mental Health Counselors Association Clinical Judgment Project. Recommendations include invoking more sensitive analyses of clinical judgment process, establishing defensible diagnostic and treatment criteria, attending to threats to statistical conclusion validity, and increasing attention to counselor…

  13. Consumer ethnocentrism on product judgment and willingness to buy: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Xing; Guo, Gongxing

    2017-01-01

    .... The meta-analysis confirms that consumer ethnocentrism has a positive influence on domestic product judgment and willingness to buy, while it has a negative influence on foreign product judgment...

  14. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.

  15. Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Language acquisition is based on our knowledge about the world and forms through multiple sensory-motor interactions with the environment. We link the properties of individual experience formed at different stages of ontogeny with the phased development of sensory modalities and with the acquisition of words describing the appropriate forms of sensitivity. To test whether early-formed experience related to skin sensations, olfaction and taste differs from later-formed experience related to vision and hearing, we asked Russian-speaking participants to categorize or to assess the pleasantness of experience mentally reactivated by sense-related adjectives found in common dictionaries. It was found that categorizing adjectives in relation to vision, hearing and skin sensations took longer than categorizing adjectives in relation to olfaction and taste. In addition, experience described by adjectives predominantly related to vision, hearing and skin sensations took more time for the pleasantness judgment and generated less intense emotions than that described by adjectives predominantly related to olfaction and taste. Interestingly the dynamics of skin resistance corresponded to the intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions. We also found that sense-related experience described by early-acquired adjectives took less time for the pleasantness judgment and generated more intense and more positive emotions than that described by later-acquired adjectives. Correlations were found between the time of the pleasantness judgment of experience, intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions, age of acquisition, frequency, imageability and length of sense-related adjectives. All in all these findings support the hypothesis that early-formed experience is less differentiated than later-formed experience. PMID:27400090

  16. Effectiveness of a theoretically-based judgment and decision making intervention for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Dansereau, Donald F; Becan, Jennifer E; Rowan, Grace A; Flynn, Patrick M

    2015-05-01

    Although adolescents demonstrate capacity for rational decision making, their tendency to be impulsive, place emphasis on peers, and ignore potential consequences of their actions often translates into higher risk-taking including drug use, illegal activity, and physical harm. Problems with judgment and decision making contribute to risky behavior and are core issues for youth in treatment. Based on theoretical and empirical advances in cognitive science, the Treatment Readiness and Induction Program (TRIP) represents a curriculum-based decision making intervention that can be easily inserted into a variety of content-oriented modalities as well as administered as a separate therapeutic course. The current study examined the effectiveness of TRIP for promoting better judgment among 519 adolescents (37 % female; primarily Hispanic and Caucasian) in residential substance abuse treatment. Change over time in decision making and premeditation (i.e., thinking before acting) was compared among youth receiving standard operating practice (n = 281) versus those receiving standard practice plus TRIP (n = 238). Change in TRIP-specific content knowledge was examined among clients receiving TRIP. Premeditation improved among youth in both groups; TRIP clients showed greater improvement in decision making. TRIP clients also reported significant increases over time in self-awareness, positive-focused thinking (e.g., positive self-talk, goal setting), and recognition of the negative effects of drug use. While both genders showed significant improvement, males showed greater gains in metacognitive strategies (i.e., awareness of one's own cognitive process) and recognition of the negative effects of drug use. These results suggest that efforts to teach core thinking strategies and apply/practice them through independent intervention modules may benefit adolescents when used in conjunction with content-based programs designed to change problematic behaviors.

  17. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  18. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments: e34859

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fen Xu; Dingcheng Wu; Rie Toriyama; Fengling Ma; Shoji Itakura; Kang Lee

    2012-01-01

    .... Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues...

  19. Atypical properties of several classes of antipsychotic drugs on the basis of differential induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takuro; Hamamura, Takashi; Lee, Youmei; Miyata, Shinji; Habara, Toshiaki; Endo, Shiro; Taoka, Hideki; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2004-11-26

    Acute administration of typical and atypical antipsychotics has been reported to induce regionally distinct patterns of c-Fos expression in the rat forebrain. Furthermore, atypical index, the difference in the extent of increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell versus the dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), has been proposed to classify antipsychotics into typical or atypical antipsychotics. The present study was conducted to investigate the atypical properties of 24 antipsychotics that are used in Japan and blonanserin, a novel 5-HT2A and D2 receptor antagonist. We systematically examined the effects of the drugs on Fos-LI in the NAc and DLSt in the rat brain using immunohistochemistry and calculated the atypical index, comparing with those of haloperidol and clozapine. Floropipamide, oxypertine, nemonapride, pimozide and mosapramine, as well as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone, showed high positive atypical index. Zotepine, perospirone, sulpiride, moperone, sultopride, thioridazine, carpipramine, clocapramine and blonanserin showed moderate ones. In contrast, fluphenazine, bromperidol, timiperone, spiperone, propericiazine, perphenazine, chlorpromazine and levomepromazine had negative atypical index like haloperidol. These results suggest that not only so-called atypical antipsychotics, but also several conventional drugs, possess atypical properties.

  20. Material properties of pulsed-laser crystallized Si thin films grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia crystallization-induction layers by two-step irradiation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Kieu Lien, Mai; Horita, Susumu

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous Si thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers were crystallized widely in solid phase by the two-step method with a pulsed laser, moving the sample stage. The crystalline quality, impurity diffusion, and electrical properties of the crystallized Si films were investigated. It was found that the crystallinity of the Si thin films was improved and their surface was smooth without an incubation layer at the interface, indicating the uniform crystallinity of Si on YSZ. The diffusion of Zr and Y into the Si thin films was as small as or smaller than the order of 1017 atoms/cm3. We evaluated the electrical properties of carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the Si thin films with/without YSZ layers by using the resistivity and AC Hall effect measurements. The temperature and doping concentration dependences were measured for both undoped and P-doped films. It was found that both the undoped and P-doped Si/YSZ/glass films showed higher mobilities and carrier concentrations (and therefore higher conductivities), which indicate a smaller number of defects, than the Si/glass films. This suggested that the Si film crystallized on the YSZ layer is more suitable for application to electronic devices than the Si film on glass.

  1. Inductive Logic and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, J. -W.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter concerns inductive logic in relation to mathematical statistics. I start by introducing a general notion of probabilistic induc- tive inference. Then I introduce Carnapian inductive logic, and I show that it can be related to Bayesian statistical inference via de Finetti's representatio

  2. Anchoring Errors in Clinical Judgments: Type I Error, Adjustment, or Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael V.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted two studies to clarify nature of anchoring errors in clinical judgments. Judgments from 103 undergraduates in Study 1 evidenced neither anchoring errors nor gender differences. Judgments from 157 psychologists in Study 2 affirmed adjustment and mitigation hypotheses over anchoring hypothesis alone. Mitigation process appeared adaptable…

  3. The Memory State Heuristic: A Formal Model Based on Repeated Recognition Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Marta; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    The recognition heuristic (RH) theory predicts that, in comparative judgment tasks, if one object is recognized and the other is not, the recognized one is chosen. The memory-state heuristic (MSH) extends the RH by assuming that choices are not affected by recognition judgments per se, but by the memory states underlying these judgments (i.e.,…

  4. The Effect of Metacomprehension Judgment Task on Comprehension Monitoring and Metacognitive Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Kurby, Christopher A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated differences in the processes underlying two types of metacomprehension judgments: judgments of difficulty and predictions of performance (JOD vs. POP). An experiment was conducted to assess whether these two types of judgments aligned with different types of processing cues, and whether their accuracy correlated with…

  5. Information Repetition in Evaluative Judgments: Easy to Monitor, Hard to Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Fiedler, Klaus; Freytag, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The sampling approach [Fiedler, K. (2000a). "Beware of samples! A cognitive-ecological sampling approach to judgment biases." "Psychological Review, 107"(4), 659-676.] attributes judgment biases to the information given in a sample. Because people usually do not monitor the constraints of samples and do not control their judgments accordingly,…

  6. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  7. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  8. Standards to Guide the Use of Clinical Judgment in the Field of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss 10 Clinical Judgment Standards and associated best practice indicators based on current literature and an understanding of the context of clinical judgment. Throughout the article, we stress the important role that clinical judgment plays in formulating valid and precise decisions and recommendations regarding diagnosis, classification, and planning supports.

  9. The Memory State Heuristic: A Formal Model Based on Repeated Recognition Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Marta; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    The recognition heuristic (RH) theory predicts that, in comparative judgment tasks, if one object is recognized and the other is not, the recognized one is chosen. The memory-state heuristic (MSH) extends the RH by assuming that choices are not affected by recognition judgments per se, but by the memory states underlying these judgments (i.e.,…

  10. Progress in Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  11. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  12. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  13. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece......Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...

  14. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other......, or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece...

  15. Global-scale location and distance estimates: common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alinda; Montello, Daniel R

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined whether absolute and relative judgments about global-scale locations and distances were generated from common representations. At the end of a 10-week class on the regional geography of the United States, participants estimated the latitudes of 16 North American cities and all possible pairwise distances between them. Although participants were relative experts, their latitude estimates revealed the presence of psychologically based regions with large gaps between them and a tendency to stretch North America southward toward the equator. The distance estimates revealed the same properties in the representation recovered via multidimensional scaling. Though the aggregated within- and between-regions distance estimates were fitted by Stevens's law (S. S. Stevens, 1957), this was an averaging artifact: The appropriateness of a power function to describe distance estimates depended on the regional membership of the cities. The authors conclude that plausible reasoning strategies, combined with regionalized representations and beliefs about the location of these relative to global landmarks, underlie global-scale latitude and distance judgments.

  16. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  17. Direct reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  18. Induction motor control design

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Riccardo; Verrelli, Cristiano M

    2010-01-01

    ""Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design for Induction Motors"" is a unified exposition of the most important steps and concerns in the design of estimation and control algorithms for induction motors. A single notation and modern nonlinear control terminology is used to make the book accessible to readers who are not experts in electric motors at the same time as giving a more theoretical control viewpoint to those who are. In order to increase readability, the book concentrates on the induction motor, eschewing the much more complex and less-well-understood control of asynchronous motors. The

  19. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  20. Fancy citrus, feel good: Positive judgment of citrus odor, but not the odor itself, is associated with elevated mood during experienced helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eHoenen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments.Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task. During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min exposed to d-(+-limonene (n = 25, vanillin (n = 26, or diethyl phthalate (n = 27. Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings and judged the odors’ quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < .001, irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = .019.The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research.

  1. The Curious Anomaly of Skewed Judgment Distributions and Systematic Error in the Wisdom of Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ) model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences...... be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates......, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem....

  2. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  3. Assessing volcanic hazard at Yucca Mountain using expert judgment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Perman, R.C. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Nesbit, J. [Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    A study to assess the probability of a future volcanic event disrupting the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, termed the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) project, is being sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This assessment, which is focused on the volcanic hazard at the site, expressed as the probability of disruption of the potential repository, will eventually provide input to an assessment of volcanic risk, which expresses the probability of radionuclide release due to volcanic disruption. To ensure that a wide range of approaches are considered in the hazard analysis, judgments of members of an expert panel will be elicited. The results of the individual elicitations will be combined to develop an integrated assessment of the volcanic hazard that reflects the diversity of scientific interpretations. This paper outlines the hazard model components and the procedures for eliciting expert judgments.

  4. Passage of Time Judgments Is Relative to Temporal Expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Time seems to pass quickly sometimes or slowly at other times. While this belief is prevalent, the psychological bases of such judgments on speed of time have remained unclear. In this study, we tested following two hypotheses: (1) the passage of time judgment (POTJ) is a function of the discrepancy between felt duration and temporal expectation of events and (2) POTJ is based on two distinct components: post hoc comparison of expected and felt durations and online anticipation of the end of an event. In four experiments, participants engaged in N-back tasks for several minutes and rated their POTJ during the tasks. Their temporal expectations were manipulated by providing them with false instructions on task durations. The results consistently supported the hypotheses and confirmed the idea that temporal expectation plays an important role in POTJ. In addition, the current findings might explain our daily temporal experiences such as "time flies when you are having fun."

  5. Social dimensions of judgments of integrity in public figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Paul; Farsides, Tom

    2011-03-01

    The notion of 'integrity' remains relatively unexplored in the social psychological literature, despite it being central to some important theoretical perspectives (notably, self-affirmation theory). It is an eminently positive - and well-used - epithet in descriptions of public figures. The two studies reported here addressed laypeople's conceptions of integrity. The findings indicate that in relation to eight public figures, the best general predictor of judgments of integrity was perceptions of 'sincerity' (characterized by attributes such as genuine and honest). For three of the public figures strongly linked to civil rights issues, judgments of integrity were also predicted by perceptions of 'standing for something'. The findings suggest that the social character of integrity merits further psychological research attention.

  6. Dermato-protective properties of ergothioneine through induction of Nrf2/ARE-mediated antioxidant genes in UVA-irradiated Human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Lo, Heng-Wei; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Tang, Meng-Ju; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2015-09-01

    UVA irradiation-induced skin damage and redox imbalance have been shown to be ameliorated by ergothioneine (EGT), a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid. However, the responsible molecular mechanism with nanomolar concentrations of EGT remains unclear. We investigated the dermato protective efficacies of EGT (125-500nM) against UVA irradiation (15J/cm(2)), and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism in human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. We found that EGT treatment prior to UVA exposure significantly increased the cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium. UVA-induced ROS and comet-like DNA formation were remarkably suppressed by EGT with a parallel inhibition of apoptosis, as evidenced by reduced DNA fragmentation (TUNEL), caspase-9/-3 activation, and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. Furthermore, EGT alleviated UVA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Dose-dependent increases of antioxidant genes, HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCLC and glutathione by EGT were associated with upregulated Nrf2 and downregulated Keap-1 expressions. This was confirmed by increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and inhibition of Nrf2 degradation. Notably, augmented luciferase activity of ARE may explain Nrf2/ARE-mediated signaling pathways behind EGT dermato-protective properties. We further demonstrated that Nrf2 translocation was mediated by PI3K/AKT, PKC, or ROS signaling cascades. This phenomenon was confirmed with suppressed nuclear Nrf2 activation, and consequently diminished antioxidant genes in cells treated with respective pharmacological inhibitors (LY294002, GF109203X, and N-acetylcysteine). Besides, increased basal ROS by EGT appears to be crucial for triggering the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. Silencing of Nrf2 or OCTN1 (EGT carrier protein) signaling with siRNA showed no such protective effects of EGT against UVA-induced cell death, ROS, and apoptosis, which is evidence of the vitality of Nrf2 translocation and protective efficacy of EGT

  7. Moral judgments in social dilemmas: How bad is free riding?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin P. Cubitt; Drouvelis, Michalis; Gaechter, Simon; Kabalin, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    In the last thirty years, economists and other social scientists have investigated people’s normative views on distributive justice. Here we study people’s normative views in social dilemmas, which underlie many situations of economic and social significance. Using insights from moral philosophy and psychology we provide an analysis of the morality of free riding. We use experimental survey methods to investigate people’s moral judgments empirically. We vary others’ contributions, the framing...

  8. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, CA; Bartels, RM

    2016-01-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine: (a) whether attitudes towards sexual offenders differ depending upon one’s implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abuser. A sample of 252 community parti...

  9. ERP correlates of social conformity in a line judgment task

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Jing; Wu Yin; Tong Guangyu; Guan Xiaoming; Zhou Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research showed that individuals have a natural tendency to conform to others. This study investigated the temporal characteristics of neural processing involved in social conformity by recording participants’ brain potentials in performing a line judgment task. After making his initial choice, a participant was presented with the choices of four same-sex group members, which could be congruent or highly or moderately incongruent with the participant’s own choice....

  10. Neural Correlates of Explicit Social Judgments on Vocal Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Hensel, Lukas; Bzdok, Danilo; Müller, Veronika I.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging research on the neural basis of social evaluation has traditionally focused on face perception paradigms. Thus, little is known about the neurobiology of social evaluation processes based on auditory cues, such as voices. To investigate the top-down effects of social trait judgments on voices, hemodynamic responses of 44 healthy participants were measured during social trait (trustworthiness [TR] and attractiveness [AT]), emotional (happiness, HA), and cognitive (age, ...

  11. Brain network dynamics underlying visuospatial judgment: an FMRI connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Roebroeck, Alard; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2010-09-01

    Previous functional imaging research has consistently indicated involvement of bilateral fronto-parietal networks during the execution of visuospatial tasks. Studies with TMS have suggested that the right hemispheric network, but not the left, is functionally relevant for visuospatial judgments. However, very little is still known about the interactions within these fronto-parietal networks underlying visuospatial processing. In the current study, we investigated task modulation of functional connectivity (instantaneous correlations of regional time courses), and task-specific effective connectivity (direction of influences), within the right fronto-parietal network activated during visuospatial judgments. Ten healthy volunteers performed a behaviorally controlled visuospatial judgment task (ANGLE) or a control task (COLOR) in an fMRI experiment. Visuospatial task-specific activations were found in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and middle/inferior frontal gyrus (MFG). Functional connectivity within this network was task-modulated, with significantly higher connectivity between PPC and MFG during ANGLE than during COLOR. Effective connectivity analysis for directed influence revealed that visuospatial task-specific projections within this network were predominantly in a frontal-to-parietal direction. Moreover, ANGLE-specific influences from thalamic nuclei to PPC were identified. Exploratory effective connectivity analysis revealed that closely neighboring clusters, within visuospatial regions, were differentially involved in the network. These neighboring clusters had opposite effective connectivity patterns to other nodes of the fronto-parietal network. Our data thus reveal that visuospatial judgments are supported by massive fronto-parietal backprojections, thalamo-parietal influence, and multiple stages, or loops, of information flow within the visuospatial network. We speculate on possible functional contributions of the various network nodes and

  12. Social responses to expressive suppression: The role of personality judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackman, Allison M; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Why do people who suppress their emotion-expressive behavior have difficulty forming close, supportive relationships? Previous studies have found that suppression disrupts the dynamics of social interactions and existing relationships. We evaluated a complementary hypothesis: that suppression functions as a behavioral cue leading others to form negative personality impressions of suppressors, even at zero-acquaintance. In 2 studies, participants reported personality judgments and other impressions of targets who either suppressed or expressed their emotion-expressive behavior in response to amusing or sad film clips. In findings replicated across studies, targets who suppressed either amusement or sadness were judged as less extraverted, less agreeable, and more interpersonally avoidant and anxious than targets who expressed emotions, and participants were less interested in affiliating with suppressors compared with expressers. Effects were amplified when targets suppressed amusement (compared with sadness) and when participants knew the emotional context (compared with when they did not) and, thus, could form expectations about what emotions targets should be showing. Extraversion and agreeableness judgments mediated the effect of suppression on participants' disinterest in affiliating. In Study 2, which extended Study 1 in several ways, effects were pronounced for the enthusiasm aspect of extraversion and the compassion aspect of agreeableness. We also found evidence that judgments of suppressors do not simply fall between neutral and fully expressing targets; rather, judgments of suppressors are qualitatively different. We discuss implications for understanding the social consequences of emotion regulation-in particular, how beyond disrupting relationships, suppression may prevent some relationships from even forming in the first place.

  13. Making Mathematical Induction Meaningful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that the "least number principle" (well-ordering for positive integers) is more intuitively acceptable to high school students than mathematical induction which can be derived from it. (SD)

  14. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  15. Induction heating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (Inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (Inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Johnston, David F. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Dinkins, James R. (Inventor); Buckley, John D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardely beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.

  16. Mathematical Induction, Difference Equations and Divisibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2009-01-01

    Many exercises in mathematical induction require the student to prove a divisibility property of a function of the integers. Such problems are generally presented as being independent of each other. However, many of these problems can be presented in terms of difference equations, and the theory of difference equations can be used to provide a…

  17. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p chain and independent pharmacies, having POs as a greater percent of total prescriptions filled, and having the perception of PO abuse as a problem in the practice setting were significant positive correlates of moderate (vs high) PO legitimacy estimation (p < 0.05). Both modifiable and non-modifiable correlates were statistically significantly associated with PO legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  18. Visual Aids Improve Diagnostic Inferences and Metacognitive Judgment Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio eGarcia-Retamero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients --especially those with low numeracy-- misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy --a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about health-relevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension.

  19. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  20. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2016-07-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  1. Toward a Return to Plurality in Arendtian Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E. Marsh Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Without further ado: the perplexities surrounding the relation of Arendt’s early and late theories of judgment are rooted in her singular commitment to the abiding yet fragile possibility of human freedom. These perplexities are not a function of the theoretical faux paux conventionally ascribed to her by well meaning interpreters and sympathetic critics. Indeed, her work exhibits an admirable, if scandalous, refusal to be reduced to the imperatives of an overdetermined moral-theoretical field, an impertinence I hope to honor in this essay. For example, Seyla Benhabib seek to “resolve” Arendtian “puzzles” through reinscribing them within the neo-Kantian architectonics of discourse ethics. Ronald Beiner, by contrast, wonders why Arendt didn’t further mine Aristotelian wells in elaborating her own account(s of judgment.2 Herein I will take up these putative ambiguities. Interpreters are undoubtedly correct that decisive ambiguities remain between Arendt’s early and late accounts of judgment, but these ambiguities issue from Arendt’s own problems, concerns, and project.

  2. "On the money" - monetary and numerical judgments of currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ronit; Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Numerical and monetary judgments of currency were examined using two tasks-a monetary value task (which coin has a higher monetary value), and a numerical value task (which coin has a higher numerical value). In Experiment 1 participants were presented with pictures of coins of the Israeli currency. The Israeli currency is the shekel, which is composed of 100 agorot (equivalent to a dollar composed of 100 cents). Higher discriminability between shekels compared to agorot due to importance in everyday life was reflected in faster monetary comparisons of shekel pairs compared to agorot pairs. Automatic processing of numerical value was demonstrated for monetary judgments. When presented with pairs composed of one coin from each monetary category, responses were faster to pairs that were monetary-numerical congruent (e.g., 10 shekels vs. 5 agorot) compared to incongruent (e.g., 5 shekels vs. 10 agorot). Numerical value judgments were unaffected by such congruency. There was evidence for the automatic activation of physical size mainly in the numerical task. A similar picture was obtained in Experiment 2 where instead of pictures of coins we used verbal descriptions of currency, demonstrating the generality of our results.

  3. Sight over sound in the judgment of music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-03

    Social judgments are made on the basis of both visual and auditory information, with consequential implications for our decisions. To examine the impact of visual information on expert judgment and its predictive validity for performance outcomes, this set of seven experiments in the domain of music offers a conservative test of the relative influence of vision versus audition. People consistently report that sound is the most important source of information in evaluating performance in music. However, the findings demonstrate that people actually depend primarily on visual information when making judgments about music performance. People reliably select the actual winners of live music competitions based on silent video recordings, but neither musical novices nor professional musicians were able to identify the winners based on sound recordings or recordings with both video and sound. The results highlight our natural, automatic, and nonconscious dependence on visual cues. The dominance of visual information emerges to the degree that it is overweighted relative to auditory information, even when sound is consciously valued as the core domain content.

  4. Serotoninergic effects on judgments and social learning of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Arndis; Scheel-Krüger, Jørgen; Jensen, Mads; Roepstorff, Andreas; Møller, Arne; Frith, Chris D; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Certain disorders, such as depression and anxiety, to which serotonin dysfunction is historically associated, are also associated with lower assessments of other people's trustworthiness. Serotonergic changes are known to alter cognitive responses to threatening stimuli. This effect may manifest socially as reduced apparent trustworthiness of others. Trustworthiness judgments can emerge from either direct observation or references provided by third parties. We assessed whether explicit judgments of trustworthiness and social influences on those judgments are altered by changes within serotonergic systems. We implemented a double-blind between-subject design where 20 healthy female volunteers received a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (2 × 20 mg), while 20 control subjects (matched on age, intelligence, and years of education) received a placebo. Subjects performed a face-rating task assessing how trustworthy they found 153 unfamiliar others (targets). After each rating, the subjects were told how other subjects, on average, rated the same target. The subjects then performed 30 min of distractor tasks before, unexpectedly, being asked to rate all 153 faces again, in a random order. Compared to subjects receiving a placebo, subjects receiving citalopram rated targets as less trustworthy. They also conformed more to opinions of others, when others rated targets to be even less trustworthy than subjects had initially indicated. The two effects were independent of negative effects of citalopram on subjective state. This is evidence that serotonin systems can mediate explicit assessment and social learning of the trustworthiness of others.

  5. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  6. Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR predicts utilitarian moral judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A Marsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgment have been the focus of extensive recent research. Here we show that serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR genotype predicts responses to moral dilemmas featuring foreseen harm to an innocent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in this study judged the acceptability of actions that would unintentionally or intentionally harm an innocent victim in order to save others' lives. An analysis of variance revealed a genotype × scenario interaction, F(2, 63 = 4.52, p = .02. Results showed that, relative to long allele homozygotes (LL, carriers of the short (S allele showed particular reluctance to endorse utilitarian actions resulting in foreseen harm to an innocent individual. LL genotype participants rated perpetrating unintentional harm as more acceptable (M = 4.98, SEM = 0.20 than did SL genotype participants (M = 4.65, SEM = 0.20 or SS genotype participants (M = 4.29, SEM = 0.30. No group differences in moral judgments were observed in response to scenarios featuring intentional harm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that inherited variants in a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin neurotransmission influence utilitarian moral judgments as well. This finding is interpreted in light of evidence that the S allele is associated with elevated emotional responsiveness.

  7. Unification By Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    We show that the problem of unifying electromagnetism with gravity has an elegant solution in classical physics through the phenomenon of induction. By studying the way that induction leads to the formation of electromagnetic fields, we identify the classical field equations which the unified field must satisfy and a corresponding set of constitutive equations for the medium sustaining the field. The unification problem is then reduced to the problem of finding the exact form of these constitutive equations for different media by experiments.

  8. Induction of the Proepicardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Ramos, Lisandro; Cleland, James; Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    The proepicardium is a transient extracardiac embryonic tissue that gives rise to the epicardium and a number of coronary vascular cell lineages. This important extracardiac tissue develops through multiple steps of inductive events, from specification of multiple cell lineages to morphogenesis. This article will review our current understanding of inductive events involved in patterning of the proepicardium precursor field, specification of cell types within the proepicardium, and their extension and attachment to the heart.

  9. Induction of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Mikawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The proepicardium is a transient extracardiac embryonic tissue that gives rise to the epicardium and a number of coronary vascular cell lineages. This important extracardiac tissue develops through multiple steps of inductive events, from specification of multiple cell lineages to morphogenesis. This article will review our current understanding of inductive events involved in patterning of the proepicardium precursor field, specification of cell types within the proepicardium and their extension and attachment to the heart.

  10. Diophantine Correct Open Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Raffer, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    We give an induction-free axiom system for diophantine correct open induction. We relate the problem of whether a finitely generated ring of Puiseux polynomials is diophantine correct to a problem about the value-distribution of a tuple of semialgebraic functions with integer arguments. We use this result, and a theorem of Bergelson and Leibman on generalized polynomials, to identify a class of diophantine correct subrings of the field of descending Puiseux series with real coefficients.

  11. Induction Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  12. Causal Relations and Feature Similarity in Children's Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Thompson, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined the development of property induction on the basis of causal relations. In the first 2 studies, 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults were presented with triads in which a target instance was equally similar to 2 inductive bases but shared a causal antecedent feature with 1 of them. All 3 age groups used causal relations…

  13. 结构参数对高温超导直线感应电机电磁性能的影响%Influence of Structural Parameters on Electromagnetic Properties of High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳; 张威; 方进; 杨中平; 郑琼林; 刘友梅

    2011-01-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor (HTS LIM) is designed. The primary windings are made of Bi-2223/Ag. And the motor is the single-layer concentrated structure. The critical current of the motor is determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux.The electromagnetic force is decided mainly by the air magnetic flux and the eddy current of the secondary plate. The structural parameters of the motor have a great impact on the distribution of the magnetic field. Under constant currents the steady and transient properties of the motor were analyzed with different slot width, slot height and winding tums. The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux,the motor thrust and the motor vertical force, were analyzed with different structural parameters.%设计了一种新型高温超导直线感应电机,初级线圈为Bi-2223/Ag高温超导线圈,采用单层整距集中绕组结构排列.高温超导直线感应电机临界电流的大小主要由电机初级槽漏磁通密度决定,电磁力的人小主要由空气主磁通和次级感应板涡流决定.电机结构参数对电机磁场的分布影响很大.使用有限元法比较分析了恒流条件下电机槽宽、槽高和绕组匝数对电机稳态和瞬态电磁性能的影响,研究了电机结构参数对电机最大槽漏磁通密度、电机推力和电机垂向力的影响.

  14. Different contributions of visual and motor brain areas during liking judgments of same- and different-gender bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, V; Mele, S; Urgesi, C

    2016-09-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that body aesthetic appreciation involves the activation of both visual and motor areas, supporting a role of sensorimotor embodiment in aesthetic processing. Causative evidence, however, that neural activity in these areas is crucial for reliable aesthetic body appreciation has so far provided only for extrastriate body area (EBA), while the functional role played by premotor regions remained less clear. Here, we applied short trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over bilateral dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and EBA during liking judgments of female and male bodies varying in weight and implied motion. We found that both dPMC and EBA are necessary for aesthetic body appreciation, but their relative contribution depends on the model's gender. While dPMC-rTMS decreased the liking judgments of same-, but not of different-gender models, EBA-rTMS increased the liking judgments of different-, but not of same-gender models. Relative contributions of motor and visual areas may reflect processing of diverse aesthetic properties, respectively implied motion vs. body form, and/or greater sensorimotor embodiment of same- vs. different-gender bodies. Results suggest that aesthetic body processing is subserved by a network of motor and visual areas, whose relative contribution may depend on the specific stimulus and task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What are judgment skills in health literacy? A psycho-cognitive perspective of judgment and decision-making research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Riva,1 Alessandro Antonietti,2 Paola Iannello,2 Gabriella Pravettoni1–3 1Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy; 3Applied Research Division for Cognitive and Psychological Science, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize current research relating to psychological processes involved in judgment and decision-making (JDM and identify which processes can be incorporated and used in the construct of health literacy (HL in order to enrich its conceptualization and to provide more information about people’s preferences.Methods: The literature review was aimed at identifying comprehensive research in the field; therefore appropriate databases were searched for English language articles dated from 1998 to 2015. Results: Several psychological processes have been found to be constituents of JDM and potentially incorporated in the definition of HL: cognition, self-regulation, emotion, reasoning-thinking, and social perception. Conclusion: HL research can benefit from this JDM literature overview, first, by elaborating on the idea that judgment is multidimensional and constituted by several specific processes, and second, by using the results to implement the definition of “judgment skills”. Moreover, this review can favor the development of new instruments that can measure HL. Practical implications: Future researchers in HL should work together with researchers in psychological sciences not only to investigate the processes behind JDM in-depth but also to create effective opportunities to improve HL in all patients, to promote good decisions, and orient patients’ preferences in all health contexts. Keywords: health literacy, judgment, decision-making, psychological processes, skills, cognitive factors

  16. Naturalness judgments by lay Americans: Process dominates content in judgments of food or water acceptability and naturalness

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study directly tests the hypothesis that, at least within the domains of food and drink for Americans, the judgment of naturalness has more to do with the history of an object, that is the processes that it has undergone, as opposed to its material content. Individuals rate the naturalness and acceptability of a natural entity (water or tomato paste), that same entity with a first transformation in which a natural substance is added (or some part removed), and then a second transformatio...

  17. Effect of Electromagnetic Induction on the Bonding Property of Nonskid Primer on Deck%感应加热对甲板防滑底漆粘接性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡嘉辉; 孙晓峰; 邱骥; 宋巍; 马世宁

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of induction heating on the bonding property of nonskid primer on deck , the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( FT-IR) analyzer is used to indicate the modification effect of in-terface primer, the thermal stability of nonskid primer is measured by synchronous thermal analyzer , and the shear strength between nonskid primer and steel plate is tested with a universal electronic testing ma -chine under different temperatures .Results show that the high temperature caused by induction heating leads to weight loss of steel plate surface and decomposition of nonskid primer , increase of thermal motion amplitude of particles , decrease of coordinate force and reduction of polar functional groups at the inter-face and decrease of bonding force between nonskid primer and steel surface .The shear strength decrea-ses rapidly and then slower as temperature increases .It decreases by 87.6%in the temperature range of 25-100 ℃while only 7.5%in the range of 100-175 ℃.%为研究感应加热方法对甲板防滑底漆粘接性能的影响,利用傅里叶变换红外光谱( Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy , FT-IR)分析仪表征界面处底漆改性效果,借助同步热分析仪研究底漆热稳定性,通过电子万能试验机测试不同温度下试样的剪切强度。结果表明:电磁感应使钢板表面温度升高,导致底漆失重分解并发生玻璃化转变,粒子热运动振幅增大,界面处极性官能团减少,配价键力减小,防滑底漆与钢表面之间的粘接力减小;剪切强度随温度升高呈先快后慢的下降趋势,在25~100℃范围内下降了87.6%,而在100~175℃范围内只下降了7.5%。

  18. Effect of mutual inductance coupling on superconducting flux qubit decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan Jiang; Hualan Xu; Yinghua Ji

    2009-01-01

    In the Born-Markov approximation and two-level approximation, and using the Bloch-Redfield equation, the decoherence property of superconducting quantum circuit with a flux qubit is investigated. The influence on decoherence of the mutual inductance coupling between the circuit components is complicated. The mutual inductance coupling between different loops will decrease the decoherence time. However, the mutual inductance coupling of the same loop, in a certain interval, will increase the decoherence time. Therefore, we can control the decoherence time by changing the mutual inductance parameters such as the strength and direction of coupling.

  19. The Problem of Analogical Inference in Inductive Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M. Huttegger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider one problem that was largely left open by Rudolf Carnap in his work on inductive logic, the problem of analogical inference. After discussing some previous attempts to solve this problem, we propose a new solution that is based on the ideas of Bruno de Finetti on probabilistic symmetries. We explain how our new inductive logic can be developed within the Carnapian paradigm of inductive logic-deriving an inductive rule from a set of simple postulates about the observational process-and discuss some of its properties.

  20. The role of emotions for moral judgments depends on the type of emotion and moral scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugazio, Giuseppe; Lamm, Claus; Singer, Tania

    2012-06-01

    Emotions seem to play a critical role in moral judgment. However, the way in which emotions exert their influence on moral judgments is still poorly understood. This study proposes a novel theoretical approach suggesting that emotions influence moral judgments based on their motivational dimension. We tested the effects of two types of induced emotions with equal valence but with different motivational implications (anger and disgust), and four types of moral scenarios (disgust-related, impersonal, personal, and beliefs) on moral judgments. We hypothesized and found that approach motivation associated with anger would make moral judgments more permissible, while disgust, associated with withdrawal motivation, would make them less permissible. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the type of scenario: the induced emotions only affected moral judgments concerning impersonal and personal scenarios, while we observed no effects for the other scenarios. These findings suggest that emotions can play an important role in moral judgment, but that their specific effects depend upon the type of emotion induced. Furthermore, induced emotion effects were more prevalent for moral decisions in personal and impersonal scenarios, possibly because these require the performance of an action rather than making an abstract judgment. We conclude that the effects of induced emotions on moral judgments can be predicted by taking their motivational dimension into account. This finding has important implications for moral psychology, as it points toward a previously overlooked mechanism linking emotions to moral judgments.

  1. Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Geoff; Westbury, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research in psychology that attempts to extrapolate human lexical judgments from computational models of semantics. This research can be used to help develop comprehensive norm sets for experimental research, it has applications to large-scale statistical modelling of lexical access and has broad value within natural language processing and sentiment analysis. However, the value of extrapolated human judgments has recently been questioned within psychological research. Of primary concern is the fact that extrapolated judgments may not share the same pattern of statistical relationship with lexical and semantic variables as do actual human judgments; often the error component in extrapolated judgments is not psychologically inert, making such judgments problematic to use for psychological research. We present a new methodology for extrapolating human judgments that partially addresses prior concerns of validity. We use this methodology to extrapolate human judgments of valence, arousal, dominance, and concreteness for 78,286 words. We also provide resources for users to extrapolate these human judgments for three million English words and short phrases. Applications for large sets of extrapolated human judgments are demonstrated and discussed.

  2. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  3. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    . The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore......, the scratch test is used to estimate critical loads for cohesive and adhesive failure of the coatings. Additionally, distortion measurements are carried out. The results emphasize the advantage of induction surface hardening as a method of subsequent heat treatment of CVD-coated steels....

  4. Following My Head and My Heart: Integrating Preschoolers' Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Courtney L; Smetana, Judith G; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L

    2017-03-01

    Associations among hypothetical, prototypic moral, and conventional judgments; theory of mind (ToM); empathy; and personal distress were examined in 108 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage  = 42.94 months, SD = 1.42). Repeated measures analysis of covariance with empathy, false beliefs, and their interaction as covariates indicated that empathy was significantly associated with judgments of greater moral but not conventional transgression severity, particularly for psychological harm, and with deserved punishment for unfairness. False beliefs were associated with (combined) moral criterion judgments of rule and authority independence and inalterability. Empathy also was positively associated with criterion judgments but only for children low in ToM. Personal distress was unrelated to judgments. Results demonstrate the importance of both affective and cognitive processes in preschoolers' moral judgments. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  6. Unawareness of Self-interest Bias in Moral Judgments of Others’ Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (Bocian & Wojciszke, 2014 showed that self-interest biases moral perception of others’ unethical actions. Moreover, affective changes in attitudinal responses towards the perpetrator of an immoral act drives the bias. In the present studies, we attempted to answer the question whether people are aware of the self-interest bias in their judgments of others’ behavior. We conducted two experiments showing that moral judgments of verbally described and imagined actions were dominated by norms rather than self-interest (Study 1 and that people were not aware that self-interest distorted their moral judgment (Study 2. The unawareness of the self-interest bias among the participants was attributable to omission of their own emotional responses when forecasting their moral judgments. We discuss the importance of emotions presence in studies on moral judgments as well as contribution of the present research to the intuitionist approach to moral judgment.

  7. Judgment algorithm for periodicity of time series data based on Bayesian information criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Daisuke; Horimoto, Katsuhisa

    2008-08-01

    Judgment periodicity of biological time series data is important and done widely to find the circadian expression of genes, monthly change of hormones, etc. To keep complete reproducibility of judgment is a problem because popular judgment methods such as curve fitting, Fourier analysis, etc. need judgment criteria determined by analysts considering experimental conditions and results (level, S/N, distribution, etc.) based on their experience. Judgment results are often affected by analysts' subjects. Reproducible criterion determination is therefore strongly needed. We propose introducing the information criterion to replace analysts' criteria. A judgment algorithm by combining Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) has been developed and has proved its ability through application to mice microarray data and finding of circadian genes. Our method, named "Piccolo", shows higher sensitivity than the simple DFT (without BIC) method with reproducibility, and can be fully automated.

  8. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  9. c-Fos expression during temporal order judgment in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Wada

    Full Text Available The neuronal mechanisms for ordering sensory signals in time still need to be clarified despite a long history of research. To address this issue, we recently developed a behavioral task of temporal order judgment in mice. In the present study, we examined the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neural activation, in mice just after they carried out the temporal order judgment task. The expression of c-Fos was examined in C57BL/6N mice (male, n = 5 that were trained to judge the order of two air-puff stimuli delivered bilaterally to the right and left whiskers with stimulation intervals of 50-750 ms. The mice were rewarded with a food pellet when they responded by orienting their head toward the first stimulus (n = 2 or toward the second stimulus (n = 3 after a visual "go" signal. c-Fos-stained cell densities of these mice (test group were compared with those of two control groups in coronal brain sections prepared at bregma -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 mm by applying statistical parametric mapping to the c-Fos immuno-stained sections. The expression of c-Fos was significantly higher in the test group than in the other groups in the bilateral barrel fields of the primary somatosensory cortex, the left secondary somatosensory cortex, the dorsal part of the right secondary auditory cortex. Laminar analyses in the primary somatosensory cortex revealed that c-Fos expression in the test group was most evident in layers II and III, where callosal fibers project. The results suggest that temporal order judgment involves processing bilateral somatosensory signals through the supragranular layers of the primary sensory cortex and in the multimodal sensory areas, including marginal zone between the primary somatosensory cortex and the secondary sensory cortex.

  10. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  11. Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H

    2009-01-01

    This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

  12. On Standard and Taste. Wittgenstein and Aesthetic Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cometti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of aesthetic judgment is related to a lot of paradoxes that have marked sustainably the reflection on arts, and even arts as such during their modern history. These paradoxes have found a first formulation, apparently clear, in the very famous Hume's essay: "On the standard of taste", but without to lead to a real resolution. In this paper, I would like to approach the question of Hume by starting from what Wittgenstein suggested about aesthetic judgment in his Cambridge lectures. To this end, I will try to give a wittgensteinian reading of Hume's essay, in order to show that though the question of aesthetic judgment makes certainly sense, the way of considering it - like the way Kant shall consider it later - can be regarded as typical of difficulties Wittgenstein tried to overcome in his investigations on rules. By giving an alternative formulation to this question, we should be able to examine differently the problems of the aesthetic judgment, to underline more precisely the originality of Wittgenstein's approach, and perhaps to better grasp what are its consequences, not only for a better comprehension of the relationship between Wittgenstein’s philosophy and art, but for the type of perplexity to which we must face everytime we meet the paradox inherent to the question of aesthetic appreciation as such: how can we conceive the very idea of a standard involving a normative meaning without making to faint what gives to a work of art its value. We shall see that Wittgenstein’s suggestions, though their contribution to a better understanding of this question is still affected by some ambiguities, are to be reconsidered under the light of his anti-essentialism, and that these ambiguities can be dissipated by dissociating, on one hand, what belongs to his own tastes or to his related thoughts and on the other hand what we can conceive through the ways which were opened by his philosophy beyond his personal inclinations. Despite

  13. On The Form and Judgment Function of Sense of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wenhua

    2014-04-01

    or not, elegant or not. In the field of teaching Chinese as a foreign language, teachers can also quickly point out the problems in students expressions and writing. This kind of direct sense is called Sense of Language. Generally speaking, Sense of Language is considered as a kind of ability of subjective judgment. In fact, there is a guide behind Sense of Language, which is profound rational theory proved by Psychology and Cerebral Science. Sense of Language will be discussed carefully in this article.

  14. FRAMING EFFECTS ON PHYSICIANS' JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh C; Krieger, Heather A; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicians' susceptibility to framing effects in clinical judgment and decision making. A survey was administered online to 159 general internists in the United States. Participants were randomized into two groups, in which clinical scenarios varied in their framings: frequency vs percentage, with cost information vs without, female patient vs male patient, and mortality vs survival. Results showed that physicians' recommendations for patients in hypothetical scenarios were significantly different when the predicted probability of the outcomes was presented in frequency versus percentage form and when it was presented in mortality rate vs survival rate of the same magnitude. Physicians' recommendations were not different for other framing effects.

  15. The Small Step toward Asymmetry: Aesthetic Judgment of Broken Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gartus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry and complexity both affect the aesthetic judgment of abstract patterns. However, although beauty tends to be associated with symmetry, there are indications that small asymmetries can also be beautiful. We investigated the influence of small deviations from symmetry on people's aesthetic liking for abstract patterns. Breaking symmetry not only decreased patterns' symmetry but also increased their complexity. While an increase of complexity normally results in a higher liking, we found that even a small decrease of symmetry has a strong effect, such that patterns with slightly broken symmetries were significantly less liked than fully symmetric ones.

  16. The paradox of expert judgment in rivers ecological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, M J; Calapez, A R; Elias, C L; Cortes, R M V; Graça, M A S; Pinto, P; Almeida, S F P

    2016-12-15

    A great investment has been done in the last decades in the development of numerical and qualitative assessment methods to classify the ecological quality of water bodies. Yet, in spite of all attempts to avoid subjectivity, expert judgment is still used at numerous steps of the ecological classification and is considered by some authors as indispensible for management purposes. Thus, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that expert judgment, when done by the adequate experts (limnologists/river ecologist) with experience in the study area (i.e., natural conditions and expected communities), could be as good as quantitative indices and measures (i.e., result in the same classification), but quicker and with lower cost. For that we compared the classifications (on 13 aspects of rivers ecosystems) attributed by two experts to 20 sites (10 each) located in their study areas, with the classifications of ecological quality based on biological indices (for invertebrates and diatoms), hydromorphology and water chemistry, calculated by an independent team. Our results show that assessments made by experts and those calculated through indices (biological quality and hydromorphology) are globally very similar (RELATE test; Rho = 0.442; p Analysis revealed that sites to which experts attributed a moderate quality had higher nitrate concentration and pH but were well oxygenated. The sites classified as poor and bad where those with stronger modifications in their habitats (given by the higher values of HMS). The difference between experts and indices is small but still represents 15% of sites, and includes both situations: the experts or the indices lead to the need of measures (i.e., classifications below class Good). Experts' evaluations on hydromorphological conditions of the channel and margins are also significantly correlated with the quality assessments made by the field team that has no experience in the study area (Rh0 = 0.518; p = 0.001; 999

  17. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Induction and Vacuume Brazed Joint of Titanium Via Copper and Ag-Cu Eutectic Filler Metal / Mikrostruktura I Właściwości Mechaniczne Połączeń Tytanu Lutowanych Indukcyjnie I Próżniowo Z Użyciem Spoiwa Miedzianego I Eutektycznego Ag-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Różański M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the basic physico-chemical properties and describes the brazeability of titanium. The work contains the results of macro and microscopic metallographic examination as well as the results of strength-related tests of vacuum and induction brazed joints made of Grade 2 technical titanium using the Cu 0.99 and Ag 272 filler metal interlayers and F60T flux intended for titanium brazing in the air atmosphere.

  18. The brain’s specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizu, T.; Zeki, S

    2013-01-01

    We recorded brain activity when 21 subjects judged the beauty (aesthetic or affective judgment) and brightness (perceptual or cognitive judgment) of simultaneously presented paintings. Aesthetic judgments engaged medial and lateral subdivisions of the orbitofrontal cortex as well as subcortical stations associated with affective motor planning (globus pallidus, putamen–claustrum, amygdala, and cerebellar vermis), whereas the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, as well as the anteri...

  19. The use of expert judgment elicitation to predict future climate for the Yucca Mountain Nevada vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWispelare, A.; Miklas, M.P. Jr. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Clemen, R.T. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Herren, L.T. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Park, J.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Expert judgment elicitations are expected to supplement other data used to assess the long-term safety of a high-level waste (HLW) geologic repository. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the applicability of expert judgment elicitation to the licensing process. This paper describes the basis and conduct of an expert judgment elicitation project focused on the future climate around Yucca Mountain, Nevada (YMNV). Results in terms of climate predictions over the next 10,000 years are presented.

  20. Effects of an Experiential Learning Simulation Design on Clinical Nursing Judgment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmil, Joyce Victor; Turk, Melanie; Adamson, Katie; Larew, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Simulation design should be theory based and its effect on outcomes evaluated. This study (1) applied a model of experiential learning to design a simulation experience, (2) examined how this design affected clinical nursing judgment development, and (3) described the relationship between clinical nursing judgment development and student performance when using the experiential learning design. Findings suggest that using an experiential learning simulation design results in more highly developed nursing judgment and competency in simulation performance.

  1. Order-Sorted Parameterization and Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, José

    Parameterization is one of the most powerful features to make specifications and declarative programs modular and reusable, and our best hope for scaling up formal verification efforts. This paper studies order-sorted parameterization at three different levels: (i) its mathematical semantics; (ii) its operational semantics by term rewriting; and (iii) the inductive reasoning principles that can soundly be used to prove properties about such specifications. It shows that achieving the desired properties at each of these three levels is a considerably subtler matter than for many-sorted specifications, but that such properties can be attained under reasonable conditions.

  2. Effects of Magnetic Induction Intensity on Microstructure and Properties of Electromagnetic Centrifugal Casting High Cr Cast Iron%磁感应强度对电磁离心铸造高铬铸铁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 付拴拴; 张鸿雪

    2012-01-01

    为了提高高铬铸铁衬板的力学性能,使用电磁离心铸造浇注,并和常规重力离心铸造的试样进行了对比.结果表明,电磁离心铸造获得的试样组织明显细化,晶粒数量增多,晶粒尺寸细小,力学性能提高.当离心转速为1 500 r/min,磁感应强度为0.5T时,电磁离心铸造铸态试样的硬度(HRC)为55.3,冲击韧度为6.87 J/cm2;热处理后的硬度(HRC)为65.3,冲击韧度达到7.3 J/cm2.试样硬度比常规铸造试样提高了约10%,冲击韧度提高了约9%,相对耐磨性提高了约5%.%In order to improve mechanical properties ol the high chromium cast iron liner, the specimens were produced by electromagnetic centrifugal casting, and were comparatively analyzed with conventional casting specimens. The results show that microstructure of the electromagnetic centrifugal casting specimens is refined significantly, and grains are increased with the decrease of the grain size, evidently improving the mechanical properties of the specimens. With centrifugal velocity of 1 500 r/min and magnetic induction intensity of 0. 5 T, the hardness and impacting toughness of the electromagnetic centrifugal casting specimens reach HKC 55. 3 and 6. 87 J/cm2, respectively, and after heat treatment, hardness and impacting toughness reach HRC65. 3 and 7. 3 J/cm2 .respectively. Compared with those of the conventional casting ones, hardness, impacting toughness and relative wear resistance of the specimens prepared are increased by 10% , 8% and 5% , respectively.

  3. The curious anomaly of skewed judgment distributions and systematic error in the wisdom of crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik W Nash

    Full Text Available Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem.

  4. Punishment and sympathy judgments: is the quality of mercy strained in Asperger's syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Shelley; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle; Lagnado, David

    2010-10-01

    This study examined reasoning about wrongdoing in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched healthy controls in relation to car accident scenarios. The two groups made similar judgments with respect to degree of driver negligence for both fines imposed and sympathy ratings. They also made similar judgments of fines in relation to the type of justification given for the drivers' actions. However, the AS group differentiated more in sympathy judgments relating to good and poor justifications. The AS group thus appeared to show preserved judgment with respect to compensation and sympathy for the victim and fines for the driver, but expressed less sympathy towards drivers with poor justifications for their actions.

  5. Effect of the survival judgment task on memory performance in subclinically depressed people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many reports have described that a survival judgment task that requires participants to judge words according to their relevance to a survival situation can engender better recall than that obtained in other judgment tasks such as semantic or self-judgment tasks. We investigated whether memory enhancement related to the survival judgment task is elicited or not in subclinically depressed participants. Based on the BDI Score, participants were classified as either depressed or non-depressed participants. Then 20 depressed participants and 24 non-depressed participants performed a survival judgment task and an autobiographical recall task. Results showed memory enhancement related to the survival judgment task in both depressed and non-depressed participants, but showed lower memory enhancement related to the survival judgment task in depressed participants than in non-depressed participants. These results suggest that the survival judgment task benefit is a robust phenomenon. Moreover, that benefit was reduced by depressed emotion. The combination hypothesis better explains the mechanism of memory enhancement related to the survival judgment task than the functional, emotional and arousal or congruency hypothesis does.

  6. Method for multiple attribute decision making based on incomplete linguistic judgment matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yao; Fan Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    With respect to the multiple attribute decision making problems with linguistic preference relations on alternatives in the form of incomplete linguistic judgment matrix, a method is proposed to analyze the decision problem. The incomplete linguistic judgment matrix is transformed into incomplete fuzzy judgment matrix and an optimization model is developed on the basis of incomplete fuzzy judgment matrix provided by the decision maker and the decision matrix to determine attribute weights by Lag)range multiplier method. Then the overall values of all alternatives are calculated to rank them. A numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and practicality of the proposed method.

  7. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  8. Learning and Inductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    is also a paradigm example of induction as discussed by philosophers ( Carnap , 1950). Data compression is of practical value for storage and...IBelser, A. 0. Hlolzman, and A. Kent (Eds.., Eneyclopedia of computer science and technology (Vol. II). New York: Marcel Dekker, 24 51. " Carnap , R. 1950

  9. Iteration, Not Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this note is to present and justify proof via iteration as an intuitive, creative and empowering method that is often available and preferable as an alternative to proofs via either mathematical induction or the well-ordering principle. The method of iteration depends only on the fact that any strictly decreasing sequence of…

  10. Teaching Mathematical Induction I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1986-01-01

    A novel approach to teaching mathematical induction was used, based on a Piagetian theory of learning abstract mathematical concepts in which the learner uses reflective abstraction to construct new schemas out of old ones. Computer experiences are used to induce students to make the appropriate reflective abstractions. (MNS)

  11. Training in Inductive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Welko

    This study investigated the effects of K. J. Klauer's (1989) inductive reasoning training program of teaching children. Effects of training and the range of transfer of the training were assessed. The subjects were 34 third-grade Dutch children of average ability, matched on age, sex, and IQ. Children from the training condition (N=17) received…

  12. Auditors’ Assessments of Materiality Between Professional Judgment and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Aqel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Materiality has been and continues to be a topic of importance for auditors. It is considered as a significant factor in the planning of the audit procedures, performing the planned audit procedures, evaluating the results of the audit procedures and issuing an audit report. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of materiality motivated by concerns at the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Securities and Exchange Commission and International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board issuance of proposed standards on materiality. The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze comprehensively the concept of audit materiality including how materiality threshold is determined by auditors. Auditing standards settings bodies pointed out that auditor’s determination of materiality threshold is a matter of professional judjment. As a judgmental concept, however, materiality is susceptible to subjectivity. Furthermore, the absence of audting standards on how materiality is determined has highlighted the significance of this issue and indicated that guidance for materiality professional judgments must come from other non-authoritative sources such as empirical researches. A number of new and important areas of materiality are in need of further investigation.

  13. Aging and the impact of irrelevant information on social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to specifically examine whether older adults are more susceptible to the negative impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social judgments. Young (ages 20-44), middle-aged (ages 45-63), and older (ages 65-85) adults were presented with descriptions of people consisting of positive and negative traits that varied in relevance to specific occupations. They were asked to either form a general impression based on these traits or to evaluate the person's fitness for the specified occupation. In both studies, evaluative content of the descriptions (i.e., the number of positive minus number of negative traits) was a significant predictor of subjective evaluations. Of prime importance, adults of all ages were similarly able to selectively process relevant versus irrelevant information when occupational fitness evaluations required them to focus on a subset of information in the descriptions. Participants also adjusted the specific types of information used in making judgments, with the relative importance of agentic traits and negative information being greater when making occupation evaluations than when forming impressions. The results suggest that age differences in the processing evaluative information are minimal, and that the availability of well-established knowledge structures can help older adults effectively control the impact of irrelevant evaluative information when making social inferences.

  14. Phase reset affects auditory-visual simultaneity judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Jun; Kakimoto, Yuta; Araki, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    We continuously receive the external information from multiple sensors simultaneously. The brain must judge a source event of these sensory informations and integrate them. It is thought that judging the simultaneity of such multisensory stimuli is an important cue when we discriminate whether the stimuli are derived from one event or not. Although previous studies have investigated the correspondence between an auditory-visual (AV) simultaneity perceptions and the neural responses, there are still few studies of this. Electrophysiological studies have reported that ongoing oscillations in human cortex affect perception. Especially, the phase resetting of ongoing oscillations has been examined as it plays an important role in multisensory integration. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of phase resetting for the judgment of AV simultaneity judgement tasks. The subjects were successively presented with auditory and visual stimuli with intervals that were controlled as [Formula: see text] and they were asked to report whether they perceived them simultaneously or not. We investigated the effects of the phase of ongoing oscillations on simultaneity judgments with AV stimuli with SOAs in which the detection rate of asynchrony was 50 %. It was found that phase resetting at the beta frequency band in the brain area that related to the modality of the following stimulus occurred after preceding stimulus onset only when the subjects perceived AV stimuli as simultaneous. This result suggested that beta phase resetting occurred in areas that are related to the subsequent stimulus, supporting perception multisensory stimuli as simultaneous.

  15. Evaluating the predictive accuracy of microloan officers’ subjective judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissem Baklouti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity in lending methodology in Microfinance institution characterized by unchallenged dominance of the loan officers in the decision-making prompted us to investigate the predictive accuracy of their subjective judgement. In addition, we investigate if the accuracy of this information depends on the strength of lenders-borrowers relationship. The objective of this paper is to understand the loan officer behaviour in default prediction task. Using credit file data from Tunisian Microfinance bank, we have found evidence that subjective judgment of loan officers has statistically significant predictive capability of default risk. In addition, our results suggest that novice loan officers have incorrect prediction of future default events because they are prone to different behavioral biases. Novice loan officers may overweight any information that is consistent with their existing beliefs and overestimate the precision of their own private information. However, through learning experienced loan officers have less behavior bias and more accurate feeling allowing them to make an accurate default prediction. To make correct decision in relationship lending approach, credit committee can rely on subjective judgment of experienced loan officers mainly when the latter judged the creditworthiness of frequent borrowers. As soft information is not easily and accurately transferable, Microfinance institutions have more interest to retain their experienced loan officers than their borrowers.

  16. Validity beliefs and ideology can influence legal case judgments differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Chaiken, Shelly; Lutz, Stacey

    2002-10-01

    Jurors sometimes enter a case both with prior beliefs about its likely validity and with more general ideologies that are relevant to the case. Although prior validity beliefs may serve as heuristics, directly biasing decisions when cognitive capacity is low, we hypothesized that ideology may bias systematic thought even when cognitive capacity is high. This experiment studied simulated individual juror decisions in a sex-discrimination case, measuring validity beliefs about such cases as well as feminist ideology, and exposing participants to 1 of 3 case versions under time pressure or no time pressure. Validity beliefs had a direct, heuristic impact on judgment only under time pressure. However, feminist ideology had a mediated influence on judgment via valenced thoughts about the evidence, even under no time pressure. Also, people with initially proplaintiff beliefs judged a woman's sex-discrimination suit more negatively than did prodefendants if the evidence was weak. The results suggest that when jurors can fully process information, validity expectancies might backfire if not supported by case evidence, but ideology can have a more pervasive influence on the decision-making process.

  17. Trial order and retention interval in human predictive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Steven C; Amundson, Jeffrey C; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-12-01

    The influences of order of trial type and retention interval on human predictive judgments were assessed for a cue that was reinforced on half of its training presentations. Subjects observed 10 cue-outcome presentations (i.e., reinforced trials) and 10 cue-alone presentations (i.e., nonreinforced trials) in one of three different orders: all nonreinforced trials followed by all reinforced trials(latent inhibition), reinforced and nonreinforced trials interspersed (partial reinforcement), or al lreinforced trials followed by all nonreinforced trials (extinction). Ratings were based mainly on the most recent event type (i.e., a recency effect) when the test occurred immediately after training but were based mainly on initial event types (i.e., a primacy effect) when the test occurred after a 48-h delay. The subjects tested both immediately and with a long retention interval did not exhibit this shift to primacy (i.e., the recency effect persisted). These results demonstrate noncatastrophic forgetting and the flexible use of trial order information in predictive judgments.

  18. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  19. Knowing the crowd within: Metacognitive limits on combining multiple judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how decision-makers use multiple opportunities to judge a quantity. Decision-makers undervalue the benefit of combining their own judgment with an advisor's, but theories disagree about whether this bias would apply to combining several of one's own judgments. Participants estimated percentage answers to general knowledge questions (e.g., What percent of the world's population uses the Internet?) on two occasions. In a final decision phase, they selected their first, second, or average estimate to report for each question. We manipulated the cues available for this final decision. Given cues to general theories (the labels first guess, second guess, average), participants mostly averaged, but no more frequently on trials where the average was most accurate. Given item-specific cues (numerical values of the options), metacognitive accuracy was at chance. Given both cues, participants mostly averaged and switched strategies based on whichever yielded the most accurate value on a given trial. These results indicate that underappreciation of averaging estimates does not stem only from social differences between the self and an advisor and that combining general and item-specific cues benefits metacognition.

  20. Expert judgment and uncertainty regarding the protection of imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexander; Karns, Gabriel; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Toman, Eric; Wilson, Robyn; Szarek, Harmony

    2017-06-01

    Decisions concerning the appropriate listing status of species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) can be controversial even among conservationists. These decisions may determine whether a species persists in the near term and have long-lasting social and political ramifications. Given the ESA's mandate that such decisions be based on the best available science, it is important to examine what factors contribute to experts' judgments concerning the listing of species. We examined how a variety of factors (such as risk perception, value orientations, and norms) influenced experts' judgments concerning the appropriate listing status of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Experts were invited to complete an online survey examining their perceptions of the threats grizzly bears face and their listing recommendation. Although experts' assessments of the threats to this species were strongly correlated with their recommendations for listing status, this relationship did not exist when other cognitive factors were included in the model. Specifically, values related to human use of wildlife and norms (i.e., a respondent's expectation of peers' assessments) were most influential in listing status recommendations. These results suggest that experts' decisions about listing, like all human decisions, are subject to the use of heuristics (i.e., decision shortcuts). An understanding of how heuristics and related biases affect decisions under uncertainty can help inform decision making about threatened and endangered species and may be useful in designing effective processes for protection of imperiled species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Effect of pooled comparative information on judgments of quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Leigh A.; Bass, Ellen J.; Voss, John D.; Lyman, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Quality assessment is the focus of many health care initiatives. Yet it is not well understood how the type of information used in decision support tools to enable judgments of quality based on data impacts the accuracy, consistency and reliability of judgments made by physicians. Comparative pooled information could allow physicians to judge the quality of their practice by making comparisons to other practices or other specific populations of patients. In this study, resident physicians were provided with varying types of information derived from pooled patient data sets: quality component measures at the individual and group level, a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures using percentile rank, and an aggregate composite quality score. 32 participants viewed thirty quality profiles consisting of information applicable to the practice of thirty de-identified resident physicians. Those provided with quality component measures and a qualitative interpretation of the quality measures (rankings) judged quality of care more similarly to experts and were more internally consistent compared to participants who were provided with quality component measures alone. Reliability between participants was significantly less for those who were provided with a composite quality score compared to those who were not. PMID:26949581

  2. Development of a moral judgment measure for veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians increasingly face animal ethics issues, conflicts, and dilemmas, both in practice and in policy, such as the tension between clients' and animals' interests. Little has been done to measure the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical judgments to prevent and address these issues or to identify the effectiveness of strategies to build this capacity. The objectives of this study were, first, to develop a test to identify the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical decisions in relation to animal ethics issues and, second, to assess students' perceptions of the usefulness of three methods for the development of ethical decision making. The Veterinary Defining Issues Test (VetDIT) was piloted with 88 first-year veterinary students at an Australian university. The veterinary students were at a variety of reasoning stages in their use of the Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP) reasoning methods in relation to both human ethics and animal ethics issues and operated at a higher level of reasoning for animal than human ethics. Thirty-eight students assessed three methods for developing ethical decision-making skills and identified these as being helpful in clarifying their positions, clarifying others' positions, increasing awareness of the complexity of making ethical decisions, using ethical frameworks and principles, and improving moral reasoning skills, with two methods identified as most helpful. These methods and the VetDIT have the potential to be used as tools for development and assessment of moral judgment in veterinary education to address animal ethics issues.

  3. Decision Procedures for Proving Inductive Theorems without Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Aoto, Takahito; Stratulat, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Automated inductive reasoning for term rewriting has been extensively studied in the literature. Classes of equations and term rewriting systems (TRSs) with decidable inductive validity have been identified and used to automatize the inductive reasoning. We give procedures for deciding the inductive validity of equations in some standard TRSs on natural numbers and lists. Contrary to previous decidability results, our procedures can automatically decide without involvi...

  4. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of Self-Inductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, S. Y.; Tao, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses four different methods for measuring self-inductance based on the definition of inductance, the alternative definition, phase difference and LC resonance. Provides circuit diagrams and typical oscilloscope traces. (YP)

  6. Mathematical Induction: A Pedagogical Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of mathematical induction and what constitutes a correct proof by this method and common misconceptions of induction with recommendations for their remediation. The topic is also analyzed into behavioral skills and subjected to a conceptual analysis. Criteria for analyzing and evaluating textbook treatment of induction are…

  7. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  8. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  9. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  10. Inductively commutated coilguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongeau, P.P. (EML Research, Inc., Hudson, MA (US))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the concept and relevance of power factor is presented in regards to high performance launchers. As the scale of launchers grows and as efforts to improve efficiency continue power factor considerations will become crucial in engineering design and ultimate launcher performance limits. The use of motion induced commutation to improve the power factor are discussed. Various approaches to inductive commutation are presented, including: the brush-commutated 9 MJ Coilgun, the solid state-switched coilgun and the quenchgun.

  11. Inductively commutated coilguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Peter P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and relevance of power factor is presented in the context of high-performance launchers. As the scale of launchers grows and efforts to improve efficiency continue, power factor considerations will become crucial in engineering design and ultimate launcher performance limits. The use of motion-induced commutation to improve the power factor are discussed. Various approaches to inductive commutation are presented, including the brush-commutated 9-MJ coilgun, the solid state-switched coilgun, and the quenchgun.

  12. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  13. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  14. Examining Clinical Judgment in an Adaptive Intervention Design: The Fast Track Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Nix, Robert L.; Maples, Jerry J.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Although clinical judgment is often used in assessment and treatment planning, rarely has research examined its reliability, validity, or impact in practice settings. This study tailored the frequency of home visits in a prevention program for aggressive-disruptive children (n = 410; 56% minority) on the basis of 2 kinds of clinical judgment:…

  15. Clinical Psychologists' Judgments of the Scientific Merit and Clinical-Relevance of Psychotherapy Outcome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.

    1979-01-01

    Result of this study indicated psychologists' judgments of scientific merit were influenced by patient assignment and follow-up but not by therapists' experience. Judgments of clinical relevance were influenced by patient population, the findings' applicability, and nature of therapy. Psychologists were more critical of methodology of studies…

  16. Impediments to Accurate Clinical Judgment and Possible Ways to Minimize Their Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R.

    1981-01-01

    Five impediments to accurate clinical judgment are discussed: inability to assess covariation, influence of preconceived notions, lack of awareness of one's judgmental processes, overconfidence, and hindsight bias. Presents three strategies to minimize impediments' effects: considera- tion of alternative outcomes, increased attention to data, and…

  17. Clinical Judgmental Biases: The Moderating Roles of Counselor Cognitive Complexity and Counselor Client Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Paul M.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Study of 119 counseling psychologists revealed that counselor individual differences in cognitive complexity, but not preferences for client problems, moderated cognitive processes that lead to bias in clinical judgment. Counseling psychologists with lower cognitive complexity were more likely to form biased clinical judgments than were those with…

  18. Reciprocal Associations between Young Children's Developing Moral Judgments and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Jambon, Marc; Conry-Murray, Clare; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between young children's developing theory of mind (ToM) and judgments of prototypical moral transgressions were examined 3 times across 1 year in 70 American middle class 2.5- to 4-year-olds. Separate path models controlling for cross-time stability in judgments, within-time associations, and children's age at Wave 1 indicated that…

  19. Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…

  20. Moral Judgments of Chief Academic Officers at Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Megan D.

    2012-01-01

    Chief Academic Officers (CAO) are leaders in institutions of higher education and have wide decision-making scope. Previous research has clearly demonstrated the need for leaders to engage in ethical decision-making. Moral judgments are an aspect of ethical decision-making, so it is important for CAOs to make moral judgments. This study examined…