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Sample records for judging merit merit

  1. "Am I Famous Yet?" Judging Scholarly Merit in Psychological Science: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to consider new ways of judging merit in academia, especially with respect to research in psychological science. First, I discuss the importance of merit-based evaluation and the purpose of this symposium. Next, I review some previous ideas about judging merit-especially creative merit-and I describe some of the main criteria used by institutions today for judging the quality of research in psychological science. Finally, I suggest a new criterion that institutions and individuals might use and draw some conclusions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  3. 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Slide from HR public meeting. In 2017, the annual advancement exercise MARS will be replaced by the annual performance evaluation and recognition exercise MERIT. The HR Department has invited staff members to attend two information meetings “2017 MERIT Public Sessions”, the purpose of which is to explain the “general principles of the Merit, Evaluation and Recognition Integrated Toolkit”. The first meeting was held in English on Tuesday, 6 December. The second meeting will be in French on Thursday, 15 December at 10.00, in room 774-R-013 (Prévessin site). The Staff Association appreciates the HR Department’s efforts to inform staff members, especially regarding the changes between the MARS system and the MERIT system. Nevertheless, we find it useful if we inform you, from our side, taking up the issues we find the most pertinent. Benchmark jobs and the new salary scale The HR presentation looks back on the changes that took place in September 20...

  4. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  5. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  6. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  8. The Tragedy of Teacherly Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Michael

    1984-01-01

    In satirical verse the author affirms the value of merit pay proposals and laments the lack of action on such proposals that has resulted from indecisiveness concerning criteria for merit pay implementation. (JBM)

  9. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  10. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  11. MERITED LABOUR: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.Z. Shaimardanov; T.V. Polkova; O.A. Shahova

    2009-01-01

    A methodological approach to the analysis of the economic category "merited labour", in which the employee is considered as a subject and an object of work at once is worked out, method of calculation of the integral index of merited labour in the subjects of Russia in the dynamics and in the context of industries and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region is justified. Ratings of integral indicators of quality of life in terms of "merited labour" program are composed. Integral indices and r...

  12. 2007 Merit Principles Survey: Performance Management Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — 2007 survey responses from selected Federal agencies summarizing the existence of positive performance management practices and employee engagement scores for each...

  13. Chess players' fame versus their merit

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  14. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  15. 2017 MERIT Exercise close to completion!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 MERIT Guidelines, approved by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC), concern various processes and procedures, among which those for the annual exercise (or MERIT interview), promotions, and changes of benchmark job. The processes for “annual exercise” and “promotions” – “changes of benchmark job” have been programmed for two periods: from 1st December 2016 to 15 June 2017: MERIT interviews, evaluation, performance qualification and payment with effect as of the salary of May; from 3 April 2017 to 1st July 2017: promotions and changes of benchmark job. 2017 MERIT Interviews The results of the MERIT interviews have been announced to staff members, most of whom saw their salary increase. Only persons who are not eligible and those with “Insufficient” performance qualification did not receive a raise. Same goes for performance payments – the staff members whose performance was qualified as &ldq...

  16. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  17. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  18. MERITED LABOUR: METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Z. Shaimardanov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodological approach to the analysis of the economic category "merited labour", in which the employee is considered as a subject and an object of work at once is worked out, method of calculation of the integral index of merited labour in the subjects of Russia in the dynamics and in the context of industries and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region is justified. Ratings of integral indicators of quality of life in terms of "merited labour" program are composed. Integral indices and ratings of decent work in the RF subjects and municipalities of the Sverdlovsk region are calculated and analyzed. The practical significance of the work consists in the possibility of use in forming the monitoring of social and labor sphere of the region taking into account regional specificity, and in application of the integral index of merited labour allowing to give a qualitative description of the social and labor sphere of the region and estimate the effectiveness of policies of executive power in this area.

  19. The citation merit of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Juan A; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method to assess the merit of any set of scientific papers in a given field based on the citations they receive. Given a field and a citation impact indicator, such as the mean citation or the [Formula: see text]-index, the merit of a given set of [Formula: see text] articles is identified with the probability that a randomly drawn set of [Formula: see text] articles from a given pool of articles in that field has a lower citation impact according to the indicator in question. The method allows for comparisons between sets of articles of different sizes and fields. Using a dataset acquired from Thomson Scientific that contains the articles published in the periodical literature in the period 1998-2007, we show that the novel approach yields rankings of research units different from those obtained by a direct application of the mean citation or the [Formula: see text]-index.

  20. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  1. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  2. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We ...

  3. Few Algorithms for ascertaining merit of a document and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shrinivaasan, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Existing models for ranking documents(mostly in world wide web) are prestige based. In this article, three algorithms to objectively judge the merit of a document are proposed - 1) Citation graph maxflow 2) Recursive Gloss Overlap based intrinsic merit scoring and 3) Interview algorithm. A short discussion on generic judgement and its mathematical treatment is presented in introduction to motivate these algorithms.

  4. Constructed criteria: redefining merit to justify discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Ericluis; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2005-06-01

    This article presents an account of job discrimination according to which people redefine merit in a manner congenial to the idiosyncratic credentials of individual applicants from desired groups. In three studies, participants assigned male and female applicants to gender-stereotypical jobs. However, they did not view male and female applicants as having different strengths and weaknesses. Instead, they redefined the criteria for success at the job as requiring the specific credentials that a candidate of the desired gender happened to have. Commitment to hiring criteria prior to disclosure of the applicant's gender eliminated discrimination, suggesting that bias in the construction of hiring criteria plays a causal role in discrimination.

  5. The Distinction Between Merit and Worth in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Valuing in evaluation encompasses two distinct senses of the word, denoted by the terms merit and worth. Merit may be defined as an entity's inherent, intrinsic, context-free value, while an entity's worth is defined as its contextually determined, place-bound value. Determining an entity's merit may take place whenever a number of experts are…

  6. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  7. Equality and Merit: A Merit-Based Argument for Equity Policies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Evan; Wendling, Karen

    2005-01-01

    We assume, for the sake of argument, that the sole purpose of colleges and universities is the advancement of knowledge through teaching and research, and that academic merit, as defined by each discipline, ought to be the only relevant criterion in admissions and hiring decisions. Even on this restrictive set of assumptions, we argue that hiring…

  8. MERIT: Minutiae Extraction using Rotation Invariant Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Pokhriyal,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thinning a fingerprint makes its ridges as thin as one pixel and still retaining its basic structure. So many algorithms are devised by researchers to extract skeleton of a fingerprint image, but the problem is that they produce different results with different rotations of the same fingerprint image. This results in inefficient minutiae extraction. In this paper, a new way of thinning a fingerprint image is proposed. This method is called MERIT (Minutiae Extraction using Rotation Invariant Thinning, as it thins a fingerprint image irrespective of the fingerprint's position and then extracts minutiae points from a fingerprint image. First of all, we binarize the fingerprint image and convert it into a 0-1 pattern. Then, we apply some morphological operations like dilation and erosion, and also some if-then rules governing a 3x3 mask that is to be convoluted throughout the image to skeletonize it. In the end,some postprocessing is done on the thinned fingerprint image to remove false minutiae structures from it. Finally genuine minutiae points are extracted from the thinned fingerprint image along with their directions. Results show that the proposed method extracts genuine minutiae points even from low-quality fingerprint images.

  9. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  10. Does State Merit-Based Aid Stem Brain Drain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use college enrollment and migration data to test the brain drain hypothesis. Their results suggest that state merit scholarship programs do indeed stanch the migration of "best and brightest" students to other states. In the aggregate and on average, the implementation of state merit aid programs increases the…

  11. Redefining the merit order of stochastic generation in forward markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Juan M.; Zugno, Marco; Pineda Morente, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., day-ahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing...... its energy deviations during the real-time operation of the power system. We show, through an illustrative example, that the proposed merit order leads to increased market efficiency as the penetration of stochastic generation in the electricity market grows. © 1969-2012 IEEE.......This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., day-ahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing...

  12. Redefining the merit order of stochastic generation in forward markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda Morente, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., dayahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing ...... its energy deviations during the real-time operation of the power system.We show, through an illustrative example, that the proposed merit order leads to increased market efficiency as the penetration of stochastic generation in the electricity market grows.......This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., dayahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing...

  13. MERIT FUNCTION AND GLOBAL ALGORITHM FOR BOX CONSTRAINED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 高自友; 赖炎连

    2002-01-01

    The authors consider optimization methods for box constrained variational inequalities. First, the authors study the KKT-conditions problem based on the original problem. A merit function for the KKT-conditions problem is proposed, and some desirable properties of the merit function are obtained. Through the merit function, the original problem is reformulated as minimization with simple constraints. Then, the authors show that any stationary point of the optimization problem is a solution of the original problem. Finally, a descent algorithm is presented for the optimization problem, and global convergence is shown.

  14. Preschoolers' understanding of merit in two Asian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Xu, Jing; Adachi, Kuniko; van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Recent research in moral psychology have suggested that children make judgments about distributive justice early on in development, and in particular they appear to be able to use merit when distributing the benefits of a collective action. This prediction has recently been validated in various western cultures but it is unknown whether it also applies to more collectivistic cultures, in which the group might be favoured over the individual, and need over merit. Here, we investigate merit-based distributions among 81 children belonging to two Asian societies, China and Japan (mean age = 5.0 years). In line with the idea that children's moral psychology develops early, we found that Chinese and Japanese children are able to use merit to distribute the benefits of a collective action.

  15. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... opportunity is an integral part of every merit system. Affirmative action plans, designed to provide a work... education and training in cases in which such education and training would result in better...

  16. Preschoolers' understanding of merit in two Asian societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Chevallier

    Full Text Available Recent research in moral psychology have suggested that children make judgments about distributive justice early on in development, and in particular they appear to be able to use merit when distributing the benefits of a collective action. This prediction has recently been validated in various western cultures but it is unknown whether it also applies to more collectivistic cultures, in which the group might be favoured over the individual, and need over merit. Here, we investigate merit-based distributions among 81 children belonging to two Asian societies, China and Japan (mean age = 5.0 years. In line with the idea that children's moral psychology develops early, we found that Chinese and Japanese children are able to use merit to distribute the benefits of a collective action.

  17. Figures of merit of nonlinear optical chromophores in photorefractive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzoukas, Marguerite; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille H.; Wortmann, Ruediger W.

    1999-05-01

    A pre-requisite to obtain polymers with a large photorefractive response is to design non-linear optical chromophores with a large figure of merit. This figure depends on the glass transition temperature of the material. We present a theoretical investigation that shows which are the important molecular parameters that control the magnitude of the figure of merit either in a low-Tg or in a high-Tg polymer. Derivation of the figures of merit for various push-pull molecules show a molecular engineering strategy can be successfully implemented to yield very large figures of merit. This approach is supported by an experimental investigation based on electro-optical absorption measurements.

  18. 76 FR 17846 - Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial Assistance and Other Transaction Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial... Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Objective Merit Review Procedure. SUMMARY: This Notice... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in conducting the objective merit review of...

  19. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet... rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit and to make...

  20. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet... rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit and to make...

  1. Merit and justice: an experimental analysis of attitude to inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustichini, Aldo; Vostroknutov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Merit and justice play a crucial role in ethical theory and political philosophy. Some theories view justice as allocation according to merit; others view justice as based on criteria of its own, and take merit and justice as two independent values. We study experimentally how these views are perceived. In our experiment subjects played two games (both against the computer): a game of skill and a game of luck. After each game they observed the earnings of all the subjects in the session, and thus the differences in outcomes. Each subject could reduce the winnings of one other person at a cost. The majority of the subjects used the option to subtract. The decision to subtract and the amount subtracted depended on whether the game was one of skill or luck, and on the distance between the earnings of the subject and those of others. Everything else being equal, subjects subtracted more in luck than in skill. In skill game, but not in luck, the subtraction becomes more likely, and the amount larger, as the distance increases. The results show that individuals considered favorable outcomes in luck to be undeserved, and thus felt more justified in subtracting. In the skill game instead, they considered more favorable outcomes (their own as well as others') as signal of ability and perhaps effort, which thus deserved merit; hence, they felt less motivated to subtract. However, a larger size of the unfavorable gap from the others increased the unpleasantness of poor performance, which in turn motivated larger subtraction. In conclusion, merit is attributed if and only if effort or skill significantly affect the outcome. An inequality of outcomes is viewed differently depending on whether merit causes the difference or not. Thus, merit and justice are strongly linked in the human perception of social order.

  2. Pedagogical Merit Review of Animal Use for Education in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available There are two components to the review of animal based protocols in Canada: review for the merit of the study itself, and review of the ethical acceptability of the work. Despite the perceived importance for the quality assurance these reviews provide; there are few studies of the peer-based merit review system for animal-based protocols for research and education. Institutional animal care committees (ACCs generally rely on the external peer review of scientific merit for animal-based research. In contrast, peer review for animal based teaching/training is dependent on the review of pedagogical merit carried out by the ACC itself or another committee within the institution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the views of ACC members about current practices and policies as well as alternate policies for the review of animal based teaching/training. We conducted a national web-based survey of ACC members with both quantitative and qualitative response options. Responses from 167 ACC members indicated broad concerns about administrative burden despite strong support for both the current and alternate policies. Participants' comments focused mostly on the merit review process (54% relative to the efficiency (21%, impact (13%, and other (12% aspects of evaluation. Approximately half (49% of the comments were classified into emergent themes that focused on some type of burden: burden from additional pedagogical merit review (16%, a limited need for the review (12%, and a lack of resources (expertise 11%; people/money 10%. Participants indicated that the current system for pedagogical merit review is effective (60%; but most also indicated that there was at least some challenge (86% with the current peer review process. There was broad support for additional guidance on the justification, criteria, types of animal use, and objectives of pedagogical merit review. Participants also supported the ethical review and application of the Three Rs in

  3. The merits of a robot : A Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the merits of a robot at the community pharmacy in a quasi-experiment. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were barcode-time measurements, direct observations, time-interval studies, and tally at a Dutch community pharmacy. The topics consisted of workload, waiting

  4. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  5. Jetpack Envy: The Literary Merits of the Idea in SF

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenreich, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis discusses the literary merits of the science fiction genre through modern genre theory and reception theory, examining what the science fiction genre does that is unique and what it can contribute to the literary discourse, predominantly as a vehicle for examining the ramifications of a given thought experiment as presented within a diegesis.

  6. National Merit Scholars; By Design and not by Chance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Paula; Dawson, Julie W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Potential National Merit Scholars program at Jacksonville (Florida) Schools, an effort to identify exceptionally talented students and schedule them into advanced mathematics and language arts clases in the eighth grade. They may also attend special summer sessions and the superintendent's 100 superscholars program. (MLH)

  7. Exercice MERIT 2017 en passe de s’achever !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les lignes directrices 2017 du MERIT (https://cds.cern.ch/record/2239422/files/2017_MERIT_Guidelines.pdf?version=1), approuvées par le Comité de Concertation permanent (CCP), concernent divers processus et procédures parmi lesquels, l’exercice annuel (ou entretien MERIT), la promotion, le changement d’emploi repère. Les processus « exercice annuel » et « promotions » - « changement d’emploi repère » ont été programmés sur deux périodes : du 1er décembre 2016 au 15 juin 2017, les entretiens MERIT, l’évaluation, la qualification et la rétribution de la performance, avec effet sur le salaire de mai ; du 3 avril 2017 au 1er juillet 2017, les promotions et les changements d’emploi repère. Entretie...

  8. Merit Pay for School Administrators: A Procedural Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, Bruce

    To help school districts develop a merit pay salary system for administrators, this monograph uses a question and answer approach organized around five components necessary for implementation. These are: (1) a decision-making process that encourages input from the whole staff; (2) a salary schedule that reflects in financial terms the requirements…

  9. First MARS exercise of merit recognition: what's the outcome?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    In June, the decisions concerning the various forms of merit recognition of the staff are taken. The Staff Association commends all those involved and, in particular, the supervisors who, for this first exercise, have had to assess your performance in record time, in accordance with the new provisions in the recently revised administrative circular no. 26.

  10. Does Merit-Based Aid Improve College Affordability? Testing the Bennett Hypothesis in the Era of Merit-Based Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the Bennett hypothesis by examining whether four-year colleges changed listed tuition and fees, the amount of institutional grants per student, and room and board charges after their states implemented statewide merit-based aid programs. According to the Bennett hypothesis, increases in government financial aid make it easier for…

  11. How far merit selection? Social stratification and the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    The question of how societies allocate occupational positions and subsequent rewards has long been of interest to sociologists. According to one influential theory, the needs of modern industrial societies and economies demand that high-level and functionally important occupational positions are allocated according to meritocratic principles. I argue that, ultimately, employers get the final say about which characteristics are rewarded in the labour market. In order to examine which skills and attributes are required by employers for particular occupations I analyse data drawn from a content analysis of c.5000 British newspaper job advertisements. The results show that both merit and non-merit characteristics are requested by employers in job advertisements, even for occupations falling within the higher classes. I also find evidence that employers have similar requirements for similar occupations, cross-cutting class boundaries.

  12. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  13. A figure of merit for neural electrical stimulation circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbl, Florian; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulators are widely used in neuro-prostheses. Many different implementations exist. However, no quantitative ranking criterion is available to allow meaningful comparison of the various stimulation circuits and systems to aid the designer. This paper presents a novel Figure of Merit (FOM) dedicated to stimulation circuits and systems. The proposed optimization performance metric takes into account tissue safety conditions and energy efficiency which can be evaluated by measurement. The FOM is used to rank several stimulator circuits and systems.

  14. The Aspects, the Origin, and the Merit of Aware Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuji Sawada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to understand scientifically the awareness, a daily word. Some aspects of awareness, such as qualitative or quantitative, the targets of awareness, either the external world or the internal world, were discussed. Suggestion on the human awareness was described from the experimental results of visual hand tracking. The origin and the merit of awareness in the process of evolution of animals were discussed. Finally some characters of possible aware computers and aware robots were studied.

  15. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting The..., that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board... evaluate Rehabilitation Research and Development Center of Excellence and Research Enhancement Award...

  16. Adaptive merit function in SPGD algorithm for beam combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-qing; Liu, Li-sheng; Jiang, Zhen-hua; Wang, Ting-feng; Guo, Jin

    2016-09-01

    The beam pointing is the most crucial issue for beam combining to achieve high energy laser output. In order to meet the turbulence situation, a beam pointing method that cooperates with the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed. The power-in-the-bucket ( PIB) is chosen as the merit function, and its radius changes gradually during the correction process. The linear radius and the exponential radius are simulated. The results show that the exponential radius has great promise for beam pointing.

  17. Enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit in engineered graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Sadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons can be dramatically improved by introducing nanopores. In monolayer graphene, this increases the electronic thermoelectric figure of merit ZTe from 0.01 to 0.5. The largest values of ZTe are found when a nanopore is introduced into bilayer graphene, such that the current flows from one layer to the other via the inner surface of the pore, for which values as high as ZTe = 2.45 are obtained. All thermoelectric properties can be further enhanced by tuning the Fermi energy of the leads.

  18. Three Changes That Merit Our Attention in Studies of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHuibin

    2005-01-01

    The first change that merits our attention in studies of Marxism is the change in texts. Within this, the first layer of change implies that the concepts, categories, thoughts and theories put forward by Marx and Engels at different times are not always the same and immutable. The second layer implies changes from one text to another. These changes represent mainly succession and development, but we should take note of paradigm shifts in concepts, discourse and themes in the process. The second change is that in the interpretive paradigm.

  19. The Impact of Merit-Pay Systems on the Work and Attitudes of Mexican Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz-Fontes, Jesús Francisco; Gil-Antón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this work is to present data that evaluates the impact and perspectives of various merit-pay systems directed at Mexican academics. To this end a brief description is provided of recent Mexican higher education evolution, including that of merit-pay programs. It is proposed that faculty merit-pay systems, in the context of…

  20. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission...

  1. 76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission...

  2. 75 FR 3939 - Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY..., the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is providing notice of the opportunity to file amicus...

  3. Moon-based Epoch of Reionization Imaging Telescope (MERIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bale, S. D.; Demaio, L.; Kasper, J. C.; Weiler, K. W.

    2005-05-01

    Radio observations of emission and absorption from neutral Hydrogen during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) can reveal how structure leading to the first stars, galaxies, and black holes formed in the intergalactic medium between redshifts of about 6 and at least 20. Ground-based low frequency radio arrays are under construction (LOFAR, PAST) or development (LWA, MWA) to detect and eventually image the EoR signal. The Moon-based Epoch of Reionization Imaging Telescope (MERIT) is a mission concept that is intended to extend ground-based observations of the EoR to the highest possible dynamic range and image fidelity. This can be accomplished by locating the MERIT array on the far side of the moon. The array is composed of 10-12 radial arms, each 1-2 km in length. Each arm has several hundred dipole antennas and feedlines printed on a very thin sheet of kapton with a total mass of about 300 kg. This provides a convenient way to deploy thousands of individual antennas, and a centrally condensed distribution of array baselines. The lunar farside provides shielding from terrestrial natural and technological radio interference, shielding (half the time) from strong solar radio emissions, and freedom from the corrupting influence of Earth's ionosphere. Various options for array deployment and data transmission to Earth will be described is this paper. Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Merits and Demerits of CMC in L2 Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭熠

    2015-01-01

    In the digital era,with the rapid development of the computer technology,the possibility and interest of utilizing Internet in L2 language classrooms has gradually increased.In particular,as a useful tool for enhancing language learning and teaching the computer-mediated communication(CMC)through the Internet has become extremely popular over the last five years.Based on the previous literatures,this essay aims not only to discuss a string of actual merits of CMC in terms of L2 teaching and learning but also some demerits belong to it.Furthermore,in order to achieve the most appropriate way to implement CMC into the L2 classroom,some possible solutions for dealing with those disadvantages will also be suggested.

  5. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  6. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  7. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  8. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  9. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  10. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  11. Merits and pitfalls of currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy W J van de Sande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma and fungi (eumycetoma, are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools.

  12. Merits and pitfalls of currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed H; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools.

  13. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Maestri, Sebastian; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  14. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  15. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  16. The assessment of science: the relative merits of post-publication review, the impact factor, and the number of citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre-Walker, Adam; Stoletzki, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of scientific publications is an integral part of the scientific process. Here we investigate three methods of assessing the merit of a scientific paper: subjective post-publication peer review, the number of citations gained by a paper, and the impact factor of the journal in which the article was published. We investigate these methods using two datasets in which subjective post-publication assessments of scientific publications have been made by experts. We find that there are moderate, but statistically significant, correlations between assessor scores, when two assessors have rated the same paper, and between assessor score and the number of citations a paper accrues. However, we show that assessor score depends strongly on the journal in which the paper is published, and that assessors tend to over-rate papers published in journals with high impact factors. If we control for this bias, we find that the correlation between assessor scores and between assessor score and the number of citations is weak, suggesting that scientists have little ability to judge either the intrinsic merit of a paper or its likely impact. We also show that the number of citations a paper receives is an extremely error-prone measure of scientific merit. Finally, we argue that the impact factor is likely to be a poor measure of merit, since it depends on subjective assessment. We conclude that the three measures of scientific merit considered here are poor; in particular subjective assessments are an error-prone, biased, and expensive method by which to assess merit. We argue that the impact factor may be the most satisfactory of the methods we have considered, since it is a form of pre-publication review. However, we emphasise that it is likely to be a very error-prone measure of merit that is qualitative, not quantitative.

  17. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  18. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  19. Diffusion-equation method for crystallographic figure of merits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Anders J; David, William I F

    2010-09-01

    Global optimization methods play a significant role in crystallography, particularly in structure solution from powder diffraction data. This paper presents the mathematical foundations for a diffusion-equation-based optimization method. The diffusion equation is best known for describing how heat propagates in matter. However, it has also attracted considerable attention as the basis for global optimization of a multimodal function [Piela et al. (1989). J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3339-3346]. The method relies heavily on available analytical solutions for the diffusion equation. Here it is shown that such solutions can be obtained for two important crystallographic figure-of-merit (FOM) functions that fully account for space-group symmetry and allow the diffusion-equation solution to vary depending on whether atomic coordinates are fixed or not. The resulting expression is computationally efficient, taking the same order of floating-point operations to evaluate as the starting FOM function measured in terms of the number of atoms in the asymmetric unit. This opens the possibility of implementing diffusion-equation methods for crystallographic global optimization algorithms such as structure determination from powder diffraction data.

  20. Figures of merit for CMOS SPADs and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Villa, F.; Bellisai, S.; Tisa, S.; Ripamonti, G.; Tosi, A.

    2013-05-01

    SPADs (Single Photon Avalanche Diodes) are emerging as most suitable photodetectors for both single-photon counting (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Lock-in 3D Ranging) and single-photon timing (Lidar, Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging, Diffuse Optical Imaging) applications. Different complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) implementations have been reported in literature. We present some figure of merit able to summarize the typical SPAD performances (i.e. Dark Counting Rate, Photo Detection Efficiency, afterpulsing probability, hold-off time, timing jitter) and to identify a proper metric for SPAD comparison, both as single detectors and also as imaging arrays. The goal is to define a practical framework within which it is possible to rank detectors based on their performances in specific experimental conditions, for either photon-counting or photon-timing applications. Furthermore we review the performances of some CMOS and custom-made SPADs. Results show that CMOS SPADs performances improve as the technology scales down; moreover, miniaturization of SPADs and new solutions adopted to counteract issues related with the SPAD design (electric field uniformity, premature edge breakdown, tunneling effects, defect-rich STI interface) along with advances in standard CMOS processes led to a general improvement in all fabricated photodetectors; therefore, CMOS SPADs can be suitable for very dense and cost-effective many-pixels imagers with high performances.

  1. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  2. Merit based selection and performance assessment for mineworkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds-Ward, L.; Trendell, B. [Wambo Mining Corporation Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    While objective selection and assessments are an accepted part of employing managers and other staff, they have had only a limited place when selecting mineworkers in Australia. Wambo Mining Corporation has used occupational testing as part of its recruitment process since 1994. In 1997 when Wambo undertook development of a new `on site` subsidiary underground mine called Wollemi Services, they wanted to select the most appropriate people in terms of skill and on the job performance. A process was agreed between management, employees and their local representatives to select and transfer people on merit from within shift groups. In the first intake, three supervisors and thirty-nine production workers were selected from an existing workforce of over two hundred. Part of the process to ensure validity and to help people feel comfortable was an objective job analysis for positions. From a computer-based analysis, person specifications were developed and appropriate test batteries identified to facilitate selection. A combination of a self-report occupational personality or work styles questionnaire and several ability tests were used. In addition, each employee and two supervisors completed an assessment of the employee`s current work performance. The validity of the self-report assessments has since been confirmed in a correlation analysis of the results with supervisor feedback on performance. It was essential that the overall process was confidential so that people would be prepared to participate and the vast majority of people took up the competitive challenge. In the four months since the process, there has been a significant breakdown of restrictive practices. As expected, there was a productivity improvement at the new site. In addition, at the existing mine there has been a significant realignment of individual performance with many individuals being dynamic, progressive and showing real responsibility in their work. 2 tabs.

  3. 5 CFR 335.106 - Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterans under merit promotion. 335.106 Section 335.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.106 Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion. Preference eligibles or veterans who...

  4. An Optimization Model for the Allocation of University Based Merit Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of merit-based financial aid during the college admissions process presents postsecondary institutions with complex and financially expensive decisions. This article describes the application of linear programming as a decision tool in merit based financial aid decisions at a medium size private university. The objective defined for…

  5. 77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review..., Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific...

  6. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting... States Code Appendix 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review... Services Research (HSR) subcommittees and its Nursing Research Initiative (NRI) subcommittee. The HSR...

  7. 78 FR 9455 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting.... App. 2, that the subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... February 26-28, *VA Central Office. Program and Research Career 2013. Scientists. Spinal Cord Injury...

  8. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting..., Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research.... App. 2, that the Centers of Innovation subcommittee of the Health Services Research and Development...

  9. 75 FR 72872 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review... Research and Development Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and...

  10. 78 FR 50144 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings.... App. 2, that the subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit..., Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific...

  11. 76 FR 5650 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review... Program. The purpose of the Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications and...

  12. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  13. 49 CFR 1103.19 - Advising upon the merits of a client's cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. 1103... Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.19 Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. A practitioner shall try to obtain full knowledge of his client's cause before advising thereon...

  14. Does Merit-Based Aid "Crowd Out" Need-Based Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of merit-based state financial aid programs has had several first order effects, such as changes in enrollment. However, these programs may also have second order effects, such as declining state support for need-based state financial aid programs. I hypothesize that the advent of merit-based state financial aid may be an example of…

  15. Making Sense of the Educational Present: Problematising the "Merit Turn" in the Italian Eduscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Barzano, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    This article problematises the recent "merit turn" in the Italian education system. It addresses the analysis of how the global idea of "merit as lever for modernisation" and its related technologies have flowed into a regional education space through a set of four policy trajectories. It explores how these have partially…

  16. The Impact of Merit Pay on Teaching and Research Outcomes of Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. This study uses data from a survey of the 852 accounting programs in the United States to empirically examine the influence of merit-based salary plans. Findings indicate a strong positive association between…

  17. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting.... App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D) Scientific Merit Review..., Washington, DC; HSR 7--Aging and Diminished Capacity in the Context of Aging on Tuesday, August 27, 2013,...

  18. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  19. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit... subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiatives will convene from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.; the subcommittee for pilot... No: 2011-2390] [[Page 6197

  20. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .../contact/contracting.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Bullock, Merit Systems Protection...; telephone 202-254-4406; e- mail veronica.bullock@mspb.gov . William D. Spencer, Clerk of the Board....

  1. 77 FR 9731 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Injury: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stroke; Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rehabilitation; Psychological... research and development applications and advise the Director, Rehabilitation Research and Development... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  2. 77 FR 40412 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Injury: Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke; Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Rehabilitation; and Psychological... and development applications and advise the Director, Rehabilitation Research and Development Service... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting...

  3. Encounter Group held at a Workplace : Conditions to Success and its Merits

    OpenAIRE

    岩村, 聡; 大中, 章

    1995-01-01

    Conditions and devices for a successful encounter group at a workplace and merits of the group are discussed. Some conditions like (1) participants' attitude and expected behaviors, (2) devices for facilitating, are almost the same as ordinary encounter groups. Other conditions like (1) democratic and open atmosphere of a workplace, (2) understanding and cooperation of a workplace, are peculiar conditions for this type of encounter group. The merits are the followings; (1) change of the daily...

  4. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  5. 75 FR 25885 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...-0953- I-1. AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Mr. Evans is a...

  6. 75 FR 6728 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus... v. Department of Defense, Docket No. AT-0752-10-0184-I-1 AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...

  7. 75 FR 20007 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus...- 09-0261-R-1 AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Aguzie and several...

  8. Standards and figure-of-merits for quantifying the performance of triboelectric nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Jie; Wen, Zhen; Tang, Wei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-09-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators have been invented as a highly efficient, cost-effective and easy scalable energy-harvesting technology for converting ambient mechanical energy into electricity. Four basic working modes have been demonstrated, each of which has different designs to accommodate the corresponding mechanical triggering conditions. A common standard is thus required to quantify the performance of the triboelectric nanogenerators so that their outputs can be compared and evaluated. Here we report figure-of-merits for defining the performance of a triboelectric nanogenerator, which is composed of a structural figure-of-merit related to the structure and a material figure of merit that is the square of the surface charge density. The structural figure-of-merit is derived and simulated to compare the triboelectric nanogenerators with different configurations. A standard method is introduced to quantify the material figure-of-merit for a general surface. This study is likely to establish the standards for developing TENGs towards practical applications and industrialization.

  9. Fundamental limits on the electro-optic device figure of merit

    CERN Document Server

    Mossman, Sean; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Device figures of merit are commonly employed to assess bulk material properties for a particular device class, yet these properties ultimately originate in the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the material which are not independent of each other. In this work, we calculate the electro-optic device figure of merit based on the half-wave voltage and linear loss, which is important for phase modulators and serves as the simplest example of the approach. This figure of merit is then related back to the microscopic properties in the context of a dye-doped polymer, and its fundamental limits are obtained to provide a target. Surprisingly, the largest figure of merit is not always associated with a large nonlinear-optical response, the quantity that is most often the focus of optimization. An important lesson to materials design is that the figure of merit alone should be optimized. The best device materials can have low nonlinearity provided that the loss is low; or, near resonance high loss may be desirab...

  10. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  11. Economic basis for the Nordic Total Merit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargo, M; Hjortø, L; Toivonen, M; Eriksson, J A; Aamand, G P; Pedersen, J

    2014-12-01

    Within a group of cooperating countries, all breeding animals are judged according to the same criteria if a joint breeding goal is applied in these countries. This makes it easier for dairy farmers to compare national and foreign elite bulls and may lead to more selection across borders. However, a joint breeding goal is only an advantage if the countries share the same production environment. In this study, we investigated whether the development of a joint breeding goal for each of the major dairy cattle breeds across Denmark, Finland, and Sweden would be an advantage compared with national breeding goals. For that purpose, economic values for all breeding goal traits in the 3 countries were derived, and estimated rank correlations between bulls selected for a national breeding goal and a joint breeding goal were compared. The economic values within country were derived by means of an objective bio-economic model, and the basic situation in each of the 3 production environments was based on an average dairy cattle herd with regard to production system, production level, and management strategy. The common Nordic economic values for each trait were calculated as the average of that specific trait in each of the 3 production environments. Balanced breeding goals were obtained in all situations because the derived economic values for traits related to health, fertility, milk production, and longevity were sizeable. For both Nordic Red Dairy Cattle and Nordic Holstein, the estimated rank correlations between bulls selected for a national breeding goal and a joint breeding goal were very high. Thus, a joint breeding goal within breed is feasible for Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  13. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  14. A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees [IACUCs] today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that scientific merit should be more dili-gently assessed if more than slight pain is caused, 14% believed that assessing scien-tific merit is not the role of the IACUC. Nearly 86% agreed that the search for alterna-tives should be more diligent for protocols that incur more than slight pain to the animals involved. Some members believed that alternatives were not actively enough sought after, while others believed no viable alternatives existed. Additional guide-lines are needed to clarify these issues.

  15. Exact Solution of a Constraint Optimization Problem for the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Seifert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the classical theory of thermoelectricity, the performance integrals for a fully self-compatible material depend on the dimensionless figure of merit zT. Usually these integrals are evaluated for constraints z = const. and zT = const., respectively. In this paper we discuss the question from a mathematical point of view whether there is an optimal temperature characteristics of the figure of merit. We solve this isoperimetric variational problem for the best envelope of a family of curves z(TT.

  16. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  17. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  18. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  19. Minimización de una función normal-merit mediante un algoritmo convergente globalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Suárez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos dos conceptos relacionados con la solución de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales y con desigualdades. El primer concepto es el de una función normal merit, que resume las propiedades básicas que tienen distintas funciones merit conocidas. El segundo concepto es el de un operador Newtoniano, cuyos valores generalizan el concepto de Hessiana para la función normal merit. Combinando el resultado del método generalizado de Newton con ciertos métodos de primer orden, obtenemos un algoritmo de convergencia global para minimizar funciones normales merit.

  20. Clinical Psychologists' Judgments of the Scientific Merit and Clinical-Relevance of Psychotherapy Outcome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.

    1979-01-01

    Result of this study indicated psychologists' judgments of scientific merit were influenced by patient assignment and follow-up but not by therapists' experience. Judgments of clinical relevance were influenced by patient population, the findings' applicability, and nature of therapy. Psychologists were more critical of methodology of studies…

  1. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  2. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  3. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  4. Merit and Admissions Policy: Case Studies from Pakistan. Discussion Paper Series No. 59 D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitgaard, Robert E.; And Others

    Studies were conducted to determine whether measures of intellectual merit that are used as criteria for admission to the University of Karachi in Pakistan have predictive validity. The predictive validity of the intermediate examination score was studied with recent graduates of the pharmacy, medicine, and engineering schools. Additional studies…

  5. Incentives to Learn: Merit Scholarships that Pay Kids to Do Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Michael; Miguel, Edward; Thornton, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Proposals for education reform generally focus on teachers and curricula. The most important factor in education may be the student himself or herself. A growing number of states, including Georgia, Michigan, New York, and Massachusetts, have established programs that provide financial rewards in the form of merit scholarships for college for…

  6. 75 FR 39734 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... testing of new methods of health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are... Research and Development Officer. On August 31, the subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiative will... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  7. 76 FR 42168 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... methods of health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for... Development Officer. On August 30, the subcommittees on Nursing Research Initiatives and Research Best... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  8. 75 FR 4453 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... methods of health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for... Development Officer. On March 2, the subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiative will convene from 8 a.m. to... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting...

  9. Walter Scandale receives the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008, Walter Scandale, a member of the EN Department, received the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, one of Italy's highest decorations. He was awarded the medal by the Consul-General of Italy in Geneva.

  10. Generating saddle points in the merit function landscape of optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bociort, F.; Van Turnhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    Finding multiple local minima in the merit function landscape of optical system optimization is a difficult task, especially for complex designs that have a large number of variables. We discuss here a method that enables a rapid generation of new local minima for optical systems of arbitrary comple

  11. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  12. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  13. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  14. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  15. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  16. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  17. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  18. Comparison of communication skills between medical students admitted after interviews or on academic merits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlin Marie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of the best medical students among applicants is debated and many different methods are used. Academic merits predict good academic performance, but students admitted by other pathways need not be less successful. The aim of this study, was to compare communication skills between students admitted to medical school through interviews or on academic merits, respectively. Methods A retrospective cohort study. Communication skills at a surgical OSCE in 2008 were assessed independently by two observers using an evaluative rating scale. Correlations, t-tests and multivariate analyses by logistic regressions were employed. Academic merits were defined as upper secondary school grade point average (GPA or scores from the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test (SweSAT. Results The risk of showing unsatisfactory communicative performance was significantly lower among the students selected by interviews (OR 0.32, CI95 0.12-0.83, compared to those selected on the basis of academic merits. However, there was no significant difference in communication skills scores between the different admission groups; neither did the proportion of high performers differ. No difference in the result of the written examination was seen between groups. Conclusions Our results confirm previous experience from many medical schools that students selected in different ways achieve comparable results during the clinical semesters. However, selection through interview seems to reduce the number of students who demonstrate inferior communication skills at 4th year of medical school.

  19. 77 FR 8330 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific... health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

  20. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting... Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific... health care delivery and management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and...

  1. Progress of farrowing and early postnatal pig behavior in relation to genetic merit for pig survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.L.; Almeida Junior, de C.A.; Knol, E.F.; Lende, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pigs with different genetic merit for survival differed in birth weight, progress of farrowing, early postnatal behavior, or rectal temperature within 24 h after birth. On a nucleus farm in Rio Verde, Brazil, information was collected on 280 pig

  2. A systematic analysis of the optical merit function landscape: towards improved optimization methods in optical design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, M.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in optical system design is that the optical merit function landscape is usually very complicated, especially for complex design problems where many minima are present. Finding good new local minima is then a difficult task. We show however that a certain degree of order is present i

  3. Employers’ demand for qualifications and skills: increased merit selection in Austria, 1985-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörfler, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper attempts to empirically test skill demand on the Austrian labour market between 1985 and 2005 by making use of job advertisements. We analyze job advertisements covering a time span of 20 years. This allows us to examine whether there is a trend towards increased merit selection. Our

  4. Minority carrier blocking to enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit in narrow-band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-04-01

    We present detailed theoretical predictions on the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by minority carrier blocking with heterostructure barriers in bulk narrow-band-gap semiconductors. Bipolar carrier transport, which is often significant in a narrow-band-gap material, is detrimental to the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency as it suppresses the Seebeck coefficient and increases the thermal conductivity. When the minority carriers are selectively prevented from participating in conduction while the transport of majority carriers is relatively unaffected by one-sided heterobarriers, the thermoelectric figure of merit can be drastically enhanced. Thermoelectric transport properties such as Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and electronic thermal conductivity including the bipolar term are calculated with and without the barriers based on the near-equilibrium Boltzmann transport equations under the relaxation time approximation to investigate the effects of minority carrier barriers on the thermoelectric figure of merit. For this, we provide details of carrier transport modeling and fitting results of experimental data for three important material systems, B i2T e3 -based alloys, M g2S i1 -xS nx , and S i1 -xG ex , that represent, respectively, near-room-temperature (300 K-500 K), midtemperature (600 K-900 K), and high-temperature (>1000 K ) applications. Theoretical maximum enhancement of thermoelectric figure of merit that can be achieved by minority carrier blocking is quantified and discussed for each of these semiconductors.

  5. Employers’ demand for qualifications and skills: increased merit selection in Austria, 1985-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörfler, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper attempts to empirically test skill demand on the Austrian labour market between 1985 and 2005 by making use of job advertisements. We analyze job advertisements covering a time span of 20 years. This allows us to examine whether there is a trend towards increased merit selection. Our empir

  6. High figure-of-merit SOI power LDMOS for power integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashvir Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural modifications in the conventional power laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOS are carried out to improve the breakdown voltage, on-resistance, gate-charge and figure-of-merits of the device with reduced cell pitch. The modified device has planer structure implemented on silicon-on-insulator which is suitable for low to medium voltage power integrated circuits. The proposed LDMOS consists of two gate electrodes placed vertically in two separate trenches build in the drift region and single source and drain contacts are taken on the top. The trench structure reduces the electric field inside the drift region and allow increased drift layer doping concentration leading to higher breakdown voltage, lower specific on-resistance, reduced gate-drain charge, and substantial improvement in the figure-of-merits. Using two-dimensional simulations, the performance of the proposed LDMOS is optimized and results are compared with the conventional LDMOS. Our simulation results show that the proposed device exhibits 110% higher breakdown voltage, 40% reduction in cell pitch, 19% lower specific on-resistance, 30% lower gate-to-drain charge leading to 5.5 times improvement in Baliga's figure-of-merit and 43% reduction in dynamic figure-of-merit over the conventional device.

  7. 5 CFR 900.603 - Standards for a merit system of personnel administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for a merit system of personnel administration. 900.603 Section 900.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL... relative ability, knowledge, and skills, including open consideration of qualified applicants for initial...

  8. Crafting a Class: The Trade-Off between Merit Scholarships and Enrolling Lower-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Zhang, Liang; Levin, Jared M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses panel data for the 100 colleges and universities at which the largest number of National Merit Scholarship (NMS) winners enrolled in 2003 to test whether an expansion in the number of institutionally funded NMS winners at an institution is associated with a decline in the number of Pell Grant recipients at the institution. Our…

  9. The Role of Merit-Based Scholarships in Meeting Affordability Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Institutions across the country continue to ponder and evaluate strategies for aligning financial aid to complement their enrollment goals. Two Indiana University enrollment managers examine the purposeful application of institutional aid in financial aid packaging. In response to the debate about the of merit-based aid vs. the appropriate share…

  10. Cui Bono? On the Relative Merits of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhnenko, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a 4-year longitudinal study on the comparative use of illustrative video podcasts during Economic Geography lectures vis-à-vis traditional educational methods in order to guide pedagogic practice and future research on the relative merits of technology-enhanced learning in higher education. Key benefits derived…

  11. Half-metallic perovskite superlattices with colossal thermoelectric figure of merit

    KAUST Repository

    Upadhyay Kahaly, M.

    2013-05-09

    Nowadays heavy experimental efforts are focussed on doped oxide thermoelectrics to increase the thermopower and thermoelectric performance. We propose a high thermoelectric figure of merit for half-metallic SrTi1−xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) in a superlattice with SrTiO3, which is stable at high temperatures and in an oxygen environment. The maximal value of Z hardly depends on the doping, while the temperature at which the maximum occurs increases with the Co concentration. The easy tunability from being an insulator to a half-metal under substitutional doping combined with the colossal figure of merit opens up great potential in the emerging field of spin-caloritronics.

  12. Array configuration studies for the SKA -- Implementation of figures of merit based on SDR

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Dharam V

    2007-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array is going to become operational at the time when several new large optical, X-ray and Gamma-ray telescopes are expected to be working. The main drive for building the SKA is a significant improvement of sensitivity that would widen the general scope of the centimetre-wavelength radio science. To this end, a thorough design studies should be made, in order to ensure that the SKA becomes a competitive counterpart of the facilities at other wavebands. To quantify imaging performance of the SKA configurations, we are implementing figures of merit based on spatial dynamic range (SDR). This work is focused on extensive numerical tests of the analytical, SDR--based figures of merit derived in the SKA Memo 38 (A. Lobanov). Here, we present our preliminary results.

  13. Rare earth-doped materials with enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Rama; Cook, Bruce Allen; Levin, Evgenii M.; Harringa, Joel Lee

    2016-09-06

    A thermoelectric material and a thermoelectric converter using this material. The thermoelectric material has a first component including a semiconductor material and a second component including a rare earth material included in the first component to thereby increase a figure of merit of a composite of the semiconductor material and the rare earth material relative to a figure of merit of the semiconductor material. The thermoelectric converter has a p-type thermoelectric material and a n-type thermoelectric material. At least one of the p-type thermoelectric material and the n-type thermoelectric material includes a rare earth material in at least one of the p-type thermoelectric material or the n-type thermoelectric material.

  14. Analysis of merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic concept for stand-alone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. A.; Kallis, J. M.; Moite, S. M.; Marshall, N. A.

    Methods for evaluating the merits of hybrid wind/photovoltaic systems for use in stand-alone applications were developed. The optimum mix of wind and photovoltaic power with an electrochemical storage system, with or without fossil fuel generator backup, depends upon the individual subsystem economics. A computer code was developed to calculate the optimum subsystem sizes that minimize the levelized energy cost. The actual merits of a hybrid system over a pure photovoltaic or wind system depend upon many factors: load profile; wind regime; insolation; cost and availability of backup power; the relative costs of wind rotor area, array area, and storage; and subsystem efficiency factors. Examples of optimized hybrid systems for a range of photovoltaic costs and estimated wind and storage costs are shown for an Ely, NV, application, where backup power is allowed to supply 5% of the total annual load.

  15. Thermoelectric System in Different Thermal and Electrical Configurations: Its Impact in the Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vargas-Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze different configurations of a thermoelectric system (TES composed of three thermoelectric generators (TEGs. We present the following considerations: (a TES thermally and electrically connected in series (SC; (b TES thermally and electrically connected in parallel (PSC; and (c parallel thermally and series electrical connection (SSC. We assume that the parameters of the TEGs are temperature-independent. The systems are characterized by three parameters, as it has been showed in recent investigations, namely, its internal electrical resistance, R, thermal conductance under open electrical circuit condition, K, and Seebeck coefficient α. We derive the equivalent parameters for each of the configurations considered here and calculate the Figure of Merit Z for the equivalent system. We show the impact of the configuration of the system on Z, and we suggest optimum configuration. In order to justify the effectiveness of the equivalent Figure of Merit, the corresponding efficiency has been calculated for each configuration.

  16. Aircraft concept optimization using the global sensitivity approach and parametric multiobjective figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extension of our parametric multidisciplinary optimization method to include design results connecting multiple objective functions is presented. New insight into the effect of the figure of merit (objective function) on aircraft configuration size and shape is demonstrated using this technique. An aircraft concept, subject to performance and aerodynamic constraints, is optimized using the global sensitivity equation method for a wide range of objective functions. These figures of merit are described parametrically such that a series of multiobjective optimal solutions can be obtained. Computational speed is facilitated by use of algebraic representations of the system technologies. Using this method, the evolution of an optimum design from one objective function to another is demonstrated. Specifically, combinations of minimum takeoff gross weight, fuel weight, and maximum cruise performance and productivity parameters are used as objective functions.

  17. Aircraft concept optimization using the global sensitivity approach and parametric multiobjective figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extension of our parametric multidisciplinary optimization method to include design results connecting multiple objective functions is presented. New insight into the effect of the figure of merit (objective function) on aircraft configuration size and shape is demonstrated using this technique. An aircraft concept, subject to performance and aerodynamic constraints, is optimized using the global sensitivity equation method for a wide range of objective functions. These figures of merit are described parametrically such that a series of multiobjective optimal solutions can be obtained. Computational speed is facilitated by use of algebraic representations of the system technologies. Using this method, the evolution of an optimum design from one objective function to another is demonstrated. Specifically, combinations of minimum takeoff gross weight, fuel weight, and maximum cruise performance and productivity parameters are used as objective functions.

  18. Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) With a Patient With Severe Symptoms of Disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Steven; van Donkersgoed, Rozanne; Pijnenborg, G H M; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    One recent development within the realm of psychotherapeutic interventions for schizophrenia has been a shift in focus from symptom management to consideration of metacognition, or the processes by which people synthesize information about themselves and others in an integrated manner. One such approach, metacognitive reflection and insight therapy (MERIT); in particular, offers a description of 8 therapeutic activities that should occur in each session, resulting in the stimulation and growth of metacognitive capacity. In this report, we present a description of 12 sessions with a patient suffering from schizophrenia manifesting significantly disorganized symptoms. Each MERIT element is described along with observed clinical and metacognitive gains. As illustrated in this report, these procedures helped the patient move from a state of having no complex ideas about himself or others, to one in which he could begin to develop integrated and realistic ideas about himself and others and use that capacity to think about life challenges.

  19. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...... to characterise the insulating properties of a strongly electronegative gas or gas mixture. The present measurements confirm the existence of positive synergism....

  20. CERN's Merit Appraisal and Recognition System from the point of view of the supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The required training consists of 2 parts : This presentation explaining “CERN’s merit recognition system”, followed by a session of questions/answers – duration : 2 hours A training session on “How to get, as a supervisor, the most out of the annual interview” – duration : 1 day. This hands-on training focuses on how to set smart work and development objectives, how to give feedback and how to run the annual interview in a constructive way.

  1. Non-invasive method of determination of thermoelectric materials figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov А. А.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric effects arising in a sample placed in a measuring oscillating loop have been studied. It has been shown that asymmetric character of flowing current results in a volumetric bundle of induced Foucault currents and regions of Peltier heat release by thermoelectric sample which leads to increasing of irreversible heat losses recorded by measuring oscillating loop. The presence of this effect has caused the emergence of ingenious non-invasive method for recording of thermoelectric materials figure of merit.

  2. Asymptotic ideal observers and surrogate figures of merit for signal detection with list-mode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Eric

    2012-10-01

    The asymptotic form for the likelihood ratio is derived for list-mode data generated by an imaging system viewing a possible signal in a randomly generated background. This calculation provides an approximation to the likelihood ratio that is valid in the limit of large number of list entries, i.e., a large number of photons. These results are then used to derive surrogate figures of merit, quantities that are correlated with ideal-observer performance on detection tasks, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, but are easier to compute. A key component of these derivations is the determination of asymptotic forms for the Fisher information for the signal amplitude in the limit of a large number of counts or a long exposure time. This quantity is useful in its own right as a figure of merit (FOM) for the task of estimating the signal amplitude. The use of the Fisher information in detection tasks is based on the fact that it provides an approximation for ideal-observer detectability when the signal is weak. For both the fixed-count and fixed-time cases, four surrogate figures of merit are derived. Two are based on maximum likelihood reconstructions; one uses the characteristic functional of the random backgrounds. The fourth surrogate FOM is identical in the two cases and involves an integral over attribute space for each of a randomly generated sequence of backgrounds.

  3. On understanding the figures of merit for detection and measurement of x-ray polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Martin C; O'Dell, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing X-ray polarization measurements appear to have grown in recent years after a more than 35-year hiatus. Unfortunately, this long hiatus has brought with it some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with polarization measurements of astronomical sources. The heart of this confusion stems from a misunderstanding (or potential misunderstanding) of a standard figure of merit-the minimum detectable polarization (MDP)-that one of us introduced many years ago. We review the relevant statistics, and quantify the differences between the MDP and the uncertainty of an actual polarization measurement. We discuss the implications for future missions.

  4. Efficiency bounds of molecular motors under a trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanchao; Huang, Chuankun; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2017-05-01

    On the basis of the theory of irreversible thermodynamics and an elementary model of the molecular motors converting chemical energy by ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work exerted against an external force, the efficiencies of the molecular motors at two different optimization configurations for trade-off figure of merit representing a best compromise between the useful energy and the lost energy are calculated. The upper and lower bounds for the efficiency at two different optimization configurations are determined. It is found that the optimal efficiencies at the two different optimization configurations are always larger than 1 / 2.

  5. Enhancement of magneto-optical effect via the evanescent wave and its figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Yoneda, Hitoki; Kuga, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Yamato; Munekata, Hiro

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the enhancement of the magneto-optical (MO) effect via the evanescent wave in MO structures composed of GdFe thin layers and two dielectrics. The MO Kerr rotation and the figure of merit (FOM) among the Kretschmann, Otto and direct-irradiation configurations are compared. The data obtained by experiment and calculation both show that the standing evanescent wave in the metal layer realized in the former two configurations enhances the MO Kerr rotation and FOM. Furthermore, the Kretschmann configuration appears to be superior to the Otto configuration in terms of the efficiency of MO Kerr enhancement.

  6. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette;

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances....

  7. Levels of Cognitive Processes in a Non-Formal Science Education Program: Scouting's Science Merit Badges and the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew; Garvey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Boy Scout merit badge program provides non-formal educational experiences for boys from ages 10-17. This study analyzes the objectives of the twenty-three science related merit badges using the lens of the revised Bloom's taxonomy. Merit badges requirements serve as objectives for this program. The verbs in the requirements were…

  8. Figures of merit in high-frequency and high-power GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F. A.; Faralli, N.; Ferry, D. K.; Goodnick, S. M.; Saraniti, M.

    2009-11-01

    The most important metrics for the high-frequency and high-power performance of microwave transistors are the cut-off frequency fT, and the Johnson figure of merit FoMJohnson. We have simulated a state-of-the-art, high-frequency and high-power GaN HEMT using our full band Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) simulator, in order to study the RF performance and compare different methods to obtain such metrics. The current gain as a function of the frequency, was so obtained both by the Fourier decomposition (FD) method and the analytical formula proposed by Akis. A cut-off frequency fT of 150 GHz was found in both the transit time analysis given by the analytical approach, and the transient Fourier analysis, which matches well with the 153 GHz value measured experimentally. Furthermore, through some physical considerations, we derived the relation between the FoMJohnson as a function of the breakdown voltage, VBD, and the cut-off frequency, fT . Using this relation and assuming a breakdown voltage of 80V as measured experimentally, a Johnson figure of merit of around 20 × 1012V/s was found for the HEMT device analyzed in this work.

  9. Nanostructured polypyrrole: enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit through suppression of thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shantanu; Bharti, Meetu; Singh, Ajay; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Semi-crystalline polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes were synthesized through a chemical polymerization route using methyl orange-ferric chloride (MO-FeCl3) as a template for growth. The thermoelectric properties of these PPy nanotubes have been studied in the temperature range 300-380 K after treatment with various dopants such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), p-toluene-sulphonic acid monohydrate (ToS), and tetrabutyl ammonium hexaflurophosphate (PF6). It has been observed that these dopants affect the electrical and thermal transport properties of PPy nanotubes in different ways. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity suggests that pure PPy and ToS-doped PPy nanotubes exhibit a critical regime of metal-to-insulator transition, and doping with HCl drives them into the metallic regime. In contrast, PF6 doping of PPy nanotubes carries them into the insulating regime and these samples exhibited the highest figure of merit of ~3.4  ×  10‒3 at 380 K, which was 240% higher than the value obtained in the case of pristine PPy nanotubes. Strongly repressed thermal conductivity along with moderately high Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity have been found to be responsible for the high figure of merit observed in PF6-doped PPy nanotubes. The suppression of thermal conductivity in PF6-doped PPy nanotubes is attributed to the scattering of the spectrum of phonons via hierarchical length-scale defect structures present in the sample.

  10. Estimating total economic merit for the Portuguese Holstein cattle population under new economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B.M. Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a total economic merit index that identifies more profitable animals using Portugal as a case study to illustrate the recent economic changes in milk production. Economic values were estimated following future global prices and EU policy, and taking into consideration the priorities of the Portuguese dairy sector. Economic values were derived using an objective system analysis with a positive approach, that involved the comparison of several alternatives, using real technical and economic data from national dairy farms. The estimated relative economic values revealed a high importance of production traits, low for morphological traits and a value of zero for somatic cell score. According to several future market expectations, three scenarios for milk production were defined: a realistic, a pessimistic and an optimistic setting, each with projected future economic values. Responses to selection and efficiency of selection of the indices were compared to a fourth scenario that represents the current selection situation in Portugal, based on individual estimated breeding values for milk yield. Although profit resulting from sale of milk per average lactation in the optimistic scenario was higher than in the realistic scenario, the volatility of future economic conditions and uncertainty about the future milk pricing system should be considered. Due to this market instability, genetic improvement programs require new definitions of profit functions for the near future. Effective genetic progress direction must be verified so that total economic merit formulae can be adjusted and selection criteria redirected to the newly defined target goals.

  11. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  12. Thermochemically evolved nanoplatelets of bismuth selenide with enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Cao, Chuanbao, E-mail: cbcao@bit.edu.cn; Butt, Faheem K.; Tahir, Muhammad; Tanveer, M.; Aslam, Imran; Rizwan, Muhammad; Idrees, Faryal; Khalid, Syed [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Butt, Sajid [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We firstly present a simple thermochemical method to fabricate high-quality Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoplatelets with enhanced figure of merit using elemental bismuth and selenium powders as precursors. The crystal structure of as synthesized products is characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements. Morphological and chemical synthetic parameters are investigated through a series of experiments; thickness and composition of the platelets are well controlled in large scale production. Subsequently spark plasma sintering (SPS) is performed to fabricate n-type nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials. Raman Spectroscopy of the two selected samples with approximately of 50 and 100 nm thicknesses shows three vibrational modes. The lower thickness sample exhibits the maximum red shift of about 2.17 cm{sup -1} and maximum broadening of about 10 cm{sup -1} by in-plane vibrational mode E{sup 2}{sub g}. The enhanced value of figure of merit ∼0.41 is obtained for pure phase bismuth selenide to the best of our knowledge. We observe metallic conduction behavior while semiconducting behavior for nanostructured bismuth selenide is reported elsewhere which could be due to different synthetic techniques adopted. These results clearly suggest that our adopted synthetic technique has profound effect on the electronic and thermoelectric transport properties of this material.

  13. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Phillip D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  14. 2013 MARS – Refresher presentation | General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the three following information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2013 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS).   Monday 14 January at 10:00-11:30 – Filtration Plant (222-R-001) Thursday 17 January at 10:00-11:30 – Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) Monday 21 January at 10:00-11:30 - BE Amphitheatre Prévessin (864-1-D02)   General information on the MARS exercise may also be found in the CERN admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/admin-eguide/mars/mars.asp. Human Resources Department Tel. 72728

  15. Figures of Merit for Indirect Time-of-Flight 3D Cameras: Definition and Experimental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Perenzoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Time-of-Flight (I-TOF cameras can be implemented in a number of ways, each with specific characteristics and performances. In this paper a comprehensive analysis of the implementation possibilities is developed in order to model the main performances with a high level of abstraction. After the extraction of the main characteristics for the high-level model, several figures of merit (FoM are defined with the purpose of obtaining a common metric: noise equivalent distance, correlated and uncorrelated power responsivity, and background light rejection ratio. The obtained FoMs can be employed for the comparison of different implementations of range cameras based on the I-TOF method: specifically, they are applied for several different sensors developed by the authors in order to compare their performances.

  16. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in strained Tl-doped Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.

    2014-07-21

    We explain recent experimental findings on Tl-doped Bi2Se3 by determining the electronic and transport properties by first-principles calculations and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Though Tl-doping introduces a momentum-dependent spin-orbit splitting, the effective mass of the carriers is essentially not modified, while the band gap is reduced. Tl is found to be exceptional in this respect as other dopants modify the dispersion, which compromises thermoelectricity. Moreover, we demonstrate that only after Tl-doping strain becomes an efficient tool for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A high figure of merit of 0.86 is obtained for strong p-doping (7 × 10^20 cm^(−3), maximal power factor) at 500 K under 2% tensile strain.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hexapole collision cell: figures of merit and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    The use of gas-filled multipole collision cells represents important progress in ICP-MS instrumentation. It enables an increase in element sensitivity based on the improvement of ion transmission efficiency from near thermalization and collisional focusing of ions. In addition, gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry can be applied in order to reduce mass spectral interferences via charge transfer reaction of interfering ions with reaction gas or via fragmentation of interfering molecular ions by collision-induced dissociation. The application of a hexapole collision cell in quadrupole based ICP-MS (HEX-ICP-QMS) was studied systematically in order to characterize the analytical figures of merit of this approach. Additionally, the performance of different solution introduction systems as well as an inductively coupled plasma shielded torch was studied for use with HEX-ICP-QMS. (orig.)

  18. MERITS OF USING HERBS IN WHOLE STATE (AYURVEDA’s CONCEPT OVER ISOLATED FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madupu Paramkusha Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are precursors of animals and human beings. The plants growing around his vicinity fulfill all the basic needs of human life like food, water and shelter. Similarly plants act like natural tools to treat the ailments. Ayurveda i.e. the total science of human living has identified this natural truth and perfected it. At the outset, two schools of thought prevail regarding the use of herbs as drugs. The ancient school advocated and practiced by Ayurveda prefers using the herbs in the whole state, without disturbing naturally designed integrity of them. The second school insists on isolation of pharmacologically active chemicals present in the herbs preparing synthetic equivalents if possible and using them for therapeutic applications. This paper discusses the logic, eco-friendly design and merits of whole drug application against the isolated fractions with apt examples.

  19. Optimization of the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Crystalline C60 with Intercalation Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-13

    Crystalline C60 is an appealing candidate material for thermoelectric (TE) applications due to its extremely low thermal conductivity and potentially high electrical conductivity with metal atom intercalation. We investigate the TE properties of crystalline C60 intercalated with alkali and alkaline earth metals using both classical and quantum mechanical calculations. For the electronic structure, our results show that variation of intercalated metal atoms has a large impact on energy dispersions, which leads to broad tunability of the power factor. For the thermal transport, we show that dopants introduce strong phonon scattering into crystalline C60, leading to considerably lower thermal conductivity. Taking both into account, our calculations suggest that appropriate choice of metal atom intercalation in crystalline C60 could yield figures of merit near 1 at room temperature.

  20. Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.

  1. 2011 Mars - Refresher presentation - General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the following three information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2011 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS). Monday 10 January at 16:00-17:00 BE Auditorium Prévessin (864-1-D-02) – French;   Tuesday 11 January at 15:00-16:00 – Council Chamber (503-1-001) – English;   Thursday 13 January at 15:00-16:00 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) – French. General information on the MARS exercise may also be found on the Human Resources website: https://hr-eguide.web.cern.ch/hr-eguide/mars/mars.asp Tel. 70674 / 72728

  2. Stochastic rank correlation: a robust merit function for 2D/3D registration of image data obtained at different energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Stock, Markus; Figl, Michael; Gendrin, Christelle; Hummel, Johann; Dong, Shuo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a merit function for 2D/3D registration called stochastic rank correlation (SRC). SRC is characterized by the fact that differences in image intensity do not influence the registration result; it therefore combines the numerical advantages of cross correlation (CC)-type merit functions with the flexibility of mutual-information-type merit functions. The basic idea is that registration is achieved on a random subset of the image, which allows for an efficient computation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. This measure is, by nature, invariant to monotonic intensity transforms in the images under comparison, which renders it an ideal solution for intramodal images acquired at different energy levels as encountered in intrafractional kV imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Initial evaluation was undertaken using a 2D/3D registration reference image dataset of a cadaver spine. Even with no radiometric calibration, SRC shows a significant improvement in robustness and stability compared to CC. Pattern intensity, another merit function that was evaluated for comparison, gave rather poor results due to its limited convergence range. The time required for SRC with 5% image content compares well to the other merit functions; increasing the image content does not significantly influence the algorithm accuracy. The authors conclude that SRC is a promising measure for 2D/3D registration in IGRT and image-guided therapy in general.

  3. Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS): Harsh Choices For Interventional Pain Management Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    The Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) was created by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) to improve the health of all Americans by providing incentives and policies to improve patient health outcomes. MIPS combines 3 existing programs, Meaningful Use (MU), now called Advancing Care Information (ACI), contributing 25% of the composite score; Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), changed to Quality, contributing 50% of the composite score; and Value-based Payment (VBP) system to Resource Use or cost, contributing 10% of the composite score. Additionally, Clinical Practice Improvement Activities (CPIA), contributing 15% of the composite score, create multiple strategic goals to design incentives that drive movement toward delivery system reform principles with inclusion of Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Under the present proposal, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has estimated approximately 30,000 to 90,000 providers from a total of over 761,000 providers will be exempt from MIPS. About 87% of solo practitioners and 70% of practitioners in groups of less than 10 will be subjected to negative payments or penalties ranging from 4% to 9%. In addition, MIPS also will affect a provider's reputation by making performance measures accessible to consumers and third-party physician rating Web sites.The MIPS composite performance scoring method, at least in theory, utilizes weights for each performance category, exceptional performance factors to earn bonuses, and incorporates the special circumstances of small practices.In conclusion, MIPS has the potential to affect practitioners negatively. Interventional Pain Medicine practitioners must understand the various MIPS measures and how they might participate in order to secure a brighter future. Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, merit-based incentive payment system, quality performance measures, resource use, clinical practice

  4. Phonovoltaic. III. Electron-phonon coupling and figure of merit of graphene:BN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-12-01

    The phonovoltaic cell harvests optical phonons like a photovoltaic harvests photons, that is, a nonequilibrium (hot) population of optical phonons (at temperature Tp ,O) more energetic than the band gap produces electron-hole pairs in a p -n junction, which separates these pairs to produce power. A phonovoltaic material requires an optical phonon mode more energetic than its band gap and much more energetic than the thermal energy (Ep ,O>Δ Ee ,g≫kBT ), which relaxes by generating electrons and power (at rate γ˙e -p) rather than acoustic phonons and heat (at rate γ˙p -p). Graphene (h-C) is the most promising material candidate: when its band gap is tuned to its optical phonon energy without greatly reducing the electron-phonon (e -p ) coupling, it reaches a substantial figure of merit [ZpV=Δ Ee ,gγ˙e -p/Ep ,O(γ˙e -p+γ˙p -p) ≈0.8 ] . A simple tight-binding (TB) model presented here predicts that lifting the sublattice symmetry of graphene in order to open a band gap proscribes the e -p interaction at the band edge, such that γ˙e -p→0 as Δ Ee ,g→Ep ,O . However, ab initio (DFT-LDA) simulations of layered h-C/BN and substitutional h-C:BN show that the e -p coupling remains substantial in these asymmetric crystals. Indeed, h-C:BN achieves a high figure of merit (ZpV≈0.6 ). At 300 K and for a Carnot limit of 0.5 (Tp ,O=600 K) , a h-C:BN phonovoltaic can reach an efficiency of ηpV≈0.2 , double the thermoelectric efficiency (Z T ≈1 ) under similar conditions.

  5. Growth and Development Symposium: Impacts of inflammation on cattle growth and carcass merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, C A; Holland, B P; Mills, R L; Maxwell, C L; Farney, J K; Terrill, S J; Step, D L; Richards, C J; Burciaga Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation caused by bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing beef cattle producers and feedlot managers. Inflammation decreases DMI, ADG, and G:F in feedlot calves, decreasing growth rate and increasing days on feed, which results in economic losses during the feeding period. During the past decade, marketing of feedlot animals has changed from selling cattle on a live basis to a grid-based marketing system. When cattle are marketed on a live basis, the economic effects of BRD stop at increased health cost and decreased feedlot performance, carcass weight, and death loss. However, when cattle are marketed in a grid-based system, inflammation has the potential to also affect carcass cutability and quality. The effects of inflammation on feedlot cattle in regards to performance are well understood; however, specific effects on cattle growth and ultimately carcass merit are not as well described. Recent studies in feedlot cattle have indicated that the incidence of BRD decreases both HCW and marbling; however, mechanisms are not understood. Research in other species has demonstrated that during the acute phase response, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote skeletal muscle catabolism to supply AA and energy substrates for immune tissues. Further, during this early immune response, the liver changes its metabolic priorities to the production of acute phase proteins for use in host defense. Together these dramatic shifts in systemic metabolism may explain the detrimental effects on performance and carcass traits commonly associated with BRD in feedlot calves. Moreover, recent studies relative to human health have revealed complex multilevel interactions between the metabolic and immune systems, and highlighted inflammation as being a significant contributor to major metabolic diseases. The objective of this paper is to review data to help explain the economical and physiological effects of inflammation on cattle growth and

  6. Patient information exchange guideline MERIT-9 using medical markup language MML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Ohe, K; Yoshihara, H; Ando, Y; Kawamata, F; Hishiki, T; Ohashi, K; Sakusabe, T; Tani, S; Akiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    To realize clinical data exchange between healthcare providers, there must be many standards in many layers. Terms and codes should be standardized, syntax to wrap the data must be mutually parsable, then transfer protocol or exchange media should be agreed. Among many standards for the syntax, HL7 and DICOM are most successful. However, everything could not be handled by HL7 solely. DICOM is good for radiology images, but, other clinical images are already handled by other "lighter" data formats like JPEG, TIFF. So, it is not realistic to use only one standard for every area of clinical information. For description of medical records, especially for narrative information, we created SGML DTD for medical information, called MML (Medical Markup Language). It is already implemented in more than 10 healthcare providers in Japan. As it is a hierarchical description of information, it is easily used as a basis of object request brokering. It is again not realistic to use MML solely for clinical information in various level of detail. Therefore, we proposed a guide-line for use of available medical standards to facilitate clinical information exchange between healthcare providers. It is called MERIT-9 (MEdical Records, Images, Texts,--Information eXchange). A typical use is HL7 files, DICOM files, referred from an MML file in a patient record, as external entities. Both MML and MERIT-9 are research projects of Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the purpose is to facilitate clinical data exchanges. They are becoming to be used in technical specifications for new hospital information systems in Japan.

  7. Two-parametric scaling law and figures of merit of excited-state absorption of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldunov, Modest F.; Koldunov, Leonid M.

    2017-02-01

    Sequential theoretical analysis of the excited-state absorption of organic dyes is carried out. It is established that the transmission dependence on laser radiation intensity of optical elements activated by organic dyes is described by the scaling law. It contains two parameters (the critical intensity and the contrast parameter) which are figures of merit of the excited state absorption of dye. Requirements to experimental conditions needed for correctly determination of figures of merit of the excited-state absorption efficiency of organic dyes are formulated. It is shown that there is a good agreement between experimental data of the sample transmission dependence on laser radiation intensity with the result of its calculation based on the scaling law. Figures of merit for several organic dyes are obtained.

  8. Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

  9. Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

  10. Anomalous enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.

    2012-05-10

    The effect of V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3 is studied by full-potential density functional theory. We obtain a stronger increase of the carrier density for V than for Nbdopants. While in Nb-SrTiO3 a high carrier density counteracts a high thermoelectric figure of merit, the trend is inverted by V co-doping. The mechanism leading to this behavior is explained in terms of a local spin-polarization introduced by the V ions. Our results indicate that magnetic co-doping can be a prominent tool for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  11. Linear reaction norm models for genetic merit prediction of Angus cattle under genotype by environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F F; Tempelman, R J

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess alternative linear reaction norm (RN) models for genetic evaluation of Angus cattle in Brazil. That is, we investigated the interaction between genotypes and continuous descriptors of the environmental variation to examine evidence of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) in post-weaning BW gain (PWG) and to compare the environmental sensitivity of national and imported Angus sires. Data were collected by the Brazilian Angus Improvement Program from 1974 to 2005 and consisted of 63,098 records and a pedigree file with 95,896 animals. Six models were implemented using Bayesian inference and compared using the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). The simplest model was M(1), a traditional animal model, which showed the largest DIC and hence the poorest fit when compared with the 4 alternative RN specifications accounting for G×E. In M(2), a 2-step procedure was implemented using the contemporary group posterior means of M(1) as the environmental gradient, ranging from -92.6 to +265.5 kg. Moreover, the benefits of jointly estimating all parameters in a 1-step approach were demonstrated by M(3). Additionally, we extended M(3) to allow for residual heteroskedasticity using an exponential function (M(4)) and the best fitting (smallest DIC) environmental classification model (M(5)) specification. Finally, M(6) added just heteroskedastic residual variance to M(1). Heritabilities were less at harsh environments and increased with the improvement of production conditions for all RN models. Rank correlations among genetic merit predictions obtained by M(1) and by the best fitting RN models M(3) (homoskedastic) and M(5) (heteroskedastic) at different environmental levels ranged from 0.79 and 0.81, suggesting biological importance of G×E in Brazilian Angus PWG. These results suggest that selection progress could be optimized by adopting environment-specific genetic merit predictions. The PWG environmental sensitivity of

  12. Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) Version 1.2 User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Phillip D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dufresne, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-27

    NDFOM is a detector database and detector evaluation system, accessible as a web service. It runs on the same server as the Patriot service, but uses port 8081. In this user's guide, we will use the example case that the patriot service is running on http://patriot.lanl.gov. Then the NDFOM service would be accessible at the URL http://patriot.lanl.gov:8081/ndfom. In addition to local server installations, common server locations are 1) a patriot server running on a virtual machine (use the virtual machine URL with :8081/ndfom), and 2) a patriot server running on a local machine (use http://localhost:8081/ndfom or http://127.0.0.1:8081/ndfom). The home screen provides panels to select detectors, a scenario, and a figure-of-merit. It also has an 'analyze' button, which will evaluate the selected figure-of-merit for the selected detectors, for the scenario selected by the user. The detector effectiveness evaluations are presented through the browser in a ranked list of detectors. The user does not need to log in to perform analysis with pre-supplied detectors, scenarios, and FOMs. The homepage view is shown in Figure 1. The first panel displays a list of the detectors in the current detector database. The user can select one, some, or all detectors to evaluate. On the right of each listed detector, there is a star icon. Clicking that icon will open a panel that displays the details about that detector, such as detector material, dimensions, thresholds, etc. The center panel displays the pre-supplied scenarios that are in the database. A scenario specifies the source of interest, the spectrum of the radiation, the background radiation spectrum, the distance or distance of closest approach, the allowable false positive rate, and the dwell time or speed. Scenario details can be obtained by clicking the star to the right of a scenario. A scenario can be selected by clicking it.

  13. Enhancement in figure-of-merit with superlattices structures for thin-film thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Colpitts, T.

    1997-07-01

    Thin-film superlattice (SL) structures in thermoelectric materials are shown to be a promising approach to obtaining an enhanced figure-of-merit, ZT, compared to conventional, state-of-the-art bulk alloyed materials. In this paper the authors describe experimental results on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures, relevant to thermoelectric cooling and power conversion, respectively. The short-period Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures appear to indicate reduced thermal conductivities compared to alloys of these materials. From the observed behavior of thermal conductivity values in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} SL structures, a distinction is made where certain types of periodic structures may correspond to an ordered alloy rather than an SL, and therefore, do not offer a significant reduction in thermal conductivity values. The study also indicates that SL structures, with little or weak quantum-confinement, also offer an improvement in thermoelectric power factor over conventional alloys. They present power factor and electrical transport data in the plane of the SL interfaces to provide preliminary support for the arguments on reduced alloy scattering and impurity scattering in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures. These results, though tentative due to the possible role of the substrate and the developmental nature of the 3-{omega} method used to determine thermal conductivity values, suggest that the short-period SL structures potentially offer factorial improvements in the three-dimensional figure-of-merit (ZT3D) compared to current state-of-the-art bulk alloys. An approach to a thin-film thermoelectric device called a Bipolarity-Assembled, Series-Inter-Connected Thin-Film Thermoelectric Device (BASIC-TFTD) is introduced to take advantage of these thin-film SL structures.

  14. A Comparison of Individual and School Level Approaches to Merit Pay: A Case Study of the Dade County Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.; And Others

    This policy study discusses two models of merit pay programs enacted in Florida: the Florida Meritorious Teacher Program and the Quality Instruction Incentives Program (QUIIP). Using the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg et al.) as a theoretical framework, each program was analyzed from the perspective of how it worked as a motivator and source…

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2011 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satypal, S.

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 9-13, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia

  16. A New Class of Complementarity Function and the Boundedness of Its Merit Function for Symmetric Cone Complementarity Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of two-parametric penalized function, which includes the penalized minimum function and the penalized Fischer-Burmeister func-tion over symmetric cone complementarity problems. We propose that this class of function is a class of complementarity functions(C-function). Moreover, its merit function has bounded level set under a weak condition.

  17. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  18. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  19. Change in Classification Level and the Effects on Research Productivity and Merit Scores for Faculty in a School of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Haug, Carolyn A.; Iceman-Sands, Deanna; Moriarty, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present results of an empirical study of the relationship between research productivity and research-related merit ratings over a 10-year period for tenured and tenure-track faculty in a school of education. The purpose of the study was to assess change in faculty productivity as a result of the institution's change in the…

  20. Presence and development of atrial fibrillation in chronic heart failure - Experiences from the MERIT-HF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Aass, Halfdan; El Allaf, Dia; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; Gullestad, Lars; Halinen, Matti; Kjekshus, John; Ohlsson, Lis; Wedel, Hans; Wikstrand, John

    2006-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation is common in heart failure, but data regarding beta-blockade in these patients and its ability to prevent new occurrence of atrial fibrillation are scarce. Methods: Baseline ECGs in MERIT-HF were coded regarding baseline rhythm, and outcome was analyzed in relation to

  1. Relative Merit of Mean Length of T-Unit and Sentence Weight as Indices of Syntactic Complexity in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Norma

    1981-01-01

    Compares the use of sentence weight and the T-unit in measuring the oral language of 32 adolescents. Indicates the relative merits of the T-unit as a measure of oral language, because the two measures appeared to give much the same information about the speech samples examined. (RL)

  2. Measuring Student Growth within a Merit-Pay Evaluation System: Perceived Effects on Music Teacher Motivation Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, music teachers from a large school district were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical conditions reflecting different methods for measuring student growth under a merit pay compensation system. In Scenario A, half of a teacher's effectiveness rating was based on student standardized test scores in reading,…

  3. Discharge Onset Voltage Prediction for a Gas-Insulated System Via the Figure-of-Merit Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Vibholm, Svend

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of discharge onset prediction via thefigur figure-of-merit concept for a strongly electronegative gas is examined. A coaxial system is employed, for which the inner electrode possesses a surface roughness of Ra=35 ¿m. With SF6 as the insulating medium a reference discharge-onset cha...

  4. Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Alici, Kamil Boratay; Caglayan, Humeyra; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-03-12

    A composite chiral metamaterial (CCMM) is designed and studied both numerically and experimentally. The CCMM is constructed by the combination of a continuous metallic wires structure and a purely chiral metamaterial (CMM) that consists of conjugated Rosettes. For the CMM, only very small, useful bands of negative index can be obtained for circularly polarized waves. These bands are all above the chiral resonance frequencies because of the high value of the effective parameter of relative permittivity ε. After the addition of the continuous metallic wires, which provide negative permittivity, the high value of ε can be partially compensated. Thus, a negative index band for the left circularly polarized wave that is below the chiral resonance frequency is obtained for the CCMM. At the same time, a negative index band for the right circularly polarized wave that is above the chiral resonance frequency is also obtained. Furthermore, both negative index bands correspond to the transmission peaks and have high values of the figure of merit. Therefore, the CCMM design that is proposed here is more suitable than the CMM for the construction of chiral metamaterials with a negative index.

  5. Several Studies of Merit System%立功制度若干问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张影; 谢文春

    2011-01-01

    The values of our merit system is utilitarian,despite its positive sense,but because of exclusion of criminal law concept of justice,in practice there are many drawbacks,the system should be set based on both the utilitarian concept of justice based.Meritorious nature of the system determines the nature of meritorious behavior is the behavior of state and socially beneficial,if repentance and then do not ask.%我国立功制度的价值观念是功利主义,虽然有其积极意义,但因其排斥刑法正义观而导致在司法实践中存在许多弊端。本文认为,在设置该制度时应以正义观为主兼顾功利主义;立功制度的本质决定了立功行为的本质是对国家和社会有益的行为。

  6. Potential merits for substorm research from imaging of charge-exchange neutral atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Daglis

    Full Text Available The in situ observations of the Earth magnetosphere performed over the past decades of space research have provided a rather good understanding of many partial localized processes of the magnetospheric substorm. The continuing lack of global observations inhibits the construction of a coherent picture of the substorm as a whole, which is actually determined by the coupling of the partial processes. In this context the importance of global observations for the advancement of magnetospheric substorm studies is critical. This paper presents briefly a promising technique of global observations, namely the imaging of charge exchange neutral atoms, or neutral atom imaging (NAI of the magnetosphere. Model and theoretical estimates of charge-exchange neutral atom fluxes, as well as appropriate spacecraft orbit and instrumentation requirements are presented and discussed for specific regions of interest and vantage points. The potential merits of NAI for substorm research are presented along with possible combinations with other types of observational methods. Substorm issues that would benefit from NAI should include among others the assessment of the ionospheric contribution to the hot magnetospheric plasma, the relative importance of various ionospheric ion source regions, the resolution of spatial and temporal characteristics of substorm ion injections. NAI observations can be precious complements to local observations and lead to the understanding of how local processes, many of which are resolved quite well today, combine to form the global process of the magnetospheric substorm.

  7. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-18

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs' figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  8. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360–410 K temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K, and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K. The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  9. Revisiting the continuum model of tendon pathology: what is its merit in clinical practice and research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J L; Rio, E; Purdam, C R; Docking, S I

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenesis of tendinopathy and the primary biological change in the tendon that precipitates pathology have generated several pathoaetiological models in the literature. The continuum model of tendon pathology, proposed in 2009, synthesised clinical and laboratory-based research to guide treatment choices for the clinical presentations of tendinopathy. While the continuum has been cited extensively in the literature, its clinical utility has yet to be fully elucidated. The continuum model proposed a model for staging tendinopathy based on the changes and distribution of disorganisation within the tendon. However, classifying tendinopathy based on structure in what is primarily a pain condition has been challenged. The interplay between structure, pain and function is not yet fully understood, which has partly contributed to the complex clinical picture of tendinopathy. Here we revisit and assess the merit of the continuum model in the context of new evidence. We (1) summarise new evidence in tendinopathy research in the context of the continuum, (2) discuss tendon pain and the relevance of a model based on structure and (3) describe relevant clinical elements (pain, function and structure) to begin to build a better understanding of the condition. Our goal is that the continuum model may help guide targeted treatments and improved patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  11. A Figure-of-Merit for Designing High-Performance Inductive Power Transmission Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-11-16

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key inductive link design parameters that relate to the power source and driver specs, power loss, transmission range, robustness against misalignment, variations in loading, and interference with other devices. Designers need to strike a delicate balance between these two because designing the link to achieve high PTE will degrade the PDL and vice versa. We are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which can help designers to find out whether a two-, three-, or four-coil link is appropriate for their particular application and guide them through an iterative design procedure to reach optimal coil geometries based on how they weigh the PTE versus PDL for that application. Three design examples at three different power levels have been presented based on the proposed FoM for implantable microelectronic devices, handheld mobile devices, and electric vehicles. The new FoM suggests that the two-coil links are suitable when the coils are strongly coupled, and a large PDL is needed. Three-coil links are the best when the coils are loosely coupled, the coupling distance varies considerably, and large PDL is necessary. Finally, four-coil links are optimal when the PTE is paramount, the coils are loosely coupled, and their relative distance and alignment are stable. Measurement results support the accuracy of the theoretical design procedure and conclusions.

  12. The effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming in the merit-order electricity pool market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frem, Bassam

    In a merit-order electricity pool market, generating companies (Gencos) game with their offered incremental cost to meet the electricity demand and earn bigger market shares and higher profits. However when the demand is treated as a random variable instead of as a known constant, these Genco gaming strategies become more complex. After a brief introduction of electricity markets and gaming, the effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming are studied in two parts: (1) Demand modelled as a discrete random variable (2) Demand modelled as a continuous random variable. In the first part, we proposed an algorithm, the discrete stochastic strategy (DSS) algorithm that generates a strategic set of offers from the perspective of the Gencos' profits. The DSS offers were tested and compared to the deterministic Nash equilibrium (NE) offers based on the predicted demand. This comparison, based on the expected Genco profits, showed the DSS to be a better strategy in a probabilistic sense than the deterministic NE. In the second part, we presented three gaming strategies: (1) Deterministic NE (2) No-Risk (3) Risk-Taking. The strategies were then tested and their profit performances were compared using two assessment tools: (a) Expected value and standard deviation (b) Inverse cumulative distribution. We concluded that despite yielding higher profit performance under the right conjectures, Risk-Taking strategies are very sensitive to incorrect conjectures on the competitors' gaming decisions. As such, despite its lower profit performance, the No-Risk strategy was deemed preferable.

  13. Figures of Merit Software: Description, User's Guide, Installation Notes, Versions Description, and License Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    hoelzer, H. D.; Fourroux, K. A.; Rickman, D. L.; Schrader, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Figures of Merit (FoMs) and the FoM software provide a method for quantitatively evaluating the quality of a regolith simulant by comparing the simulant to a reference material. FoMs may be used for comparing a simulant to actual regolith material, specification by stating the value a simulant s FoMs must attain to be suitable for a given application and comparing simulants from different vendors or production runs. FoMs may even be used to compare different simulants to each other. A single FoM is conceptually an algorithm that computes a single number for quantifying the similarity or difference of a single characteristic of a simulant material and a reference material and provides a clear measure of how well a simulant and reference material match or compare. FoMs have been constructed to lie between zero and 1, with zero indicating a poor or no match and 1 indicating a perfect match. FoMs are defined for modal composition, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, (aspect ratio and angularity), and density. This TM covers the mathematics, use, installation, and licensing for the existing FoM code in detail.

  14. Plasmonic metamaterial for electromagnetically induced transparency analogue and ultra-high figure of merit sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Li; Yu, Zhongyuan; Chen, Lei; Li, Ruifang; Ma, Rui; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Jinqiannan; Ye, Han

    2017-03-01

    In this work, using finite-difference time-domain method, we propose and numerically demonstrate a novel way to achieve electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon in the reflection spectrum by stacking two different types of coupling effect among different elements of the designed metamaterial. Compared with the conventional EIT-like analogues coming from only one type of coupling effect between bright and dark meta-atoms on the same plane, to our knowledge the novel approach is the first to realize the optically active and precise control of the wavelength position of EIT-like phenomenon using optical metamaterials. An on-to-off dynamic control of the EIT-like phenomenon also can be achieved by changing the refractive index of the dielectric substrate via adjusting an optical pump pulse. Furthermore, in near infrared region, the metamaterial structure can be operated as an ultra-high resolution refractive index sensor with an ultra-high figure of merit (FOM) reaching 3200, which remarkably improve the FOM value of plasmonic refractive index sensors. The novel approach realizing EIT-like spectral shape with easy adjustment to the working wavelengths will open up new avenues for future research and practical application of active plasmonic switch, ultra-high resolution sensors and active slow-light devices.

  15. Selecting CO2 Sources for CO2 Utilization by Environmental-Merit-Order Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Assen, Niklas; Müller, Leonard J; Steingrube, Annette; Voll, Philip; Bardow, André

    2016-02-01

    Capture and utilization of CO2 as alternative carbon feedstock for fuels, chemicals, and materials aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil resource use. For capture of CO2, a large variety of CO2 sources exists. Since they emit much more CO2 than the expected demand for CO2 utilization, the environmentally most favorable CO2 sources should be selected. For this purpose, we introduce the environmental-merit-order (EMO) curve to rank CO2 sources according to their environmental impacts over the available CO2 supply. To determine the environmental impacts of CO2 capture, compression and transport, we conducted a comprehensive literature study for the energy demands of CO2 supply, and constructed a database for CO2 sources in Europe. Mapping these CO2 sources reveals that CO2 transport distances are usually small. Thus, neglecting transport in a first step, we find that environmental impacts are minimized by capturing CO2 first from chemical plants and natural gas processing, then from paper mills, power plants, and iron and steel plants. In a second step, we computed regional EMO curves considering transport and country-specific impacts for energy supply. Building upon regional EMO curves, we identify favorable locations for CO2 utilization with lowest environmental impacts of CO2 supply, so-called CO2 oases.

  16. Feasibility and Merits of Performing Preclinical Imaging on Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Researchers have limited access to systems dedicated to imaging small laboratory animals. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical systems. Materials and Methods. Scans were performed on rat and mouse models of diseases or injuries on four radiology systems, tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, based on the availability at the author’s institute. Results. Tomosysthesis delineated soft tissue anatomy and hard tissue structure with superb contrast and spatial resolution at minimal scan time and effort. CT allowed high resolution volumetric visualization of bones. Molecular imaging with PET was useful for detecting cancerous tissue in mouse but at the expense of poor resolution. MRI depicted abnormal or intervened tissue at quality and resolution sufficient for experimental studies. The paper discussed limitations of the clinical systems in preclinical imaging as well as challenges regarding the need of additional gadgets, modifications, or upgrades required for longitudinally scanning animals under anesthesia while monitoring their vital signs. Conclusion. Clinical imaging technologies can potentially make cost-effective and efficient contributions to preclinical efforts in obtaining anatomical, structural, and functional information from the underlying tissue while minimally compromising the data quality in certain situations.

  17. The relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate ('self'-directed) complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Kyeremeh, Ransford; Adjei, Jonathan Kofi; Aryeh, Claudia; Kpentey, George

    2016-12-01

    The complement system is an enzyme cascade that helps defend against infection. Many complement proteins occur in serum as inactive enzyme precursors or reside on cell surfaces. Complement components have many biologic functions and their activation can eventually damage the plasma membranes of cells and some bacteria. Although a direct link between complement activation and autoimmune diseases has not been found, there is increasing evidence that complement activation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of a large number of inflammatory diseases that may have autoimmune linkage. The inhibition of complement may therefore be very important in a variety of autoimmune diseases since their activation may be detrimental to the individual involved. However, a complete and long-term inhibition of complement may have some contra side effects such as increased susceptibility to infection. The site of complement activation will, however, determine the type of inhibitor to be used, its route of application and dosage level. Compared with conventional drugs, complement inhibitors may be the best option for treatment of autoimmune diseases. The review takes a critical look at the relative merits of therapies being developed to tackle inappropriate complement activation that are likely to result in sporadic autoimmune diseases or worsen already existing one. It covers the complement system, general aspects of complement inhibition therapy, therapeutic strategies and examples of complement inhibitors. It concludes by highlighting on the possibility that a better inhibitor of complement activation when found will help provide a formidable treatment for autoimmune diseases as well as preventing one.

  18. Evaluating electrolyte additives for lithium-ion cells: A new Figure of Merit approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Adam; Peebles, Cameron; Gilbert, James A.; Sahore, Ritu; Garcia, Juan C.; Bareño, Javier; Iddir, Hakim; Liao, Chen; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyte additives are known to improve the performance of lithium-ion cells. In this work we examine the performance of Li1.03Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.3O2-graphite (NMC532/Gr) cells containing combinations of lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB), vinylene carbonate (VC), trivinylcyclotriboroxane (tVCBO), prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES), phenyl boronic acid ethylene glycol ester (PBE), tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite (TMSPi), triethyl phosphite (TEPi), and lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) added to our baseline (1.2 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC, 3:7 w/w) electrolyte. In order to rank performance of the various electrolytes, we developed two separate figures of merit (FOM), which are based on the energy retention and power retention of the cells. Using these two metrics in conjunction, we show that only one of the fifteen electrolyte formulations tested significantly outperforms the baseline electrolyte: this electrolyte contains the 0.25 wt% tVCBO + 1 wt% TMSPi additive mix. Little correlation was observed between the FOMs for energy retention and power retention, which indicates that the mechanisms that govern these performance parameters are likely independent of each other. Our FOM approach has general applicability and can be used to develop electrolyte and electrode formulations that prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Very high thermoelectric figure of merit found in hybrid transition-metal-dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yulou; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Zhongwei; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping

    2016-12-01

    The search for thermoelectrics with higher figures of merit (ZT) will never stop due to the demand of heat harvesting. Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), namely, MX2 (where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen), that have electronic band gaps are among the new materials that have been the focus of such research. Here, we investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of hybrid armchair-edged TMD nanoribbons, by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique combined with the first principles and molecular dynamics methods. We find a ZT as high as 7.4 in hybrid MoS2/MoSe2 nanoribbons at 800 K, creating a new record for ZT. Moreover, the hybrid interfaces by substituting X atoms are more efficient than those by substituting M atoms to tune the ZT. The origin of such a high ZT of hybrid nanoribbons is the high density of the grain boundaries: the hybrid interfaces decrease thermal conductance drastically without a large penalty to electronic conductance.

  20. Errors in the calculation of new salary positions and performance premiums – 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Following the receipt of the letters dated May 12th announcing the qualification of their performance (MERIT 2017), and the notification of their salary slips for the month of May, several colleagues have come to us to enquire about the calculation of salary increases and performance premiums. After verification, the Staff Association has informed the Management, in a meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on June 1st, about errors owing to rounding in the applied formulas. James Purvis, Head of HR department, has published in the CERN Bulletin dated July 18th an article, under the heading “Better precision (rounding)”, that gives a short explanation of these rounding effects. But we want to further bring you more precise explanations. Advancement On the salary slips for the month of May, the calculations of the advancement and new salary positions were done, by the services of administrative computing in the FAP department, on the basis of the salary, rounded to the nearest franc...

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit of p-type half-Heuslers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Joshi, Giri; Liu, Weishu; Lan, Yucheng; Wang, Hui; Lee, Sangyeop; Simonson, J W; Poon, S J; Tritt, T M; Chen, Gang; Ren, Z F

    2011-02-01

    Half-Heuslers would be important thermoelectric materials due to their high temperature stability and abundance if their dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) could be made high enough. The highest peak ZT of a p-type half-Heusler has been so far reported about 0.5 due to the high thermal conductivity. Through a nanocomposite approach using ball milling and hot pressing, we have achieved a peak ZT of 0.8 at 700 °C, which is about 60% higher than the best reported 0.5 and might be good enough for consideration for waste heat recovery in car exhaust systems. The improvement comes from a simultaneous increase in Seebeck coefficient and a significant decrease in thermal conductivity due to nanostructures. The samples were made by first forming alloyed ingots using arc melting and then creating nanopowders by ball milling the ingots and finally obtaining dense bulk by hot pressing. Further improvement in ZT is expected when average grain sizes are made smaller than 100 nm.

  2. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R.; Day, Tristan; Borup, Kasper A.; Christensen, Sebastian; Iversen, Bo B.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360-410 K) temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K), and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K). The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  3. Enhanced stability and thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper selenide by lithium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Pöhls, Jan-Hendrik; Aydemir, Umut; Qiu, Pengfei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Hanus, Riley; White, Mary Anne; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Superionic thermoelectric materials have been shown to have high figure-of-merits, leading to expectations for efficient high-temperature thermoelectric generators. These compounds exhibit extremely high cation diffusivity, comparable to that of a liquid, which is believed to be associated with the low thermal conductivity that makes superionic materials good for thermoelectrics. However, the superionic behavior causes cation migration that leads to device deterioration, being the main obstacle for practical applications. It has been reported that lithium doping in superionic Cu2-xSe leads to suppression of the Cu ion diffusivity, but whether the material will retain the promising thermoelectric properties had not yet been investigated. Here, we report a maximum zT>1.4 from Li0.09Cu1.9Se, which is higher than what we find in the undoped samples. The high temperature effective weighted mobility of the doped sample is found higher than Cu2-xSe, while the lattice thermal conductivity remains similar. We find signatures of suppressed bipolar conduction due to an enlarged band gap. Our findings set forth a possible route for tuning the stability of superionic thermoelectric materials.

  4. Sn-based type-Ⅷ single-crystal clathrates with a large figure of merit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Shu-Kang; Li De-Cong; Shen Lan-Xian; Hao Rui-Ting; T. Takabatake

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal samples of type-Ⅷ BasGa16-xCuxSn30 (x =0,0.03,0.06,0.15) clathrates were prepared using the Sn-flux method.At room temperature the carrier density,n,is 3.5-5 × 1019 cm-3 for all the samples,the carrier mobility,μH,increases to more than twice that of BasGa16Sn30 for all the Cu doping samples,and consequently the electrical conductivity is enhanced distinctly from 1.90 × 104 S/m to 4.40 × 104 S/m,with the Cu composition increasing from x =0 to x =0.15.The Seebeck coefficient,α,decreases slightly with the increases in Cu composition.The k values are about 0.72 W/mK at 300 K and are almost invariant with temperature up to 500 K for the samples with x =0 and x =0.03.The lattice thermal conductivity,kL,decreases from 0.59 W/mK for x =0 to 0.50 W/mK for x =0.03 at 300 K.The figure of merit for x =0.03 reaches 1.35 at 540 K.

  5. Enhance the figure of merit for flexible thermoelectric materials by reducing the screening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mukhlis M.; Hussein, Ahmed M.

    2017-06-01

    A flexible thermoelectric materials (FTEM) films based on Polydimethylsiloxane as the polymer matrix and (Zinc Oxide, Polyaniline and multi wall Carbon nanotube) as the fillers were prepared. The fillers were prepared using modified sol-gel method to enhance the distribution of the nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix and good performance. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and dielectric measurements were carried out for all of the four films. The Seebeck coefficient results for the investigated films were -40, 220, -120, 280 μv/k° at 200 °C for FTEM 1, 2, 3, 4 alternatively. The sign and the value for the Seebeck measurements show a great dependent on the filler type add to the film. The electrical conductivity results for the films was varied from 2 × 10-8 to 0.14 S/m and strongly dependent on the fillers electrical conductivity. The less dependent on the thermal conductivity of the fillers and a slight change in the thermal conductivity value of the films were obtained. The figure of merit for the films was ranged from 1.14 × 10-16 to 3.134 × 10-8. The dielectric results ranged from 4 to 3500. Reducing the screening effect will increase the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient values.

  6. Mutual Information as a Figure of Merit for Optical Fiber Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fehenberger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Advanced channel decoders rely on soft-decision decoder inputs for which mutual information (MI) is the natural figure of merit. In this paper, we analyze an optical fiber system by evaluating MI as the maximum achievable rate of transmission of such a system. MI is estimated by means of histograms for which the correct bin number is determined in a blind way. The MI estimate obtained this way shows excellent accuracy in comparison with the true MI of 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over an additive white Gaussian noise channel with additional phase noise, which is a simplified model of a nonlinear optical fiber channel. We thereby justify to use the MI estimation method to accurately estimate the MI of an optical fiber system. In the second part of this work, a transoceanic fiber system with 6000 km of standard single-mode fiber is simulated and its MI determined. Among rectangular QAMs, 16-QAM is found to be the optimal modulation scheme for this link as to performance in terms of MI and requ...

  7. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-01

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs’ figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  8. Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered Microwave Photonic Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2011-09-26

    The concept of filtered Microwave Photonic Links is proposed in order to provide the most general and versatile description of complex analog photonic systems. We develop a field propagation model where a global optical filter, characterized by its optical transfer function, embraces all the intermediate optical components in a linear link. We assume a non-monochromatic light source characterized by an arbitrary spectral distribution which has a finite linewidth spectrum and consider both intensity modulation and phase modulation with balanced and single detection. Expressions leading to the computation of the main figures of merit concerning the link gain, noise and intermodulation distortion are provided which, to our knowledge, are not available in the literature. The usefulness of this derivation resides in the capability to directly provide performance criteria results for complex links just by substituting in the overall closed-form formulas the numerical or measured optical transfer function characterizing the link. This theory is presented thus as a potential tool for a wide range of relevant microwave photonic application cases which is extendable to multiport radio over fiber systems.

  9. The Reproducibility of Changes in Diagnostic Figures of Merit Across Laboratory and Clinical Imaging Reader Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Frank W; Abbey, Craig K

    2017-06-27

    In this paper we examine which comparisons of reading performance between diagnostic imaging systems made in controlled retrospective laboratory studies may be representative of what we observe in later clinical studies. The change in a meaningful diagnostic figure of merit between two diagnostic modalities should be qualitatively or quantitatively comparable across all kinds of studies. In this meta-study we examine the reproducibility of relative measures of sensitivity, false positive fraction (FPF), area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and expected utility across laboratory and observational clinical studies for several different breast imaging modalities, including screen film mammography, digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and ultrasound. Across studies of all types, the changes in the FPFs yielded very small probabilities of having a common mean value. The probabilities of relative sensitivity being the same across ultrasound and tomosynthesis studies were low. No evidence was found for different mean values of relative area under the ROC curve or relative expected utility within any of the study sets. The comparison demonstrates that the ratios of areas under the ROC curve and expected utilities are reproducible across laboratory and clinical studies, whereas sensitivity and FPF are not. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Additional merit of coronal STIR imaging for MR imaging of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back pain is a common clinical problem and is the frequent complaint for referral of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Coronal short tau inversion recovery sequence (STIR can provide diagnostically significant information in small percentage of patients. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations of a total of 350 patients were retrospectively included in the study. MR sequences were evaluated in two settings. One radiologist evaluated sagittal and axial images only, while another radiologist evaluated all sequences, including coronal STIR sequence. After recording the diagnoses, we compared the MRI findings in two subsets of patients to evaluate additional merit of coronal STIR imaging. Results: With addition of coronal STIR imaging, significant findings were observed in 24 subjects (6.8%. Twenty-one of these subjects were considered to be normal on other sequences and in three subjects diagnosis was changed with the addition of coronal STIR. Additional diagnoses on STIR included sacroiliitis, sacroiliac joint degenerative disease, sacral stress/insufficiency fracture/Looser′s zones, muscular sprain and atypical appendicitis. Conclusion: Coronal STIR imaging can provide additional diagnoses in a small percentage of patients presenting for lumbar spine MRI for back pain. Therefore, it should be included in the routine protocol for MR imaging of lumbar spine.

  11. Faraday rotation and magneto-optical figure of merit for the magnetite magnetic fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandadze L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, using magnetite magnetic fluids as examples, we consider the optical and magneto-optical properties of magnetic fluids based on particles of magnetic oxides, for the optical constants of the material of which, n and k , the relation k2 ≺≺ n2 holds. In this work the Faraday rotation is represented within the theoretical Maxwell-Garnett model. A theoretical analysis has shown that Faraday rotation for magnetic fluids is related to the Faraday rotation on the material of particles by the simple relation. According to this result  in specific experimental conditions the values of the Faraday rotation prorate to q , which is the occupancy of the volume of the magnetic fluid with magnetic particles and spectral dependences of effect in magnetic fluid and in the proper bulk magnetic are similar. We also show that the values of the magneto-optical figure of merit for ultrafine medium and for the bulk material are equal.

  12. Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Malti, Abdellah; Braun, Slawomir; Fahlman, Mats; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 °C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi(2)Te(3))-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one. Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT>2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities. Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (λ=0.37 W m(-1) K(-1)) yields a ZT=0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

  13. The Merits of Cold Gas Micropropulsion in State-of-the-Art Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Köhler, J.; Stenmark, L.

    2002-01-01

    Cold gas micropropulsion is a sound choice for space missions that require extreme stabilisation, pointing precision or contamination-free operation. The use of forces in the micronewton range for spacecraft operations have been identified as a mission-critical item in several demanding space systems currently under development. The required micropropulsion systems are emerging, using various principles, e.g. field emission, colloid acceleration, solid combustion, and cold gas expulsion. Cold gas micropropulsion systems share merits with traditional cold gas systems in being of simple design, clean, safe, and robust. They do not generate net charge to the spacecraft, and typically operate on low-power. The necessary extreme miniaturisation of system parts furthermore works well to increasing other merits of these systems, making them truly competitive for state-of-the-art spacecraft: e.g. DARWIN, LISA, or high-performance nanosatellites. Silicon microsystems technology can be used for the cold gas micropropulsion system manufacture. Here, the decrease of dimensions is not restricted to fit standard components or tools. This allows for an astonishing mass reduction, e.g. 80 g for a unit comprising four independent nozzles, proportional valves, particle filters, control electronics, and housing. The minute size is also suitable for inclusion on nanosatellites. The dynamic range of a cold gas micropropulsion system can be quite wide (e.g. 1 μN - 10 mN) by using differently sized nozzles in parallel systems. Again, the microsystems technology makes this scheme possible without compromising the mass budget. The micropropulsion system benefits greatly from using a continuously proportional control on the thrust. In this system, the impulse is obtained as the difference of two opposite thrusters in the same unit. Here, the minimum impulse bit is reduced to virtually zero, while simultaneously avoiding any troubles emerging from extremely low flows at near-zero thrust

  14. Strategic Genco offers in electric energy markets cleared by merit order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Ebrahim A. Rahman

    In an electricity market cleared by merit-order economic dispatch we identify necessary and sufficient conditions under which the market outcomes supported by pure strategy Nash equilibria (NE) exist when generating companies (Gencos) game through continuously variable incremental cost (IC) block offers. A Genco may own any number of units, each unit having multiple blocks with each block being offered at a constant IC. Next, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) scheme devoid of approximations or iterations is developed to identify all possible NE. The MILP scheme is systematic and general but computationally demanding for large systems. Thus, an alternative significantly faster lambda-iterative approach that does not require the use of MILP was also developed. Once all NE are found, one critical question is to identify the one whose corresponding gaming strategy may be considered by all Gencos as being the most rational. To answer this, this thesis proposes the use of a measure based on the potential profit gain and loss by each Genco for each NE. The most rational offer strategy for each Genco in terms of gaming or not gaming that best meets their risk/benefit expectations is the one corresponding to the NE with the largest gain to loss ratio. The computation of all NE is tested on several systems of up to ninety generating units, each with four incremental cost blocks. These NE are then used to examine how market power is influenced by market parameters, specifically, the number of competing Gencos, their size and true ICs, as well as the level of demand and price cap.

  15. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2015-02-01

    Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for carcass merit traits including hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area (REA), carcass average backfat thickness (AFAT), lean meat yield (LMY) and carcass marbling score (CMAR) was evaluated based on 543 Angus and 400 Charolais steers genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip. For the genomic prediction within Angus, the average accuracy was 0.35 with a range from 0.32 (LMY) to 0.37 (CMAR) across different training/validation data-splitting strategies and statistical methods. The within-breed genomic prediction for Charolais yielded an average accuracy of 0.36 with a range from 0.24 (REA) to 0.46 (AFAT). The across-breed prediction had the lowest accuracy, which was on average near zero. When the data from the two breeds were combined to predict the breeding values of either breed, the prediction accuracy averaged 0.35 for Angus with a range from 0.33 (REA) to 0.39 (CMAR) and averaged 0.33 for Charolais with a range from 0.18 (REA) to 0.46 (AFAT). The prediction accuracy was slightly higher on average when the data were split by animal's birth year than when the data were split by sire family. These results demonstrate that the genetic relationship or relatedness of selection candidates with the training population has a great impact on the accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values under the density of the marker panel used in this study. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Animal Genetics © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  17. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  18. Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-Formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.; Garvey, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight…

  19. Transport and breakdown analysis for improved figure-of-merit for AlGaN power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrin, Michael E.; Kaplar, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    Mobility and critical electric field for bulk AlxGa1-xN alloys across the full composition range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are analyzed to address the potential application of this material system for power electronics. Calculation of the temperature-dependent electron mobility includes the potential limitations due to different scattering mechanisms, including alloy, optical polar phonon, deformation potential, and piezoelectric scattering. The commonly used unipolar figure of merit (appropriate for vertical-device architectures), which increases strongly with increasing mobility and critical electric field, is examined across the alloy composition range to estimate the potential performance in power electronics applications. Alloy scattering is the dominant limitation to mobility and thus also for the unipolar figure of merit. However, at higher alloy compositions, the limitations due to alloy scattering are overcome by increased critical electric field. These trade-offs, and their temperature dependence, are quantified in the analysis.

  20. Accurate calculation and Matlab based fast realization of merit function's Hesse matrix for the design of multilayer optical coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Yong; Long, Xing-Wu; Yang, Kai-Yong

    2009-09-01

    To improve the current status of home multilayer optical coating design with low speed and poor efficiency when a large layer number occurs, the accurate calculation and fast realization of merit function’s gradient and Hesse matrix is pointed out. Based on the matrix method to calculate the spectral properties of multilayer optical coating, an analytic model is established theoretically. And the corresponding accurate and fast computation is successfully achieved by programming with Matlab. Theoretical and simulated results indicate that this model is mathematically strict and accurate, and its maximal precision can reach floating-point operations in the computer, with short time and fast speed. Thus it is very suitable to improve the optimal search speed and efficiency of local optimization methods based on the derivatives of merit function. It has outstanding performance in multilayer optical coating design with a large layer number.

  1. Kas õpetajad on teie kaudu tööd otsinud? / Natalija Gansen, Merit Laan, Ilmar Kütt... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti töötukassa Tallinna ja Harjumaa osakonna teenusekonsultant Natalija Gansen, Eesti töötukassa Viljandimaa osakonna juhataja Merit Laan, Viljandi maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Ilmar Kütt, CV-Online Estonia OÜ värbamisspetsialist Ivika Born, Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna vanemspetsialist Tiina Halling ja Valga maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuritalituse juhataja Kalle Vister

  2. Kas õpetajad on teie kaudu tööd otsinud? / Natalija Gansen, Merit Laan, Ilmar Kütt... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti töötukassa Tallinna ja Harjumaa osakonna teenusekonsultant Natalija Gansen, Eesti töötukassa Viljandimaa osakonna juhataja Merit Laan, Viljandi maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Ilmar Kütt, CV-Online Estonia OÜ värbamisspetsialist Ivika Born, Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna vanemspetsialist Tiina Halling ja Valga maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuritalituse juhataja Kalle Vister

  3. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of monolayer MSe2 (M = Zr, Hf): low lattice thermal conductivity and a promising figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangqian; Gao, G. Y.; Huang, Zhishuo; Zhang, Wenxu; Yao, Kailun

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX2 (M = Mo, W, Zr, Hf, etc; X = S, Se, Te) have become well-known in recent times for their promising applications in thermoelectrics and field effect transistors. In this work, we perform a systematic study on the thermoelectric properties of monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2 using first-principles calculations combined with Boltzmann transport equations. Our results point to a competitive thermoelectric figure of merit (close to 1 at optimal doping) in both monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2, which is markedly higher than previous explored monolayer TMDCs such as MoS2 and MoSe2. We also reveal that the higher figure of merits arise mainly from their low lattice thermal conductivity, and this is partly due to the strong coupling of acoustic modes with low frequency optical modes. It is found that the figure of merits can be better optimized in n-type than in p-type. In particular, the performance of HfSe2 is superior to ZrSe2 at a higher temperature. Our results suggest that monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2 with lower lattice thermal conductivity than usual monolayer TMDCs are promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

  5. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Bianucci

    Full Text Available The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification.

  6. Figure of Merit for Chlorine Measurement in Reinforced Concrete Using {sup 252}Cf-Based Nondestructive Testing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb H. Saleh; Richard A. Livington

    2000-11-12

    The objective of this study is to design, fabricate, and evaluate a portable system for nondestructive determination of chloride concentration in reinforced portland cement concrete (PCC) structures. The need for such an instrument arises from the massive deterioration of the reinforced PCC, which has been used to construct a major part of the highway infrastructure. This deterioration of PCC is due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, which is greatly promoted by the chloride ions. The sources of chloride include deicing salts, set accelerator, and seawater, either in the form of concrete-mixing water or as airborne droplets from ocean spray. The system consists of a high-purity germanium detector for gamma-ray detection and a portable {sup 252}Cf neutron source. Tradeoffs in the design of the neutron source include data quality, operational efficiency, and radiation safety. The number of photons detected in the germanium detector is directly proportional to the neutron source strength and the chloride nuclei concentration in the sample under testing. Therefore, assuming a uniform distribution of chloride, the figure of merit of the number of photons detected in the detector can be expressed as F = C/SN, where C = number of (6111) keV gamma rays detected per second, N = concentration of chloride nuclei, and S = neutron source strength (n/s). Under the assumption that the neutron source strength is fixed, the figure of merit in this case can have at least two uses. One is to optimize the thermalization efficiency of the neutron moderator. The second is to evaluate how effective the detector configuration is in detecting the gamma rays generated in the concrete. Using the figure-of-merit approach, it is possible to find an optimum size of moderator. This is important for a portable system. Other variables such as source/detector separation or detector gamma-ray shielding can also be evaluated.

  7. Coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit and its bounds for low-dissipation Carnot-like refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Li, Mingxing; Tu, Z. C.; Hernández, A. Calvo; Roco, J. M. M.

    2012-07-01

    The figure of merit for refrigerators performing finite-time Carnot-like cycles between two reservoirs at temperature Th and Tc (Carnot coefficient of performance for reversible refrigerators. These bounds can be reached for extremely asymmetric low-dissipation cases when the ratio between the dissipation constants of the processes in contact with the cold and hot reservoirs approaches to zero or infinity, respectively. The observed coefficients of performance for real refrigerators are located in the region between the lower and upper bounds, which is in good agreement with our theoretical estimation.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, 2013 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from May 13-16, 2013, at the Crystal City Marriott and Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  9. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  10. Coefficient of performance at maximum figure of merit and its bounds for low-dissipation Carnot-like refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Li, Mingxing; Tu, Z C; Hernández, A Calvo; Roco, J M M

    2012-07-01

    The figure of merit for refrigerators performing finite-time Carnot-like cycles between two reservoirs at temperature T(h) and T(c) (Carnot coefficient of performance for reversible refrigerators. These bounds can be reached for extremely asymmetric low-dissipation cases when the ratio between the dissipation constants of the processes in contact with the cold and hot reservoirs approaches to zero or infinity, respectively. The observed coefficients of performance for real refrigerators are located in the region between the lower and upper bounds, which is in good agreement with our theoretical estimation.

  11. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  12. Infrared Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor with Ultra-High Figure of Merit Based on the Optimized All-Metal Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifang; Wu, Dong; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Li; Yu, Zhongyuan; Ye, Han

    2017-01-01

    A perfect ultra-narrow band infrared metamaterial absorber based on the all-metal-grating structure is proposed. The absorber presents a perfect absorption efficiency of over 98% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 0.66 nm at normal incidence. This high efficient absorption is contributed to the surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the surface plasmon resonance-induced strong surface electric field enhancement is favorable for application in biosensing system. When operated as a plasmonic refractive index sensor, the ultra-narrow band absorber has a wavelength sensitivity 2400 nm/RIU and an ultra-high figure of merit 3640, which are much better than those of most reported similar plasmonic sensors. Besides, we also comprehensively investigate the influences of structural parameters on the sensing properties. Due to the simplicity of its geometry structure and its easiness to be fabricated, the proposed high figure of merit and sensitivity sensor indicates a competitive candidate for applications in sensing or detecting fields.

  13. OPIC: a kit for rapid merit function construction for use with all versions of OSLO, including OSLO EDU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Brian

    2005-09-01

    The history of lens design software is sadly littered with accounts of excellent programs which fell by the wayside for lack of support. Others evolved through various package formats to form the foundation of today's very successful commercial software. One example of this is the Imperial College lens design program developed throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s by Charles Wynne, Michael Kidger, Prudence Wormell, and others. This program (best known as the Kidger Optics Ltd SIGMA) produced many excellent designs over the years. One reason was that the ray patterns and weighting factors for operands in the default merit function had been carefully honed through experience, to produce rapid convergence on the global optimum from a likely starting point. This paper describes a suite of optimisation raysets and weighted operands written in the C-like OSLO compiled macro language CCL, and modeled on the Imperial College tradition. It is available for free download from http://www.lambdares.com/techsupport/kb/index.phtml. Its prime function is to provide a fast, easily understood introduction to merit function construction for the beginner. One version is for use on OSLO EDU, the free version of OSLO, which is also available from the Lambda Research Corporation website. This paper demonstrates how OPIC can be used to locate, from a remote starting point, the global minimum of the "monochromatic quartet," the lens design problem from the SPIE 1990 International Lens Design Conference.

  14. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order; Aktuelle Entwicklungen auf den Kohle- und Gasmaerkten und ihre Rueckwirkungen auf die Merit Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon [ewi Energy Research and Scenarios gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO{sub 2} price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [German] Kohle und Gas spielen weiterhin eine bedeutende Rolle im europaeischen Stromerzeugungssystem, insbesondere in Deutschland. Laut AG Energiebilanzen lag 2016 der Anteil der Steinkohle an der deutschen Bruttostromerzeugung bei 17,2 % und der von Erdgas bei 12,4 %. Neben dem CO{sub 2}-Preis sind die Preise fuer Kesselkohle und Erdgas massgeblich dafuer verantwortlich, welches Gas- bzw. Kohlekraftwerk welche Position in der Merit Order einnimmt und ob es zu einem Fuel Switch kommt. Sinkende Preise beim Gas stehen seit Mitte 2016 stark gestiegenen und volatilen Preisen fuer Kesselkohle gegenueber. Dieser Artikel diskutiert, welche Entwicklungen und Faktoren fuer diese Entwicklungen verantwortlich sind, womit in naher Zukunft zu rechnen sein koennte und welche Implikationen dies fuer den Gas-Kohle-Spread im Strommarkt hat.

  15. Potential gains in lifetime net merit from genomic testing of cows, heifers, and calves on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Herring, W; Lawlor, T J

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the gains in genetic potential of replacement females that could be achieved by using genomic testing to facilitate selection and culling decisions on commercial dairy farms. Data were simulated for 100 commercial dairy herds, each with 1,850 cows, heifers, and calves. Parameters of the simulation were based on the US Holstein population, and assumed reliabilities of traditional and genomic predictions matched reliabilities of animals that have been genotyped to date. Selection of the top 10, 20, 30, …, 90% of animals within each age group was based on parent averages and predicted transmitting abilities with or without genomic testing of all animals or subsets of animals that had been presorted by traditional predictions. Average gains in lifetime net merit breeding value of selected females due to genomic testing, minus prorated costs of genotyping the animals and their unselected contemporaries, ranged from $28 (top 90% selected) to $259 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with no pedigrees, $14 (top 90% selected) to $121 (top 10% selected) for heifer calves with known sires, and $7 (top 90% selected) to $87 (top 20% selected) for heifer calves with full pedigrees. In most cases, gains in genetic merit of selected heifer calves far exceeded prorated genotyping costs, and gains were greater for animals with missing or incomplete pedigree information. Gains in genetic merit due to genomic testing were smaller for lactating cows that had phenotypic records, and in many cases, these gains barely exceeded or failed to exceed genotyping costs. Strategies based on selective genotyping of the top, middle, or bottom 50% of animals after presorting by traditional parent averages or predicted transmitting abilities were cost effective, particularly when pedigrees or phenotypes were available and a relatively small proportion of animals were to be selected or culled. Based on these results, it appears that routine genotyping of

  16. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis.

  17. Thermoelectric energy converters under a trade-off figure of merit with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2017-09-01

    We study the performance of a three-terminal thermoelectric device such as heat engine and refrigerator with broken time-reversal symmetry by applying the unified trade-off figure of merit (\\dotΩ criterion) which accounts for both useful energy and losses. For the heat engine, we find that a thermoelectric device working under the maximum \\dotΩ criterion gives a significantly better performance than a device working at maximum power output. Within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics such a direct comparison is not possible for refrigerators, however, our study indicates that, for refrigerator, the maximum cooling load gives a better performance than the maximum \\dotΩ criterion for a larger asymmetry. Our results can be useful to choose a suitable optimization criterion for operating a real thermoelectric device with broken time-reversal symmetry.

  18. Array configuration studies for the Square Kilometre Array - Implementation of figures of merit based on spatial dynamic range

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Dharam Vir; Jiménez-Monferrer, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be operating at the time when several new large optical, X-ray and Gamma-ray facilities are expected to be working. To make SKA both competitive and complementary to these large facilities, thorough design studies are needed, focused in particular on imaging performance of the array. One of the crucial aspects of such studies is the choice of the array configuration, which affects substantially the resolution, rms noise, sidelobe level and dynamic range achievable with the SKA. We present here a quantitative assessment of the effect of the array configuration on imaging performance of the SKA, introducing the spatial dynamic range (SDR) and a measure of incompleteness of the Fourier domain coverage ($\\Delta u/u$) as prime figures of merit.

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in strained Tl-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, N.; Schwingenschlögl, U., E-mail: udo.schwingenschlogl@kaust.edu.sa [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-07-21

    We explain recent experimental findings on Tl-doped Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by determining the electronic and transport properties by first-principles calculations and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Though Tl-doping introduces a momentum-dependent spin-orbit splitting, the effective mass of the carriers is essentially not modified, while the band gap is reduced. Tl is found to be exceptional in this respect as other dopants modify the dispersion, which compromises thermoelectricity. Moreover, we demonstrate that only after Tl-doping strain becomes an efficient tool for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A high figure of merit of 0.86 is obtained for strong p-doping (7 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, maximal power factor) at 500 K under 2% tensile strain.

  20. Transparent conductors from layer-by-layer assembled SWNT films: importance of mechanical properties and a new figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2010-07-27

    New transparent conductors (TCs) capable of replacing traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) are much needed for displays, sensors, solar cells, smart energy-saving windows, and flexible electronics. Technical requirements of TCs include not only high electrical conductivity and transparency but also environmental stability and mechanical property which are often overlooked in the research environment. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) coatings have been suggested as alternative TC materials but typically lack sufficient wear resistance compared to ITO. Balancing conductance, transparency, durability, and flexibility is a formidable challenge, which leads us to the introduction of a new TC figure of merit, PiTC, incorporating all these qualities. Maximization of PiTC to that of ITO or better can be suggested as an initial research goal. Fine tuning of SWNT layer-by-layer (LBL) polymeric nanocomposite structures makes possible integration of all the necessary properties. The produced TC demonstrated resistivity of 86 Omega/sq with 80.2% optical transmittance combined with tensile modulus, strength, and toughness of the film of 12.3+/-3.4 GPa, 218+/-13 MPa, and 8+/-1.7 J/g, respectively. A new transparent capping layer to conserve these properties in the hostile environment with matching or better strength, toughness, and transparency parameters was also demonstrated. Due to application demands, bending performance of TC made by LBL was of special interest and exceeded that of ITO by at least 100 times. Cumulative figure of merit PiTC for the produced coatings was 0.15 Omega(-1), whereas the conventional ITO showed PiTC<0.07 Omega(-1). With overall electrical and optical performance comparable to ITO and exceptional mechanical properties, the described coatings can provide an excellent alternative to ITO or other nanowire- and nanotube-based TC specifically in flexible electronics, displays, and sensors.

  1. Figure of merit for macrouniformity based on image quality ruler evaluation and machine learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Overall, Gary; Riggs, Travis; Silveston-Keith, Rebecca; Whitney, Julie; Chiu, George; Allebach, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of macro-uniformity is a capability that is important for the development and manufacture of printer products. Our goal is to develop a metric that will predict macro-uniformity, as judged by human subjects, by scanning and analyzing printed pages. We consider two different machine learning frameworks for the metric: linear regression and the support vector machine. We have implemented the image quality ruler, based on the recommendations of the INCITS W1.1 macro-uniformity team. Using 12 subjects at Purdue University and 20 subjects at Lexmark, evenly balanced with respect to gender, we conducted subjective evaluations with a set of 35 uniform b/w prints from seven different printers with five levels of tint coverage. Our results suggest that the image quality ruler method provides a reliable means to assess macro-uniformity. We then defined and implemented separate features to measure graininess, mottle, large area variation, jitter, and large-scale non-uniformity. The algorithms that we used are largely based on ISO image quality standards. Finally, we used these features computed for a set of test pages and the subjects' image quality ruler assessments of these pages to train the two different predictors - one based on linear regression and the other based on the support vector machine (SVM). Using five-fold cross-validation, we confirmed the efficacy of our predictor.

  2. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (≥ 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 μIU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows

  3. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Mis teha, kui kopp on ees - kuidas sa stressist jagu saad? / Riho Jürvetson, Merit Miller, Krister Rekkaro ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad EMT erakliendi osakonna juhataja Riho Jürvetson, KPMG Baltics müügijuht Merit Miller, ArtPrint juht Krister Rekkaro, Dateli juhatuse liige Triin Sepp, Media House projektijuht Tanel Tarkmees, Ober-Haus Kinnisvara tegevjuht Katrin Klein-Näppi

  4. The Clash of Civilizations, Much Ado about Nothing or Something Rotten in the Kingdom of Enforcement! Do IP rights merit special considerations under competition law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is often claimed, but rarely in further detail, that IP rights create tensions under competition law and thus merit special considerations. While little can be held against the first, the latter is significantly less evidential if it involves a restrictive, or no application, as strong argumen...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2012 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: May 14-18, 2012, Arlington, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the fiscal year (FY) 2012 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, VA.

  6. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  7. Public Opinion on Merit Pay: Self Interest vs. Symbolic Politics. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, William G.; Henderson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Merit pay initiatives transparently alter the teaching profession and goings-on within classrooms, and thereby promise to stoke the self-interests of the two most prominent stakeholders in public education: teachers and parents. This memo summarizes the authors' ongoing efforts to empirically evaluate the extent to which public debates about merit…

  8. The Clash of Civilizations, Much Ado about Nothing or Something Rotten in the Kingdom of Enforcement! Do IP rights merit special considerations under competition law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is often claimed, but rarely in further detail, that IP rights create tensions under competition law and thus merit special considerations. While little can be held against the first, the latter is significantly less evidential if it involves a restrictive, or no application, as strong arguments...

  9. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  10. Estimates of genetic variance and variance of predicted genetic merits using pedigree or genomic relationship matrices in six Brown Swiss cattle populations for different traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, A; Dürr, J W; Fikse, W F; Jorjani, H; Crooks, L

    2015-10-01

    The amount of variance captured in genetic estimations may depend on whether a pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrix is used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic variance as well as the variance of predicted genetic merits (PGM) using pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrices in Brown Swiss cattle. We examined a range of traits in six populations amounting to 173 population-trait combinations. A main aim was to determine how using different relationship matrices affect variance estimation. We calculated ratios between different types of estimates and analysed the impact of trait heritability and population size. The genetic variances estimated by REML using a genomic relationship matrix were always smaller than the variances that were similarly estimated using a pedigree-based relationship matrix. The variances from the genomic relationship matrix became closer to estimates from a pedigree relationship matrix as heritability and population size increased. In contrast, variances of predicted genetic merits obtained using a genomic relationship matrix were mostly larger than variances of genetic merit predicted using pedigree-based relationship matrix. The ratio of the genomic to pedigree-based PGM variances decreased as heritability and population size rose. The increased variance among predicted genetic merits is important for animal breeding because this is one of the factors influencing genetic progress. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Preparation and investigation of nano-thick FTO/Ag/FTO multilayer transparent electrodes with high figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shihui; Li, Lingxia; Lyu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the conductivity of the single-layered nano-thick F doped SnO2 (FTO) thin films, an Ag mid-layer is embedded between the FTO layers. In our work, the effects of mid-layer Ag and top FTO layer on the structural, electrical and optical properties of FTO/Ag/FTO multilayered composite structures deposited on quartz glass substrates by magnetron sputtering at 100 °C have been investigated. As the thickness of Ag mid-layer increases, the resistivity decreases. As the top FTO layer thickness increases, the resistivity increases. The highest value of figure of merit φTC is 7.8 × 10(-2 ) Ω(-1) for the FTO (20 nm)/Ag (7 nm)/FTO (30 nm) multilayers, while the average optical transmittance is 95.5% in the visible range of wavelengths and the resistivity is 8.8 × 10(-5 ) Ω·cm. In addition, we also describe the influence of Ag and top FTO layer thickness on structural, electrical and optical properties of the nano-thick FTO (20 nm)/Ag/FTO multilayers and the mechanism of the changes of electrical and optical properties at different Ag and top FTO layer thicknesses.

  12. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-24

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints.

  13. The use of net analyte signal (NAS) in near infrared spectroscopy pharmaceutical applications: interpretability and figures of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Lopes, João Almeida

    2009-05-29

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control of solid dosage forms for the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical formulations can be extremely complex, containing typically one or more active product ingredients (API) and various excipients, yielding very complex near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR spectra interpretability can be improved using the concept of net analyte signal (NAS). NAS is defined as the part of the spectrum unique to the analyte of interest. The objective of this work was to compare two different methods to estimate the API's NAS vector of different pharmaceutical formulations. The main difference between the methods is the knowledge of API free formulations NIR spectra. The comparison between the two methods was assessed in a qualitative and quantitative way. Results showed that both methods produced good results in terms of the similarity between the NAS vector and the pure API spectrum, as well as in the ability to predict the API concentration of unknown samples. Moreover, figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limit of detection were estimated in a straightforward manner.

  14. Enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit in nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with semimetal nanoinclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumithra, S.; Nolting, Westly M.; Stokes, Kevin L. [Dept. of Physics and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States); Takas, Nathan J.; Misra, Dinesh K.; Poudeu, P.F.P. [Dept. of Chemistry and the Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The effect of Bi (semimetal) nanoinclusions in nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} matrices is investigated. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by a low temperature solvothermal method are incorporated into Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} matrix phases, synthesized by planetary ball milling. High density pellets of the Bi nanoparticle/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocomposites are created by hot pressing the powders at 200 C and 100 MPa. The effect of different volume fractions (0-7%) of Bi semimetal nanoparticles on the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and carrier concentration is reported. Our results show that the incorporation of semimetal nanoparticles results in a reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity in all the samples. A significant enhancement in power factor is observed for Bi nanoparticle volume fraction of 5% and 7%. We show that it is possible to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and increase the power factor resulting in an increase in figure of merit by a factor of 2 (from ZT = 0.2 to 0.4). Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity as a function of carrier concentration data are consistent with the electron filtering effect, where low-energy electrons are preferentially scattered by the barrier potentials set up at the semimetal nanoparticle/semiconductor interfaces. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in thermally robust, nanostructured superlattices based on SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-03-24

    Thermoelectric (TE) metal oxides overcome crucial disadvantages of traditional heavy-metal-alloy-based TE materials, such as toxicity, scarcity, and instability at high temperatures. Here, we report the TE properties of metal oxide superlattices, composed from alternating layers of 5% Pr3+-doped SrTiO3-δ (SPTO) and 20% Nb5+-doped SrTiO3-δ (STNO) fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Excellent stability is established for these superlattices by maintaining the crystal structure and reproducing the TE properties after long-time (20 h) annealing at high temperature (∼1000 K). The introduction of oxygen vacancies as well as extrinsic dopants (Pr3+ and Nb5+), with different masses and ionic radii, at different lattice sites in SPTO and STNO layers, respectively, results in a substantial reduction of thermal conductivity via scattering a wider range of phonon spectrum without limiting the electrical transport and thermopower, leading to an enhancement in the figure-of-merit (ZT). The superlattice composed of 20 SPTO/STNO pairs, 8 unit cells of each layer, exhibits a ZT value of 0.46 at 1000 K, which is the highest among SrTiO3-based thermoelectrics. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Chemically Inhomogeneous RE-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with High Figure of Merit: Solution to Global Rare Earth Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaying; Ma, Tianyu; Zhang, Yujing; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi

    2016-08-01

    The global rare earth (RE) criticality, especially for those closely-relied Nd/Pr/Dy/Tb in the 2:14:1-typed permanent magnets (PMs), has triggered tremendous attempts to develop new alternatives. Prospective candidates La/Ce with high abundance, however, cannot provide an equivalent performance due to inferior magnetic properties of (La/Ce)2Fe14B to Nd2Fe14B. Here we report high figure-of-merit La/Ce-rich RE-Fe-B PMs, where La/Ce are inhomogeneously distributed among the 2:14:1 phase. The resultant exchange coupling within an individual grain and magnetostatic interactions across grains ensure much superior performance to the La/Ce homogeneously distributed magnet. Maximum energy product (BH)max of 42.2 MGOe is achieved even with 36 wt. % La-Ce incorporation. The cost performance, (BH)max/cost, has been raised by 27.1% compared to a 48.9 MGOe La/Ce-free commercial magnet. The construction of chemical heterogeneity offers recipes to develop commercial-grade PMs using the less risky La/Ce, and also provides a promising solution to the REs availability constraints.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): does it have merit in stroke rehabilitation? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jodie; van Vliet, Paulette; McElduff, Patrick; Lagopoulos, Jim; Parsons, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation has been gaining increasing interest as a potential therapeutic treatment in stroke recovery. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to collate the available evidence in adults with residual motor impairments as a result of stroke. The primary outcome was change in motor function or impairment as a result of transcranial direct current stimulation, using any reported electrode montage, with or without adjunct physical therapy. The search yielded 15 relevant studies comprising 315 subjects. Compared with sham, cortical stimulation did not produce statistically significant improvements in motor performance when measured immediately after the intervention (anodal stimulation: facilitation of the affected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.05, P = 0.71; cathodal stimulation: inhibition of the nonaffected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.39, P = 0.08; bihemispheric stimulation: standardized mean difference = 0.24, P = 0.39). When the data were analyzed according to stroke characteristics, statistically significant improvements were evident for those with chronic stroke (standardized mean difference = 0.45, P = 0.01) and subjects with mild-to-moderate stroke impairments (standardized mean difference = 0.37, P = 0.02). Transcranial direct current stimulation is likely to be effective in enhancing motor performance in the short term when applied selectively to patients with stroke. Given the range of stimulation variables and heterogeneous nature of stroke, this modality is still experimental and further research is required to determine its clinical merit in stroke rehabilitation.

  18. Annealing a Follow-up Program: Improvement of the Dark Energy Figure of Merit for Optical Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /CCAPP, Columbus /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-06-02

    The precision of cosmological parameters derived from galaxy cluster surveys is limited by uncertainty in relating observable signals to cluster mass. We demonstrate that a small mass-calibration follow-up program can significantly reduce this uncertainty and improve parameter constraints, particularly when the follow-up targets are judiciously chosen. To this end, we apply a simulated annealing algorithm to maximize the dark energy information at fixed observational cost, and find that optimal follow-up strategies can reduce the observational cost required to achieve a specified precision by up to an order of magnitude. Considering clusters selected from optical imaging in the Dark Energy Survey, we find that approximately 200 low-redshift X-ray clusters or massive Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters can improve the dark energy figure of merit by 50%, provided that the follow-up mass measurements involve no systematic error. In practice, the actual improvement depends on (1) the uncertainty in the systematic error in follow-up mass measurements, which needs to be controlled at the 5% level to avoid severe degradation of the results; and (2) the scatter in the optical richness-mass distribution, which needs to be made as tight as possible to improve the efficacy of follow-up observations.

  19. Merit and demerit effects of silver nanoparticles in the bioperformance of an electrodeposited hydroxyapatite: nanosilver composite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionita, D., E-mail: md_ionita@yahoo.com; Dilea, M., E-mail: mirela_dilea@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Titorencu, I., E-mail: irina.titorencu@icbp.ro [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology (Romania); Demetrescu, I., E-mail: i_demetrescu@chim.upb.ro [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-10-15

    For this research, TiAlZr specimens were covered with a hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles composite coatings (nAg-HA) prepared by pulse electrodeposition. The morphological texture of the nAg-HA nanoparticles on TiAlZr surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrochemical parameters from dynamic polarization tests performed in Ringer's solution indicate better anticorrosive properties for the TiAlZr alloy after nAg-HA electrodeposition. Bacteriological experiments performed in vitro demonstrate the efficacy of TiAlZr implants coated with nAg-HA against the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria quantified in a 98 % inhibition of Escherichia coli growth. The biocompatibility tests regarding cell adherence, proliferation, and viability of coating (also by means of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-RT-PCR) completed the characterization of the coating, enabling us to discuss the merit and demerit effects of Ag nanoparticles (nAg) effects on bioperformance. Based on experimental and literature data, the coating could be considered a passive-active structure.

  20. Merit and demerit effects of silver nanoparticles in the bioperformance of an electrodeposited hydroxyapatite: nanosilver composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, D.; Dilea, M.; Titorencu, I.; Demetrescu, I.

    2012-10-01

    For this research, TiAlZr specimens were covered with a hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles composite coatings (nAg-HA) prepared by pulse electrodeposition. The morphological texture of the nAg-HA nanoparticles on TiAlZr surface was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrochemical parameters from dynamic polarization tests performed in Ringer's solution indicate better anticorrosive properties for the TiAlZr alloy after nAg-HA electrodeposition. Bacteriological experiments performed in vitro demonstrate the efficacy of TiAlZr implants coated with nAg-HA against the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria quantified in a 98 % inhibition of Escherichia coli growth. The biocompatibility tests regarding cell adherence, proliferation, and viability of coating (also by means of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction—RT-PCR) completed the characterization of the coating, enabling us to discuss the merit and demerit effects of Ag nanoparticles (nAg) effects on bioperformance. Based on experimental and literature data, the coating could be considered a passive-active structure.

  1. Non-equilibrium processing leads to record high thermoelectric figure of merit in PbTe–SrTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Gangjian; Shi, Fengyuan; Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chi, Hang; Zhang, Xiaomi; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-07-26

    The broad-based implementation of thermoelectric materials in converting heat to electricity hinges on the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Here we demonstrate a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 2.5 at 923 K by the cumulative integration of several performance-enhancing concepts in a single material system. Using non-equilibrium processing we show that hole-doped samples of PbTe can be heavily alloyed with SrTe well beyond its thermodynamic solubility limit of <1 mol%. The much higher levels of Sr alloyed into the PbTe matrix widen the bandgap and create convergence of the two valence bands of PbTe, greatly boosting the power factors with maximal values over 30 μWcm -1 K -2. Exceeding the 5 mol% solubility limit leads to endotaxial SrTe nanostructures which produce extremely low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.5 Wm -1 K -1 but preserve high hole mobilities because of the matrix/precipitate valence band alignment. The best composition is hole-doped PbTe-8% SrTe.

  2. Merit of Anisodamine Combined with Opioid δ-Receptor Activation in the Protection against Myocardial Injury during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR injury easily occurrs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in elderly patients. In an attempt to develop an effective strategy, we employed a pig model of MIR injury to investigate the maximum rate of change of left ventricular pressure, left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, and left intraventricular pressure. Coronary sinus cardiac troponin T (TnT and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP content in myocardium were measured. The ultrastructures for MIR injury were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The role of δ-opioid receptor activation using D-Ala2, D-Leu5-enkephalin (DADLE in both early (D1 and late (D2 phases of cardioprotection was identified. Also, the merit of cardioprotection by DADLE in combination with anisodamine, the muscarinic receptor antagonist (D+M, was evaluated. Glibenclamide was employed at the dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Significant higher cardiac indicators, reduced TnT and increased ATP contents, were observed in D1, D2, and D+M groups compared with the control group. DADLE induced protection was better in later phase of ischemia that was attenuated by glibenclamide. DADLE after the ischemia showed no benefit, but combined treatment with anisodamine showed a marked postischemic cardioprotection. Thus, anisodamine is helpful in combination with DADLE for postischemic cardioprotection.

  3. Non-equilibrium processing leads to record high thermoelectric figure of merit in PbTe–SrTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gangjian; Shi, Fengyuan; Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chi, Hang; Zhang, Xiaomi; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-01-01

    The broad-based implementation of thermoelectric materials in converting heat to electricity hinges on the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Here we demonstrate a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 2.5 at 923 K by the cumulative integration of several performance-enhancing concepts in a single material system. Using non-equilibrium processing we show that hole-doped samples of PbTe can be heavily alloyed with SrTe well beyond its thermodynamic solubility limit of <1 mol%. The much higher levels of Sr alloyed into the PbTe matrix widen the bandgap and create convergence of the two valence bands of PbTe, greatly boosting the power factors with maximal values over 30 μW cm−1 K−2. Exceeding the 5 mol% solubility limit leads to endotaxial SrTe nanostructures which produce extremely low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m−1 K−1 but preserve high hole mobilities because of the matrix/precipitate valence band alignment. The best composition is hole-doped PbTe–8%SrTe. PMID:27456303

  4. Enhancement in Figure of Merit ( ZT) by Annealing of BiTe Nanostructures Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Flash Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Sharma, Lalit; Singh, Simrjit; Sivaiah, Bathula; Reddy, G. B.; Senguttuvan, T. D.

    2014-06-01

    Uniform polycrystalline bismuth telluride (BiTe) nanowires of diameter 100 nm to 150 nm and hexagonal nanoplates with thickness of 50 nm to 100 nm have been successfully synthesized by the microwave-assisted flash combustion technique. The formation of BiTe nanostructures depends on the type of fuel and the oxidant-to-fuel ratio, which in turn affect the reaction time and reaction temperature. Spark plasma sintering has been employed for compaction and sintering of both as-synthesized as well as annealed BiTe powders. Increasing the sintering temperature while using faster sintering cycles reduced the porosity, resulting in high densification while preserving the nanostructures. The dimensionless figure of merit ( ZT) was evaluated from the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity values over the range from 300 K to 600 K. The effect of annealing on the enhancement of ZT is discussed. These evaluations suggest that the rarely studied BiTe is a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures.

  5. Enhancement of thermoelectric figure of merit in β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} by indium doping control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pai-Chun, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: cheny2@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Chen, Yang-Yuan, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: cheny2@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chun-Chuen [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeng-Lung [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Chu 30076, Taiwan (China); Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang-Cheng [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Liang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Chu 30076, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chung-Li [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 25137, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuei-Hsien [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate the control of phase composition in Bridgman-grown β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystals by indium doping, an effective way to overcome the difficulty of growing very pure β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} thermoelectric material. The crystal structures are characterized by Rietveld refinement with synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The results show an anisotropic lattice expansion in In-doped β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} wherein the zinc atoms are partially substituted by indium ones at 36f site of R-3c symmetry. Through the elimination of ZnSb phase, all the three individual thermoelectric properties are simultaneously improved, i.e., increasing electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient while reducing thermal conductivity. Under an optimal In concentration (x = 0.05), pure phase β-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystal can be obtained, which possesses a high figure of merit (ZT) of 1.4 at 700 K.

  6. Power limits and a figure of merit for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the presence of third and fifth order loss

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    We derive a set of design guidelines and a figure of merit to aid the engineering process of on-chip waveguides for strong Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). To this end, we examine the impact of several types of loss on the total amplification of the Stokes wave that can be achieved via SBS. We account for linear loss and nonlinear loss of third order (two-photon absorption, 2PA) and fifth order, most notably 2PA-induced free carrier absorption (FCA). From this, we derive an upper bound for the output power of continuous-wave Brillouin-lasers and show that the optimal operating conditions and maximal realisable Stokes amplification of any given waveguide structure are determined by a dimensionless parameter $\\mathcal{F}$ involving the SBS-gain and all loss parameters. We provide simple expressions for optimal pump power, waveguide length and realisable amplification and demonstrate their utility in two example systems. Notably, we find that 2PA-induced FCA is a serious limitation to SBS in silicon and ge...

  7. Morphofunctional Merits of an In Vivo Cryotechnique for Living Animal Organs: Challenges of Clinical Applications from Basic Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinichi

    2016-02-27

    Recent advances in molecular and genetic techniques have led to establishment of new biomedical fields; however, morphological techniques are still required for a more precise understanding of functioning cells and tissues. Conventional preparation procedures involve a series of chemical fixation, alcohol dehydration, paraffin or epoxy resin embedding, sectioning, and staining steps. In these steps, technical artifacts modify original morphologies of the cells being examined. Furthermore, difficulties are associated with capturing dynamic images in vivo using conventional chemical fixation. Therefore, a quick-freezing (QF) method was introduced for biological specimens in the 20th century. However, specimens have to be resected from living animal organs with blood supply, and their dynamical morphologies have not been investigated in detail using the QF method. In order to overcome these issues, the tissue resection step of organs had to be avoided and samples needed to be frozen under blood circulation. Our in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT) was an original technique to cryofix samples without resecting their tissues. The most significant merit of IVCT is that blood circulation into organs is preserved at the exact moment of freezing, which has been useful for arresting transient physiological processes of cells and tissues and maintaining their components in situ.

  8. Cybersecurity Figure of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    is not well-founded. In 2012, the Defense Science Board determined that nearly every conceivable component within DoD is networked. These...N6) and Navy Task Force Cyber Awakening (TFCA) Lead said, Recent real world events and attacks on our Navy systems make clear the cyber threat is...the DoD’s lack of a consistent, widely accepted methodology to measure and clearly and concisely express the operational readiness and programmatic

  9. Merits of RDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Acharya

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available The explosive properties of RDX have been compared in details with those of other high explosives, such as, picric acid, TNT, CE and PETN, in respect of (i Rate of detonation, (ii Brisance,(iii Blasting power, (ivSensitivity, (v Stability and (vi Fragmentation. It has been pointed out that RDX is superior to all other modern high explosives hitherto used for blasting, shattering and fragmentation purposes.

  10. A Figure-of-Merit for Design and Optimization of Inductive Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Power transmission efficiency (PTE) has been the key parameter for wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been suggested that for mm-sized implants increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of the WPT link to hundreds of MHz improves PTE. However, increasing fp significantly reduces the maximum allowable power that can be transmitted under the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. This paper presents a new figure-of-merit (FoM) and a design methodology for optimal WPT to mm-sized implants via inductive coupling by striking a balance between PTE and maximum delivered power under SAR constraints (PL,SAR). First, the optimal mm-sized receiver (Rx) coil geometry is identified for a wide range of fp to maximize the Rx coil quality factor (Q). Secondly, the optimal transmitter (Tx) coil geometry and fp are found to maximize the proposed FoM under a low-loss Rx matched-load condition. Finally, proper Tx coil and tissue spacing is identified based on FoM at the optimal fp. We demonstrate that fp in order of tens of MHz still offer higher PL,SAR and FoM, which is key in applications that demand high power such as optogenetics. An inductive link to power a 1 mm (3) implant was designed based on our FoM and verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. In our measurements, an Rx coil with 1 mm diameter, located 10 mm inside the tissue, achieved PTE and PL,SAR of 1.4% and 2.2 mW at fp of 20 MHz, respectively.

  11. Performance comparison of two resolution modeling PET reconstruction algorithms in terms of physical figures of merit used in quantitative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, R; Ferrando, O; Valzano, S; Lizio, D; Sacchetti, G; Ciarmiello, A; Foppiano, F; Brambilla, M

    2015-07-01

    Resolution modeling (RM) of PET systems has been introduced in iterative reconstruction algorithms for oncologic PET. The RM recovers the loss of resolution and reduces the associated partial volume effect. While these methods improved the observer performance, particularly in the detection of small and faint lesions, their impact on quantification accuracy still requires thorough investigation. The aim of this study was to characterize the performances of the RM algorithms under controlled conditions simulating a typical (18)F-FDG oncologic study, using an anthropomorphic phantom and selected physical figures of merit, used for image quantification. Measurements were performed on Biograph HiREZ (B_HiREZ) and Discovery 710 (D_710) PET/CT scanners and reconstructions were performed using the standard iterative reconstructions and the RM algorithms associated to each scanner: TrueX and SharpIR, respectively. RM determined a significant improvement in contrast recovery for small targets (≤17 mm diameter) only for the D_710 scanner. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) increased when RM was applied using both scanners. The SUVmax of small targets was on average lower with the B_HiREZ than with the D_710. Sharp IR improved the accuracy of SUVmax determination, whilst TrueX showed an overestimation of SUVmax for sphere dimensions greater than 22 mm. The goodness of fit of adaptive threshold algorithms worsened significantly when RM algorithms were employed for both scanners. Differences in general quantitative performance were observed for the PET scanners analyzed. Segmentation of PET images using adaptive threshold algorithms should not be undertaken in conjunction with RM reconstructions. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of the figure of merit of indigenously developed Nd-doped phosphate laser glass rods for use in high power lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Kulkarni; S Jain; M P Kamath; A S Joshi; P A Naik; P D Gupta; K Annapurna; A K Mandal; B Karmakar; R Sen

    2014-01-01

    High energy, high power (HEHP) Nd:glass laser systems are used for inertial confinement fusion and equation of state (EOS) studies of materials at high temperature and pressure. A program has been undertaken for the indigenous development of Nd-doped phosphate laser glass rods and discs for HEHP lasers. In this paper, we report the characterization of the Nd-doped phosphate laser glass rods produced under this program and compare the indigenously developed laser glass to LHG-8 laser glass of M/s Hoya, Japan. We experimentally measured the values of the stimulated emission cross-section () and coefficient of intensity-dependent refractive index (2) and hence the figure of merit = /2 of the indigenous phosphate laser glass rods. This value of figure of merit is found comparable to the reported value of identically doped Nd:glass rods.

  13. Anisotropy of an acousto-optic figure of merit for NaBi(MoOsub>4sub>)sub>2sub> crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Oksana; Krupych, Oleh; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2016-10-01

    We develop a technique for analyzing the anisotropy of an acousto-optic figure of merit for crystals belonging to tetragonal symmetry groups 4/m, 4, and 4¯. The technique is based on phenomenological relations that describe anisotropies of the effective elasto-optic coefficients and the acoustic wave velocities. Our approach is verified on the example of NaBi(MoOsub>4sub>)sub>2sub> crystals for all possible types and geometries of acousto-optic interactions. We list and characterize the acousto-optic interaction geometries at which the maximal acousto-optic figures of merit are reached for both isotropic and anisotropic interaction types. Finally, we show that the acousto-optic efficiency of NaBi(MoOsub>4sub>)sub>2sub> originates mainly from large elasto-optic coefficients.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 8-12, 2015, Arlington, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-10-01

    The fiscal year 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 6-10, 2016, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2015, in Washington, D.C.. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. A Critical Examination of Figure of Merit (FOM). Assessing the Goodness-of-Fit in Gamma/X-ray Peak Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burr, Thomas Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McElroy, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-06

    In this paper we develop and investigate several criteria for assessing how well a proposed spectral form fits observed spectra. We consider the classical improved figure of merit (FOM) along with several modifications, as well as criteria motivated by Poisson regression from the statistical literature. We also develop a new FOM that is based on the statistical idea of the bootstrap. A spectral simulator has been developed to assess the performance of these different criteria under multiple data configurations.

  17. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    active placebo control interventions are rarely used in randomized clinical trials, but they constitute a methodological tool which merits serious consideration. We suggest that active placebos are used more often in trials of drugs with noticeable side effects, especially in situations where the expected therapeutic effects are modest and the risk of bias due to unblinding is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: II. Merits of using safety drums for backup control

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mahomed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is performed to investigate the merits of using the TOPAZ-II safety drums for a backup control to prevent a reactivity excursion, stabilize the reactor, and achieve steady-state power operation, following a severe hypothetical reactivity initiated accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the nine drums to accidentally rotate the full 180° outward. Results show that an immediate, inward rotation of the three safety drums to an angle of 80° will shutdown the reactor, however, a delay time of 10 s will not only prevents a reactivity excursion, but also enables operating the reactor at a steady-state thermal power of about 33.3 kW (0.9 kW per TFE). Conversely, when the immediate rotation of the safety drums is to a larger angle of 100°, a steady-state operation at about 37 kW can be achieved, but a delay of 10 s causes a reactivity excursion and overheating of the TFEs. It is therefor concluded that, should the drive mechanism be modified to enable rotating the safety drums for TOPAZ-II reactor at variable speeds of and below 22.5°/s, the three safety drums could be used successfully for a backup control, following an RIA. However, since the reactivity worth of the three safety drums is only 2.0, the maximum steady-state electric power achievable for the system is limited to approximately 0.25 kW, at which the fission power is about 37 kW and the emitter temperature is approximaely 1500 K. To alleviate such a limitation and enable operation at nominal design conditions (fission power of about 107 kW or a system's total electric power of 5.6 kW), the reactivity worth of the safety drums would have to be increased by at least 0.24. An additional increase in the safety drums' worth will also be necessary to maintain steady-state operation of the system at nominal conditions throughout the mission lifetime, with all nine control drums fully

  19. Evaluation of automatic dose rate control for flat panel imaging using a spatial frequency domain figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehairs, M.; Bosmans, H.; Desmet, W.; Marshall, N. W.

    2017-08-01

    Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness (WET) range of 2.5 cm to 37.5 cm. Acquisition parameter settings (tube potential, tube current, pulse length, copper filtration and focus size) and phantom entrance air kerma rate (EAKR) were recorded as the thickness changed. Signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was measured using a 0.3 mm iron insert centred in the PMMA stack, positioned at the system isocentre. SDNR was then multiplied by modulation transfer function (MTF) based correction factors for focal spot penumbral blurring and motion blurring, to give a spatial frequency dependent parameter, SDNR(u). These MTF correction factors were evaluated for an object motion of 25 mm s-1 and at a spatial frequency of 1.4 mm-1 in the object plane, typical for cardiac imaging. The figure of merit (FOM) was calculated as SDNR(u)²/EAKR for the two ADRC regimes. Using 5P versus 3P technique showed clear improvements over all thicknesses. Averaged over clinically relevant adult WET values (20 cm-37.5 cm), EAKR was reduced by 13% and 27% for fluoroscopy and acquisition modes, respectively, while the SDNR(u) based FOM increased by 16% and 34% for fluoroscopy and acquisition. In conclusion, the generalized FOM, taking into account the influence of focus size and object motion, showed benefit in terms of image quality and patient dose for the 5-parameter control over 3-parameter method for the ADRC programming of dynamic x-ray imaging systems.

  20. Merits and demerits of engaging in athletic, academic and part-time job roles among university student-athletes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Ebara, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-12-01

    Although role conflict management is necessary for the prevention of dropout from participation in sports, little has been known about it, especially regarding Japanese university student-athletes. Hence, this study examined the aspects of merit and demerit involved in their performances of academic, athletic, part-time job, family and human relationship roles. The merits and demerits were evaluated using the theoretical concepts of negative spillover (NSP), positive spillover (PSP), compensation and segmentation. In the research, a total of 108 participants (63 males, 45 females) described information about their multiple roles in the Multiple Roles Map (MRM) form. NSP with high frequency rates (3rd quartile) showed demerit that negative condition in athletic and part-time job roles tended to disturb performance of other roles (male ≥ 17.5%, female ≥ 15.6%). The results of PSP showed merit that positive condition in the athletic, part-time job and academic roles contributes to accomplishment of good performance in other roles (male ≥ 19.0%, female ≥ 17.8%). Compensation indicated that negative conditions in the roles were compensated by satisfaction in the human relationships and family roles and private time (male ≥ 9.5%, female ≥ 11.1%). The family role was segmented from other roles (male ≥ 71.4%, female ≥ 68.9%). Sharing these findings will be effective in helping to solve role conflict problems of university student-athletes in Japan.

  1. The relationship between the thermoelectric generator efficiency and the device engineering figure of merit Zd,eng. The maximum efficiency 𝜼max

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapenciuc, C. L.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric materials are used today in thermoelectric devices for heat to electricity(thermoelectric generators-TEG) or electricity to heat(heat pumps) conversion in a large range of applications. In the case of TEGs the final measure of their performance is given by a quantity named the maximum efficiency which shows how much from the heat input is converted into electrical power. Therefore it is of great interest to know correctly how much is the efficiency of a device to can make commercial assessments. The concept of engineering figure of merit, Zeng, and engineering power factor, Peng, were already introduced in the field to quantify the efficiency of a single material under temperature dependent thermoelectric properties, with the mention that the formulas derivation was limited to one leg of the thermoelectric generator. In this paper we propose to extend the concept of engineering figure of merit to a thermoelectric generator by introducing a more general concept of device engineering thermoelectric figure of merit, Zd,eng, which depends on the both TEG materials properties and which shall be the right quantity to be used when we are interested in the evaluation of the efficiency. Also, this work takes into account the electrical contact resistance between the electrodes and thermoelement legs in an attempt to quantify its influence upon the performance of a TEG. Finally, a new formula is proposed for the maximum efficiency of a TEG.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of monolayer MSe2 (M = Zr, Hf): low lattice thermal conductivity and a promising figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangqian; Gao, G Y; Huang, Zhishuo; Zhang, Wenxu; Yao, Kailun

    2016-09-16

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX2 (M = Mo, W, Zr, Hf, etc; X = S, Se, Te) have become well-known in recent times for their promising applications in thermoelectrics and field effect transistors. In this work, we perform a systematic study on the thermoelectric properties of monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2 using first-principles calculations combined with Boltzmann transport equations. Our results point to a competitive thermoelectric figure of merit (close to 1 at optimal doping) in both monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2, which is markedly higher than previous explored monolayer TMDCs such as MoS2 and MoSe2. We also reveal that the higher figure of merits arise mainly from their low lattice thermal conductivity, and this is partly due to the strong coupling of acoustic modes with low frequency optical modes. It is found that the figure of merits can be better optimized in n-type than in p-type. In particular, the performance of HfSe2 is superior to ZrSe2 at a higher temperature. Our results suggest that monolayer ZrSe2 and HfSe2 with lower lattice thermal conductivity than usual monolayer TMDCs are promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

  3. A comparative analysis of the results from 4 trials of beta-blocker therapy for heart failure: BEST, CIBIS-II, MERIT-HF, and COPERNICUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Michael J; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Massie, Barry M; Deedwania, Prakash; Follmann, Dean; Kovar, David; Murray, David; Oren, Ron; Rosenberg, Yves; Young, James; Zile, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric

    2003-10-01

    Recent large randomized, controlled trials (BEST [Beta-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial], CIBIS-II [Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Trial II], COPERNICUS [Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study], and MERIT-HF [Metoprolol Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure]) have addressed the usefulness of beta-blockade in the treatment of advanced heart failure. CIBIS-II, COPERNICUS, and MERIT-HF have shown that beta-blocker treatment with bisoprolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol XL, respectively, reduce mortality in advanced heart failure patients, whereas BEST found a statistically nonsignificant trend toward reduced mortality with bucindolol. We conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether the response to beta-blockade in BEST could be related to differences in the clinical and demographic characteristics of the study populations. We generated a sample from BEST to resemble the patient cohorts studied in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF to find out whether the response to beta-blocker therapy was similar to that reported in the other trials. These findings are further compared with COPERNICUS, which entered patients with more severe heart failure. To achieve conformity with the entry criteria for CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF, the BEST study population was adjusted to exclude patients with systolic blood pressure 80 years (exclusion criteria employed in those trials). The BEST comparison subgroup (BCG) was further modified to more closely reflect the racial demographics reported for patients enrolled in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF. The association of beta-blocker therapy with overall survival and survival free of cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and progressive pump failure in the BCG was assessed. In the BCG subgroup, bucindolol treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)=0.77 [95% CI=0.65, 0.92]), cardiovascular death (HR=0.71 [0.58, 0.86]), sudden death (HR=0.77 [0.59, 0.999]), and pump

  4. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2014 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 16-20, 2014, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 16-20, 2014, at the Washington Marriott Wardman Park in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  6. Methods for mapping recreational and social values in urban green spaces in the nordic countries and their comparative merits for urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Caspersen, Ole H.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by urban planning is to identify and evaluate recreational and social values of urban and peri-urban green spaces. Over the past 30 years a number of methods for mapping recreational and social values have been developed and implemented in the Nordic countries......, in dialogue between research and urban planning practice. This paper provides a framework for assessment of planning methods and an analysis of the comparative merits of seven Nordic mapping methods and how they address the challenges of identification and evaluation of recreational and social values...

  7. A 2GHz, 17% tuning range quadrature CMOS VCO with high figure–of–merit and 0.6° phase error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreani, Pietro

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a quadrature VCO implemented in a standard 0.35µm CMOS process. The VCO draws 16mA from a 1.3V power supply, can be tuned between 1.91 GHz and 2.27GHz, and displays a phase noise of -140dBc/Hz or less at 3MHz offset frequency from the carrier, for a minimum phase-noise figure......-of-merit of 184 dB. The maximum departure from quadrature between the VCO phases is 0.6°....

  8. Stage efficiency in the analysis of thermochemical water decomposition processes. [Procedure using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies and loss coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, W.L.; Funk, J.E.; Carty, R.H.; Soliman, M.A.; Cox, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure for analyzing thermochemical water-splitting processes using the figure of merit is expanded to include individual stage efficiencies, and loss coefficients. The use of these quantities to establish the thermodynamic inefficiencies of each stage is shown. A number of processes are used to illustrate these concepts and procedures and to demonstrate the facility with which process steps contributing most to the cycle efficiency are found. The procedure allows attention to be directed to those steps of the process where the greatest increase in total cycle efficiency can be obtained.

  9. Electric field-tunable BaxSr1-xTiO3 films with high figures of merit grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Kajdos, Adam P.; Hauser, Adam J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    We report on the dielectric properties of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on epitaxial Pt bottom electrodes. Paraelectric films (x ≲ 0.5) exhibit dielectric losses that are similar to those of BST single crystals and ceramics. Films with device quality factors greater than 1000 and electric field tunabilities exceeding 1:5 are demonstrated. The results provide evidence for the importance of stoichiometry control and the use of a non-energetic deposition technique for achieving high figures of merit of tunable devices with BST thin films.

  10. Low Reynolds number flow across an array of cylindrical microposts in a microchannel and figure-of-merit analysis of micropost-filled microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J.; Agonafer, D. D.; Han, J.-H.; Shannon, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    Micropost-filled reactors are commonly found in many micro-total analysis system applications because of their large surface area for the surrounding volume. Design rules for micropost-filled reactors are presented here to optimize the performance of a micro-preconcentrator, which is a component of a micro-gas chromatography system. A key figure of merit for the performance of the micropost-filled preconcentrator is to minimize the pressure drop while maximizing the surface-area-to-volume ratio for a given overall channel geometry. Several independent models from the literature are used to predict the flow resistance across the micropost-filled channels for low Reynolds number flows. The pressure drop can be expressed solely as a function of a couple of design parameters: β = a/s, the ratio of the radius of each post to the half-spacing between two adjacent posts, and N, the number of microposts in a row. Pressure drop measurements are performed to experimentally corroborate the flow resistance models and the optimization scheme using the figure of merit. As the number of microposts for a given β increases in a given channel size, a greater surface-area-to-volume ratio will result for a fixed pressure drop. Therefore, increasing the arrays of posts with smaller diameters and spacing will optimize the microreactor for larger surface area for a given flow resistance, at least until Knudsen flow begins to dominate.

  11. An investigation of CYP2D6 genotype and response to metoprolol CR/XL during dose titration in patients with heart failure: a MERIT-HF substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, J A; Hall, A S; White, H L; Wikstrand, J; de Boer, R A; van Veldhuisen, D J; van der Harst, P; Waagstein, F; Hjalmarson, Å; Kjekshus, J; Balmforth, A J

    2014-03-01

    To explore the pharmacogenetic effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 genotype in patients with systolic heart failure treated using controlled/extended-release (CR/XL) metoprolol, this study assessed the CYP2D6 locus for the nonfunctional *4 allele (1846G>A; rs3892097) in the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF; n = 605). Participants were characterized as extensive, intermediate, or poor metabolizers (EMs, IMs, or PMs, respectively), based on the presence of the CYP2D6*4 allele (EM: *1*1, 60.4%; IM: *1*4, 35.8%; and PM: *4*4, 3.8%). Plasma metoprolol concentrations were 2.1-/4.6-fold greater in the IM/PM groups as compared with the EM group (P Metoprolol induced significantly lower heart rates and diastolic blood pressures during early titration, indicating a CYP2D6*4 allele dose-response effect (P metoprolol pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics during early titration; however, the MERIT-HF-defined titration schedule remains recommended for all patients, regardless of genotype.

  12. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... part. (b) Requirement for finding of good cause. A decision on a proposed agency action under...

  13. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  14. MASS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF A FLOW-THROUGH ELECTROLYTIC REACTOR USING A POROUS ELECTRODE: PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES OF MERIT FOR Pb(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertazzoli R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead from an acid borate-nitrate solution containing Pb(II was used to characterize the mass transport properties of an electrolytic reactor with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes, operated in the flow-through mode. Current potential curves recorded at a rotating vitreous carbon disc electrode were used to determine the diffusion coefficient for Pb(II under the conditions of the experiments. The performance and figures of merit of the electrolytic reactor were investigated by using different flowrates and cathode porosities. Dimensionless Sherwood and Reynolds numbers were correlated to characterize the mass transport properties of the reactor, and they were fitted to the equation Sh=24Re0.32Sc0.33.

  15. Assessment of 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI technology platform for RF applications: Figures of merit and effect of parasitic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Esfeh, B.; Kilchytska, V.; Barral, V.; Planes, N.; Haond, M.; Flandre, D.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2016-03-01

    This work provides a detailed study of 28 nm fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) planar ultra-thin body and BOX (UTBB) MOSFETs for high frequency applications. All parasitic elements such as the parasitic gate and source/drain series resistances, total capacitances are extracted and their effects on RF performance are analyzed and compared with previous work on similar devices. Two main RF figures of merit (FoM) such as the current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are determined. It is shown that fT of ∼280 GHz and fmax of ∼250 GHz are achievable in the shortest devices. Based on the extracted parameters, the validation of the small-signal equivalent circuit used for modeling UTBB MOSFETs is investigated by comparing simulated and measured S-parameters.

  16. Numerical analysis of a near-infrared plasmonic refractive index sensor with high figure of merit based on a fillet cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Wu, Dong; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Ye, Han

    2016-05-02

    A near-infrared plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor with figure of merit (FOM) as high as 124.6 is proposed and investigated numerically. The RI sensing is realized by employing the linear relation between resonant wavelength and RI of the material under detecting. Based on the fillet cavity coupled with two metal-insulator-metal waveguides, transmission efficiency (T) and optical resolution (FWHM) of the RI sensor are both improved to a great extent with T = 95% and FWHM = 12nm, keeping acceptable wavelength sensitivity of 1496nm/RIU within the near-infrared region. In addition, a sensitivity as high as 3476nm/RIU is obtained by optimizing the shape and size of fillet cavity. In general, the high FOM, transmittance and sensitivity achieved by our design may get further applications in biomedical science and nanophotonic circuits.

  17. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  18. Assessing the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete and continuous-variable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarino, Antonio; Bina, Matteo; Porto, Carmen; Cialdi, Simone; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally address the significance of fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum state reconstruction of discrete (DV) and continuous-variable (CV) quantum optical systems. In particular, we analyze the use of fidelity in quantum homodyne tomography of CV states and maximum-likelihood polarization tomography of DV ones, focusing attention on nonclassicality, entanglement, and quantum discord as a function of fidelity to a target state. Our findings show that high values of fidelity, despite well quantifying geometrical proximity in the Hilbert space, may be obtained for states displaying opposite physical properties, e.g., quantum or semiclassical features. In particular, we analyze in detail the quantum-to-classical transition for squeezed thermal states of a single-mode optical system and for Werner states of a two-photon polarization qubit system.

  19. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... of all the polymers corresponding to all combinations of donor and acceptor units is followed by characterization of all the materials with respect to molecular weight, electrochemical energy levels, band gaps, photochemical stability, carrier mobility, and photovoltaic parameters. The photovoltaic...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  20. High superionic conduction arising from aligned large lamellae and large figure of merit in bulk Cu1.94Al0.02Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bin; Zhang, Yong; Li, Weiqian; Chen, Zhenrui; Cui, Jingying; Li, Wei; Xie, Yuandong; Hao, Qing; He, Qinyu

    2014-09-01

    Good thermoelectric materials should have low thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient, which cannot be easily balanced in bulk materials. Exceptionally, the super-ionics in β-Cu2Se can favorably contribute large ionic electrical conductivity and a liquid-like thermal conductivity by Cu+ ions. In the previous work, the superionic mechanism was found to be enhanced by small and randomly orientated lamellae with alternating ordered Se ion monolayer and disordered Cu ion bilayers. Here, we further enhance the superionic mechanism by increasing and better aligning lamellae in bulk Cu1.94Al0.02Se, resulting in a large thermoelectric figure of merit of 2.62 at 756 °C.

  1. Design of low surface roughness-low residual stress-high optoelectronic merit a-IZO thin films for flexible OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wilkinson, Taylor M.; Packard, Corinne E.; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The development of efficient and reliable large-area flexible optoelectronic devices demands low surface roughness-low residual stress-high optoelectronic merit transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films. Here, we correlate surface roughness-residual stress-optoelectronic properties of sputtered amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin films using a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach and find a common growth space to achieve a smooth surface in a stress-free and high optoelectronic merit a-IZO thin film. The sputtering power, growth pressure, oxygen partial pressure, and RF/(RF+DC) are varied in a two-level system with a full factorial design, and results are used to deconvolve the complex growth space, identifying significant control growth parameters and their possible interactions. The surface roughness of a-IZO thin film varies over 0.19 nm to 3.97 nm, which is not in line with the general assumption of low surface roughness in a-IZO thin films. The initial regression model and analysis of variance reveal no single optimum growth sub-space to achieve low surface roughness (≤0.5 nm), low residual stress (-1 to 0 GPa), and industrially acceptable electrical conductivity (>1000 S/cm) for a-IZO thin films. The extrapolation of growth parameters in light of the current results and previous knowledge leads to a new sub-space, resulting in a low residual stress of -0.52±0.04 GPa, a low surface roughness of 0.55±0.03 nm, and moderate electrical conductivity of 1962±3.84 S/cm in a-IZO thin films. These results demonstrate the utility of the DOE approach to multi-parameter optimization, which provides an important tool for the development of flexible TCOs for the next-generation flexible organic light emitting diodes applications.

  2. Design of Low Surface Roughness-Low Residual Stress-High Optoelectronic Merit a-IZO Thin Films for Flexible OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wilkinson, Taylor M.; Packard, Corinne E.; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-06-14

    The development of efficient and reliable large-area flexible optoelectronic devices demands low surface roughness-low residual stress-high optoelectronic merit transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films. Here, we correlate surface roughness-residual stress-optoelectronic properties of sputtered amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin films using a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach and find a common growth space to achieve a smooth surface in a stress-free and high optoelectronic merit a-IZO thin film. The sputtering power, growth pressure, oxygen partial pressure, and RF/(RF+DC) are varied in a two-level system with a full factorial design, and results are used to deconvolve the complex growth space, identifying significant control growth parameters and their possible interactions. The surface roughness of a-IZO thin film varies over 0.19 nm to 3.97 nm, which is not in line with the general assumption of low surface roughness in a-IZO thin films. The initial regression model and analysis of variance reveal no single optimum growth sub-space to achieve low surface roughness (=0.5 nm), low residual stress (-1 to 0 GPa), and industrially acceptable electrical conductivity (>1000 S/cm) for a-IZO thin films. The extrapolation of growth parameters in light of the current results and previous knowledge leads to a new sub-space, resulting in a low residual stress of -0.52 +/- 0.04 GPa, a low surface roughness of 0.55 +/- 0.03 nm, and moderate electrical conductivity of 1962 +/- 3.84 S/cm in a-IZO thin films. These results demonstrate the utility of the DOE approach to multi-parameter optimization, which provides an important tool for the development of flexible TCOs for the next-generation flexible organic light emitting diodes applications.

  3. Computational cluster validation for microarray data analysis: experimental assessment of Clest, Consensus Clustering, Figure of Merit, Gap Statistics and Model Explorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utro Filippo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring cluster structure in microarray datasets is a fundamental task for the so-called -omic sciences. It is also a fundamental question in Statistics, Data Analysis and Classification, in particular with regard to the prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, usually established via internal validation measures. Despite the wealth of internal measures available in the literature, new ones have been recently proposed, some of them specifically for microarray data. Results We consider five such measures: Clest, Consensus (Consensus Clustering, FOM (Figure of Merit, Gap (Gap Statistics and ME (Model Explorer, in addition to the classic WCSS (Within Cluster Sum-of-Squares and KL (Krzanowski and Lai index. We perform extensive experiments on six benchmark microarray datasets, using both Hierarchical and K-means clustering algorithms, and we provide an analysis assessing both the intrinsic ability of a measure to predict the correct number of clusters in a dataset and its merit relative to the other measures. We pay particular attention both to precision and speed. Moreover, we also provide various fast approximation algorithms for the computation of Gap, FOM and WCSS. The main result is a hierarchy of those measures in terms of precision and speed, highlighting some of their merits and limitations not reported before in the literature. Conclusion Based on our analysis, we draw several conclusions for the use of those internal measures on microarray data. We report the main ones. Consensus is by far the best performer in terms of predictive power and remarkably algorithm-independent. Unfortunately, on large datasets, it may be of no use because of its non-trivial computer time demand (weeks on a state of the art PC. FOM is the second best performer although, quite surprisingly, it may not be competitive in this scenario: it has essentially the same predictive power of WCSS but it is from 6 to 100 times slower in time

  4. Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel: A Survey of Florida Public District Policy Makers and Administrators. The Relationship of Expectancy Work Motivation, Selected Situational Variables and Locus of Control to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, John R.; Binnie, David G.

    1985-01-01

    This research bulletin contains parts of two studies dealing with the persistent problem of developing effective teachers and stimulating effective teaching. The study reported in "Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel" (John Weigman) was conducted to survey, analyze, and compare the attitudes of Florida public school…

  5. Problems Discussion and Countermeasure Analysis of Merit Pay Reform in Institutions%事业单位绩效工资改革问题探讨及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹娅玲

    2014-01-01

    我国事业单位绩效工资改革的深入推进,对深化分配制度改革和提升事业单位的公益服务水平起到了积极的促进作用。对事业单位实施绩效工资过程中存在的问题进行分析,并提出相应的对策建议,以期对完善绩效工资改革起到一定的推动作用。%With in-depth implementing of merit pay reform in Chinese institutional organizations,merit pay reform plays a positive part to deepen the reform of the distribution system and improve public serv-ice in institutional organization.This paper analyses problems on the process of merit pay reform in in-stitutional organizations and puts forward relevant strategic suggestions in order to be further promotion of improving merit pay reform.

  6. What data determine whether a plant taxon is distinct enough to merit legal protection? A case study of Sedum integrifolium (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfelt, J P; Furnier, G R; Luby, J J

    2001-03-01

    Measures of molecular and morphological genetic variation are often used to set conservation priorities and design management strategies for plant taxa. Evaluated together they can give insights into a taxon's evolutionary status that neither data type alone can achieve. We investigated the distinctness and variability of Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi, a federally and state-listed taxon, from its conspecific relatives using 33 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers (253 plants) and 37 morphological characters from 1308 common-garden-grown plants. We included S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi (four populations), its conspecific relatives (11 populations), and S. rosea and S. rhodanthum populations in our study. The morphological and molecular data correspond in showing that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations are highly distinct. However, the data sets differ in their estimates of the relatedness of some S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi populations and in the percentage variation detected due to differences among them (25 and 9-13% for the molecular and morphological data, respectively) suggesting little gene flow among populations and some differentiation, possibly from selective pressures. Given our data, we recommend that S. integrifolium ssp. leedyi merits protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and that its populations be managed as distinct units.

  7. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife) Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933

  8. GHz spurious mode free AlN lamb wave resonator with high figure of merit using one dimensional phononic crystal tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoqiang; Zhu, Yao; Merugu, Srinivas; Wang, Nan; Sun, Chengliang; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports a spurious mode free GHz aluminum nitride (AlN) lamb wave resonator (LWR) towards high figure of merit (FOM). One dimensional gourd-shape phononic crystal (PnC) tether with large phononic bandgaps is employed to reduce the acoustic energy dissipation into the substrate. The periodic PnC tethers are based on a 1 μm-thick AlN layer with 0.26 μm-thick Mo layer on top. A clean spectrum over a wide frequency range is obtained from the measurement, which indicates a wide-band suppression of spurious modes. Experimental results demonstrate that the fabricated AlN LWR has an insertion loss of 5.2 dB and a loaded quality factor (Q) of 1893 at 1.02 GHz measured in air. An impressive ratio of the resistance at parallel resonance (Rp) to the resistance at series resonance (Rs) of 49.8 dB is obtained, which is an indication of high FOM for LWR. The high Rp to Rs ratio is one of the most important parameters to design a radio frequency filter with steep roll-off.

  9. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shao, Jinyou [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, International Center for Dielectric Research, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Yushu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 Tenth Street NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30318 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  10. Broad temperature plateau for thermoelectric figure of merit ZT>2 in phase-separated PbTe0.7S0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. J.; Zhao, L.-D.; Zheng, F. S.; Wu, D.; Pei, Y. L.; Tong, X.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J. Q.

    2014-07-01

    Thermoelectrics interconvert heat to electricity and are of great interest in waste heat recovery, solid-state cooling and so on. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials depends directly on the average ZT (dimensionless figure of merit) over a certain temperature range, which historically has been challenging to increase. Here we report that 2.5% K-doped PbTe0.7S0.3 achieves a ZT of >2 for a very wide temperature range from 673 to 923 K and has a record high average ZT of 1.56 (corresponding to a theoretical energy conversion efficiency of ~20.7% at the temperature gradient from 300 to 900 K). The PbTe0.7S0.3 composition shows spinodal decomposition with large PbTe-rich and PbS-rich regions where each region exhibits dissimilar types of nanostructures. Such high average ZT is obtained by synergistically optimized electrical- and thermal-transport properties via carrier concentration tuning, band structure engineering and hierarchical architecturing, and highlights a realistic prospect of wide applications of thermoelectrics.

  11. Research on Merit-Based Assessment System to College and University Leading Group%高校领导班子绩效测评体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小泉

    2012-01-01

    对高校领导班子的绩效管理是教育战略管理的重要组成部分,而对高校领导的能力测评则是重中之重。通过研究,构建了高校领导班子绩效考核的指标体系,并着重探讨了高校领导的能力测评的指标体系和测算方法,对具体测评方法与测评结果的使用提出理论性的思考。%Merit-based assessment system for college leading group is an important part in educational strategic management, and it is also an essential part in the evaluation of colleges and universities leadership. This paper has established a university leading group performance evaluation index system, and has emphatically discussed the ability evaluation index system of university leading group and its calculation method. It has put forward a theoretical reflection on the specific evaluation methods and evaluation results as well.

  12. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Takeuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; , Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97. In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.1650.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66. There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion.

  13. Research Update: Prediction of high figure of merit plateau in SnS and solid solution of (Pb,Sn)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Wolverton, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy can be achieved by thermoelectric materials, which provide a viable route for power generation and solid state refrigeration. Here, we use a combination of energetic, electronic, and vibrational first-principles based results to predict the figure of merit performance in hole doped single crystals of SnS and (Pb,Sn)S. We find high ZT values for both materials, specifically for (Pb,Sn)S along the b-axis. Both SnS and (Pb,Sn)S have excellent power factors when doped, due to a combination of increased electrical conductivity (due to doping) and a significantly enhanced Seebeck coefficient obtained by a doping-induced multiband effect. Anharmonic phonon calculations combined with a Debye-Calloway model show that the lattice thermal conductivity of both compounds is low, due to intrinsic anharmonicity, and is lowered further by the random, solid solution nature of the cation sublattice of (Pb,Sn)S. (Pb,Sn)S exhibits a high ZT plateau ranging from 1.3 at 300 K to 1.9 at 800 K. The overall ZT of the hole doped (Pb,Sn)S crystals is predicted to outperform most of the current state-of-the-art thermoelectric sulfide materials.

  14. Korvpall algab tantsuga / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusest korvpallimeeskonna BIG/new balance Rapla ergutustüdrukutega ehk cheerleaderitega. Võrreldes tavaliste showtantsudega on cheerleaderite tantsud palju koormavamad. Arutletakse selle üle mida tähendab olla cheerleader

  15. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  16. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  17. Uus turunduskangelane SMS / Merit Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Merit

    2002-01-01

    Lühisõnum SMS (Short Message Service) ja multimeediasõnum MMS (Multimedia Messaging System) - uued võimalused reklaami edastamiseks klientidele. Kommenteerib Henri Österlund. Lisa: SMS-reklaami võimalused

  18. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  19. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Etienne, Rampal S.; McKane, Alan J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality al

  20. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality al

  1. Uus turunduskangelane SMS / Merit Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Merit

    2002-01-01

    Lühisõnum SMS (Short Message Service) ja multimeediasõnum MMS (Multimedia Messaging System) - uued võimalused reklaami edastamiseks klientidele. Kommenteerib Henri Österlund. Lisa: SMS-reklaami võimalused

  2. Korvpall algab tantsuga / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusest korvpallimeeskonna BIG/new balance Rapla ergutustüdrukutega ehk cheerleaderitega. Võrreldes tavaliste showtantsudega on cheerleaderite tantsud palju koormavamad. Arutletakse selle üle mida tähendab olla cheerleader

  3. A new approach to dose estimation and in-phantom figure of merit measurement in BNCT by using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, R; Afarideh, H

    2011-12-01

    In-phantom figures of merit of the radiobiological dose distribution are the main criteria for evaluation of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) plan and neutron beam evaluation. Since in BNCT there are several reactions, which contribute to the total dose of the tissue, the calculation of the dose distribution is complicated and requires lengthy and time-consuming simulations. Any changes in the beam shaping assembly (BSA) design would lead to the change of the neutron/gamma spectrum at exit of therapeutic window. As a result of any changes in the beam spectrum, the dose distribution in the tissue will be altered; therefore, another set of lengthy and time-consuming simulations to recalculate the dose distribution would have to be performed. This study proposes a method that applies artificial neural network (ANN) for quick dose prediction in order to avoid lengthy calculations. This method allows us to estimate the depth-dose distribution and in-phantom figures of merit for any energy spectrum without performing a complete Monte Carlo code (MCNP) simulation. To train the ANNs for modeling the depth-dose distribution, this study used a database containing 500 simulations of the neutron depth-dose distribution and 280 simulations of the gamma depth-dose distribution. The calculations were carried out by the MCNP for various mono-energetic neutrons, ranging from thermal up to 10 MeV energy and 280 gamma energy group, ranging from 0.01 MeV up to 20 MeV, through the SNYDER head phantom which is located at the exit of the BSA. The trained ANN was capable of establishing a map between the neutron/gamma beam energy and the dose distribution in the phantom as an input and a response, respectively. The current method is founded upon the observation that the dose which is released by the beam of composite energy spectrum can be decomposing into the various energy components which make the neutron/gamma spectrum. Therefore, in this procedure the neutron/gamma energy

  4. 古今档案保护技术及其利弊分析%Pevention Skills and Analysis of Merits and Demerits of Ancient and Modern Files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严锐

    2012-01-01

    本文探究了我国各时期具有不同代表性的档案虫霉防治技术,就档案保护技术的利弊进行了分析,认为我国古代档案虫霉防治技术在当时科技条件下处于世界领先水平,具有代表性;许多虫霉防治技术的经验是利多于弊的,且有许多经验值得我们借鉴.许多方法和原则蕴含着当今档案虫霉防治技术的发展方向。%Prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of various times files are researched in dynasty order ,and their merits and demerits of various prevention and cure skills are analyzed. The result of research shows that the prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of ancient files are forward among the nations and have representation under science and technology condi- tions at that time. the excellent experiences of prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of ancient files are superior to their abuses, and we can draw lessons from their majority experiences, and many methods and principles imply direction of new-type prevention and cure skills of file insect and mould at present and in the future.

  5. Ensemble-based data assimilation for operational flood forecasting - On the merits of state estimation for 1D hydrodynamic forecasting through the example of the ;Adour Maritime; river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélémy, S.; Ricci, S.; Rochoux, M. C.; Le Pape, E.; Thual, O.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents the implementation and the merits of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm with an inflation procedure on the 1D shallow water model MASCARET in the framework of operational flood forecasting on the ;Adour Maritime; river (South West France). In situ water level observations are sequentially assimilated to correct both water level and discharge. The stochastic estimation of the background error statistics is achieved over an ensemble of MASCARET integrations with perturbed hydrological boundary conditions. It is shown that the geometric characteristics of the network as well as the hydrological forcings and their temporal variability have a significant impact on the shape of the univariate (water level) and multivariate (water level and discharge) background error covariance functions and thus on the EnKF analysis. The performance of the EnKF algorithm is examined for observing system simulation experiments as well as for a set of eight real flood events (2009-2014). The quality of the ensemble is deemed satisfactory as long as the forecast lead time remains under the transfer time of the network, when perfect hydrological forcings are considered. Results demonstrate that the simulated hydraulic state variables can be improved over the entire network, even where no data are available, with a limited ensemble size and thus a computational cost compatible with operational constraints. The improvement in the water level Root-Mean-Square Error obtained with the EnKF reaches up to 88% at the analysis time and 40% at a 4-h forecast lead time compared to the standalone model.

  6. A comparative experimental and numerical study to investigate the relative merits of convectors and ``C'' inserts in cooling cold-rolled coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata; Chakraborty, Debadi; Singh, Vikas

    2006-12-01

    The coil cooling and storage unit (CCSU) is used to cool cold-rolled coils to the temper rolling temperature after the annealing cycle is over at the batch annealing furnace (BAF) in a cold rolling mill (CRM). In the CCSU, the coils are kept on the cooling bases for any fixed time irrespective of the grade and tonnage. Therefore, the need for a mathematical model to accurately predict the cooling time of the coils was felt. The current study involves experimental and numerical analysis of a stack of coils with respect to heat transfer and fluid flow. A comparative study was carried out to ascertain the relative merits of convectors and “C” inserts (CIs) in the cooling the coils. The air flow distribution for the case of different convectors and CIs was measured by means of a full scale physical model. Two different mathematical models were applied to model the fluid flow and flow distribution through the stack of coils. The first flow model uses the hydraulic resistance concept for estimating the air flow rate distribution, whereas the second flow model uses commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and predicts the velocity distribution in the flow path between two coils in a stack. The predictions from these two models compare well with the experimental data. The flow models were used to calculate the average heat-transfer coefficient in different flow passages in a stack. The heat-transfer coefficients thus obtained were used to tune and validate a two-dimensional transient heat-transfer model of coils. The heat-transfer model predicts the cooling time of coils accurately and also suggests a possible reduction of cooling time if CIs are used in place of convectors.

  7. Considerations on the dispatch out of economic merit order regarding to energy from thermal plants; Consideracoes sobre o despacho fora da ordem de merito economico referente a energia proveniente de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makaron, Paula [Service Energy, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: paula@servicegroup.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper present a brief overview of the methodology of centralized order carried by the National System Operator (NSO) and analyze the theoretical and political questions involved: (a) orders out of merit, triggered by exceeding the Risk Curve Aversion (RCA), and (b) in other orders authorized by the Monitoring Committee of the Electricity Sector (MCES). In this context, we discuss the consequences of those orders outside the order of merit of thermoelectric plants with an average cost of generating considerably superior to optimized cost calculated by computer models Newave / Decomp. This analysis is based on the comparison of historical data made available by the ONS, National Energy Agency (ANEEL) and Board of Electric Energy Commercialization (CCEE) in the years 2007 to 2009. (author)

  8. Merit Function Correction Technology of Thin-Film Thickness Wideband Monitoring System%宽光谱膜厚监控系统的评价函数修正技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小燕; 韩军; 姜旭

    2012-01-01

    In thin-film thickness wideband monitoring system based on merit function, because the measured spectrum curve deviates from the designed one, the merit function becomes divergence, which results in the failure of monitoring. Utilizing the thin-film transmittance spectrum curve measured, for the thin-film layer which has been deposited, its actual optical constants are fitted in real-time by simulated annealing algorithm to correct the merit function. Then the absorption effect of layers having been deposited on the layers to be deposited is compensated, and the layer number and thickness of the layers to be deposited are redesigned. The new merit function is achieved, by correction layer by layer. Experimental results show that the monitoring error of thin-film thickness may be less than 1CT2, and the precision satisfies the practical requirement.%基于评价函数的宽光谱膜厚监控系统,由于实测光谱曲线和理论光谱曲线相背离,使得评价函数发散,监控失败.利用实测的膜层透射率光谱曲线,对于已镀层,利用模拟退火算法实时拟合其实际的光学常数,据此修正目标透射率曲线,并补偿吸收的影响,重新设计膜层数及预镀层厚度,获得新的评价函数,如此对评价函数进行逐层修正.实验结果表明,薄膜厚度监控误差可以达到10-2以下,精度完全可以满足实际要求.

  9. The large-scale placebo-controlled beta-blocker studies in systolic heart failure revisited: results from CIBIS-II, COPERNICUS and SENIORS-SHF compared with stratified subsets from MERIT-HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrand, J; Wedel, H; Castagno, D; McMurray, J J V

    2014-02-01

    The four pivotal beta-blocker trials in heart failure (HF) had different inclusion criteria, making comparison difficult without patient stratifying. The aim of this study was to compare, in similar patients, the effects of bisoprolol, metoprolol controlled release/extended release (CR/XL), carvedilol and nebivolol on (i) total mortality, (ii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes (time to first event), (iii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization because of HF and (iv) tolerability, defined as discontinuation of randomized treatment. We compared stratified (s ) subsets in MERIT-HF with patients in CIBIS-II [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV and ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35%] and COPERNICUS (NYHA III/IV and EF COPERNICUS (n = 2289), 19.7% vs. 12.8% (relative risk reduction 35%, 95% CI: 19-48, P = 0.0014) and MERIT-HFs (n = 795), 19.1% vs. 11.7% (relative risk reduction 39%; 95% CI: 11-58, P = 0.0086); (iii) SENIORS-SHF (n = 1359), 11.3% vs. 9.7% (relative risk reduction 16%, NS) and MERIT-HFs (n = 985), 14.8% vs. 10.1% (relative risk reduction 32%, 95% CI: 2-53, P = 0.038). The effects on the other outcomes assessed were similar. Analyses indicated fewer discontinuations from randomized treatment on beta-blockers compared with placebo in COPERNICUS and the MERIT-HFs subsets. The efficacy and tolerability of bisoprolol, carvedilol and metoprolol CR/XL are similar in patients with systolic HF, irrespective of NYHA class or ejection fraction. Nebivolol is less effective and not better tolerated. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Proteomic profiling of bovine M. longissimus lumborum from Crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue sired steers varying in genetic merit for carcass weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low

  11. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xi' an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Cai, Xin zhi, E-mail: xzcwust@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Han, Xue wu, E-mail: hanxuewu1990@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Cheng cheng, E-mail: zcc516990418@live.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); and others

    2016-01-15

    Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi{sub 0.44}Sb{sub 1.56}Te{sub 3} was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi{sub 0.36}Sb{sub 1.64}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based wastes were directly selected as raw materials

  12. RESEARCH ON THE MULTITRAIT ASSESSMENT OF THE GENETIC MERIT FOR MILK AND MEAT PRODUCTION IN THE ROMANIAN FRIESIAN USING A BLUP SIMPLIFIED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper objective was to assess the genetic merit for milk and meat production using a sample of 16 Romanian Friesian bulls and a BLUP simplified model as well as the contemporary comparison method. The bulls' 730 daughters (half-sisters registered during the 305 days first lactation 3,034.89 kg milk with 22.86 % variation coefficient, 3.79 % fat with 6.06 % variation and 115.72 kg fat with 23.49 % variation. The 249 sons (half-brothers recorded 138.05 kg atthe age of 6 months with 19.31 % variation coefficient, 293.41kg at the age of 12 months with 4.33 % variation, and 881.97 g/day daily gain with 3.14% variation. The heritability was 0.505 for milk yield, 0.741 for fat %, 0.567 for milk fat, 0.524 for the weight at 6 months, 0.642 for the weight at 12 months and 0.372 for daily gain. The genotypic correlations have been -0.245 between milk yield and fat % and 0.465 between milk and fat yield, -0.287 between the weight at 6 months and 12 months and 0.850 between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. Breeding value varied from 637.6 and -68.1 for milk yield and between 26.26 and -2.07 for milk fat. The breeding value precision ranged between 92 and 58 in case of milk traits. Breeding value varied between 48.6 and - 27.8 for the weight at 12 months and between 168.2 and 2.2. for daily gain. The accuracy of the breeding value for meat traits ranged between 76 and 60. Rank correlations between bull ranking for milk traits were 0.377** between milk fat and fat %, 0.974** between milk yield and fat yield. Rank correlations between bull ranking for meat traits were 0.766** between the weight at 6 months and at 12 months and 0.847** between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. The rank correlation between bull hierarchy by BLUP and contemporary comparison was 0.563 significantly for P=0.05 and P=0.01. As a conclusion, the high accuracy of BLUP model recommends it to be used for breeding value assessment. The position occupied by bulls in their

  13. Introduction: Special Issue: Discussions on Metahydrogeology: Research Stocktaking or Identity Crisis? Essays on the Once and Future Merit of Research in Hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginn, Timothy R.; Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    means that most of the citations that do exist are rarely conveyed. These studies raise a number of questions. Is publishing, for the most part, a waste of time outside of academic merit? Is hydrogeology a “mature science”? Is progress really being made on longstanding hydrogeological problems? This special issue is intended not only to provide a robust platform for continuating the debate surrounding these and related questions but also to reinitialize the role of the Journal of Hydrologic Engineering in disseminating contributions to hydrogeological engineering science and practice. As a continuation of this discussion, the issue editors hosted a session at the fall 2005 meeting of the American Geophysical Union (http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm05/?pageRequest=search&show =detail&sessid=362) encouraging debate about the value of research, academic and otherwise, in hydrogeology. This session involved a small sample of some of the top thinkers on these issues today, representing a wide range of perspectives. Included in this special issue are essays and philosophical commentaries by the participants in that session. These contributions illuminate ways that research, publishing, teaching, practice, and scholarship may evolve to increase the value of research to society, ranging from basic science to engineering hydrogeology, worldwide.

  14. The role of atmospheric diagnosis and Big Data science in improving hydroclimatic extreme prediction and the merits of climate informed prediction for future water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-04-01

    extreme rainfall events in the mid-latitudes, tropical moisture sources related to strong convection from equatorial oceans were identified together with atmospheric circulation conditions that in favor of consistent transport and convergence of moisture [Lu et al., 2013; Lu and Lall, 2016]. Further, [Lu et al., 2016a] linked the influence of the slowly changing oceanic boundary conditions with the development of the global atmospheric circulation and showed that (1) strong convection over the oceans and the atmospheric moisture transport and flow convergence indicated by atmospheric pressure fields can determine where and when extreme precipitation occurs; and (2) the time-lagged spatial relationship between teleconnected oceanic signals and synoptic atmospheric circulations can improve the predictability of extreme precipitation globally over the next 30 days; such a forecast would be potentially very useful for flood preparation at a lead time that is well beyond the lead time of meteorological forecasts, and it corresponds to a gap in the predictability between quantitative precipitation forecasts and seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction. Lastly, we will demonstrate our most recent results showing the merits of utilizing climate informed forecasts for water resources management, considering irrigation supply, hydropower and flood control, with marked-based financial instruments [Lu et al., 2016b].

  15. Invited Article: A round robin test of the uncertainty on the measurement of the thermoelectric dimensionless figure of merit of Co0.97Ni0.03Sb3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleno, E.; Bérardan, D.; Byl, C.; Candolfi, C.; Daou, R.; Decourt, R.; Guilmeau, E.; Hébert, S.; Hejtmanek, J.; Lenoir, B.; Masschelein, P.; Ohorodnichuk, V.; Pollet, M.; Populoh, S.; Ravot, D.; Rouleau, O.; Soulier, M.

    2015-01-01

    A round robin test aiming at measuring the high-temperature thermoelectric properties was carried out by a group of European (mainly French) laboratories (labs). Polycrystalline skutterudite Co0.97Ni0.03Sb3 was characterized by Seebeck coefficient (8 labs), electrical resistivity (9 labs), thermal diffusivity (6 labs), mass volume density (6 labs), and specific heat (6 labs) measurements. These data were statistically processed to determine the uncertainty on all these measured quantities as a function of temperature and combined to obtain an overall uncertainty on the thermal conductivity (product of thermal diffusivity by density and by specific heat) and on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. An increase with temperature of all these uncertainties is observed, in agreement with growing difficulties to measure these quantities when temperature increases. The uncertainties on the electrical resistivity and thermal diffusivity are most likely dominated by the uncertainty on the sample dimensions. The temperature-averaged (300-700 K) relative standard uncertainties at the confidence level of 68% amount to 6%, 8%, 11%, and 19% for the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and figure of merit ZT, respectively. Thermal conductivity measurements appear as the least accurate. The moderate value of the temperature-averaged relative expanded (confidence level of 95%) uncertainty of 17% on the mean of ZT is essential in establishing Co0.97Ni0.03Sb3 as a high temperature standard n-type thermoelectric material.

  16. Research on the Reform Effect of the Low Merit Pay of Nurses to Enhance Their Nursing Work Efifciency%改革低绩效护士薪酬对提高护理工作效能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the function and effect of salary reform to enhance the nursing work efifciency of nurses with low merit pay. Methods Select 50 nurses with low merit pay as the subjects, surveyed through the anonymous questionnaire and compared their task performance change before and after the salary reform. Results The incidence of nursing error reduced remarkably, the effective communication rate with the patients increased and the work efficiency was increased after the salary reform, there was a significant difference compared with that before the reform (P<0.05). Conclusion The reasonable performance assessment and salary distribution system can increase the active service awareness and autorhythmicity of nurses, enhance their working quality and efficiency effectively, improve the nurse-patient relationship and enhance the patients’ satisfaction on nurses. Reform the low merit pay of nurses is one of the effective methods to enhance their nursing work efifciency.%目的:探讨薪酬改革对低绩效护士工作效能的提高的作用及效果。方法选择受试者50人,通过匿名问卷进行调查,比较薪酬改革前后低绩效护士的工作效能变化。结果薪酬改革后差错发生率显著降低,与患者有效沟通率增加,工作效率效率提高,与改革前比较差异显著(P<0.05)。结论合理的绩效考核与薪酬分配体系会增加护理人员主动服务意识与自律性,有效提高工作质量及效率,融洽护患关系,提高患者对护理的满意度。改革低绩效护士的薪酬是提高护理工作效能行之有效的方法之一。

  17. Judge Financial, Administrative Judge

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek, Aline

    2010-01-01

    As a specialised administrative judge, the financial judge, understood in the sense of the Auditors Court, of the regional Auditors Courts and of the Court of budgetary and financial discipline, has a ratione materiae jurisdiction. It is the judge's duty to ensure compliance with budgetary and national accounting rules. The perspective tending to view the financial judge as a administrative judge, that is to say as an ordinary administrative judge, may consequently give rise to certain object...

  18. Irreversible and endoreversible behaviors of the LD-model for heat devices: the role of the time constraints and symmetries on the performance at maximum χ figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The main unified energetic properties of low dissipation heat engines and refrigerator engines allow for both endoreversible or irreversible configurations. This is accomplished by means of the constraints imposed on the characteristic global operation time or the contact times between the working system with the external heat baths and modulated by the dissipation symmetries. A suited unified figure of merit (which becomes power output for heat engines) is analyzed and the influence of the symmetries on the optimum performance discussed. The obtained results, independent on any heat transfer law, are faced with those obtained from Carnot-like heat models where specific heat transfer laws are needed. Thus, it is shown that only the inverse phenomenological law, often used in linear irreversible thermodynamics, correctly reproduces all optimized values for both the efficiency and coefficient of performance values.

  19. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  20. Impact of target-to-background ratio, target size, emission scan duration, and activity on physical figures of merit for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, M; Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Sacchetti, G; Comi, S; Rudoni, M; Carriero, A; Inglese, E

    2007-10-01

    The aim of our work is to describe the way in which physical figures of merit such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) behave when varying acquisition parameters such as emission scan duration (ESD) or activity at the start of acquisition (A(acq)) that in clinical practice can be selected by the user, or object properties such as target dimensions or target-to-background (T/B) ratio, which depend uniquely on the intrinsic characteristics of the object being imaged. Figures of merit, used to characterize image quality and quantitative accuracy for a 3D-LSO based PET/CT scanner, were studied as a function of ESD and A(acq) for different target sizes and T/B ratios using a multivariate approach in a wide range of conditions approaching the ones that can be encountered in clinical practice. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an IEC phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The average scatter fraction (SF) of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean SF measured on patients with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of micro-hollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and 18F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL, positioned on the linear portion of the phantom's NECR curve, well below peak NECR of 61.2 kcps that is reached at 31.8 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 1, 2, 3, and 4 min/bed. With T/B ratios of 3.6, 10.3, and 22.5, the 13.0, 8.1, and 6.5 mm spheres were detectable for the whole ranges of background activity concentration and ESD, respectively. The ESD resulted as the most significant

  1. Highly porous thermoelectric nanocomposites with low thermal conductivity and high figure of merit from large-scale solution-synthesized Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.5}Se{sub 0.5} hollow nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Biao; Wu, Yue [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Ames Laboratory, Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States); Feng, Tianli; Ruan, Xiulin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Agne, Matthias T.; Snyder, G. Jeffery [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Zhou, Lin [Ames Laboratory, Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-03-20

    To enhance the performance of thermoelectric materials and enable access to their widespread applications, it is beneficial yet challenging to synthesize hollow nanostructures in large quantities, with high porosity, low thermal conductivity (κ) and excellent figure of merit (z T). Herein we report a scalable (ca. 11.0 g per batch) and low-temperature colloidal processing route for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.5}Se{sub 0.5} hollow nanostructures. They are sintered into porous, bulk nanocomposites (phi 10 mm x h 10 mm) with low κ (0.48 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and the highest z T (1.18) among state-of-the-art Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3-x}Se{sub x} materials. Additional benefits of the unprecedented low relative density (68-77 %) are the large demand reduction of raw materials and the improved portability. This method can be adopted to fabricate other porous phase-transition and thermoelectric chalcogenide materials and will pave the way for the implementation of hollow nanostructures in other fields. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Research Update: Enhancement of figure of merit for energy-harvesters based on free-standing epitaxial Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.480.99Nb0.01O3 thin-film cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All-oxide free-standing cantilevers were fabricated with epitaxial (001-oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT and Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.480.99Nb0.01O3 (PNZT as piezoelectric layers and SrRuO3 electrodes. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric hysteresis loops were measured. From the zero-bias values, the figure-of-merits (FOMs for piezoelectric energy harvesting systems were calculated. For the PNZT cantilever, an extremely large value FOM = 55 GPa was obtained. This very high value is due to the large shifts of the hysteresis loops such that the zero-bias piezoelectric coefficient e31f is maximum and the zero-bias dielectric constant is strongly reduced compared to the value in the undoped PZT device. The results show that by engineering the self-bias field the energy-harvesting properties of piezoelectric systems can be increased significantly.

  3. Louhimies tahab Eestis filmi teha / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Soome filmirežissöör Aku Louhimies tuli PÖFFile oma uue mängufilmiga "Lahtikistud mees" ("Riisuttu mies"). Ka lavastaja sidemetest Eestiga, kus on filmitud stseene mitmetele tema filmidele, soovist teha Eesti-ainelist filmi koos eestlastega

  4. On the Merits of Clinical Judgment: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.; Grove, William M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on the article by D. Westen and J. Weinberger , which criticized academic clinical psychologists for being cynical about clinical judgment and clinical practice. In the authors' view, it seems unlikely that more than a few academic clinical psychologists believe that they have little to learn from clinical practice or…

  5. Iseendast jutustamise teraapia noorsooteatris / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsooteatri noortestuudio dokumentaallavastusest "Karaoke". Lavastuse on kokku pannud NO99 teatri näitleja Jaak Prints, kunstnikutöö tegi Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tudeng Marion Undusk

  6. Teleseebi perekonna papist kodu / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Draamaseriaali "Kodu keset linna" viies hooaeg on alanud. Artikli autor käis võtteplatsil, mida kujundab Tiina Alver. Telekodu kohta avaldavad arvamust ka stsenarist Kerttu Rakke ja näitlejad Diana Klas ning Alina Karmazina

  7. Merits of usability testing for PACS selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the usability of different Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstations, determine whether a usability test has added value with respect to the traditional way of comparing PACSs based on functional requirements, and to evaluate the appropriateness of a task-

  8. Merits of flywheels for spacecraft energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems which have a very good potential for use in spacecraft are discussed. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special importance, relative to batteries, are lighter weight, longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes solar array size and the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. Flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have characteristics which would be useful for military applications. The major disadvantages of flywheel energy storage systems are that: power is not available during the launch phase without special provisions; and in flight failure of units may force shutdown of good counter rotating units, amplifying the effects of failure and limiting power distribution system options; no inherent emergency power capability unless specifically designed for, and a high level of complexity compared with batteries. The potential advantages of the flywheel energy storage system far outweigh the disadvantages.

  9. Merits of Undergraduate and High School Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, John

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to sports, everyone gets it; you have to play to really understand, experience, and learn what the game is all about. It would be ludicrous to teach basketball by practicing basketball fundamentals in the gym (layups, free throws, jump shots, dribbling, defense), reading about and attending professional basketball games, but never playing in a game. As important as classes and teaching laboratories may be in science education, there is simply no substitute for active engagement in scientific research to show students what science is all about and, perhaps even more importantly, to inspire and motivate them to become scientists or at least appreciate science. It is a widely held misconception that a student cannot really do meaningful, publishable scientific research until he/she is in graduate school. In actual fact, college undergraduates and even high school students can make original and significant scientific research contributions. Astronomical research, in particular, is very well suited to engage the beginning high school or college undergraduate researcher. The night sky’s inherent accessibility and also its inherent grandeur are natural draws for the curious student’s mind. And much can be learned and discovered using small telescopes. In sports, joining a team is a key aspect of the sports experience. Similarly in science, joining a research team and thereby entering a “community of scientific practice” is fundamental and transformational. As important as working with equipment and acquiring data happen to be in scientific research, this is only the beginning of the research process. Student researchers of all ages—particularly high school students and college undergraduates—have much to gain by giving presentations on their research, writing up their results for publication, and going through the peer review process. But this only works if the student researchers are imbedded within the community of practice.

  10. Enhancing Adhesion: Relative Merits of Different Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, L. S.; Pater, R.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesive performance is improved mainly by manipulation of the bimaterials interface zone, which is only a few molecules thick. There are three approaches to enhancement of interfacial adhesion at the molecular level. They are 1) changing the nonchemically bonded interactions across the interface from weak ones to strong ones, 2) making the true interfacial area much larger than the simple geometric area, and 3) inducing chemical bonding between the two materials forming the interface. Our goal this summer was to question some of the built-in assumptions contained within these approaches and to determine the most promising approach, both theoretically and practically, for enhancing adhesion in NASA structures. Our computations revealed that all three of these approaches have, in theory, the potential to enhance molecular adhesion approximately ten-fold. Experiments, however, revealed that this excellent level of enhancement is not likely to be reached in practice. Each approach was found to be severely limited by practical problems. In addition, some of the built-in assumptions associated with these approaches were found to be insufficient or inadequate. The first approach, changing the nonchemically bonded interactions from weak to strong, Is an example of one containing inadequate assumptions. The extensive literature on intermolecular interactions, based on solution studies, shows that certain functional group pairs interact much more strongly than others. It has always been assumed that these data can be reliably extended to systems where only one member of the pair is in solution and the other Is contained in a solid surface. Our experiments this summer demonstrated that solution data do not adequately predict the strength of functional group interaction at the solid-liquid interface. Furthermore, the strong solvents needed to dissolve the monomers or polymers to which the functional groups of interest are attached compete successfully with the solid surface for the functional group. As a result, functional groups in solution cannot pair with the complementary groups in the solid surface, and the expected enhancement of nonchemically bonded interactions is not realized. The second approach, increasing the true interfacial area, is an example of one containing inadequate assumptions and suffering from numerous practical problems. First, practitioners have assumed that material removal, such as bead blasting or etching, increases true surface area (and therefore interfacial area) in a meaningful way. Our geometric analysis demonstrated that removal methods increase area by a factor of two at most. To increase interfacial area by an order of magnitude or more. a thin layer of high porosity must be added to the substrate surface prior to application of the adhesive phase. Consistent with this finding, we attempted to create a thin layer of rigid, highly porous glass on the surface of our smooth glass substrate by means of sol-gel technology. We were unable to surmount a wide variety of practical problems and obtained only collapsed, nonporous layers. Thus this approach, appealing in principle, would require long term development and is not promising in the near term. The third approach, inducing chemical bonding at the interface, is an example of one having neither inadequate assumptions nor insurmountable practical problems. When silicate glass is the substrate, there are only a few chemical reactions that can be successfully conducted to create these chemical bonds, and these reactions usually involve silicon-containing reagents. We compared the silazane reagents to the silane reagents and found through experiment that the silazanes react with the glass surface much more readily, and under milder conditions, than the silanes. The functional groups attached to the glass surface by silazane reactions were not able to be removed by solvent extraction, elevated temperature exposure, or mechanical action. This clearly indicates that the formation of chemical bonds at the interface is the most effective approach for enhancing molecular adhesion.

  11. Streambeds Merit Recognition as a Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Streambeds are generally viewed as simply sediments beneath streams, sediments topping alluvial aquifers, or sediments housing aquatic life, rather than as distinct geographic features comparable to soils and surficial geologic formations within watersheds. Streambeds should be viewed as distinct elements within watersheds, e.g., as akin to soils. In this presentation, streambeds are described as central features in watersheds, cycling water between the surface and underlying portions of the watershed. Regarding their kinship to soils, soils are often described as surficial sediments largely created by atmospheric weathering of underlying geologic parent material, and similarly, streambeds should be described as submerged sediments largely created by streamflow modification of underlying geologic parent material. Thus, streambeds are clearly overdue for recognition as their own scientific discipline along side other well-recognized disciplines within watersheds; however, slowing progress in this direction, the point is often made that hyporheic zones should be considered comparable to streambeds, but this is as misguided as equating unsaturated zones to soils. Streambeds and soils are physical geographic features of relatively constant volume, while hyporheic and unsaturated zones are hydrologic features of varying volume. Expanded upon in this presentation, 'Streambed Science' is proposed for this discipline, which will require both a well-designed protocol to physically characterize streambeds as well as development of streambed taxonomy, for suitable recognition as an independent discipline within watersheds.

  12. Prints Charles toetab talunike innovatsiooni / Merit Mikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikk, Merit, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Mahe- ja tavatootjatele suunatud uuenduslike tehnoloogiate arendamise ja jätkusuutlike lahenduste leidmise programmist Duchy Future Farming. Programmi veavad prints Charlesi fond, maheorganisatsioon Soil Association, Waitrose kaubandusketi juhtiv mahebränd Duchy Organics ja mahepõllumajanduse uurimiskeskus (Organic Research Centre)

  13. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  14. Diapers and skin care: merits and demerits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, H R Y; Srivastava, Pushplata; Verma, Kaushal K

    2004-10-01

    Diapers have been used for care of babies since decades to prevent soiling and for social convenience. However, the use of diaper poses a risk of developing diaper dermatitis. Recent innovations in diaper technology have led to development of superabsobent disposable diapers, emollient delivering diapers and breathable diapers. These newer types of diapers reduce the incidence of diaper dermatitis. The non-biodegradable material used in superabsorbent diapers is, however, a matter of serious concern because of its toxic effects and environmental pollution. The different type of diapers, recent advances in them and their environmental concerns are discussed in this article.

  15. Iskusstvo kino izmenjajet zhizn / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Lõppes Pärnu 20. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festival. Festivali grand prix - "Enne Maale naasmist", režissöör Arunas Matelis : Leedu/Saksamaa, Eesti Rahva Auhinna saaja ühisnimetaja "Inimene otsib õnne" all "Saatana kaevur", režissöörid Richard Ladkan, Kief Davidson : Saksamaa 2004. Lisaks "Laureatõ festivalja"

  16. Nanocomposites with High Thermoelectric Figures of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor); Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is generally directed to nanocomposite thermoelectric materials that exhibit enhanced thermoelectric properties. The nanocomposite materials include two or more components, with at least one of the components forming nano-sized structures within the composite material. The components are chosen such that thermal conductivity of the composite is decreased without substantially diminishing the composite's electrical conductivity. Suitable component materials exhibit similar electronic band structures. For example, a band-edge gap between at least one of a conduction band or a valence band of one component material and a corresponding band of the other component material at interfaces between the components can be less than about 5k(sub B)T, wherein k(sub B) is the Boltzman constant and T is an average temperature of said nanocomposite composition.

  17. Kultuuritehas vallutab vana katlamaja / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinna Põhja puiesteel asuva vana elektrijaama tööstusmiljööst ja hoonetest, kuhu kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis mitmepäevase festivaliga

  18. What Punishment Does Falsifying Exam Status Merit?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three years ago, He Daye, a middle-ranking official in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality, changed his son’s ethnic status from the majority Han to the Tujia minority, in hopes that his son could get extra marks on

  19. Kultuuritehas vallutab vana katlamaja / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinna Põhja puiesteel asuva vana elektrijaama tööstusmiljööst ja hoonetest, kuhu kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis mitmepäevase festivaliga

  20. Iskusstvo kino izmenjajet zhizn / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Lõppes Pärnu 20. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festival. Festivali grand prix - "Enne Maale naasmist", režissöör Arunas Matelis : Leedu/Saksamaa, Eesti Rahva Auhinna saaja ühisnimetaja "Inimene otsib õnne" all "Saatana kaevur", režissöörid Richard Ladkan, Kief Davidson : Saksamaa 2004. Lisaks "Laureatõ festivalja"

  1. Haider loobus plaanist lahkuda poliitikast / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Austria Vabaduspartei juht Jörg Haider sattus kohtumise eest Iraagi liidri Saddam Husseiniga parteikaaslaste kriitika alla ja teatas poliitikast loobumisest. Pärast kriisikõnelusi otsustas ta siiski poliitikat edasi teha

  2. Meelelahutuslik pantvangidraama ja muud jamad / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Eesti, Läti ja Sloveenia koostööfilm "Koer, lennuk ja laulupidu" ("Kilnieks/The Hostage") : režissöör Laila Pakalnina : operaator ja üks produtsentidest Arko Okk : Eesti-poolne tootja Acuba Film. Tallinna kobarkinos alates 15. septembrist

  3. Prints Charles toetab talunike innovatsiooni / Merit Mikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikk, Merit, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Mahe- ja tavatootjatele suunatud uuenduslike tehnoloogiate arendamise ja jätkusuutlike lahenduste leidmise programmist Duchy Future Farming. Programmi veavad prints Charlesi fond, maheorganisatsioon Soil Association, Waitrose kaubandusketi juhtiv mahebränd Duchy Organics ja mahepõllumajanduse uurimiskeskus (Organic Research Centre)

  4. Ethnicity, schooling, and merit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werfhorst, Herman G. van de; Tubergen, Frank van

    2007-01-01

    We examine to what extent ethnicity affects academic ability measured in the first year of secondary school and secondary school type in the Netherlands. We focus on second-generation immigrants. The empirical results indicate that academic ability (both in mathematics and language) is not affected

  5. Kultuurirahvas kohtus hiies / Merit Männi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männi, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Vargamäel asuva kultuurihiie 15. sünnipäeva tähistamisest 15 aasta jooksul Järvamaa kultuuripreemia saanute fotosid ja hiie skeemi sisaldava trükise esitluse ja tervituskontserdiga 16. juulil (kontsert Baltika folkloorifestivali raames Järvamaal viibivatelt külalistelt Peterburist ja Iirimaalt)

  6. Superjunction Collector SiGe HBT With Figure of Merit of High Frequency High Voltage and High Current%具有高频高压大电流优值的超结集电区SiGe HBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金冬月; 王肖; 张万荣; 高光渤; 赵馨仪; 郭燕玲; 付强

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the breakdown voltages ( BVCBO/BVCEO ) at a fixed cutoff frequency ( fT ) and current gain (β) , a model of npn SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor ( HBT ) with superjunction collector was established by SILVACO TCAD. The research shows that the p-type superjunction layer inside the collector-base ( CB) space charge region ( SCR) lowers the electric field in the “dead space region”, and shifts the part of the high electric field somehow deep into the CB SCR which is located at the outside of the “dead space region”. As a result, impact ionization is suppressed, whereas the width of the CB SCR is slightly increased, and hence the breakdown voltages are improved at a minor expense of fT and β. As the increase of the thickness of p-type superjunction layer (dp), the breakdown voltages including BVCBO and BVCEO are improved more obviously. However, dp also needs to be optimized, considering that larger dp would lead to Kirk effect and give rise to a dramatic decrease of fT and β. Furthermore, the value of dp in p-type superjunction layer is optimized as 0. 2μm for a novel superjuction collector SiGe HBT with figure of merit of high frequency high voltage and high current ( fTíBVCEOíβ) . Compared with the conventional SiGe HBT, the figure of merit of fT íBVCEO íβ for the novel device is markedly improved by 35. 5%, which effectively develops the high voltage and high current application of power SiGe HBT.%为了在兼顾特征频率( fT )和电流增益(β)的情况下有效提高器件的击穿电压( BVCBO/BVCEO ),利用SILVACO TCAD建立了npn型超结集电区SiGe异质结双极晶体管( heterojunction bipolar transistor,HBT)的器件模型.研究表明:通过在集电结空间电荷区( collector-base space charge region,CB SCR)内引入p型超结层可有效降低“死区”内的电场强度,使较高的电场强度转移至“死区”外较深的CB SCR内,进而在几乎不增加CB SCR宽度的情况下抑制碰撞电离,达

  7. Políticas tutelares asimétricas: conciliando preferencias individuales y sociales en salud pública Asymmetric policies for merit-goods: harmonizing individual and social preferences in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Repullo Labrador

    2009-08-01

    , narcissistic individualism, and lack of trust in institutions, all of which hampered the ability of society's perspective to influence individual behavior. A review of health economics (especially merit goods and public health (ethics and values of health promotion and prevention may be useful to understand certain dilemmas in the balance between public intervention and individual autonomy. Given that many unhealthy decisions come from biased or irrational individual preferences, a promising new field in public health interventions is being developed, known as «asymmetric paternalism», or, more appropriately, as «asymmetric policies for merit-goods», which allow society to selectively influence those individuals whose decision biases lead to self-harming behavior, without constraining the autonomy of well informed autonomous individuals (even though their preferences may not coincide with society's recommended preferences.

  8. Design and application of quantitative evaluation for clinician' merit-based promotion%医师量化考核择优晋升的方案设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝璐; 郑超; 曹秀堂

    2011-01-01

    Objective: based on the principles of fairness, objectiveness, and transparency, quantitative evaluation for clinician' ment-based promotion system will be established to give evidence for promotion and promote clinician s full development Methods: With clinical expert consultation and managers, four first-class performance appraisal index such as basic qualification, working attitude, working performance and professional capacity were set. Combined base value and extra point were used to evaluate clinician' s total performance. Results: performance appraisal should insist on medical treatment as the center and highlighted on working performance and professional capacity. Conclusion: The merit-based promotion is realized and incentive mechanism is led by implementation general evaluation.%目的:遵循公平、客观、透明的原则,探讨医师量化考核择优晋升的方案,为其晋升提供参考依据,并促进医师自身全面发展.方法:在广泛行F求管理者和临床专家的基础上,设立基本素质、丁作作风、工作业绩、业务水平4个一级评价指标,通过基础分和附加分对医师实行综合评价.结果:医师评价坚持以医疗为中心,注重工作业绩和业务水平.结论:通过综合评价和量化排序,实现择优晋升,效果显著,并对医师发展起到引导和激励的作用.

  9. Medicare Program; Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) and Alternative Payment Model (APM) Incentive Under the Physician Fee Schedule, and Criteria for Physician-Focused Payment Models. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) repeals the Medicare sustainable growth rate (SGR) methodology for updates to the physician fee schedule (PFS) and replaces it with a new approach to payment called the Quality Payment Program that rewards the delivery of high-quality patient care through two avenues: Advanced Alternative Payment Models (Advanced APMs) and the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) for eligible clinicians or groups under the PFS. This final rule with comment period establishes incentives for participation in certain alternative payment models (APMs) and includes the criteria for use by the Physician-Focused Payment Model Technical Advisory Committee (PTAC) in making comments and recommendations on physician-focused payment models (PFPMs). Alternative Payment Models are payment approaches, developed in partnership with the clinician community, that provide added incentives to deliver high-quality and cost-efficient care. APMs can apply to a specific clinical condition, a care episode, or a population. This final rule with comment period also establishes the MIPS, a new program for certain Medicare-enrolled practitioners. MIPS will consolidate components of three existing programs, the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the Physician Value-based Payment Modifier (VM), and the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for Eligible Professionals (EPs), and will continue the focus on quality, cost, and use of certified EHR technology (CEHRT) in a cohesive program that avoids redundancies. In this final rule with comment period we have rebranded key terminology based on feedback from stakeholders, with the goal of selecting terms that will be more easily identified and understood by our stakeholders.

  10. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  11. First Exploration on Merit Pay Distribution System in Geological Exploration Public Institution%地勘事业单位绩效工资分配制度初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清秋

    2016-01-01

    地勘事业单位现行工资制度存在重资历、重累计工龄,轻现实贡献等等弊端,个人学历、工龄、职称等与其实际技能与经验没划上等号,分配制度对优秀人才的吸引力不足。为充分发挥工资制度的激励作用,须进一步深化人事和工资制度改革,建立量化考核的岗位绩效工资制,重视岗位分析工作,达到薪随工作绩效变化,薪随岗变的薪资管理目的。要进一步加大岗位责任、工作业绩、实际贡献等绩效倾斜力度,搞活内部分配,增强活力,充分发挥绩效工资分配的激励作用,必须进行科学合理的定编定岗、绩效考核细则,实行全面绩效考核。%The current salary system in geological exploration public institution has several shortcomings, for instance, mianly foucus on the working years, and regardless of the actual contribution. The personal education background, working years, the technical title do not fit the actual technical ability and experiences. The distribution system dose not has enough attraction for some excellent people. For the sake of fully develop the incentive function of the salary system, we should go ahead and deepen the revolution of personnel and salary system, and build quantitative assessment for merit-based pay system. We should pay more attentio to the analysis for the position, and let the salary vary with the job performance, and finally reaches the salary mangement goal which the salary vary with the job position. We should develop the job-position-responsibility-based, job-performance-based and actual-contribution-based pay system. We can achieve the flexible inside distribution, enhance the inside vitality, and then fully develop the incentive function of the salary system. We have to follow the scientific and reasonable way to determine job position and performance assessment rules to carry out the comprehensive performance assessment.

  12. Kara Bela Münasebetiyle Eleştirilen Bir Ekol: Namık Kemal A Literary School Criticized on Merits of “Kara Bela” (“Misfortune”: Namık Kemal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer GÜLŞEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable writers of Turkish literature, Namık Kemal was rather a school unto himself, owing to his pursuits in the creation of a New literature, his works and critical essays. Several prominent figures assembled around him, sharing his thoughts, and also defending him ardently. More often than not praised, he was sometimes criticized bitterly. Introducing Western literary forms to a nascent universe, he assigned importance to theater. For him, it isentertainment – but a most useful distraction. “Mukaddime-i Celal” isthe preface of the title “Celalettin Harzemşah.” This prelude wascomposed with an allusion to Victor Hugo’s Cromwell foreword. In this,his views on drama are markedly captivating. He penned his play “KaraBela” (“Misfortune” while in exile in Famagusta. Publishedposthumously, it was purported, however, to be rather a tenuous piece.“Kara Bela” was criticized in “Tenkidat-ı Edebiye – Namık Kemal - KaraBela Münasebetiyle” (“A Literary Critique – On Merits of Namık Kemal’s‘Misfortune’,” written in 1911 by Şahabettin Süleyman, among theillustrious portraits of the Fecr-i Âti (“Pending Twilight” period. Heportrays Namık Kemal as a crony of the commoners. Thereafter, headjudges that its plotline fails to align with real life. Remarkably, hechooses the less formal reference of “Kemal,” who has prevailed in theliterary realm long before his debut. Criticized in this article for hisartistic stature, Namık Kemal will be assessed with the Author-BasedCritical Approach. Evidently, this method places the artist at the core ofthe critique. Türk edebiyatının önemli sanatkârlarından biri olan Namık Kemal, yeni bir edebiyatın oluşmasında ve tanınmasında gösterdiği gayretlerle, eserleriyle, eleştirileriyle, âdeta bir ekol olmuştur. İsminin etrafında birçok isim toplanmış, düşüncelerini paylaşıp, onu savunmuşlardır. Çoğu zaman övülen Namık Kemal

  13. “I Don't Think that Any Peer Review Committee . . . Would Ever ‘Get’ What I Currently Do”: How Institutional Metrics for Success and Merit Risk Perpetuating the (Reproduction of Colonial Relationships in Community-Based Participatory Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Castleden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on findings from a study that explored how a group of leading health researchers who do Indigenous community-engaged research (n = 20 in Canada envision enacting ethically sound research with Indigenous communities, as well as the concomitant tensions associated with doing so. In particular, we explore how institutional metrics for assessing merit and granting tenure are seen to privilege conventional discourses of productivity and validity in research and, as a result, are largely incongruent with the relational values associated with decolonizing research through community-based participatory health research. Our findings reveal that colonial incursion from the academy risk filtering into such research agendas and create a conflict between relational accountability to community partners and academic accountability to one’s discipline and peers.

  14. “Get to the bridge and I will help you to cross”: Merit, Personal Connections and Money in Access to Nigerian Higher Education “Get to the bridge and I will help you to cross”: Leistung, persönliche Verbindungen und Geld und der Zugang zum Hochschulstudium in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Willott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the methods students use to gain access to a university in Nigeria’s elite federal sector. It explains the relationships between three “currencies” – merit, personal connections and money – that are utilised by students to achieve their goals. I argue that influences representing the official rules – merit – and those representing semi-official or unofficial processes – personal connections and money – intersect in ways that reveal the complexity of the relationship between state and society in contemporary Nigeria. This analysis reveals that in this case the hybrid interpretation of the neopatrimonial state, which views official and unofficial norms as existing in parallel and suffusing one another, has more analytical value than its counterpart, the wholesale state privatisation thesis.Dieser Aufsatz untersucht, welche Möglichkeiten Studierende nutzen, um die Aufnahme an einer (bundesstaatlichen Eliteuniversität in Nigeria zu erreichen. Der Autor beschreibt das Verhältnis von drei unterschiedlichen Zugangs-„Währungen“ – Leistung, persönliche Verbindungen und Geld –, die zu diesem Zweck eingesetzt werden. Er argumentiert, dass sich Zugangsmöglichkeiten nach offiziellen Regelungen, die vor allem auf Leistung beruhen, mit halb- oder inoffiziellen Wegen überschneiden, wie dem Einsatz von persönlichen Verbindungen und/oder Geld. In dieser Interdependenz sieht er einen Ausdruck der Komplexität der Beziehung zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im heutigen Nigeria. Seine Analyse deckt auf, dass in diesem Fall die hybride Interpretation des neopatrimonialen Staates, wonach offizielle und inoffizielle Normen parallel existieren und einander durchdringen, größeren analytischen Wert besitzt als ihr Gegenstück, die These von der umfassenden Privatisierung staatlicher Strukturen.

  15. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  16. Flipping the Science Classroom: Exploring Merits, Issues and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Educators are continually being challenged to think about how best to integrate digital technologies meaningfully and effectively in their classrooms. A current trend in educational technology which has the potential to enable this in a pragmatic manner is the flipped classroom concept. This paper aims to explore the idea in Science teaching and…

  17. Vendade Quayde film on nagu ballett / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali mängufilme - "Maavärinate klaverihäälestaja" (Piano Tuner of the Earthquakes") : režissöörid Stephen ja Timothy Quay : Suurbritannia - Saksamaa - Prantsusmaa 2005. Režissöörid tutvustasid oma filmi

  18. Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines machismo (strict adherence to traditional masculine gender identity) in terms of Bem's gender schema theory. Uses the example of a Mexican immigrant family facing social and cultural changes to demonstrate the dynamics of machismo and how it might lead to emotional problems and physical symptoms in Hispanic men and their families.…

  19. Coenite seiklused ja Kim Ki-duki huumor / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali filme : Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid), Kim Ki-duki "Hingetõmme" ("Soom"/"Breath" ; Lõuna-Korea) ja Raphael Nadjari "Tehilim" (Prantsusmaa - Iisrael - Ameerika Ühendriigid)

  20. Prikljutshenija Koenov i jumor Kim Ki-duka / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali filme : Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid), Kim Ki-duki "Hingetõmme" ("Soom"/"Breath" ; Lõuna-Korea) ja Raphael Nadjari "Tehilim" (Prantsusmaa - Iisrael - Ameerika Ühendriigid)

  1. Predictive validities: figures of merit or veils of deception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER H. SCHONEMANN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The ETS has recently released new estimates of validities of the GRE for predicting cumulative graduate GPA. They average in the middle thirties – twice as high as those previously reported by a number of independent investigators.It is shown in the first part of this paper that this unexpected finding can be traced to a flawed methodology that tends to inflate multiple correlation estimates, especially those of populations values near zero.Secondly, the issue of upward corrections of validity estimates for restriction of range is taken up. It is shown that they depend on assumptions that are rarely met by the data. Finally, it is argued more generally that conventional test theory, which is couched in terms of correlations and variances, is not only unnecessarily abstract but, more importantly, incomplete, since the practical utility of a test does not only depend on its validity, but also on base-rates and admission quotas. A more direct and conclusive method for gauging the utility of a test involves misclassification rates, and entirely dispenses with questionable assumptions and post-hoc "corrections".On applying this approach to the GRE, it emerges (1 that the GRE discriminates against ethnic and economic minorities, and (2 that it often produces more erroneous decisions than a purely random admissions policy would.

  2. Bemis teavitas Merit plahvatusest / Antti Oolo, Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oolo, Antti, 1967-

    2000-01-01

    President Lennart Meri kantselei soovitas saksa ajakirjanikul Jutta Rabel ja USA miljonäril Gregg Bemisel pöörduda politseisse, kui Estonia vrakilt toodud metallitükkide analüüsid näitavad, et laeval toimus plahvatus

  3. Meistrite vägikaikavedu Cannes'is / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-ndast Cannes'i filmifestivalil esilinastus 18. mail Kadri Kõusaare mängufilm "Magnus" võistlusprogrammis "Vaatenurk". Filmist ja selle vastuvõtust Cannes'is. Ka Quentin Tarantino filmist "Grindhouse : Surmakindel" ja Gus Van Santi filmist "Paranoia park"

  4. Sisemine turundus : seest ja pealt kullakarvaline / Kairit Meho, Merit Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meho, Kairit

    2002-01-01

    Autor leiab, et konkurentsieelis teiste firmade ees tuleneb organisatsioonisisestest teguritest. Töötajate rahulolu tõstmisele aitab kaasa sisene suhtekorraldus. Lisa: Rõhuge mittemateriaalsetele hüvedele

  5. Expectation, Reality, and Rectification: The Merits of Failed Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Suzanne Kesler; Nihiser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Prompted by Cushman and Grabill's call to "ask and answer the difficult questions" about service learning ("Reflections" 2009), this article addresses the difficult question of "what happens when service learning goes wrong." Authors engaged in family history writing and service learning with a local historical group. When the project was unable…

  6. Arno Tali ja Kaval-Ants VATis / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    20. sept. VAT Teatris esietendunud Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia Lavakunstikooli lavastajate õppesuuna tudengite koolitööst "Pink", mis koosneb kahest iseseisvast loost - Jon Fosse "Talv", lavastaja Robert Annus ja Edward Albee "Loomaaialugu", lavastaja Uku Uusberg

  7. Merits of exercise therapy before and after major surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, T.J.; Dronkers, J.J.; Hulzebos, E.H.J.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in medical care have led to an increasing elderly population. Elderly individuals should be able to participate in society as long as possible. However, with an increasing age their adaptive capacity gradually decreases, specially before and after major life events (like

  8. Kinorong pakub põnevaid filme / Merit Männi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männi, Merit

    2008-01-01

    Kinobussi kaheksandast ringreisist mööda Eestimaad, kavas kontsertlinastus T. Lutsu "Noored kotkad" (1927) ansambli "Kosmikud". Töötavad õpikojad. Türile tuleb kava koos tegevustega kohale kinorongiga, koordinaatoriks Mari Peelbaum

  9. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  10. "Mis on äril eetikaga pistmist?" / Merit Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Merit

    2003-01-01

    Kahe ettevõtte näitel keskkonna- ja ühiskonnasäästlikust tootmisest. Vt. samas: Procter & Gamble aitas Etioopiat veega varustada; Triip - teistsugune trükikoda. Intervjuu trükikoja tegevjuhi Eva Peedimaaga

  11. Coenite seiklused ja Kim Ki-duki huumor / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali filme : Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid), Kim Ki-duki "Hingetõmme" ("Soom"/"Breath" ; Lõuna-Korea) ja Raphael Nadjari "Tehilim" (Prantsusmaa - Iisrael - Ameerika Ühendriigid)

  12. Prikljutshenija Koenov i jumor Kim Ki-duka / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivali filme : Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid), Kim Ki-duki "Hingetõmme" ("Soom"/"Breath" ; Lõuna-Korea) ja Raphael Nadjari "Tehilim" (Prantsusmaa - Iisrael - Ameerika Ühendriigid)

  13. Discovering the Merit of the Wavelet Transform for Object Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    key steps in object recognition. Typically, geometric primitives are extracted from an image using local analysis. However, the wavelet transform provides...network. This thesis examines the benefits of the wavelet transform as a preprocessor to a neural network for object recognition. Scaling of the...benefits of the wavelet transform , the effects of the various post-wavelet scaling functions, and the best neural network topology for this research. This is done by analyzing the system s performance on CAD models.

  14. A figure of merit for competing communications satellite designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R. R.; Fordyce, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Trends in launch schedules, weights, power, and space segment costs per transponder year for Intelsats and North American domsats (domestic communications satellites) are discussed. The Intelsat system currently services 25,000 point to point telephone links at any one moment, and a $3 billion order has been placed for Intelsat VIs, which feature 36,000 telephone circuits each. The Intelsat VI spacecraft will weigh 1670 kg in orbit, a continuance of the trend to heavier satellites, while the domsats will stay at 650 kg due to launch vehicle limitations. Direct television broadcast satellites are being designed for receive only (R/O) earth stations, with each satellite capable of servicing 50,000 individual ground stations. Competition is growing for C and Ku band satellite transponders for DBS, with costs $350,000 each. No standardized design has yet emerged.

  15. Cannes'i viimane tulevärk / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-nda Cannes'i filmifestivalil hindavad kriitikud kõrgelt Christian Mungiu "Neli kuud, kolm nädalat ja kaks päeva" (Rumeenia) ; Ethan ja Joel Coen'i "Pole maad vanadele meestele" ("No Country for Old Men" ; Ameerika Ühendriigid). Steven Soderberghi "Oceani kolmteist" pressikonverentsist. Eesti filmide saatusest filmiturul (Kadri Kõusaare "Magnus", Ilmar Raagi "Klass", Veiko Õunpuu "Sügisball")

  16. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  17. Kes oli Litvinenko? Miks ta tapeti? Kes Tappis? / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Andrei Nekrassovi ja Olga Konskaja dokumentaalfilmist "Vastuhakk: Litvinenko juhtum" ("Rebellion: The Litvinenko Case"/"Bunt. Delo Litvinenko") : Suurbritannia - Venemaa 2007. Filmi näidati Cannes'i festivalil

  18. Meistrite vägikaikavedu Cannes'is / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    60-ndast Cannes'i filmifestivalil esilinastus 18. mail Kadri Kõusaare mängufilm "Magnus" võistlusprogrammis "Vaatenurk". Filmist ja selle vastuvõtust Cannes'is. Ka Quentin Tarantino filmist "Grindhouse : Surmakindel" ja Gus Van Santi filmist "Paranoia park"

  19. Haagi tribunal hakkab Milosevici patte uurima / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Jugoslaavia endine president Slobodan Milosevic astub täna esimese endise riigipeana ÜRO sõjakuritegude tribunali ette. Tabel: Slobodan Milosevic kohtu all. Vt. samas: Bahovski, Erkki "Draama klaasi taga"

  20. The embarrassment of imperfection: Galen's assessment of Hippocrates' linguistic merits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, I

    1995-01-01

    In antiquity the 'higher' study of medicine shared with many other disciplines a pronounced philological character. Galen both exploited this 'philological paradigm' and underwent its influence. He exploited it in that it enabled him to invest the Corpus Hippocraticum with a dignity comparable to that of Homer only. But his philological instrumentarium, originally designed for the study of literary texts, also forced him to pose and answer certain questions that shed no light whatsoever on the informational content of Hippocrates' writings, questions about Hippocrates' language and style. Galen disentangles himself from the ensuing embarrassment by claiming that Hippocrates' style was ideal for the specific didactic genre he was involved in. This special style necessitates a reassessment of customary grammatical and rhetorical values: correctness recedes into the background, clarity and brevity become the predominant virtues of style.

  1. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); H. Goodfellow (Henry); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); O. Welsh (Oliverio); E. Zijlstra (Ed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infe

  2. Kunstnike töötsoon Colina Lab / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Kahenädalane kunstilaboratoorium Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis; kus loomingulistel aladel tegutsevad kunstnikud arendasid kõikvõimalikke projekte neljas rühmas. Kuraator Silke Bake valis osalema 19 kunstnikku Eestist, Saksamaalt, Portugalist, Taanist, Inglismaalt, Prantsusmaalt

  3. Does Young Age Merit Increased Emergency Department Trauma Team Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes, James F.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: To determine if increased trauma team response results in alterations in resource use in a population of children<6 years, especially in those least injured. Methods: We conducted a retrospective before and after study of children <6 years sustaining blunt trauma and meeting defined prehospital criteria. We compared hospitalization rates and missed injuries (injuries identified after discharge from the emergency department/hospital among patients with and without an upgraded trauma team response. We compared the computed tomography (CT rate and laboratory testing rate among minimally injured patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 6. Results: We enrolled 352 patients with 180 (mean age 2.7 ± 1.5 years in the upgrade cohort and 172 (mean age 2.6 ± 1.5 years in the no-upgrade cohort. Independent predictors of hospital admission in a regression analysis included: Glasgow Coma Scale <14 (odds ratio [OR]=11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3, 56, ISS (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.33, 1.81, and evaluation by the upgrade trauma team (OR=5.66, 95% CI 3.14, 10.2. In the 275 patients with ISS < 6, CT (relative risk=1.34, 95% CI 1.09, 1.64 and laboratory tests (relative risk=1.71, 95% CI 1.39, 2.11 were more likely to be obtained in the upgrade cohort as compared to the no-upgrade cohort. We identified no cases of a missed diagnosis. Conclusion: Increasing the trauma team response based upon young age results in increased resource use without altering the rate of missed injuries. In hospitals with ED physicians capable of evaluating and treating injured children, increasing ED trauma team resources solely for young age of the patient is not recommended. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:569–575.

  4. An Analysis of Merit Pay Reforms in Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brulle

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.

  5. Olukorrast Cannes'i rindel, edukast / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Algas 60. Cannes'i filmifestival. Pikemalt avafilmist - Wong Kar-Wai "My Blueberry Nights", venelase Andrei Zvjagintsevi filmist "Izgnanije"(artikli autoril "Karistus"), David Fincheri kriminaalfilmist "Zodiac", rumeenlase Christian "Mungiu filmist "Neli kuud, kolm nädalat ja kaks päeva"

  6. Eestlaste retk tänavusele Tampere festivalile / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Tampere Teatrisuvel osaleb Pärnu teater Endla lavastusega "Kokkola" (autor Leea Klemola ja lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar) ning Von Krahli Teater Kristian Smedsi lavastusega "Kajakas" Anton Tshehhovi ainetel

  7. "…to merit the countenance of the magistrates'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2014-01-01

    and femininity informed the gendered nature of work, public life and political activity, while several different pressures came together to shape an emphasis on propriety and the desirability of establishing a civic identity that was not only personal, but also represented the town as a whole. It meant...... that personal civic identity was linked to the perception and outward projections of the town. Thus the chapter articulates the role and strategies of Aberdeen’s town council in regulating not only the economy but also civic spaces. It will look at how the council ‘managed’ the town with reference...

  8. Aids röövib miljoneid elusid / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    ÜRO Aidsiprogrammi (UN-AIDS) ja Maailma Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni eile avaldatud aastaaruandest selgub, et aasta jooksul on maailmas registreeritud umbes viis miljonit uut nakatunut ehk iga päev saab viiruse 14 000 inimest

  9. The Modern Merits of South Koreas Biopharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Rymzo; Nathan Dowden; Regina Salvat; Tom Lee

    2016-01-01

    The overview: In recent years, the South Korean economy has evolved from light goods, to heavy industry, to high tech and biotech. Along the way, the country has built a thoroughly modern legal and regulatory framework, an arguably world class educational infrastructure, and an unusually productive level of public-private partnership activity. How did it get here?: Migrating from a heavy manufacturing economy in the aftermath of the Korean War, South Korea began turning its attention to bioph...

  10. Tähesõjad on tagasi / Merit Kopli, Kaido Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    George Lucas ja tema ulmefilmid "Tähesõjad", millest uusim "Star Wars I : The Phantom Menace" tõotab kujuneda 1999.aasta menukaimaks filmiks : Ajalehe lehekülg mitmesuguse infoga filmi maksumuse, tegelaste, režissööri ja esilinastuse kohta

  11. Merits and Demerits of Japanese Companies Entering the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HisaoYoshimura

    2003-01-01

    Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. My name is Hisao Yoshimura, Chairman of the Board of Nikkei Business Publications. Nikkei Business Publications is Japan's largest publisher dedicated to technology and management.

  12. The hydrogen economy- A debate on the merits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available issues pertaining to the effects of a hydrogen economy. Issues like global warming and sustainability of energy sources were raised. However in place of hydrogen other portable applications have been suggested for example, primary and secondary batteries...

  13. Aids röövib miljoneid elusid / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    ÜRO Aidsiprogrammi (UN-AIDS) ja Maailma Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni eile avaldatud aastaaruandest selgub, et aasta jooksul on maailmas registreeritud umbes viis miljonit uut nakatunut ehk iga päev saab viiruse 14 000 inimest

  14. Merits and qualms of work fluctuations in classical fluctuation theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiawen; Tan, Alvis Mazon; Hänggi, Peter; Gong, Jiangbin

    2017-01-01

    Work is one of the most basic notions in statistical mechanics, with work fluctuation theorems being one central topic in nanoscale thermodynamics. With Hamiltonian chaos commonly thought to provide a foundation for classical statistical mechanics, here we present general salient results regarding how (classical) Hamiltonian chaos generically impacts on nonequilibrium work fluctuations. For isolated chaotic systems prepared with a microcanonical distribution, work fluctuations are minimized and vanish altogether in adiabatic work protocols. For isolated chaotic systems prepared at an initial canonical distribution at inverse temperature β , work fluctuations depicted by the variance of e-β W are also minimized by adiabatic work protocols. This general result indicates that, if the variance of e-β W diverges for an adiabatic work protocol, it diverges for all nonadiabatic work protocols sharing the same initial and final Hamiltonians. Such divergence is hence not an isolated event and thus greatly impacts on the efficiency of using Jarzynski's equality to simulate free-energy differences. Theoretical results are illustrated in a Sinai model. Our general insights shall boost studies in nanoscale thermodynamics and are of fundamental importance in designing useful work protocols.

  15. Von Krahl toob lavale poeetilise loomisloo / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    9. apr. Tallinna vana sadama tollilaos esietenduvast Peeter Jalaka lavastatud "Õnne valemist", muusika briti heliloojalt Gavin Bryarsilt, lavastus põhineb Stephen Hawkingi raamatul "Aja lühiajalugu"

  16. Von Krahl toob lavale poeetilise loomisloo / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    9. apr. Tallinna vana sadama tollilaos esietenduvast Peeter Jalaka lavastatud "Õnne valemist", muusika briti heliloojalt Gavin Bryarsilt, lavastus põhineb Stephen Hawkingi raamatul "Aja lühiajalugu"

  17. Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines machismo (strict adherence to traditional masculine gender identity) in terms of Bem's gender schema theory. Uses the example of a Mexican immigrant family facing social and cultural changes to demonstrate the dynamics of machismo and how it might lead to emotional problems and physical symptoms in Hispanic men and their families.…

  18. Kunstnike töötsoon Colina Lab / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Kahenädalane kunstilaboratoorium Tallinnas Kanuti Gildi saalis; kus loomingulistel aladel tegutsevad kunstnikud arendasid kõikvõimalikke projekte neljas rühmas. Kuraator Silke Bake valis osalema 19 kunstnikku Eestist, Saksamaalt, Portugalist, Taanist, Inglismaalt, Prantsusmaalt

  19. Tähesõjad on tagasi / Merit Kopli, Kaido Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    George Lucas ja tema ulmefilmid "Tähesõjad", millest uusim "Star Wars I : The Phantom Menace" tõotab kujuneda 1999.aasta menukaimaks filmiks : Ajalehe lehekülg mitmesuguse infoga filmi maksumuse, tegelaste, režissööri ja esilinastuse kohta

  20. Merits of a Scenario Approach in Dredge Plume Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Chu, Amy Ling Chu; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Dredge plume modelling is a key tool for quantification of potential impacts to inform the EIA process. There are, however, significant uncertainties associated with the modelling at the EIA stage when both dredging methodology and schedule are likely to be a guess at best as the dredging contrac...

  1. Cosmopolitan Learning, Making Merit, and Reproducing Privilege in Indian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Amid growing calls for education to be more globally oriented, scholars have asked how best to educate for global citizenship and what truly cosmopolitan learning looks like. This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork in middle-class Hyderabad, India to highlight the overlap between the cosmopolitan competencies promoted in schools and upper…

  2. Klapptool meeldis nii leiutajale kui ka presidendile / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2008-01-01

    1877. a. Inglismaal patenteeritud klapptooli adapteerisid 1938. a. argentiinlased Bonet, Ferrari-Hardoy ja Kurchan (Grupo Austral), kes lõid toolile jäigema konstruktsiooni. Materjaliks lakitud teras ja nahk. Tooli nimi: B.K.F. (Hardoy Chair)

  3. "…to merit the countenance of the magistrates'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2014-01-01

    In the context of shifting ideas fostered by the Enlightenment and by a drive for civility, this chapter focuses on the construction of male and female civic identities and the tensions between reconstructed masculinity and femininity. Changing views of sexual difference and ideals of masculinity...

  4. Eesti annab oma panuse EL-i armeesse / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2000-01-01

    EL-i, NATO ja kandidaatriikide kaitseministrid arutasid Brüsselis EL-i kriisireguleerimisjõudude loomist. Eesti kaitseminister Jüri Luik tegi EL-ile teatavaks Eesti panuse. Diagramm: EL-i kiirreageerimisjõud

  5. On the merits of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy in geosciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Bertelsen, P.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl;

    2006-01-01

    Described are some applications of conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) in geosciences. It is shown how easily this technique can be applied in existing Mossbauer laboratories to investigate natural samples. Some examples demonstrate the kind of information CEMS can give...... on the weathering history or mechanical properties of samples. The possible application of CEMS on Mars is discussed....

  6. Mis siis päriselt on? / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    Luigi Pirandello "Nii see on, kui teile nii näib" Tallinna Linnateatris, lavastaja Adolf Shapiro, kunstnik Vladimir Anshon, kostüümid Kristina Pasternaka Lätist ja valguskunstnik Gleb Filshtinski. Esietendus 11. nov

  7. Cannes tõi peo Rumeenia õuele / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestivalil jagati auhindu.Kuldse Palmioksa sai rumeenlase Christian Mungiu "4 kuud, 3 nädalat ja 2 päeva". Ka programmi "Vaatenurk" peaauhinna sai rumeenlane Christian Nemescu ("California Dreamin'"). Lisatud auhinnatute nimekiri, peagi Eesti kinolevisse jõudvate Cannes'i filmide nimekiri ning Tiina Loki kommentaar

  8. Framing ecology as an urban concern has merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David

    2006-01-01

    Margrit Hugentobler advocates a version of urban sustainable development which rests on an appeal to nature or "natural harmony." To do this, we have to have conceptions both of nature and of human society. These conceptions will determine, among other things, the extent to which human societies are to be regarded as part of the natural world. Then we have to have ethical or moral premises to argue that human societies and habitations should imitate or emulate nature. These moral premises are assumed rather than validated in Margrit Hugentobler's critique.

  9. Does an undervalued currency merit economic growth?: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ho-Don

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether an undervalued currency is an attainable industrial policy for developing countries’ sustained development has recently invoked many discussions. This paper studies the case of Taiwan after first determining the misalignment of Taiwan’s currency by estimating the fundamental equilibrium real exchange rate. Three sub-periods for Taiwan’s currency exchange rate misalignment are identified: undervaluation in the periods 1981-1986 and 1998- 2008 and overvaluation during 1987-1997. Second, we use a vector autoregression (VAR model to examine the Granger causality between exchange rate misalignment and GDP, by incorporating export and investment variables. The evidence shows that exchange rate misalignment does Granger cause GDP and it mainly comes from the third sub-period when the Taiwan dollar was undervalued. From past experience and the current economic doldrums of the last resort of global exports - the United States - currency undervaluation is not a validated strategy upon which emerging markets can wishfully impinge.

  10. Reaching out Merits of Information Technology: Conflict Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiz, Mehmet Ekin; Altinay, Zehra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of headmasters in conflict management process within the school culture. The study has qualitative nature through the interviews with 76 teachers on the leadership and conflict management strategies of the headmasters. Within the framework of action learning and learning organization of a school…

  11. Klapptool meeldis nii leiutajale kui ka presidendile / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2008-01-01

    1877. a. Inglismaal patenteeritud klapptooli adapteerisid 1938. a. argentiinlased Bonet, Ferrari-Hardoy ja Kurchan (Grupo Austral), kes lõid toolile jäigema konstruktsiooni. Materjaliks lakitud teras ja nahk. Tooli nimi: B.K.F. (Hardoy Chair)

  12. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) – Recognition of Merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled "Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 27 September 2011 is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp The circular was above all revised in order to integrate the new CERN Competency Model into the annual procedure of performance appraisal. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) entitled "Recognition of merit” of September 2008. Department Head Office HR Department

  13. Eugenics and the Social Construction of Merit, Race, and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)

  14. Optical Accelerator: Scaling Laws and Figures of Merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachter, L.; /Technion; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U., Appl. Mech. Dept.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    Indications that solid-state lasers will reach wall-plug to light efficiencies of 30% or more make a laser-driven vacuum-accelerator increasingly appealing. Since at the wavelength of relevant lasers, dielectrics may sustain significantly higher electric field and transmit power with reduced loss comparing to metals, the basic assumption is that laser accelerator structures will be dielectrics. For structures that have typical dimensions of a few microns, present manufacturing constraints entail planar structures that in turn, require re-evaluation of many of the scaling laws that were developed for azimuthally symmetric structures. Moreover, structures that operate at a wavelength of a few centimeters are machined today with an accuracy of microns. In future it will not be possible to maintain 4-5 orders of magnitude difference between operating wavelength and achievable tolerance. An additional difference is, that contrary to present accelerators where the number of electrons in a micro-bunch is of the order of a 10{sup 10}, in an optical structure this number drops to a few thousands. Consequently, the relative impact of individual electrons may be significantly larger. Acceleration structures with higher degree of symmetry, similar to optical fibers, have also some inherent advantages however thermal gradients as well as heat dissipation may become critical impediments. The impact of all these factors on the performance of a laser accelerator structure needs to be determined. Efficiency, wakes and emittance scaling laws that have been developed recently will be presented. It will be shown that there are some inherent advantages in combining the accelerator structure and the laser cavity in one system.

  15. Mahesektori üleilmne kokkusaamine BIOFACHil / Merit Mikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikk, Merit, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Saksamaal Nürnbergis selle aasta veebruaris 26. korda toimunud maailma suurimat mahetoidu messi BIOFACH ja sellega samal ajal toimuvat looduskosmeetika messi VIVANESS külastas kokku ligi 45 000 inimest 136 riigist

  16. Merits of exercise therapy before and after major surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, T.J.; Dronkers, J.J.; Hulzebos, E.H.J.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in medical care have led to an increasing elderly population. Elderly individuals should be able to participate in society as long as possible. However, with an increasing age their adaptive capacity gradually decreases, specially before and after major life events (like

  17. Examining the Real Merits of the Virtual Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ronan; Meere, Pat; Ho, Timsie; Menuge, Julian; Tyrrell, Shane; Kamber, Balz; Higgs, Bettie; Kelley, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Geoscience e-Laboratory (GeoLAB) project is a cooperative digital petrological microscopy technology enhanced learning (TEL) resource development project involving the four main university geoscience teaching centres in Ireland. Collaborating with the Open University (UK), a new digital library of petrographic thin sections has been added to the Virtual Microscope for Earth Sciences (VMfES) online repository. The collection was compiled with a view to introducing high-quality samples to teaching programmes in a manner that hitherto was limited by sample and microscope availability and cost and the temporal limits of laboratory access. The project has proceeded to explore the pedagogical implications of using the Virtual Microscope in teaching programmes. Online assessments and self-guided exercises developed using applications such as Google Forms have been introduced into programmes at each centre, and complimented by tutorial and interactive videos designed to support self-guided learning. The GeoLab project is reporting on the pedagogical implications of providing students with unimpeded access to high-quality petrographic learning resources during the term of semester and in advance of student assessments. Additionally, the project is collating data on the perceptions of both teachers and learners to using online learning media in mineralogy and petrology programmes, and if there are benefits therein to the more traditional styles of petrology and microscopy teaching and learning.

  18. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  19. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  20. Perfect Fluid Quantum Anisotropic Universe: Merits and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Barun

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with quantization of perfect fluid anisotropic cosmological models. Bianchi type V and IX models are discussed following Schutz's method of expressing fluid velocities in terms of six potentials. The wave functions are found for several examples of equations of state. In one case a complete wave packet could be formed analytically. The initial singularity of a zero proper volume can be avoided in this case, but it is plagued by the usual problem of non-unitarity of anisotropic quantum cosmological models. It is seen that a particular operator ordering alleviates this problem.

  1. BIT/External Test Figures of Merit and Demonstration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    8217* an tol ioo,4 viu ,’. "a Itn V I 1 I!t.t 1 f 1 ,11 4.Aitit’tt obvious. ~isirt Ia ahl)’ "*sgo. tit lil rImionsiaulle mutit~.un.. wit nh l’i ri’i i on w...detectad by B17 /F- FFDID fraction of detectsble faults da~ewcW by blT/L. f F FI fraction of faults isolated by MNTIET&I rIP fraction Of false puns MR

  2. Eesti annab oma panuse EL-i armeesse / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2000-01-01

    EL-i, NATO ja kandidaatriikide kaitseministrid arutasid Brüsselis EL-i kriisireguleerimisjõudude loomist. Eesti kaitseminister Jüri Luik tegi EL-ile teatavaks Eesti panuse. Diagramm: EL-i kiirreageerimisjõud

  3. Colloquy: The Methods and Merits of Pornography Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Daniel Linz and Edward Donnerstein criticize the research methods and conclusions of pornography researchers Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant (who allege that consumption of pornography results in antisocial effects). Zillman and Bryant respond. (ARH)

  4. Cannes tõi peo Rumeenia õuele / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestivalil jagati auhindu.Kuldse Palmioksa sai rumeenlase Christian Mungiu "4 kuud, 3 nädalat ja 2 päeva". Ka programmi "Vaatenurk" peaauhinna sai rumeenlane Christian Nemescu ("California Dreamin'"). Lisatud auhinnatute nimekiri, peagi Eesti kinolevisse jõudvate Cannes'i filmide nimekiri ning Tiina Loki kommentaar

  5. Rural Women's Land Rights and Interests Merit Close Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO WENXIU

    2007-01-01

    @@ At the present stage in China,land is rural women's most basic means of production and life and most important material guarantee. Land contracting and related rights and interests have a direct bearing on the interests of rural women. Guaranteeing rural women's land contracting right and related economic rights and interests is of immediate significance for safeguarding their rights and interests and mobilizing them in active participation in the construction of a new socialist countryside. It will also have a farreaching significance for promoting social fairness and justice and building a socialist harmonious society.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES HIV/AIDS prevalence testing – merits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-18

    Jan 18, 2006 ... business sector to reconsider its role in disease prevention and management. ... The role of HIV testing in the workplace has been the centre of much ... the testing and Anglo Platinum; and (v) ethics approval was obtained ...

  7. Marine Corps Promotion System: Rewarding Merit or Seniority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    battlefields. PME is both an extrinsic and intrinsic reward . The majority of schools offer the ability to earn an advanced degree in conjunction...intrinsic and extrinsic motivators is key to rewarding leaders who have earned the right to be at the front of the line. In-zone reordering would...

  8. Multi-worm tracking using superposition of merit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Linda Ivonne; Potsaid, Benjamin; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    2008-11-01

    Traditional solutions for long term imaging of living small biological specimens and microorganisms lack efficiency due to computationally expensive algorithms, and field of view limitations in optical microscopes. This paper describes a new algorithm that allows for real time tracking of multiple 1mm nematodes called Caenorhabditis elegans with a novel optical microscope design called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), developed at the Center for Automation Technologies and Systems (CATS). Based on the real time experimentation, an improved algorithm to track multiple worms in the presence of entanglements is generated. The stages of this development start with an enhanced digital motion controller for the ASOM high speed scanning mirror to suppress undesired vibrations that limit the system capacity to track multiple organisms. The second phase is the integration of the ASOM apparatus, the high speed motion control, and a base tracking algorithm, all which allows for rapid image acquisition to track multiple C. elegans in real time. The base algorithm was developed at CATS and has been proven to track a single C. elegans in real time. Results demonstrating the efficacy of the complete system are presented. Lastly, an enhanced tracking algorithm is described that shows improved accuracy and robustness in tracking worms even when they become entangled. Taking into account the unique ASOM design, individual segments of the worm are tracked throughout an image sequence, and a mosaic pattern covering the entire worm is subsequently created. The algorithm takes advantage of geometric and dynamic knowledge of the C. elegans such as size, and movement patterns. The enhanced algorithm is tested on previously recorded footage. Simulated tracking experiments also illustrate the effectiveness of the enhanced algorithm and are presented.

  9. Ole Ivar Lovaas - His Life, Merits and Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010 is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and secondary school years, and his adolescent years during World War II in his first homeland, Norway, based on archival research and interviews. In the second part, we describe his life, academic studies, research and successes in his second home country, the United States. Finally, we briefly recount the impact Lovaas has had on the field of Applied Behavior Analysis and the treatment of and services for children with autism spectrum disorders in Norway and in the North America.

  10. Vendade Quayde film on nagu ballett / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali mängufilme - "Maavärinate klaverihäälestaja" (Piano Tuner of the Earthquakes") : režissöörid Stephen ja Timothy Quay : Suurbritannia - Saksamaa - Prantsusmaa 2005. Režissöörid tutvustasid oma filmi

  11. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.;

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority of ca...

  12. The Merits and Demerits of Pleasure in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What role should pleasure play in kinesiology? Although pleasure is an important concept in kinesiology, the strengths, weaknesses, and dangers of this concept have not been properly clarified. Douglas Booth and Richard Pringle have both recently scolded kinesiologists over the issue of pleasure in kinesiology with decidedly mixed results. They…

  13. Türilased osalesid ooperifestivalil / Merit Männi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männi, Merit

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikaakadeemias koorijuhtimist õppivad lauljad Mikk Dede ja Kuldar Schüts osalesid augustikuus Rahvusooper Estonia ooperitega "Carmen" ja "Rigoletto" Rootsis Dalhalla rahvusvahelisel ooperifetivalil

  14. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McCormick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summa...

  15. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  16. De didata de méritos reconhecidos a representative-man da escola tradicional: as interlocuções do educador paulista João Toledo - Of recognized merit taught a representative-man of traditional school: the dialogues of the educator of São Paulo João Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro, Brasil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pela discussão de um dado momento da educação paulista (1925-1934, o artigo traz à luz um educador que defendeu uma proposta de educação para uma escola brasileira pautada por modelos de lição. Formado complementarista quando a ênfase dada à formação do professor primário fundamentava-se na pedagogia tida como arte de ensinar, João Toledo era adepto de concepções herbartianas e não aderiu à proposta da escola nova. No cenário das décadas de 20 e 30 figurou como autor de livros e artigos em revistas, sendo considerado por uns como didata de méritos reconhecidos e por outros como representative-man da escola tradicional.Palavras-chave: João Toledo, educação paulista, formação de professores. DE RECONOCIDO PRESTIGIO ENSEÑÓ A REPRESENTANTE-MAN DE LA ESCUELA TRADICIONAL: LOS DIÁLOGOS DEL EDUCADOR DEL SÃO PAULO JOÃO TOLEDOResumenPara una discusión sobre la educación que se imparte tiempo paulista (1925-1934, el artículo pone de manifiesto un educador que abogó por una propuesta de educación para una escuela brasileña guiado por modelos de la lección. Complementarism forman cuando el énfasis en la formación de maestros primarios se basó en la pedagogía de la enseñanza visto como el arte, John Taylor era experto en concepciones herbartiana y no se unió a la nueva escuela propuesta. En el contexto de las décadas del 20 y 30 figuraba como autor de libros y artículos de revistas, es considerada por algunos que se les enseñe los méritos reconocidos por los demás como representante de la escuela tradicional-hombre.Palabras-clave: João Toledo, São Paulo la educación, la formación de los profesores OF RECOGNIZED MERIT TAUGHT A REPRESENTATIVE-MANOF TRADITIONAL SCHOOL: THE DIALOGUES OF THE EDUCATOR OF SÃO PAULO JOÃO TOLEDOAbstractFor a discussion of a given moment of education of São Paulo (1925-1934, the article brings to light an educator who advocated an education proposal for a Brazilian school

  17. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  18. Merits Difference of Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Internal Fixation and Tra-ditional Surgery in Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture%经皮椎弓根螺钉内固定术和传统手术治疗胸腰椎骨折的优劣差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 张陆; 高松明

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究比较经皮微创椎弓根螺钉内固定和传统的开放手术治疗胸腰椎骨折临床优劣差异。方法整群选取2012年12月—2015年6月期间在该院治疗的胸腰椎骨折患者44例,采用随机分组将其均分成微创组和开放组,每组患者22例。开放组采用传统的开放性椎弓根螺钉内固定手术治疗;微创组实施Sextant系统下经皮微创内固定手术治疗。记录两组患者的围手术期相关指标、胸腰椎术后矫正情况,并随访观察并发症情况。结果微创组在手术时间、切口大小、出血量等围手术期指标均要明显优于开放组(P﹤0.05);治疗后,两组在椎前缘高度差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。开放组并发症发生例数明显高于微创组(P﹤0.05)。结论经皮椎弓根螺钉内固定术治疗胸腰椎骨折具有出血少、安全性高、临床效果好等优点。%Objective To research and compare the merits difference of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation and traditional surgery in treatment of thoracolumbar fracture. Methods 44 cases of patients with thoracolumbar fracture treated in our hos-pital from December 2012 to June 2015 were selected and randomly divided into the mini-invasive group and the open group with 22 cases in each, the open group were treated with traditional open?pedicle screw internal fixation, the mini-in-vasive group were treated with minimally invasive percutaneous internal fixation under the Sextant system, the related index-es in the perioperative period and rectification condition after thoracolumbar surgery of the two groups were recorded , the complication condition was followed up and observed. Results The indexes in the perioperative period such as operation time, cut size and blood loss were obviously higher than those in the open group, (P﹤0.05), after treatment, the difference in the anterior vertebral body height between the two groups was statistically significant (P﹤0.05), the

  19. Criminal trial from a crime control perspective——mode, function and judge's attitude%犯罪控制视野下的刑事审判——模式、功能与法官的态度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广三

    2007-01-01

    Such ideas as upholding the advantages and merits of ex officio doctrine, gradually borrowing the fair factors of the adversary system, embodying a new-style concept of crime control and establishing the safeguarding rules and principles of the basic procedure for minimum justice criteria are macroscopical themes to which we must stick in the course of criminal trial. The effectiveness of a particular function in criminal trial in faith results from the choice of"degree" in the respect of crime control. The attitude of a criminal judge directly or otherwise exercises an influence on the trial of a case, and may even be decisive on some occasions. The concept of crime control is a barometer of the judge's attitude in criminal trial, and an indispensable component of the judge's rational attitude as well.

  20. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Brend; Keulen, van Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression o

  1. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression

  2. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  3. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  4. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  5. UNU-MERIT at 25 years : how doctoral training at UNU-MERIT contributes to the community of scholars in the economis of innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcomak, S.; Garcia, A.; Santiago-Rodriguez, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on the emergence of innovation studies as a scientific field. This area of research documents the mechanisms, interactions and meeting spaces that innovation scholars have developed to give substance and legitimacy to their work. What role is there for the traini

  6. The Judge on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between ‘key agents’ and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why as yet the civil law judge cannot be expected to start using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the judicial decision-making process in a relatively open, form-free interaction with his or her ‘clients’. This explanation is grounded on the hybrid character of social networking sites. On the one hand, these sites are direct, interactive, informal, and personalized media; but on the other, they are public and basically permanent. Their direct, interactive, informal and personalized character is highly compatible with the multimodal, network-embedded, form-free self-representation of the modern judge in the courtroom. However, their public and permanent character manifests in the second performance of a judge, being held publicly and permanently accountable for what is decided. This performance is characterized by a unimodal, ‘punctualized’, formal self-representation. Referring to the work of legal sociologists as well as discourse scholars, it is underlined how much this public judicial self-representation is part of a persistent ritual that renders it incompatible with direct, interactive, informal and personalized communication. The hybrid character of social media does not allow judges to utilize them to act as key-agents: to open up the ‘backstage area’ to reveal the actual dynamics of the decision-making process, and to transparently connect the judicial performance in the courtroom session with the second performance when issuing a decision.

  7. Judging the Judges: finding value in these problematic characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L R Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical judges are well known for their less than exemplary behaviour. In the past, these judges have been appreciated largely as examples of how a charismatic leader should not behave. In spite of the judges� questionable morals, the writer of the book of Hebrews commends four of them (Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, and Samson for their faith. This paper evaluates these judges in light of their characterisations in the book of Hebrews and in the book of Judges and suggests that our struggle with the judges parallels the contemporary integrity crisis in Christian leadership.

  8. Reflections on receiving the ASIS&T 2016 Award of Merit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    originator. Ingwersen observed that his own areas of research in interactive information retrieval (IR) and scientometrics/webometrics have come together as converging lines of interest, though research and analysis are often restricted by system and feature limitations. Experimentation, Ingwersen stated...

  9. Optimization of Nonlinear Figure-of-Merits of Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    different operating conditions. A systematic analysis of the optimization of these FOMs has not been previously established. The optimization methods are verified on a 100 V power MOSFET implemented in a 0.18 µm partial SOI process. Its FOMs are lowered by 1.3-18.3 times and improved by 22...

  10. Rebel bij design: the merits of rebellious play and how to design for it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Play as a behavioural domain is characterized by freedom and flexibility, which contribute to both short-term and lasting wellbeing. Children play increasingly under supervision of adults, who generally perceive rough and rebellious behaviour negatively. The paper argues that also rebelliousness is

  11. Reforming fossil fuel use : the merits, costs and risks of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Kay J.

    2007-01-01

    The sense of urgency in achieving large reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions has increased the interest in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). CCS can be defined as the separation and capture of CO2 produced at large stationary sources, followed by transport and storage in geological

  12. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  13. A Review of the Relative Merits of Conserving, Using, or Draining Papyrus Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Ilya M. D.; Boar, Rosalind R.; Lugo, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Wetlands are a vital resource, particularly in Africa where livelihoods are closely linked to natural capital. In recent years, extensive drainage has occurred to make way for agriculture. To gain insight into whether drainage is justified, we review the value of African wetlands dominated by Cyperus papyrus in relation to use, conservation and conversion. Evidence suggests that the value derived from low-intensity, multifunctional wetland use far exceeds the value derived from swamp reclamation and generally exceeds that of conservation. At a local level, the main driver of wetland misuse appear to be a breakdown in collaborative management regimes and the main constraint on wetland use, the value of labor and selling-times. Local drivers are linked to regional factors such as the lack of coordinated wetland policies and difficulties in ensuring that legislation is absorbed by all sectors of society. We highlight opportunities for ensuring more effective collaborative management and legislation communication, which capitalize on existing governance structures. In contrast to predictions by Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model, we argue that effective wetland management is best achieved by preventing privatization and promoting common property management regimes. We also argue that poverty and income inequity are more important drivers of unsustainable resource use than environmental managers commonly acknowledge.

  14. Merit Pay, Scientific Production and Comision Nacional Evaluadora de la Acitividad Investigadora del Profesorado Universitario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Gema; de las Heras, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Some authors have given the CNEAI (National Commission for the Evaluation of Research Activity) a notorious role in the promotion of scientific research in Spain when considering the requirements for this institution as one of the essential elements in the increase of the Spanish scientific production in the last few years. We hereby expose that…

  15. More than Just Convenient: The Scientific Merits of Homogeneous Convenience Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their disadvantaged generalizability relative to probability samples, non-probability convenience samples are the standard within developmental science, and likely will remain so because probability samples are cost-prohibitive and most available probability samples are ill-suited to examine developmental questions. In lieu of focusing on how to eliminate or sharply reduce reliance on convenience samples within developmental science, here we propose how to augment their advantages when it comes to understanding population effects as well as subpopulation differences. Although all convenience samples have less clear generalizability than probability samples, we argue that homogeneous convenience samples have clearer generalizability relative to conventional convenience samples. Therefore, when researchers are limited to convenience samples, they should consider homogeneous convenience samples as a positive alternative to conventional or heterogeneous) convenience samples. We discuss future directions as well as potential obstacles to expanding the use of homogeneous convenience samples in developmental science. PMID:28475254

  16. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Weiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient`s immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects. Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine’s immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine’s efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected immune therapies.

  17. Thermoelectric Figure of Merit of Low-temperature Generator Materials and Possibilities to Improve It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Simkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric properties of semiconductor material based on the bismuth telluride solid solution manufactured by the extrusion method, which has high mechanical properties, are studied in the work. Using the obtained values of thermoelectric semiconductor parameters, the coefficients of efficiency of generator thermopile of a flat design in the working temperature range are calculated. The ways to improve the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion through the use of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric materials based on bismuth telluride are considered.

  18. Relative merits of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for applications in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Elisabeth; Wegrelius, Lena; Pettersson, Rachel [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The broad range of available stainless steel grades means that these materials can fulfil a wide variety of requirements within the oil and gas industry. The duplex grades have the advantage of higher strength than standard austenitic grades, while the superaustenitic grades provide a cost-effective alternative to nickel-base alloys in a number of cases. The paper presents the results of various types of laboratory testing to rank the grades in terms of resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Results from field testing in actual or simulated service conditions are discussed and a number of application examples, including process piping flexible, heat exchangers and topside equipment are presented. (author)

  19. H-Bomb Development: Decision on the Merits or Political Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    is – demonstrably – to wage a relentless, unceasing struggle in which any weapon or tactic which promises success is admissible.”35 At the highest...placed a hard $14.4 billion ceiling on the FY1950 defense budget, which he maintained despite vehement protests by the Joint Chiefs. The Joint Chiefs

  20. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.