WorldWideScience

Sample records for judging information credibility

  1. The impact of judges' perceptions of credibility in fibromyalgia claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Judy A; Iverson, Grant L; Collins, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a confusing and controversial diagnosis, characterized by widespread pain and tenderness at specific anatomical sites. The cause of this syndrome is unknown, and the course of the condition is difficult to predict. Without a known cause, predictable course, or effective treatment, it is not surprising that FM is a contentious diagnosis from a medical perspective, as well as a civil litigation and disability insurance industry perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate judges' perceptions of credibility in litigated cases involving FM claims in the Canadian courts, and the relation between perceived credibility and awards granted. A systematic review was conducted of every trial-by-judge litigated FM claim in Canada (N=194 cases) up to 2003. The cases were examined in relation to credibility factors. The role and responsibility of the plaintiff was central in claims involving issues of misrepresentation, fraud, non-disclosure, failure to mitigate, and contributory negligence. The presence of these issues suggested a possible decrease or loss in the claim as a result of the plaintiff's conduct. In regards to the actions of defendants, the presence of investigative and surveillance information alone did not affect the awards granted. However, the credibility of that information had a large effect on the amount of award granted. Plaintiff credibility played a similar role, indicating that plaintiffs perceived as more credible were typically granted greater awards. An examination of medical expert credibility revealed that judges appear to perceive experts as more credible overall than plaintiffs, regardless of the expert's role in the case.

  2. Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Miriam J.; Flanagin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to assess people's perceptions of the credibility of various categories of Internet information. Finds that respondents considered Internet information to be as credible as that obtained from television, radio, and magazines, but not as credible as newspaper information. Explores the social relevance of the findings and discusses them in…

  3. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  4. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  5. Credibility Assessment of Online Information in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieh, Soo Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the context in which people interact with online information affects people's credibility perceptions. In this study, credibility assessment is defined as perceptions of credibility relying on individuals' expertise and knowledge. Context has been characterized with respect to three aspects: Context as user goals and intentions, context as topicality of information, and context as information activities. The data were collected from two empirical studies. Study 1 was a diary study in which 333 residents in Michigan, U.S.A. submitted 2,471 diary entries to report their trust perceptions associated with ten different user goals and nine different intentions. Study 2 was a lab-based study in which 64 subjects participated in performing four search tasks in two different information activity conditions - information search or content creation. There are three major findings of this study: (1 Score-based trust perceptions provided limited views of people's credibility perceptions because respondents tended to score trust ratings consistently high across various user goals and intentions; (2 The topicality of information mattered more when study subjects assessed the credibility of user generated content (UGC than with traditional media content (TMC; (3 Subjects of this study exerted more effort into making credibility judgments when they engaged in searching activities than in content creation. These findings indicate that credibility assessment can or should be seen as a process-oriented notion incorporating various information use contexts beyond simple rating-based evaluation. The theoretical contributions for information scientists and practical implications for web designers are also discussed.

  6. Optimizing Information Credibility in Social Swarming Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin; Bar-Noyz, Amotz; Govindan, Ramesh; Neely, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of smartphone technology, it has become possible to conceive of entirely new classes of applications. Social swarming, in which users armed with smartphones are directed by a central director to report on events in the physical world, has several real-world applications: search and rescue, coordinated fire-fighting, and the DARPA balloon hunt challenge. In this paper, we focus on the following problem: how does the director optimize the selection of reporters to deliver credible corroborating information about an event. We first propose a model, based on common intuitions of believability, about the credibility of information. We then cast the problem posed above as a discrete optimization problem, and introduce optimal centralized solutions and an approximate solution amenable to decentralized implementation whose performance is about 20% off on average from the optimal (on real-world datasets derived from Google News) while being 3 orders of magnitude more computationally efficient. More int...

  7. Format as a False Judge of Credibility: Messages from Librarians and Faculty and Student Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to explore how students make sense of and respond to messages about information in higher education. This study identifies the messages students in higher education receive about information gathering, conducting research, and the credibility and authority of information sources. This research revealed that students are receiving the message from faculty that format is a stand-in for credibility. Research to date focuses on how to steer students to information privileged by the academy: academic, peer reviewed articles, and books. The voice of students is often absent. This study employs the critical framework of Paulo Freire in order to give voice to student perceptions of information.

  8. The function of credibility in information processing for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W; McComas, Katherine A

    2003-04-01

    This study examines how credibility affects the way people process information and how they subsequently perceive risk. Three conceptual areas are brought together in this analysis: the psychometric model of risk perception, Eagly and Chaiken's heuristic-systematic information processing model, and Meyer's credibility index. Data come from a study of risk communication in the circumstance of state health department investigations of suspected cancer clusters (five cases, N = 696). Credibility is assessed for three information sources: state health departments, citizen groups, and industries involved in each case. Higher credibility for industry and the state directly predicts lower risk perception, whereas high credibility for citizen groups predicts greater risk perception. A path model shows that perceiving high credibility for industry and state-and perceiving low credibility for citizen groups-promotes heuristic processing, which in turn is a strong predictor of lower risk perception. Alternately, perceiving industry and the state to have low credibility also promotes greater systematic processing, which consistently leads to perception of greater risk. Between a one-fifth and one-third of the effect of credibility on risk perception is shown to be indirectly transmitted through information processing.

  9. Believe It or Not: Factors Influencing Credibility on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C. Nadine; Burkell, Jacquelyn

    2002-01-01

    Reviews selected literature related to the credibility of information, including credibility in traditional media, credibility in electronic media, Internet health information, and credibility rating systems. Proposes a model for how users judge the credibility of online information. (Contains 52 references.) (Author/LRW)

  10. Topic familiarity and information skills in online credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of user generated content, evaluating the credibility of information has become increasingly important. It is already known that various user characteristics influence the way credibility evaluation is performed. Domain experts on the topic at hand primarily focus on semantic features

  11. Topic familiarity and information skills in online credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Teun; Muilwijk, Rienco; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of user-generated content, evaluating the credibility of information has become increasingly important. It is already known that various user characteristics influence the way credibility evaluation is performed. Domain experts on the topic at hand primarily focus on semantic features

  12. Topic familiarity and information skills in online credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of user generated content, evaluating the credibility of information has become increasingly important. It is already known that various user characteristics influence the way credibility evaluation is performed. Domain experts on the topic at hand primarily focus on semantic features

  13. Topic familiarity and information skills in online credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Muilwijk, Rienco; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of user-generated content, evaluating the credibility of information has become increasingly important. It is already known that various user characteristics influence the way credibility evaluation is performed. Domain experts on the topic at hand primarily focus on semantic features

  14. Information Extraction on the Web with Credibility Guarantee

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh Tam

    2015-01-01

    The Web became the central medium for valuable sources of information extraction applications. However, such user-generated resources are often plagued by inaccuracies and misinformation due to the inherent openness and uncertainty of the Web. In this work we study the problem of extracting structured information out of Web data with a credibility guarantee. The ultimate goal is that not only the structured information should be extracted as much as possible but also its credibility is high. ...

  15. In Search of Credibility: Pupils' Information Practices in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Olof; Francke, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We aim to create an in-depth understanding of how pupils in upper secondary school negotiate the credibility and authority of information as part of their practices of learning. Particular focus is on the use of user-created resources, such as "Wikipedia", where authorship is collective and/or hard to determine. Method: An…

  16. A List of Currently Credible Biology Concepts Judged by a National Panel To Be Important for Inclusion in K-12 Curricula, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin Edwin

    This three-part document identified 114 currently credible biology concepts judged important for inclusion in the K-12 curriculum. The literature related to the production of lists of scientific concepts was reviewed, emphasizing the techniques available for such studies. The technique for this study was to ask individual biological scientists at…

  17. The effect of source credibility on consumers' perceptions of the quality of health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon; Ahmed, Rukhsana; Hopson, Danielle

    2006-03-01

    Recent use of the Internet as a source of health information has raised concerns about consumers' ability to tell 'good' information from 'bad' information. Although consumers report that they use source credibility to judge information quality, several observational studies suggest that consumers make little use of source credibility. This study examines consumer evaluations of web pages attributed to a credible source as compared to generic web pages on measures of message quality. In spring 2005, a community-wide convenience survey was distributed in a regional hub city in Ohio, USA. 519 participants were randomly assigned one of six messages discussing lung cancer prevention: three messages each attributed to a highly credible national organization and three identical messages each attributed to a generic web page. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare each attributed message to its counterpart attributed to a generic web page on measures of trustworthiness, truthfulness, readability, and completeness. The results demonstrated that differences in attribution to a source did not have a significant effect on consumers' evaluations of the quality of the information.Conclusions. The authors offer suggestions for national organizations to promote credibility to consumers as a heuristic for choosing better online health information through the use of media co-channels to emphasize credibility.

  18. The Source and Credibility of Colorectal Cancer Information on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P Credibility analysis of medically relevant sample tweets revealed that most were medically correct (n = 1763, 84.5%). Among those, more frequently retweeted tweets contained more medically correct information than randomly selected tweets (90.7% vs 83.2%; P information from a large number and variety of users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution.

  19. Criteria For Judging the Credibility of Children's Statements about Their Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1988-01-01

    Total of 103 cases of child sexual abuse in which offenders confessed to some level of abuse were examined for purpose of determining extent to which children's statements contained three widely accepted clinical criteria of a true sexual abuse allegation. Criteria were information about context of the sexual abuse, description or demonstration of…

  20. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Scott, Barbara J

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to test and describe a model for evaluating Websites related to breastfeeding. Forty Websites most likely to be accessed by the public were evaluated for extent, accuracy, credibility, presentation, ease of use, and adherence to ethical and medical Internet publishing standards. Extent and accuracy of Website content were determined by a checklist of critical information. The majority of Websites reviewed provided accurate information and complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Approximately half the Websites complied with standards of medical Internet publishing. While much information on breastfeeding on the Internet is accurate, there is wide variability in the extent of information, usability of Websites, and compliance with standards of medical Internet publishing. Results of this study may be helpful to health care professionals as a model for evaluating breastfeeding-related Websites and to highlight considerations when recommending or designing Websites.

  1. The Internet's impact on policy evaluation: information compression and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry

    2004-04-01

    As with all media, the Internet structures and frames information, rewarding some information search and decision behaviors while punishing others and, thereby, strongly influences evaluation research results and possibilities. Now that the Internet is for many evaluators the information medium of choice, the impacts of the medium on evaluation deserve careful attention. The objective of this article is to lay groundwork for a theory of the impact of the Internet on evaluation and policy analysis. Questions addressed include the following: (a) What is the impact of the Internet on the evaluator's professional role, work norms, and work habits? (b) Does the use of the Internet affect who is an evaluator or the meaning of professional evaluation? and (c) How does evaluation via Internet affect the technical quality and credibility of evaluation? A key thesis is that the Internet compresses information in the sense that it is not always easy to distinguish among information resources and, especially, the authority of the information provider and the nature of the knowledge warrant. On one hand, the Internet's information compression seems to hold potential for the democratization of evaluation. On the other hand, the diminished ability to make quality distinctions about evaluation-relevant information may undercut the legitimacy of evaluation.

  2. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Seth E

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an "intelligence" that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of "volunteered" or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the "intelligence" collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an "intelligent" end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs.

  3. Health information, credibility, homophily, and influence via the Internet: Web sites versus discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P

    2008-07-01

    Despite concerns about online health information and efforts to improve its credibility, how users evaluate and utilize such information presented in Web sites and online discussion groups may involve different evaluative mechanisms. This study examined credibility and homophily as two underlying mechanisms for social influence with regard to online health information. An original experiment detected that homophily grounded credibility perceptions and drove the persuasive process in both Web sites and online discussion groups. The more homophilous an online health information stimulus was perceived as being, the more likely people were to adopt the advice offered in that particular piece of information.

  4. Media credibility and cognitive authority. The case of seeking orienting information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Savolainen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative case study focusing on the information seeking practices of environmental activists. The main attention was devoted to their perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority in the context of seeking orienting information about environmental issues in particular. Method. The empirical data were gathered in 2005 by semi-structured interviews with twenty environmental activists in Finland. Analysis. The interview data were examined by means of qualitative content analysis by constantly comparing the articulations of media credibility and cognitive authority. Results. The perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority tend to be dependent on the topic at hand. No specific cognitive authorities were recognized. Sources providing focused information issued by environmental asssociations were perceived as most credible. Newspapers were perceived as less credible due to their political bias and the general level of news reporting. The significance of one's own critical reflection was emphasized in the judgement of the credibility of information sources of various types. Conclusion. Perceived media credibility and cognitive authority significantly, though often implicitly, orient the selection of information sources. There is a need also to explore their role in the context of seeking problem-specific information, both job-related and non-work.

  5. Kids and Credibility: An Empirical Examination of Youth, Digital Media Use, and Information Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagin, Andrew J.; Metzger, Miriam J.

    2010-01-01

    How well do children navigate the ocean of information that is available online? The enormous variety of Web-based resources represents both opportunities and challenges for Internet-savvy kids, offering extraordinary potential for learning and social connection but little guidance on assessing the reliability of online information. This book…

  6. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  7. Information Literacy on the Web: How College Students Use Visual and Textual Cues to Assess Credibility on Health Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L. Pariera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important literacy skills in today’s information society is the ability to determine the credibility of online information. Users sort through a staggering number of websites while discerning which will provide satisfactory information. In this study, 70 college students assessed the credibility of health websites with a low and high design quality, in either low or high credibility groups. The study’s purpose was to understand if students relied more on textual or visual cues in determining credibility, and to understand if this affected their recall of those cues later. The results indicate that when viewing a high credibility website, high design quality will bolster the credibility perception, but design quality will not compensate for a low credibility website. The recall test also indicated that credibility does impact the participants’ recall of visual and textual cues. Implications are discussed in light of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

  8. A new measure for evaluating spatially related properties of traffic information credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海舰; 董宏辉; 贾利民; 仁墨羽; 秦勇

    2014-01-01

    With the wide applications of sensor network technology in traffic information acquisition systems, a new measure will be quite necessary to evaluate spatially related properties of traffic information credibility. The heterogeneity of spatial distribution of information credibility from sensor networks is analyzed and a new measure, information credibility function (ICF), is proposed to describe this heterogeneity. Three possible functional forms of sensor ICF and their corresponding expressions are presented. Then, two feasible operations of spatial superposition of sensor ICFs are discussed. Finally, a numerical example is introduced to show the calibration method of sensor ICF and obtain the spatially related properties of expressway in Beijing. The results show that the sensor ICF of expressway in Beijing possesses a negative exponent property. The traffic information is more abundant at or near the locations of sensor, while with the distance away from the sensor increasing, the traffic information credibility will be declined by an exponential trend. The new measure provides theoretical bases for the optimal locations of traffic sensor networks and the mechanism research of spatial distribution of traffic information credibility.

  9. The impact of displayed awards on the credibility and retention of Web site information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, J; Marshall, J; Musen, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ratings systems and awards for medical Web sites have proliferated, but the validity and utility of the systems has not been well established. This study examined the effect of awards on the perceived credibility and retention of health information on a Web page. We recruited study participants from Internet newsgroups and presented them with information on the claimed health benefits of shark cartilage. Participants were randomized to receive health information with and without a medical award present on the page. We subsequently asked them to evaluate the credibility of the Web page and posed multiple-choice questions regarding the content of the pages. 137 completed responses were included for analysis. Our results show that the presentation of awards has no significant effect on the credibility or retention of health information on a Web page. Significantly, the highly educated participants in our study found inaccurate and misleading information on shark cartilage to be slightly believable.

  10. Media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; DeLorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study conducted to determine consumer perceptions of the media credibility and informativeness of direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTC advertising) and to examine how those perceptions are influenced by consumer predispositions and demographic characteristics, especially consumer age. This study specifically surveyed older consumers, who are the most significant market segment for prescription drugs and particularly susceptible and vulnerable to commercial persuasion. Older consumers' perceptions of DTC advertising were found to be neutral but their evaluation of informativeness was found to be more positive. Attitude toward DTC advertising and DTC advertising familiarity predicted perceived credibility across various media and attitude toward DTC advertising was the most prominent predictor of perceived informativeness. Age and usage of different media were also found to predict credibility and informativeness of DTC advertising in certain types of media. This study's findings provide insight into how older consumers evaluate various DTC advertising media as an information source.

  11. College Student Web Use, Perceptions of Information Credibility, and Verification Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Miriam J.; Flanagin, Andrew J.; Zwarun, Lara

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about the potentially dubious nature of online information and users' ability to evaluate it appropriately prompted this research on college students' use of Web-based information, their perceptions of information credibility, and their online verification behaviors. Two studies were conducted to address these issues. Results of the first…

  12. Source Credibility and the Biasing Effect of Narrative Information on the Perception of Vaccination Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.

  13. The Effects of Source Credibility Ratings in a Cultural Heritage Information Aggregator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.K.; Zhang, J.; Cramer, H.; Hardman, L.; Evers, V.

    2008-01-01

    State of the art web search applications allow the user to aggregate information from many sources. Because of this, users are confronted with having to assess the reliability of information from different sources. This paper reports on an empirical user study on the effect of displaying credibility

  14. Media Credibility and Cognitive Authority. The Case of Seeking Orienting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This article results from a qualitative case study focusing on the information seeking practices of environmental activists. The main attention was devoted to their perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority in the context of seeking orienting information about environmental issues in particular. Method: The empirical…

  15. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  16. Information Literacy on the Web: How College Students Use Visual and Textual Cues to Assess Credibility on Health Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Katrina L. Pariera

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important literacy skills in today’s information society is the ability to determine the credibility of online information. Users sort through a staggering number of websites while discerning which will provide satisfactory information. In this study, 70 college students assessed the credibility of health websites with a low and high design quality, in either low or high credibility groups. The study’s purpose was to understand if students relied more on textual or visual cues...

  17. Detecting Marionette Microblog Users for Improved Information Credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贤; 范••伟; 高晶; 冯子明; 俞勇

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to detect a special group of microblog users: the “marionette” users, who are created or employed by backstage “puppeteers”, either through programs or manually. Unlike normal users that access microblog for information sharing or social communication, the marionette users perform specific tasks to earn financial profits. For example, they follow certain users to increase their “statistical popularity”, or retweet some tweets to amplify their “statistical impact”. The fabricated follower or retweet counts not only mislead normal users to wrong information, but also seriously impair microblog-based applications, such as hot tweets selection and expert finding. In this paper, we study the important problem of detecting marionette users on microblog platforms. This problem is challenging because puppeteers are employing complicated strategies to generate marionette users that present similar behaviors as normal users. To tackle this challenge, we propose to take into account two types of discriminative information: 1) individual user tweeting behavior and 2) the social interactions among users. By integrating both information into a semi-supervised probabilistic model, we can e昇ectively distinguish marionette users from normal ones. By applying the proposed model to one of the most popular microblog platforms (Sina Weibo) in China, we find that the model can detect marionette users with F-measure close to 0.9. In addition, we apply the proposed model to calculate the marionette ratio of the top 200 most followed microbloggers and the top 50 most retweeted posts in Sina Weibo. To accelerate the detecting speed and reduce feature generation cost, we further propose a light-weight model which utilizes fewer features to identify marionettes from retweeters.

  18. Do Scientists and Teachers Agree on the Credibility of Media Information Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, E. Barbara; Iding, Marie K.; Speitel, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Compares preservice teachers' and scientists' ratings of the credibility of 31 information sources that teachers might draw upon in teaching science lessons. Discusses differences between elementary and secondary preservice teachers as well as implications for science teacher education and scientific literacy. (Author/LRW)

  19. An exploration of search patterns and credibility issues among older adults seeking online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather

    2011-12-01

    The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for research investigating online use among adults aged 65 and over - a rapidly growing demographic of Internet users. The current study presents important descriptive data about the search patterns of older adults seeking online health information, the types of health topics they research, and whether they consider credibility issues when retrieving online health information. A comparison is also made between search strategies used in printed text and hypertext environments. The results, which have implications with respect to credibility issues, highlight the need to increase awareness about critical searching skills among older adult Internet users.

  20. Adolescent health literacy: the importance of credible sources for online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad F; Valerio, Melissa A; Garcia, Carolyn M; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus(®), is associated with higher levels of health literacy. An online survey was administered to a cross-sectional random sample of high school students in South Texas. Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and data on health-information-seeking behavior and exposure to MedlinePlus(®) were collected. Health literacy was assessed by eHEALS and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Linear and binary logistic regressions were completed. Of the 261 students who completed the survey, 56% had heard of MedlinePlus(®), 52% had adequate levels of health literacy as measured by NVS, and the mean eHEALS score was 30.6 (possible range 8-40). Health literacy was positively associated with self-efficacy and seeking health information online. Exposure to MedlinePlus(®) was associated with higher eHealth literacy scores (p literacy (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.1). Exposure to a credible source of online health information is associated with higher levels of health literacy. The incorporation of a credible online health information resource into school health education curricula is a promising approach for promoting health literacy. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  1. Influence of User Ratings, Expert Ratings and Purposes of Information Use on the Credibility Judgments of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook; Steffel, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined whether user ratings, expert ratings and the purpose of the use of a book on a user-generated site influenced the credibility of the book. It also examined whether the effects of user ratings and expert ratings on credibility judgments of the book varied according to the purpose of information use. In addition,…

  2. Use and Perceived Credibility of Medication Information Sources for Patients with a Rare Illness: Differences by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Hogan, Susan L.; Fisher, Edwin B.; DeVellis, Brenda M.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rare illnesses may use medication information sources that are appreciably different from those used by patients with more common illnesses. This article's purpose is to describe vasculitis patients' most frequently used medication information sources, determine which sources patients perceive as credible, and explore gender differences in source use and perceived credibility. Using an online questionnaire, patients (n=232) indicated how often they obtained medication information from 12 sources during the previous year and rated the credibility of 6 sources. The authors used multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up contrasts to test for gender differences in source use and conducted t tests to compare patients' perceived credibility ratings. Patients used physicians and the Internet most often to obtain medication information and rated them as the most credible sources. Male patients used their spouse/partner more often and rated them as more credible than did female patients. Female patients were more likely to use medication package inserts and the Internet and were less likely to use nurses than were male patients. There appear to be similarities and differences between the information-seeking behaviors of vasculitis patients and other patient populations. Because male patients view their spouse/partner as a credible information source, providers may want to involve the spouse/partner in prescription decision making. PMID:21476166

  3. Use and perceived credibility of medication information sources for patients with a rare illness: differences by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; DeVellis, Robert F; Hogan, Susan L; Fisher, Edwin B; DeVellis, Brenda M; Jordan, Joanne M

    2011-07-01

    Patients with rare illnesses may use medication information sources that are appreciably different from those used by patients with more common illnesses. This article's purpose is to describe vasculitis patients' most frequently used medication information sources, determine which sources patients perceive as credible, and explore gender differences in source use and perceived credibility. Using an online questionnaire, patients (n = 232) indicated how often they obtained medication information from 12 sources during the previous year and rated the credibility of 6 sources. The authors used multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up contrasts to test for gender differences in source use and conducted t tests to compare patients' perceived credibility ratings. Patients used physicians and the Internet most often to obtain medication information and rated them as the most credible sources. Male patients used their spouse/partner more often and rated them as more credible than did female patients. Female patients were more likely to use medication package inserts and the Internet and were less likely to use nurses than were male patients. There appear to be similarities and differences between the information-seeking behaviors of vasculitis patients and other patient populations. Because male patients view their spouse/partner as a credible information source, providers may want to involve the spouse/partner in prescription decision making.

  4. A conceptual model of the automated credibility assessment of the volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N. H.; Jackson, M. J.; Ishak, M. H. I.

    2014-02-01

    The use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in collecting, sharing and disseminating geospatially referenced information on the Web is increasingly common. The potentials of this localized and collective information have been seen to complement the maintenance process of authoritative mapping data sources and in realizing the development of Digital Earth. The main barrier to the use of this data in supporting this bottom up approach is the credibility (trust), completeness, accuracy, and quality of both the data input and outputs generated. The only feasible approach to assess these data is by relying on an automated process. This paper describes a conceptual model of indicators (parameters) and practical approaches to automated assess the credibility of information contributed through the VGI including map mashups, Geo Web and crowd - sourced based applications. There are two main components proposed to be assessed in the conceptual model - metadata and data. The metadata component comprises the indicator of the hosting (websites) and the sources of data / information. The data component comprises the indicators to assess absolute and relative data positioning, attribute, thematic, temporal and geometric correctness and consistency. This paper suggests approaches to assess the components. To assess the metadata component, automated text categorization using supervised machine learning is proposed. To assess the correctness and consistency in the data component, we suggest a matching validation approach using the current emerging technologies from Linked Data infrastructures and using third party reviews validation. This study contributes to the research domain that focuses on the credibility, trust and quality issues of data contributed by web citizen providers.

  5. The Effect of Personal Profile Information and Message Valence on Information Credibility and Purchase Intentions in Travel-Related Consumer-Generated Media

    OpenAIRE

    L. Guan

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing number of travellers searching for information in travel-related consumer-generated media (CGM), the credibility of information has become a central concern. This study examines the impact of personal profile information (PPI) and information valence on consumers’ perception of information credibility and purchase intentions. A scenario-based role-playing experiment was conducted to explore this research topic. Findings show that information with PPI will positively affect ...

  6. A Study on Judges and Prosecutors’ Information Behavior for Legal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-miin Lin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to understand judges and prosecutor’s information behavior, i.e., their information needs, seeking, and using of legal resources. Methods of questionnaire, interview, observation, and content analysis of legal forums were adopted to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The result shows that legal resources are mainly to support judges and prosecutors when conducting justice and criminal investigation, and they are mostly interested in the information being able to solve practical legal problems. The study also found 13 important characteristics of their seeking behaviors. Suggestions for improvement in publication of legal resources, legal information services, legal information system design, and law education are also provided. Finally, the study proposed an information behavior model of judges and prosecutors, which may benefit future related research. [Article Content in Chinese

  7. Judge Financial, Administrative Judge

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek, Aline

    2010-01-01

    As a specialised administrative judge, the financial judge, understood in the sense of the Auditors Court, of the regional Auditors Courts and of the Court of budgetary and financial discipline, has a ratione materiae jurisdiction. It is the judge's duty to ensure compliance with budgetary and national accounting rules. The perspective tending to view the financial judge as a administrative judge, that is to say as an ordinary administrative judge, may consequently give rise to certain object...

  8. Paradox of Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hanjoon Michael

    2008-01-01

    In an information transmission situation, a sender's concern for its credibility could endow itself with an invisible power to control the receiver's decisions so that the sender can manipulate information without being detected. In this case, the sender can achieve its favored outcome without losing its credibility, which stays true even when the sender and the receiver have contradictory preferences. Therefore, the sender's concern for its credibility could result in less truthful signals f...

  9. Credibility and Usefulness of Health Information on Facebook: A Survey Study with U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines ways in which college students perceive the credibility and usefulness of health information on Facebook, depending on topic sensitivity, information source and demographic factors. Method: With self-selection sampling, data were collected from two universities through an online survey; 351 responses were used for…

  10. Self-epistemic authority and nurses' reactions to medical information that is retrieved from Internet sites of different credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Volfin-Pruss, Diana; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Kushnir, Talma

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated nurses' reactions to Internet medical information that was retrieved from sources of different scientific credibility and the association between self-epistemic authority and these reactions. The participants filled in questionnaires on their reactions to Internet medical information and self-epistemic authority. The nurses' reactions to Internet medical information from a highly credible source (Medline) correlated positively with self-epistemic authority. However, no such correlation was found with Internet medical information from a less credible Internet source (Ynet). Compared with the nurses without an academic degree, the nurses with an academic degree had more positive reactions to the information that was retrieved from Medline. The reactions to the medical information that was retrieved from Ynet did not differ by the education of the nurses. This study shows that nurses' reactions to different sources of Internet information vary according to their level of self-epistemic authority and education. As patients' use of Internet medical information is increasing, nurses need to expand their expertise in the various professional and popular medical information sites. Such skills will help to reduce any negative feeling that might arise when they encounter patients who present medical information from the Internet.

  11. From intermediation to disintermediation and apomediation: new models for consumers to access and assess the credibility of health information in the age of Web2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses the model that, as a result of the social process of disintermediation enabled by digital media, traditional intermediaries are replaced by what this author calls apomediaries, which are tools and peers standing by to guide consumers to trustworthy information, or adding credibility to information. For apomediation to be an attractive and successful model for consumers, the recipient has to reach a certain degree of maturity and autonomy. Different degrees of autonomy may explain differences in information seeking and credibility appraisal behaviours. It is hypothesized that in an apomediated environment, tools, influential peers and opinion leaders are the primary conveyors of trust and credibility. In this environment, apomediary credibility may become equally or more important than source credibility or even message credibility. It is suggested to use tools of network analysis to study the dynamics of apomediary credibility in a networked digital world. There are practical implications of the apomediation model for developers of consumer health websites which aspire to come across as "credible: Consumers need and want to be able to be co-creators of content, not merely be an audience who is broadcasted to. Web2.0 technology enables such sites. Engaging and credible Web sites are about building community and communities are built upon personal and social needs.

  12. Bringing Information Credibility Back Into Transparency: The Case for a Global Monitoring System Of Green House Gas Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Philippe, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The goal of climate change governance is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations. This requires the reduction of anthropogenic global net emissions. In the pursuit of such a reduction, knowledge of greenhouse gas sources and sinks is critical to define baselines, and assess the effectiveness of climate governance over time. Such information and the means to independently verify its credibility continue to remain out of reach including in the recent Paris agreement. This essay argues that to make real progress in mitigating future climate change, this status quo must be challenged both intellectually and practically. First, it proposes to acknowledge and address the inconsistency between the objectives of a climate regime and the role of transparency as a mean to achieve these objectives. It does so by redefining transparency as the addition of publicity and measurability, which turns it into a credible information generating mechanism for governance. Second, it shows how in practice, a global monitoring sy...

  13. Online Search Strategies of Educational Administrators for Determining the Credibility of Information Gleaned from a Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Oladunjoye, Ganiyu T.; Rose, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Based on a survey of 158 educational leaders situated in public schools, the level of educational leadership, whether a school superintendent or a principal in a secondary, middle-school, or elementary school, was not a significant factor in operational online strategies utilized or benchmarks relied upon for determining the credibility of…

  14. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  15. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, van G.A.K.; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  16. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is al

  17. Supporting evaluation and implementation of musculoskeletal Models of Care: A globally-informed framework for judging 'readiness' and 'success'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Jordan, Joanne E; Jennings, Matthew; Speerin, Robyn; Bragge, Peter; Chua, Jason; Woolf, Anthony D; Slater, Helen

    2016-06-06

    Objective To develop a globally-informed framework to evaluate 'readiness' for implementation and 'success' after implementation of musculoskeletal Models of Care (MoCs). Methods Three-phases were undertaken: 1) qualitative study with 27 Australian subject matter experts (SMEs) to develop a draft Framework; 2) eDelphi study with an international panel of 93 SMEs across 30 nations to evaluate face validity, refine and establish consensus on the Framework components; and 3) translation of the Framework into a user-focused resource and evaluation of its acceptability with the eDelphi panel. Results A comprehensive evaluation framework was developed for judging 'readiness' and 'success' of musculoskeletal MoCs. The Framework consists of nine domains, with each domain containing a number of themes underpinned by detailed elements. In the first Delphi round, scores of 'partly agree' or 'completely agree' with the draft Framework ranged from 96.7-100%. In the second round, 'essential' scores ranged from 58.6-98.9%, resulting in 14 of 34 themes being classified as essential. SMEs strongly agreed or agreed that the final Framework was useful (98.8%), usable (95.1%), credible (100%) and appealing (93.9%). Overall, 96.3% strongly supported or supported the final structure of the Framework as it was presented, while 100%, 96.3% and 100% strongly supported or supported the content within the readiness, initiating implementation and success streams, respectively. Conclusions An empirically-derived framework to evaluate the readiness and success of musculoskeletal MoCs was strongly supported by an international panel of SMEs. The Framework provides an important internationally-applicable benchmark for the development, implementation and evaluation of musculoskeletal MoCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative - not absolute - judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Lauren; Garry, Maryanne; Mori, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    People remember different details about the same events, and when they discuss events they exchange new - and misleading - information. Discussion can change memory, especially when the source of new information is highly credible. But we do not know whether the effects of credibility are based on absolute judgments - judging a source's credibility independently from our own credibility - or relative judgments - judging a source's credibility only in relation to our own credibility. We addressed this question by manipulating subjects' expectations, leading them to believe that they either had the same, higher or lower "visual acuity" than their partner while they watched a movie together. To create ample opportunities for the pairs to mention misleading details to one another, each member unknowingly saw a different version of the movie. The pairs then discussed some of the critical differences, but not others. Later, everyone took an independent recognition test. Subjects' susceptibility to misinformation depended on their own credibility relative to their partner's, supporting the idea that susceptibility to misinformation depends on relative differences in credibility.

  19. 商品评论信息可信度研究%Research on the Credibility of Commodity Reviews Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘逶迤; 逯万辉; 丁晟春

    2012-01-01

    The credibility of commodity reviews information has a significant effect on the user's purchase decision. In this paper, based on the analysis of the previous research results, we summarized and classi- fied the text characteristic dimension of credibility factors, constructed a text credibility calculation mod- el, explored the main difficult points minutely and presented the terms of settlement.%网络商品评论信息的可信度对用户的购买行为有重要影响。对国内外网络商品评论信息可信度的研究现状和研究成果进行了分析总结,提出了基于文本挖掘的商品评论信息可信度测评模型,详细分析了商品评论信息的可信度特征,并对研究中的关键问题进行了探索,提出了解决方法。

  20. An Exploration of Search Patterns and Credibility Issues among Older Adults Seeking Online Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Lang, Laura; Major, Sonya; Hemming, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an important resource for health information, among younger and older people alike. Unfortunately, there are limitations associated with online health information. Research is needed on the quality of information found online and on whether users are being critical consumers of the information they find. Also, there is a need for…

  1. The credibility of risk information about licit substances: An exploratory study of attitudes among Swedish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekendahl Mats

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Providing risk information on licit substances is a central health promotion strategy. There is, however, very little knowledge about public attitudes on this information. In this exploratory study we analyse the extent to which Swedish adults: 1 trust risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and wet snuff (“snus” provided by public authorities, 2 perceive risk information regarding alcohol, cigarettes and snus as consistent, and 3 have received an adequate amount of risk information from public authorities regarding these substances. The aim is also to investigate if certain characteristics among participants are related to their perceptions of such risk information.

  2. Exposure to information and communication about HIV/AIDS and perceived credibility of information sources among young people in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri; Leshabari, Melkizedek T; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2009-06-01

    Young people in sub-Saharan Africa constitute an important group for HIV prevention efforts. Determining their exposure to HIV/AIDS information and communication and their perceived credibility of information sources is imperative to the development of interventions. However, the majority of studies on this topic have been conducted among school-based populations, with few focused on those out of school or on comparing the two groups. A structured face-to-face interview was completed by 993 young people out of school, between the ages of 13 and 18, in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; additionally, the questionnaire was self-administered by 1 007 students attending either their last year of primary or first year of secondary school. Significant factors associated with the frequency of exposure to HIV/AIDS information and frequency of communication about HIV/AIDS included urban/rural location, sex, socio-economic status, and educational attainment. Both groups ranked the radio as the most frequent source of HIV/AIDS information. The in-school group reported significantly more frequent exposure to all sources of HIV/ AIDS information and they communicated more frequently about the topic than did the out-of-school group. Among both groups, exposure to HIV/AIDS information occurred more frequently than discussing the topic. The in-school group gave high credibility ratings to medical doctors, the radio and parents as sources of information, while the out-of-school group attributed the most credibility to the mass media. Irrespective of school attendance, the young people ranked friends, parents and doctors as preferred communicators of sexual and reproductive health information. Interventions that address the determinants of educational attainment are needed, as well as ones specifically intended to reach girls or those out of school. The preferences and credibility rankings for sources of HIV/AIDS information suggest the need for evidence-based programmes that utilise peers and

  3. Judicial judgement-making and legal criteria of testimonial credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Seijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Judicial judgement-making in legal and forensic settings is characterised by the information loss model. In comparison to formal reasoning styles, in which information is processed in detail, judicial reasoning styles are mainly informal. Moreover, the experimental literature regarding judges and juries has revealed that reliability is the corner stone of legal judgement-making in legal contexts. This study aims to assess the underlying legal criteria assigned to the credibility of testimonies by judges by evaluating the court archives of judicial judgements in which the verdict rested entirely on the credibility of testimonies. Moreover, given the prevalence of informal reasoning in this context, an analysis was undertaken to determine the use of heuristics which are indicative of informal reasoning. In addition, an analysis of the interaction of both variables and their effect on joint decision-making by legal experts and lay people was assessed. Finally, bearing in mind the limitations of this study, the results are discussed in terms of their implications in the evaluation of testimonial credibility in judicial proceedings.

  4. Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson E Hatheway

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Methods Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department – communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Results Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who

  5. Identifying strategies to improve access to credible and relevant information for public health professionals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelle, Nancy R; Luckmann, Roger; Simpson, E Hatheway; Martin, Elaine R

    2006-04-05

    Movement towards evidence-based practices in many fields suggests that public health (PH) challenges may be better addressed if credible information about health risks and effective PH practices is readily available. However, research has shown that many PH information needs are unmet. In addition to reviewing relevant literature, this study performed a comprehensive review of existing information resources and collected data from two representative PH groups, focusing on identifying current practices, expressed information needs, and ideal systems for information access. Nineteen individual interviews were conducted among employees of two domains in a state health department--communicable disease control and community health promotion. Subsequent focus groups gathered additional data on preferences for methods of information access and delivery as well as information format and content. Qualitative methods were used to identify themes in the interview and focus group transcripts. Informants expressed similar needs for improved information access including single portal access with a good search engine; automatic notification regarding newly available information; access to best practice information in many areas of interest that extend beyond biomedical subject matter; improved access to grey literature as well as to more systematic reviews, summaries, and full-text articles; better methods for indexing, filtering, and searching for information; and effective ways to archive information accessed. Informants expressed a preference for improving systems with which they were already familiar such as PubMed and listservs rather than introducing new systems of information organization and delivery. A hypothetical ideal model for information organization and delivery was developed based on informants' stated information needs and preferred means of delivery. Features of the model were endorsed by the subjects who reviewed it. Many critical information needs of PH

  6. Consumer Health Information Websites with High Visual Design Ratings Likely to Be also Highly Rated for Perceived Credibility. A Review of: Robins, D., Holmes, J., & Stansbury, M. (2010. Consumer health information on the web: The relationship of visual design and perceptions of credibility. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(1, 13-19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To answer two research questions: 1 What is the relationship between the visual design of a consumer health information web site and perceptions of the credibility of information found on it? 2 Is there a relationship between brand recognition, visual design preference, and credibility judgments?Design – Qualitative (correlation of rating of response to stimulus and quantitative (credibility coding of participant commentsSetting – Not stated; assumed to be academic institutions in the United States.Subjects – Thirty-four participants over the age of 35 (34 for statistical power and age over 35 on the hypothesis that this age group is most likely to seek health information on the Internet.Methods – Screen shots of 31 consumer health information sites chosen from the results of a Google search using the term “consumer health information” were converted to slide format and shown to participants. The 31 sites included 12 of the top ranked consumer health information sites derived from three sources: the Consumer and Patient Health Information Section (CAPHIS of the Medical Library Association (MLA, the MLA itself, and Consumer Reports. Participants were read and shown a script explaining the process prior to being asked to view and rate the 31 sites. Participants were first shown a blank slide with a crosshair to focus attention. Then a stimulus slide was shown for 2.8 seconds. A blank black screen was shown while they determined their rating. Participants were first asked to rate the visual design and aesthetics of the 31 web sites using a rating scale of -4 to -1 for negative judgments and +1 to +4 for positive judgments. Then they were asked to remember why they had made positive or negative ratings and why some web sites were preferred to others. The process was repeated with the slides re-ordered, and participants were asked to rate the credibility of the sites using the same rating scales. Upon completion

  7. Who Provides Information Matters: The Role of Source Credibility on US Consumers' Beef Brand Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2011-01-01

    Labels, certifications and endorsements signaling the quality of food have an impact on the purchasing choices of multiple segments of US consumers. At the same time, not much is known about the relationships between the sources providing information through these quality signals and consumer choice

  8. Credibility and (disuse of feedback to inform teaching : a qualitative case study of physician-faculty perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr TF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation plays a central role in teaching in that physician-faculty theoretically use evaluations from clinical learners to inform their teaching. Knowledge about how physician-faculty access and internalize feedback from learners is sparse and concerning given its importance in medical training. This study aims to broaden our understanding. Using multiple data sources, this cross-sectional qualitative case study conducted in Spring of 2014 explored the internalization of learner feedback among physician-faculty teaching medical students, residents and fellows at a southwest academic medical center. Twelve one-on-one interviews were triangulated with observation notes and a national survey. Thematic and document analysis was conducted. Results revealed that the majority accessed and reviewed evaluations about their teaching. Most admitted not using learner feedback to inform teaching while a quarter did use them. Factors influencing participants use or disuse of learner feedback were the a reporting metrics and mechanisms, and b physician-faculty perception of learner credibility. Physician-faculty did not regard learners’ ability to assess and recognize effective teaching skills highly. To refine feedback for one-on-one teaching in the clinical setting, recommendations by study participants include: a redesigning of evaluation reporting metrics and narrative sections, and b feedback rubric training for learners.

  9. Ensuring Credibility of the Third National Climate Assessment through Provenance Traceability in the Global Change Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    A Federal Advisory Committee (The "National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee" or NCADAC) has overseen the development of a draft climate report that after extensive review will be considered by the Federal Government in the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA). This comprehensive report (1) Integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program and discusses the scientific uncertainties associated with such findings; (2) Analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and (3) Analyzes current trends in global change, both human- induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), composed of the 13 federal agencies most concerned with global change, is building a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will ultimately organize access to all the program-wide research, data, and information about global change. A prototype of the system has been constructed that captures and presents all of the elements of provenance of the NCA through a coherent data model and friendly front end web site. This work will focus on the documentation of the provenance of the NCA report and our general approach and data model for capturing, archiving, and presenting that provenance information. We will demonstrate how our approach contributes to the general credibility of the scientific results synthesized through the report. We will also present plans for longer term curation of the material stored in the GCIS and how it can support preservation and stewardship goals throughout the contributing federal agencies.

  10. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE USAGE AND PERCEIVED CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.

  11. 网络时代学术信息资源可信度研究%Study on the Credibility of Academic Information in Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      学术信息资源是一种特殊的信息资源产品,在研究和学术交流过程中发挥十分重要的作用。网络和数字环境下,信息量迅猛增长、传播方式日益复杂,受众方式五花八门,学术信息资源的可信度问题变得尤为重要。对学术信息资源及其可信度的概念和范围进行梳理辨析,分析了网络对学术信息资源可信度在产生、编辑加工和传播过程中的影响,并在此基础上对网络环境下如何提高学术信息资源可信度提出具体措施,以为提高学术信息资源的可信度研究提供新的思路。%As a special information product, academic information resources play an important role in the activity of scientific research and academic exchange. In digital network environment, owing to explosive growth of data and extremely complex spread mode, study on the credibility of academic information resources has become particularly important. This paper first describes the concept and domain of academic information resources and definition of their credibility, and then analyzes the impact of Internet on the credibility of academic information resources during their production, editing, processing and disseminating. Finally it presents some specific measures on how to improve the credibility of academic information in the Internet age.

  12. Individual uncertainty and the uncertainty of science: The impact of perceived conflict and general self-efficacy on the perception of tentativeness and credibility of scientific information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny eFlemming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that

  13. Individual Uncertainty and the Uncertainty of Science: The Impact of Perceived Conflict and General Self-Efficacy on the Perception of Tentativeness and Credibility of Scientific Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Danny; Feinkohl, Insa; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople's understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48), we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61) was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that scientific writers should

  14. Displaying employee testimonials on recruitment web sites: effects of communication media, employee race, and job seeker race on organizational attraction and information credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Giles, William F; Armenakis, Achilles A; Bernerth, Jeremy B

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated participants' reactions to employee testimonials presented on recruitment Web sites. The authors manipulated the presence of employee testimonials, richness of media communicating testimonials (video with audio vs. picture with text), and representation of racial minorities in employee testimonials. Participants were more attracted to organizations and perceived information as more credible when testimonials were included on recruitment Web sites. Testimonials delivered via video with audio had higher attractiveness and information credibility ratings than those given via picture with text. Results also showed that Blacks responded more favorably, whereas Whites responded more negatively, to the recruiting organization as the proportion of minorities shown giving testimonials on the recruitment Web site increased. However, post hoc analyses revealed that use of a richer medium (video with audio vs. picture with text) to communicate employee testimonials tended to attenuate these racial effects.

  15. 农业网络信息可信度评估研究进展%Research Progress on Credibility Evaluation of Agricultural Information on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑶; 廖桂平; 王晓乔

    2014-01-01

    随着网络技术的快速发展,其在农业领域的作用逐渐彰显,但同时进一步促使了农业信息的过度增长,农民如何快速准确地从互联网获取所需的农业信息已成为研究的热点。本文主要对网络信息可信度评估研究进展进行综述。对网络信息可信度评估的理论研究按照其发展的脉络进行梳理和阐述;根据信息可信度研究方向按照信源可信度和信息内容可信度两个方面详细归纳和叙述网络信息可信度评估研究的方法;对网络信息可信度的应用上做系统的介绍和对比;指出目前国内外研究中的不足之处,并针对农业领域提出今后网络信息可信度评估技术的研究方向。%With its rapid development, network technology plays an increasingly important role in the field of agriculture, but also further promotes excessive growth of agricultural information, how to gain agricultural information from the Internet quickly and accurately has become a hot research issue. This paper mainly focused on the progress of credibility evaluation of network information. Firstly, the theoretical research on the credibility evaluation of network information was described in accordance with its development; Secondly, detailed credibility evaluation methods of Internet information were discussed according to the two aspects of information resource and content;Thirdly, the application systems of network information credibility were introduced and contrasted; Finally, the current domestic and foreign research shortcomings were presented, and the future research direction of network information credibility evaluation technology in agricultural field was forecasted.

  16. Evaluation Capacity-Building of Internet Information Credibility%互联网信息可信性评价能力培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞俊杰

    2012-01-01

    日益丰富的互联网学术信息资源作为图书馆文献资源的有益补充,已成为用户信息资源获取的重要渠道。面对互联网庞杂无序的信息资源,图书馆用户信息评价能力的缺失为正确、合理、有效地利用互联网信息带来了障碍。用户互联网可信性评价能力可分为信息检索能力、信息认知能力和信息判断能力。图书馆应从提高用户信息检索能力、分析互联网用户的知识分享动机、掌握常用的互联网信息外部特征分析途径等方面,培养用户的信息可信性评价能力。%As the useful supplement to library literature resources, increasingly rich intemet academic information resources become the important channel of users accessing to information resources. Facing the chaotic information resources an internet, libraries are lack of the evaluation capacity of credibility users,it brings the barrier for the correct, reasonable and effective utilization of the intemet information. The evaluation capacity of the intemet information credibility of users could be divided into the information retrieval ability, the information cognitive ability and the information judgment ability. Libraries should bring up the evaluation capacity of the information credibility of users from following aspects: improving user's information retrieval capabilities, analyzing the knowledge sharing motivation of intemet users, mastering common analytical approaches of external characteristics of internet information.

  17. Perceived Credibility of Internet Encyclopedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, Ida; Noordewier, Thomas; Costanza, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast amount of information is now available online, produced by a variety of sources with a range of editorial oversight procedures. These range from very centralized information with multiple layers of review, to no oversight at all. Determining which information is credible can pose a real challenge. An experiment was designed to determine…

  18. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  19. The information for catching fly balls : Judging and intercepting virtual balls in a CAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, FTJM; Michaels, CF

    2003-01-01

    Visually guided action implies the existence of information as well as a control law relating that information to movement. For ball catching, the Chapman Strategy-keeping constant the rate of change of the tangent of the elevation angle (d(tan(alpha))/dt)-leads a catcher to the right location at th

  20. The fate of being forgotten: information that is initially forgotten is judged as less important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Rhodes, Matthew G; McCabe, David P; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Loaiza, Vanessa M

    2012-01-01

    Is forgotten information deemed less important than remembered information? The present study examined potential biases regarding the importance of information that was initially forgotten. In Experiment 1 participants studied words paired with varying point values that denoted their importance and were encouraged to recall higher value words. Participants recalled more high-value words on an initial test. However, on a later cued recall test for the values, initially forgotten words were rated as less valuable than remembered words. Experiment 2 used a similar procedure with the exception that participants rated the importance of traits when evaluating a significant other (e.g., honest, intelligent). Participants were more likely to recall highly valued traits but regarded forgotten traits as less valuable than remembered traits. These results suggest that a forgetting bias exists: If information is initially forgotten, it is later deemed as less important.

  1. Credibility Discounting in the Theory of Approximate Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with the problem of introducing credibility type information into reasoning systems. The concept of credibility allows us to discount information provided by agents. An important characteristic of this kind of procedure is that a complete lack of credibility rather than resulting in the negation of the information provided results in the nullification of the information provided. We suggest a representational scheme for credibility qualification in the theory of approximate r...

  2. Credible testimony in and out of court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Barbara A; Tenney, Elizabeth R

    2010-04-01

    Assessing informants' credibility is critical to several aspects of the legal process (e.g., when police interrogate suspects or jurors evaluate witnesses). There is a large body of research--from various areas of psychology and allied fields--about how people evaluate each others' credibility. We review the literature on lie detection and interpersonal perception to demonstrate that inferences regarding credibility may be multiply determined. Specifically, characteristics of the informant, of the listener, and of the situation affect people's perceptions of informants' credibility. We conclude with a discussion of research on calibration (i.e., an informant's confidence-accuracy relation) because it offers fruitful avenues for future credibility research in the legal domain.

  3. Credible sources and sophisticated voters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David D.; Marshall, John

    2016-01-01

    significantly. This article randomly varies whether voters receive an aggregate unemployment forecast from the central bank, government or main opposition party using a survey experiment in Denmark linked to detailed panel data. We find that politically sophisticated voters discern differences in institutional...... credibility and the political cost of the signal and update their unemployment expectations accordingly. Despite failing to differentiate political costs, unsophisticated voters still substantially update their expectations. However, while sophisticated voters intend to engage in substantial prospective...... economic voting, unsophisticated voters do not relate their new unemployment expectations to their vote intention. These findings suggest that economic information supports economic voting most when it is credible and reaches sophisticated voters....

  4. The Credibility of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen, L. H.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the media marketplace and an increased need for visibility to secure funding are leading inevitably to faster, simpler and more aggressive science communication. This article presents the results of an exploratory study of potential credibility problems in astronomy press releases, their causes, consequences and possible remedies. The study consisted of eleven open-ended interviews with journalists, scientists and public information officers. Results suggest that credibility issues are central to communication, deeply integrated into the workflow and can have severe consequences for the actors (especially the scientist, but are an unavoidable part of thecommunication process.

  5. Building Risk Information Credibility Model with Public Feedback%公众反馈信息评价模型研究及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 詹建

    2012-01-01

      由于危机事件在各大城市中频繁地发生,灾害预防和减缓已变得越来越重要。对于社区居民而言,一个有用的减缓风险措施是让社区成员在实际危机发生前反馈相关的风险信息。决策者及时告知公众社区中存在的风险信息。然而,人们对于同一风险的感知程度是不一样的,同时,反馈信息中含有过多的公众主观性意见,导致风险信息比较模糊,决策者难以确认该风险信息是否可靠。在本文中,作者采用可信性理论来构建评价公众反馈信息的可信度的数学模型,然后,通过设计一些实验数据作为公众的意见以验证所设计模型的可行性。%  as crises happen more frequently and in bigger magnitudes among urban communities, disaster prevention and disaster mitigation has become increasingly important. one useful preventive measure is for community members to report relevant risk information before an actual crisis occurs. and decision makers timely inform the public the potential risk information. However, the perception level of the same risk is varied from different people and excessive subjectivity of public feedback causes the risk information more ambiguous, driving the decision makers wondering whether the risk information is credible. In this paper, a risk information credibility model with public feedback is built on the credibility measuring degree by using the comprehensive fuzzy evaluation as a single fuzzy event. then the author demonstrates the model by designing some experimental data as public feedback to validate the feasibility of our model.

  6. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  7. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McCormick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summa...

  8. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  9. Source credibility: A study of eWOM on social media and Chinese students’ travel choices

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Background problem: Previous studies have found that source credibility of eWOM has impact on perceived persuasiveness of the source. Source credibility plays an important role in the effectiveness of eWOM. The more credibility a product is perceived, the more persuasiveness the information has. There are two models that are commonly used in studying the perceived credibility of the source of information, which are source credibility model (Perceived source credibility depends on expertise an...

  10. The Credibility and Evaluation of Volunteered Geographic Information%自发地理信息可信度及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 孙群; 徐青; 王志坚

    2016-01-01

    The volunteered geographic information is mostly derived from volunteers' uploading with no quality guarantee. This has become a major obstacle of the application for the volunteered geographic information. Also, the quality becomes the primary problem which requires to be solved firstly. The quality evaluation is the focus of the present research domain. There are many researches on the quality evaluation of volunteered geographic information but a few research on the quality evaluation without reference data. Since it is very difficult or costly to get the reference data, it is important to study the quality evaluation without the reference data. In order to solve this problem with an unknown quality of the volunteered geographic information and the difficulty of getting the reference data with high quality, we proposed the credibility model. The credibility model could evaluate the VGI quality from the number of the volunteers and their reputation for the data changing trend. Then, we turn the qualitative analysis result into the quantitative expression. On one hand, the volunteer's reputation model was built based on this point, meaning a statistic method which takes the proportion for the preserving points as the volunteer's reputation value. Then, the Linus Law adapts and measures the geographical information collected by volunteers, of which credibility relied on the sum of the volunteer's reputation within the research areas. On the other hand, the information quality is gained from the data-changing tendency and measured by the geographical information credibility through computing the degree of change within the research areas. At last, for verification and analyzing the rationality of the credibility model, the OpenStreetMap, collects previous data adapted for Beijing, Shanghai and other cities which require to be used in experiments. Finally, the navigation data is selected as the reference data for the comparison. The result of calculation for the

  11. Research on Information Credibility on Social Q & A Sites%社交问答网站的信息可信度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林媛; 邓胜利

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the background and significance of information credibility research on social Q&A sites, and gives relevant definitions on it;then it summarizes the related achievements and proposes that the key problems to evaluate information credibility on social Q&A sites, including the context and social situation. Based on social Q&A site's feature and current research achievements, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for examining this problem within the context of social search. With a summarization, it final y looks to the future development, to make references for further research.%简述社交问答网站信息可信度研究的背景和意义,并对其相关概念进行界定;对社交问答网站信息可信度的研究成果进行梳理,指出并认为社交问答网站信息可信度分析的关键问题应该从信息内容本身以及社会情境两方面入手;结合问答信息的特点以及已有的研究成果,提出一个概念框架来分析用户判断信息可信度过程的动态变化,对社交问答信息可信度研究的未来发展方向进行展望,为进一步研究提供参考。

  12. Paradoxes of the Web: The Ethical Dimensions of Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews issues surrounding ethical determinations of the credibility of online materials. Highlights include the volume of Web material; the self-sustaining nature of the Internet; the speed of growth and dispersion of information available; recognizing credible sources; and defining credibility, including timeliness and comprehensiveness. (LRW)

  13. Credibility-inspired Ranking for Blog Post Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Credibility of information refers to its believability or the believability of its sources. We explore the impact of credibility-inspired indicators on the task of blog post retrieval, following the intuition that more credible blog posts are preferred by searchers. Based on a previously introduced

  14. 论刑事诉讼中“情况说明”的证据能力%On Credibility of"Information Note"in Criminal Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天然

    2014-01-01

    "Information note"appears with the demand of judicial practice .It is in the statutes of "two evi-dence rules"that "information note"has been a part of provisions for the first time .However , since the Criminal Procedure of 2013 and the judicial rules by Supreme People's Procuratorate issued , the credibility of "information note"has always been uncertain between positive and negative .In the theory research , the debate of the credibility of "information note"has never stopped .While the objectors whose sweeping approach to"information note"turns out to be crude put too much emphasis on the legal form of evidence , the approvers take a categorization analysis on the"information note", which is helpful to grasp the character of each "information note".And among the approv-ers, the"relative negative branch"whose attitude on the credibility of "procedural information note"and"eviden-tial information note"differs from the "relative positive branch"fails to understand the accurate scope of objects of proof in criminal procedure .%“情况说明”随着司法实践的需要应运而生,从“两个证据规定”开始,刑事诉讼的规范层面开始将其纳入法条,然而在接下来包括2013年《刑事诉讼法》和《高检规则》等规范中,“情况说明”的证据能力一直摇摆在承认与否定之间。在理论的维度里,关于“情况说明”是否具有证据能力的讨论从未终止。反对者的观点太过注重证据的法定形式,且“一刀切”的做法太过武断。赞同者将“情况说明”进行类型化分析,可以有助于把握每一类“情况说明”的特点,然而“相对否定派”和“相对肯定派”在对待“程序类情况说明”和“证据类情况说明”的证据能力时出现了分歧,其中“相对否定派”未能准确把握刑事诉讼证明对象的范围。

  15. What makes professors appear credible: The effect of demographic characteristics and ideological beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luke Lei; Aquino, Karl; Vadera, Abhijeet K

    2016-06-01

    Five studies are conducted to examine how ideology and perceptions regarding gender, race, caste, and affiliation status affect how individuals judge researchers' credibility. Support is found for predictions that individuals judge researcher credibility according to their egalitarian or elitist ideologies and according to status cues including race, gender, caste, and university affiliation. Egalitarians evaluate low-status researchers as more credible than high-status researchers. Elitists show the opposite pattern. Credibility judgments affect whether individuals will interpret subsequent ambiguous events in accordance with the researcher's findings. Effects of diffuse status cues and ideological beliefs may be mitigated when specific status cues are presented to override stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. If Internet credibility is so iffy, why the heavy use? The relationship between medium use and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrositu, Carmen; Sundar, S Shyam

    2008-02-01

    Just because we use the Internet extensively, does it mean we think it is very credible? Not necessarily. Results of a large survey (N = 1,089) reveal that Internet credibility is predicted by Internet use for information purposes but not by Internet use for entertainment purposes. Further, newspaper use appears to predict individuals' Internet use and perceptions of Internet credibility.

  17. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  18. Employee Reviews on Company Independent Sites and its Impact on Organizational Attractiveness: Role of Information Realism, Person – Environment Fit and Source Credibility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavleen Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on recruitment has focused on the traditional sources of recruitment like company brochures, career fairs, and impact of such sources on intent to join the organization, productivity and turnover intention. The influence of recruitment related information on pre hire outcomes is still scarce and inconclusive. With the advent of technology and access to Internet, company websites have become an important source of recruitment. Apart from company websites, job seekers are now using company independent websites, forums or online communities to gather a more truthful picture and information about the job and organizational attributes. Social media too has become increasingly important medium where the current employees’ share how it is to work with the organization However research on web based recruitment is limited to company websites. Despite the widespread growth and practical use of these new and innovative media very little is known about how these independent sites influence recruitment pre hire outcomes. In this direction the proposed study presents a conceptual framework about how job seekers perceive company independent websites as a tool for providing recruitment communication and their impact on organizational attractiveness using Information Realism, Person-Environment fit framework, Source Credibility framework.

  19. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  20. Credibility Evaluation of Online Distance Education Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Omar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Web credibility is becoming a significant factor in increasing user satisfaction, trust, and loyalty. Web credibility is particularly important for people who cannot visit an institution for one reason or other and mostly depend on the website, such as online distance education students. Accordingly, universities and educational websites need to determine the types of credibility problems they have on their websites. However, far too little attention has been paid to providing detailed information regarding the types of specific credibility problems that could be found on university websites in general, and specifically, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the credibility of university websites that offer distance education courses in the KSA. A total of 12 universities in Saudi Arabia were considered, which include 11 affiliated and one private university. The analysis of the data represents the level of credibility of distance education websites. Results reveal that in Saudi Arabia, distance education websites are reliable, but violate basic credibility guidelines.

  1. 基于传感器特征可信度的多信息融合模态研究%Study on multi-information fusion modal based on feature credibility of sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑锋; 周宇; 侯涛; 陈小强

    2013-01-01

    The key of information fusion is how to control amount of information, process relationship between various information and priority levels. A method for information fusion based on information feature credibility which is applied to mode construction of information fusion is presented. First, through pre-optimizing the credibility of information features information for one fusion, then through feature association in multiple information mode, the second information fusion is realized. Find the best multi-information modal construction method,and improve quality and credibility of information fusion%信息融合关键在于如何控制信息的数量,处理各种信息之间的关系以及优先级别.提出一种基于信息特征可信度的信息融合方法运用于信息融合的模态构建之中.通过预先优化信息特征的可信度进行信息的一次融合,再通过多信息模态中的特征关联进行信息的二次融合.找到最佳的多信息的模态构建方法,提高信息融合的质量和可信度.

  2. Credibility in Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Web search engines apply a variety of ranking signals to achieve user satisfaction, i.e., results pages that provide the best-possible results to the user. While these ranking signals implicitly consider credibility (e.g., by measuring popularity), explicit measures of credibility are not applied. In this chapter, credibility in Web search engines is discussed in a broad context: credibility as a measure for including documents in a search engine's index, credibility as a ranking signal, cred...

  3. 基于可信度的Web信息搜索主动服务研究%Study of Active Web Information Search Based on Credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖婷; 陈红英

    2011-01-01

    现有的Web信息搜索方式是基于关键词匹配来进行的,其准确性和可靠性有限.本文以用户需求为中心,收集用户偏好,应用后台软件采用C4.5决策树算法构建文件过滤规则,结合基于主观Bayes方法的不确定性推理为过滤规则追加可信度支持,并用模糊规则来描述,确保Web信息搜索的查全率和查准率全面提升.%Existing Web information search method is carried out based on keyword matching, the accuracy and reliability is limited. This paper focuses on user's needs, uses background software building file filtering rule by the application of decision tree C4. 5 algorithm. The file filtering rule combines with uncertainty reasoning way based on subjective Bayes for the additional credibility support, describes as the fuzzy rule to improve the recall and precision of Web information search.

  4. The Judge on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between ‘key agents’ and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why as yet the civil law judge cannot be expected to start using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the judicial decision-making process in a relatively open, form-free interaction with his or her ‘clients’. This explanation is grounded on the hybrid character of social networking sites. On the one hand, these sites are direct, interactive, informal, and personalized media; but on the other, they are public and basically permanent. Their direct, interactive, informal and personalized character is highly compatible with the multimodal, network-embedded, form-free self-representation of the modern judge in the courtroom. However, their public and permanent character manifests in the second performance of a judge, being held publicly and permanently accountable for what is decided. This performance is characterized by a unimodal, ‘punctualized’, formal self-representation. Referring to the work of legal sociologists as well as discourse scholars, it is underlined how much this public judicial self-representation is part of a persistent ritual that renders it incompatible with direct, interactive, informal and personalized communication. The hybrid character of social media does not allow judges to utilize them to act as key-agents: to open up the ‘backstage area’ to reveal the actual dynamics of the decision-making process, and to transparently connect the judicial performance in the courtroom session with the second performance when issuing a decision.

  5. Exploration of Disclosure of Government Information and the Promotion of the Government Credibility%政府信息公开与政府公信力提升探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军

    2015-01-01

    In modern society, information is the basic condition to establish a trust relationship between the public and the gov-ernment, the government credibility is challenged, the government has gradually lost the traditional “trust”, and the government credibility is faced with a great challenge. At the present stage, China is committed to building a service-oriented government, the government information disclosure has become the most effective way.In modern society, the information disclosure has become one of the necessary approaches to the credibility of the construction of modern government.In order to maintain and enhance the credi-bility of the government, we should pay attention to the work of government information disclosure, to increase the publicity of gov-ernment information transparency construction, and to promote the construction of government credibility.%在现代化社会,信息是公众与政府之间建立信任关系的基础条件,政府公信力若受到挑战,政府会逐渐失去传统的“天然信任”。现阶段,我国致力打造服务型政府,政府信息公开成为最有效的方式之一,做好信息公开工作已成为现代政府公信力建设的必要途径。为了维护和提升政府公信力,我们应该重视政府信息公开工作,加大对政府信息公开的透明度建设,以提升政府公信力建设。

  6. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  7. TWO REGRESSION CREDIBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Nicoleta BODEA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we will discuss two regression credibility models from Non – Life Insurance Mathematics that can be solved by means of matrix theory. In the first regression credibility model, starting from a well-known representation formula of the inverse for a special class of matrices a risk premium will be calculated for a contract with risk parameter θ. In the next regression credibility model, we will obtain a credibility solution in the form of a linear combination of the individual estimate (based on the data of a particular state and the collective estimate (based on aggregate USA data. To illustrate the solution with the properties mentioned above, we shall need the well-known representation theorem for a special class of matrices, the properties of the trace for a square matrix, the scalar product of two vectors, the norm with respect to a positive definite matrix given in advance and the complicated mathematical properties of conditional expectations and of conditional covariances.

  8. Credibility and consistency earn users' trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Nita

    2003-02-01

    When searching for health information on the Web, users are primarily concerned with a site's credibility. But the focus group work I and my colleagues have done at Consumer Health Interactive indicates that encouraging health information seekers to return to your site requires more than reliable information. The site must also give the appearance of being authoritative and trustworthy.

  9. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  10. Comparison of credible patients of very low intelligence and non-credible patients on neurocognitive performance validity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Klayton; Boone, Kyle; Victor, Tara; Miora, Deborah; Cottingham, Maria; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle; Wright, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this archival study was to identify performance validity tests (PVTs) and standard IQ and neurocognitive test scores, which singly or in combination, differentiate credible patients of low IQ (FSIQ ≤ 75; n = 55) from non-credible patients. We compared the credible participants against a sample of 74 non-credible patients who appeared to have been attempting to feign low intelligence specifically (FSIQ ≤ 75), as well as a larger non-credible sample (n = 383) unselected for IQ. The entire non-credible group scored significantly higher than the credible participants on measures of verbal crystallized intelligence/semantic memory and manipulation of overlearned information, while the credible group performed significantly better on many processing speed and memory tests. Additionally, credible women showed faster finger-tapping speeds than non-credible women. The credible group also scored significantly higher than the non-credible subgroup with low IQ scores on measures of attention, visual perceptual/spatial tasks, processing speed, verbal learning/list learning, and visual memory, and credible women continued to outperform non-credible women on finger tapping. When cut-offs were selected to maintain approximately 90% specificity in the credible group, sensitivity rates were highest for verbal and visual memory measures (i.e., TOMM trials 1 and 2; Warrington Words correct and time; Rey Word Recognition Test total; RAVLT Effort Equation, Trial 5, total across learning trials, short delay, recognition, and RAVLT/RO discriminant function; and Digit Symbol recognition), followed by select attentional PVT scores (i.e., b Test omissions and time to recite four digits forward). When failure rates were tabulated across seven most sensitive scores, a cut-off of ≥ 2 failures was associated with 85.4% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity, while a cut-off of ≥ 3 failures resulted in 95.1% specificity and 66.0% sensitivity. Results are discussed in light of

  11. Clinical Competence/Clinical Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorapah, David

    1997-01-01

    In interviews with 10 nurse teachers and 10 clinicians, respondents could describe clinical competence more fluently than clinical credibility. Responses raised the question of whether nursing teachers must be clinically competent/credible to teach nursing. (SK)

  12. A Credibility Evaluation Method for Web Information Based on Improved PageRank%基于改进的PageRank的网页信息可信度评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟瑜; 袁方

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of measuring Web information's credibility, a method for computing Web information's credibility was proposed. This method not only considered the interactive structure between Webs, but also took into account semantic relation between the Web information. As the interaction between Web information possessed different release time, in order to reflect time factor, the time decay function was introduced in computing. Experimental result showed that the proposed method was feasible and effective, and could provide Web information with higher credibility for users.%提出了一种基于改进的PageRank的网页信息可信度评估方法,该方法既考虑了网页间的交互结构,也考虑了网页信息主题间的语义关系.由于网页信息内容具有不同的发布时间,在进行可信度评估过程中,还引人了时间衰减函数,从而反映时间这一要素的影响.实验结果表明,所提出的可信度评估方法是有效的,可以为用户提供可信度较高的网页.

  13. Readers' Reliance on Source Credibility in the Service of Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jesse R.; Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The current project examined the impact of knowledge about the credibility of sources on readers' processing of texts. Participants read texts in which information about characters was provided by either a credible or a noncredible source; this information suggested that the character potentially possessed a particular trait. A subsequent text…

  14. The analysis of improvement of credibility for local government in terms of information asymmetry%信息不对称视域下地方政府公信力的提升路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢冰文

    2015-01-01

    地方政府公信力多年来饱受诟病, 其提升路径更为各界所关注. 以信息不对称理论的视域,文章提出了利用信号传递机制和信号甄别机制有效地构建激励机制, 建立多渠道的信息平台, 消除信息不对称, 以减少地方政府行政行为中的逆向选择和道德风险, 提升政务透明度, 进而提升地方政府的公信力.%The credibility of the local government is questioned by the public recently years ,the measures to promote the credibility is focused by all sectors of the community .The paper proposes that signal transduc-tion mechanism and signal discrimination mechanism can be used to enhance the credibility of the local gov -ernment in the view of information asymmetry .The Concrete solutions includes building multi -platform of in-formation ,enhancing the transparency of government affairs .The target is to eliminate the information asymme-try so that the moral hazard and selection adverse can be maximally avioded .

  15. Strategies to improve the credibility of meta-analyses in spine surgery: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaniew, Nathan; van der Watt, Leon; Bhandari, Mohit; Ghert, Michelle; Aleem, Ilyas; Drew, Brian; Guyatt, Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Meta-analyses are powerful tools that can synthesize existing research, inform clinical practice, and support evidence-based care. These studies have become increasingly popular in the spine surgery literature, but the rigor with which they are being conducted has not yet been evaluated. Our primary objectives were to evaluate the methodological quality (credibility) of spine surgery meta-analyses and to propose strategies to improve future research. Our secondary objectives were to evaluate completeness of reporting and identify factors associated with higher credibility and completeness of reporting. This study is based on a systematic survey of meta-analyses. We evaluated credibility according to the Users' Guide to the Medical Literature and completeness of reporting according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library, and two reviewers independently assessed eligibility, credibility, and completeness of reporting. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate potential associations. Interrater agreement was quantified using kappa and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients. We identified 132 eligible meta-analyses of spine surgery interventions. The mean credibility score was 3 of 7 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4; ICC, 0.86), with agreement for each item ranging from 0.54 (moderate) to 0.83 (almost perfect). Clinical questions were judged as sensible in 125 (95%), searches were exhaustive in 102 (77%), and risk of bias assessments were undertaken in 91 (69%). Seven (5%) meta-analyses addressed possible explanations for heterogeneity using a priori subgroup hypotheses and 24 (18%) presented results that were immediately clinically applicable. Investigators undertook duplicate assessments of eligibility, risk of bias, and data extraction in 46 (35%) and rated overall confidence in the evidence in 24 (18%). Later publication year, increasing

  16. The Effect of Top-Level Domains and Advertisements on Health Web Site Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Joseph B; Wang, Zuoming; Loh, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Background Concerns over health information on the Internet have generated efforts to enhance credibility markers; yet how users actually assess the credibility of online health information is largely unknown. Objective This study set out to (1) establish a parsimonious and valid questionnaire instrument to measure credibility of Internet health information by drawing on various previous measures of source, news, and other credibility scales; and (2) to identify the effects of Web-site domain...

  17. Factual Accuracy and Trust in Information: The Role of Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the task of judging the credibility of information has shifted from trained professionals (e.g., editors) to end users of information (e.g., casual Internet users). Lacking training in this task, it is highly relevant to research the behavior of these end users. In this arti

  18. The role of topic familiarity in online credibility evaluation support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Teun; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the credibility of information is a difficult yet essential task in a society where the Internet plays a large role. Familiarity with the topic at hand has been shown to have a large influence on the way credibility is evaluated; ‘familiar users’ tend to focus on semantic features, ‘unfam

  19. The role of topic familiarity in online credibility evaluation support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the credibility of information is a difficult yet essential task in a society where the Internet plays a large role. Familiarity with the topic at hand has been shown to have a large influence on the way credibility is evaluated; 'familiar users' tend to focus on semantic features, 'unfam

  20. Web Site Credibility: Why Do People Believe What They Believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie K.; Crosby, Martha E.; Auernheimer, Brent; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates university students' determinations of credibility of information on Web sites, confidence in their determinations, and perceptions of Web site authors' vested interests. In Study 1, university-level computer science and education students selected Web sites determined to be credible and Web sites that exemplified…

  1. Source credibility and the processing of refutation texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boekel, Martin; Lassonde, Karla A; O'Brien, Edward J; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge revision components framework (KReC) outlines the basic comprehension processes and text factors that can be accentuated to increase the potential for knowledge revision during reading. The goal of the present study was to explore source credibility as one such text factor. In Experiment 1, we established the utility of a set of refutation texts in influencing knowledge revision. Participants read ten refutation and ten control texts. The participants had faster reading times and higher posttest scores for the refutation than for the control texts, providing evidence for knowledge revision. In Experiment 2, we examined the influence of source credibility under normal reading conditions. Participants read 20 refutation texts, ten with high-credibility and ten with low-credibility sources. The reading times and posttest scores suggested that knowledge revision unfolded successfully, independent of credibility. Using the same texts, in Experiment 3 we examined the influence of direct instructions that made the credibility of the source of information more salient. When the credibility of the source was made salient, the revision process was disrupted in the low-credibility condition, as evidenced by slower reading times and lower posttest scores than in the high-credibility condition. The results add to our understanding of the factors that constrain knowledge revision during the reading of refutation texts, and are discussed in the context of the extant literature and KReC.

  2. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Brend; Keulen, van Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression o

  3. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression

  4. Semi-linear credibility results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An original paper which suggests a way of thinking for semilinear credibility theory develpment, founded on analysis of the functions of the observable random variables. This line of thought fits perfectly within the framework of the greatest accuracy credibility theory.

  5. Credibility assessment and labelling of map mashups

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Nurul Hawani

    2014-01-01

    The Web 2.0 revolution has changed the culture of mapping by opening it up to a wider range of users and creators. Map mashups, in particular, are being widely used to map variety of information. There is, however, no gatekeeper to validate the correctness of the information presented. The purpose of this research was to understand better what it is that influence users’ perceived credibility and trust within a map mashup presentation and to support the future implementation of automated cred...

  6. 社交问答网站信息可信度评价指标分析%Analysis on the Evaluation Index of Information Credibility in Social Q & A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚雪; 曾兰馨; 邓胜利

    2015-01-01

    基于现有网络信息及社交问答网站信息可信度测评理论,结合国内当下热门社交问答平台特点,提出新的可信度评价指标体系。采用问卷调查的方式,从用户认知的视角对所提出的评价体系进行评价并加以修正。最终总结得出既有理论支撑、又符合用户认知的较为完善的分级评价指标框架,为社交问答网站的评价、建设管理以及提高网站信息可信度提供理论依据。%Based on the existing credibility evaluation theory of network information and social Q&A information, combined with the characteristics of the current popular social Q&A platform, a new credibility evaluation index system is put forward. Using the method of questionnaire survey, the proposed evaluation system is evaluated and modified. Final y summarize a more perfect grading evaluation index framework which has theoretical support, and in line with the cognitive users. This paper provides a theoretical basis for social Q&A site evaluation and construction management and the improvement of website information credibility.

  7. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  8. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  9. Credibility Discourse of PR Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Maria; Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the credibility discourse posted on the corporate websites of 60 British, Danish and Norwegian public relations agencies. The purpose was to determine the nature and patterns of the statements of credibility that PR agencies from different cultures have considered...... instrumental in establishing dependable and likeable images of their ethos. More specifically, the study seeks to establish whether there are distinct cross-cultural preferences in PR credibility discourse. Our assumption was that British and Scandinavian PR agencies assign similar relative importance...

  10. 一种在线商品评论信息可信度的排序方法%Information Credibility of Online Reviews:a New Ranking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩倩

    2015-01-01

    本研究以信息采纳模型为理论支撑,将文本型评论与数值型评论的一致性进行量化,与其他可信度影响因素相结合,提出了一种在线商品评论信息可信度的排序方法,对淘宝中买家给出的评论按照可信度大小进行排序。结果能够反映淘宝中信誉评价的真实情况,帮助买家购买决策。%Applying information adoption model, this research quantifies the consistency of digital type comments and textual comments on the basis of previous research, puts them into the credibility factor of influencing factors, and suggests a new information credibility ranking method of online reviews. Comments in Taobao. com were sorted using this method, the results can reflect the actual circum-stances of the credit evaluation, thus help buyers make the decision.

  11. Study on the Criteria of Credibility Evaluation of Academic Information on the Internet%互联网学术信息可信性评价判据研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊

    2012-01-01

    The author explores the criteria that people use to evaluate the credibility of the online academic information while they seek academic information on the web, with combined application of the methods of observation, think aloud, search logs and content analysis. It finds that users resort to both criteria of information content and external factors such as sources to evaluate the credibility of the online academic information in the process of information behaviour. Furthermore, the motivation can influence what kinds of criteria users will use when they evaluate the credibility of the online academic information, and the criteria used in the high motivation scenario differ from the low motivation scenario. Finally, the conclusions have some practical significances in improving the quality of academic information services, and at the theoretical level, the conclusions can provide guidance for studies of influencing factors of actual evaluation process in future.%利用观察、有声思考、搜索日志和内容分析法,探讨了用户在实际的互联网学术信息查寻中评价信息可信性的判据.研究发现,信息内容和来源等外部特征两个方面的判据是用户评价互联网学术信息可信性的常用判据.用户主要使用哪个方面的判据受评价动机的影响,高动机和低动机情景下的评价判据存在差异.实践层面上,研究结论对提高学术信息服务质量具有现实意义;理论层面上,为下一步实际的信息查寻环境下互联网学术信息可信性的影响因素研究提供指导.

  12. Information Communication and Government Credibility in the Social Public Emergency%论公共突发事件中信息传播的对称性与政府公信力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明

    2015-01-01

    In social public emergencies, the government's credibility depends on the symmetry evaluation of the social public on the infor-mation containing the government's administrative behavior information, the whole truth of the emergency event and the public's self-per-ception information. In order to reveal the mechanism of this kind of information evaluation and discuss its inspiration for enhancing gov-ernment's credibility, based on theoretical analysis method, this study shows that, in order to enhance the government's credibility in the social public emergencies in this User-Generated-Media age, it is essential to solve the information asymmetry between the government and the social public. Government should identify the dynanmic information demand from the social public and resort to a responsive infor-mation dissemination mechanism correspondingly, and improve the public's elaborative faculty and professional knowledge related to re-duce the "consensus miscommunication" and "behavior misconduct" among the public.%在公共突发事件中,政府公信力取决于社会公众对事件真相信息、政府处理行为信息与自我感知信息的对称性评价。为了揭示这种信息评价机理并探讨其对提升政府公信力的启示,采用了理论分析的方法进行了探究。研究表明,在自媒体时代,提升政府在社会突发公共事件中的公信力需要解决政府与社会公众之间的信息不对称问题。政府需要动态识别社会公众的信息需求,并采取回应性信息传播机制,提升社会公众的专业思辨能力与知识素养,以减少社会舆论“失调”和行为“失范”。

  13. Credibility Analysis of Free Information Web Sites for Up-to-date Retrieval%面向查新需求的免费信息网站可信度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学艳; 邓发云; 翟燕

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents that free web site of high credibility can be the relative information for up-to-date retrieval after the credibility analysis. Considering of the evaluation indicators of web sites and up-to-date retrieval, this paper gives a set of evaluation in- dicators from the point of accuracy, verifiability, relevance and authority for free web sites, and their weights are estimated by an ana- lytic hierarchy process(AHP) method. The web sites with high credibility will be added to web site set for up-to-date retrieval in simi- lar academic fields. So, the accuracy and impartiality of up-to-date retrieval can be ensured.%提出对相关的免费信息网站进行可信度分析后,来自可信度比较高的网站的信息才能成为课题的相关对比文献。通过建立专家小组,结合一般网站评价指标和查新需求指标,利用9分制打分法确定可信度评价指标.从准确性、可证实性、相关性、权威性来进行分析,利用AHP方法设置各层指标权重,将可信度高的网站纳入该行业内查新的参考网站集合,并结合案例说明该方法的可行性。

  14. Studying Web Content Credibility by Social Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Adamska, Paulina; Abramczuk, Katarzyna; Papaioannou, Thanasis; Aberer, Karl; Rejmund, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has become an important source of information that significantly affects social, economical and political life. The content available in the Web is the basis for the operation of the digital economy. Moreover, Web content has become essential for many Web users that have to make decisions. Meanwhile, more and more often we encounter Web content of low credibility due to incorrect opinions, lack of knowledge, and, even worse, manipulation attempts for the benefit of the authors or...

  15. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  16. Credible Mechanism for More Reliable SearchEngine Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdel Razek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the number of websites on the Internet is growing randomly, thanks to HTML language. Consequently, a diversity of information is available on the Web, however, sometimes the content of it may be neither valuable nor trusted. This leads to a problem of a credibility of the existing information on these Websites. This paper investigates aspects affecting on the Websites credibility and then uses them along with dominant meaning of the query for improving information retrieval capabilities and to effectively manage contents. It presents a design and development of a credible mechanism that searches Web search engine and then ranks sites according to its reliability. Our experiments show that the credibility terms on the Websites can affect the ranking of the Web search engine and greatly improves retrieval effectiveness.

  17. Credibility judgments in web page design – a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Selejan, O; Muresanu, DF; Popa, L.; Muresanu-Oloeriu, I; IUDEAN, D.; Buzoianu, A; Suciu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than ever, knowledge that interfaces appearance analysis is a crucial point in human-computer interaction field has been accepted. As nowadays virtually anyone can publish information on the web, the credibility role has grown increasingly important in relation to the web-based content. Areas like trust, credibility, and behavior, doubled by overall impression and user expectation are today in the spotlight of research compared to the last period, when other pragmatic areas such a...

  18. 国外互联网信息可信性研究发展历程及特征分析%The DeVelopment and Characteristics of Foreign Research on the Credibility of Online Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊

    2012-01-01

    The credibility of online information is getting more and more attention recently. From a historic perspective, this article investigated the changes in research topics to give a more detailed analysis of the development and characteristics of research on the credibility of the online information in foreign countries from late 1990s to present. It identified the key areas that researchers should pay more attention to include the influencing factors and the relationship between context and situation of human information behavior. 34 refs.%互联网信息可信性是目前学界的研究热点。本文以时间演进为主线,辅以研究主题变化的考察,探讨了20世纪90年代末到目前国外互联网信息可信性研究的发展历程,发现该领域的主要研究特征是:多学科共同研究、研究主题相对稳定、研究对象进一步多元和细分、调研对象以分类趋向为主同时兼顾普适性、研究方法将定量和定性方法相结合。未来互联网信息可信性研究的重点是影响因素研究和用户信息行为环境和情景的考察。参考文献34。

  19. The Effects of Information Source Credibility on Perceived Risk in Product-harm Crisis%产品伤害信息来源可信度对感知风险的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思; 廖俊云

    2013-01-01

    通过引入心理学领域中“心理距离”的概念,本文探索了产品伤害危机事件下信息来源可信度对消费者认知和评价的影响。研究发现报道产品伤害危机的媒体可信度越高,消费者的感知风险越强;消费者对产品伤害危机事件的心理距离,能调节来源可信度对消费者感知风险的影响。由于心理距离中空间距离、时间距离和社会距离维度起同样的作用,距离的增大都能削弱产品伤害危机信息来源可信度对消费者感知风险的影响,这就为企业界提升产品危机沟通能力、挽回消费者信任提供了一个新的视角。%By introducing the concept “psychological distance” in the field of psychology , this paper examines the effect of source credibility on consumers′cognition and evaluation in product -harm crisis.The results show that the more reli-ability of media reporting product -harm crisis, the more violent perceived risk that consumers own; the psychological distance that consumer to the product harm crisis can moderate the effect that information source credibility on consumers ′perceived risk .This article also finds that the space distance , time distance and social distance work in the same way as psychological distance , increasing distance will impair the influence of information source credibility on consumers ′per-ceived risk , which provides a new angle of view for the business community to improve product crisis communication a -bility, and restore consumers′confidence.

  20. A MODEL FOR RECALIBRATING CREDIBILITY IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS AND LANGUAGES - A TWITTER CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Abdullah AlMansour; Ljiljana Brankovic; Iliopoulos, Costas S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing dependence on the WWW User- Generated Content (UGC) as a primary source for information and news, the research on web credibility is becoming more important than ever before. In this paper we review previous efforts to evaluate information credibility, focusing specifically on microblogging. In particular, we provide a comparison of different systems for automatic assessment of information credibility based on the used techniques and features, and...

  1. Credibility judgments in web page design - a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selejan, O; Muresanu, D F; Popa, L; Muresanu-Oloeriu, I; Iudean, D; Buzoianu, A; Suciu, S

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than ever, knowledge that interfaces appearance analysis is a crucial point in human-computer interaction field has been accepted. As nowadays virtually anyone can publish information on the web, the credibility role has grown increasingly important in relation to the web-based content. Areas like trust, credibility, and behavior, doubled by overall impression and user expectation are today in the spotlight of research compared to the last period, when other pragmatic areas such as usability and utility were considered. Credibility has been discussed as a theoretical construct in the field of communication in the past decades and revealed that people tend to evaluate the credibility of communication primarily by the communicator's expertise. Other factors involved in the content communication process are trustworthiness and dynamism as well as various other criteria but to a lower extent. In this brief review, factors like web page aesthetics, browsing experiences and user experience are considered.

  2. Instructor Credibility across Disciplines: Identifying Students' Differentiated Expectations of Instructor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermiller, Carl; Ruppert, Bryan; Atwood, April

    2012-01-01

    Business communication instructors can face a unique set of challenges to maintain their credibility with students. Communication plays an important role in the instructor-student relationship, and students judge instructors' ability to teach communication based on their ability to practice what they teach. The authors' empirical study shows that…

  3. Instructor Credibility across Disciplines: Identifying Students' Differentiated Expectations of Instructor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermiller, Carl; Ruppert, Bryan; Atwood, April

    2012-01-01

    Business communication instructors can face a unique set of challenges to maintain their credibility with students. Communication plays an important role in the instructor-student relationship, and students judge instructors' ability to teach communication based on their ability to practice what they teach. The authors' empirical study shows that…

  4. Source Credibility and Persuasion: The Role of Message Position in Self-Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Evans, Abigail T

    2014-05-12

    Highly credible communicators have been found to elicit greater confidence and attitudes that are based more on recipients' thoughts (i.e., self-validation) compared with non-credible sources. However, source credibility may produce different effects on thought confidence and persuasion depending on the position of an advocacy. When messages are proattitudinal, credible sources should initiate self-validation because recipients may be motivated to confirm (bolster) their existing views. Conversely, when appeals are counterattitudinal, recipients may be motivated to defend their opinions and disconfirm information. In these contexts, greater self-validation may emerge when a communicator lacks rather than possesses credibility. When a message was counterattitudinal and contained weak arguments, evidence of self-validation was found with low source credibility (Studies 1 and 2) and among participants high in defense motivation (Study 2). In response to strong, proattitudinal arguments, findings were consistent with high credibility producing self-validation when bolstering motivation was high (Study 3).

  5. Speaker Credibility in Persuasive Work Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapels, Roberta H.; Arnold, Vanessa D.

    1997-01-01

    The study of persuasion is a significant means of dealing with others in the business environment. Speaker credibility and methods of establishing credibility are essential elements in the process of educating students for and about business. (JOW)

  6. Agent Belief with Credibility and Its Revision Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼昕; 刘玉树; 郑建军; 朱娟

    2004-01-01

    An approach to characterize the credibility of beliefs of an agent is proposed in this paper, which can define the uncertainty of beliefs, calculation rules and inference rules about credibility and a method for belief revision based on abductive reasoning is also given. When an agent receives some new information, if the new information is consistent with the current belief set, then incorporate this new information with an appropriate credibility, otherwise the choice will be different depending on the characters of agents, and the deliberated agents will choose the belief with a better explanation under the current belief set. Removing one belief may cause the removal of those beliefs that, together with others, logically entail the formula to be removed. A method based on abduction is proposed to solve these problems.

  7. The Effect of Top-Level Domains and Advertisements on Health Web Site Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Loh, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Background Concerns over health information on the Internet have generated efforts to enhance credibility markers; yet how users actually assess the credibility of online health information is largely unknown. Objective This study set out to (1) establish a parsimonious and valid questionnaire instrument to measure credibility of Internet health information by drawing on various previous measures of source, news, and other credibility scales; and (2) to identify the effects of Web-site domains and advertising on credibility perceptions. Methods Respondents (N = 156) examined one of 12 Web-site mock-ups and completed credibility scales in a 3 x 2 x 2 between-subjects experimental design. Factor analysis and validity checks were used for item reduction, and analysis of variance was employed for hypothesis testing of Web-site features' effects. Results In an attempt to construct a credibility instrument, three dimensions of credibility (safety, trustworthiness, and dynamism) were retained, reflecting traditional credibility sub-themes, but composed of items from disparate sources. When testing the effect of the presence or absence of advertising on a Web site on credibility, we found that this depends on the site's domain, with a trend for advertisements having deleterious effects on the credibility of sites with .org domain, but positive effects on sites with .com or .edu domains. Conclusions Health-information Web-site providers should select domains purposefully when they can, especially if they must accept on-site advertising. Credibility perceptions may not be invariant or stable, but rather are sensitive to topic and context. Future research may employ these findings in order to compare other forms of health-information delivery to optimal Web-site features. PMID:15471750

  8. Judging the Judges: finding value in these problematic characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L R Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical judges are well known for their less than exemplary behaviour. In the past, these judges have been appreciated largely as examples of how a charismatic leader should not behave. In spite of the judges� questionable morals, the writer of the book of Hebrews commends four of them (Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, and Samson for their faith. This paper evaluates these judges in light of their characterisations in the book of Hebrews and in the book of Judges and suggests that our struggle with the judges parallels the contemporary integrity crisis in Christian leadership.

  9. The Credibility Models under LINEX Loss Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-min; ZHANG Xian-kun; ZHENG Dan; FANG Jing

    2012-01-01

    LINEX(linear and exponential) loss function is a useful asymmetric loss function.The purpose of using a LINEX loss function in credibility models is to solve the problem of very high premium by suing a symmetric quadratic loss function in most of classical credibility models. The Bayes premium and the credibility premium are derived under LINEX loss function. The consistency of Bayes premium and credibility premium were also checked.Finally,the simulation was introduced to show the differences between the credibility estimator we derived and the classical one.

  10. Corporate Governance and the Credibility of Financial Statements in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyesan Leslie Dabor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimal decision-making is based on the quality of information available to the decision maker. Financial statements published by companies are the major sources of financial information available to investors and other stakeholders of the company. The credibility of these financial statements has very salient implications for the quality of decisions that investors can make. By using primary data collected from two hundred and forty eight respondents, and secondary data from twenty quoted companies in Nigeria, we sought to determine the relationship between corporate governance and the credibility of financial statements. The secondary data was analysed using multiple regression, while the primary data was used to test hypotheses using the chi-squared test. We find that including non-executive directors on the board, and compliance with audit committee composition as provided by the Nigerian Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA 1990 are likely to enhance the credibility of financial statements. We did not find evidence to suggest that CEO duality or absence of institutional shareholding would have negative effect on the credibility of financial statements. We recommend that apart from including non-executive directors on the board and ensuring that the composition of the audit committee complies with corporate regulatory framework, stakeholder must constantly assess the credibility of the financial statements by assessing the benefits accruing to them in relation to their financial exposure to the organization.

  11. URREF Reliability Versus Credibility in Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Valcartier Québec City, QC, G3J 1X5 Anne-Laure.Jousselme@drdc-rddc.gc.ca Valentina Dragos ONERA 91761 Palaiseau Cedex, France Valentia.dragos...onera.fr Paulo C. G. Costa C4I Center - George Mason University Fairfax, VA, 22030 pcosta@c4i.gmu.edu Jean Dezert ONERA DTIM/EVF 91761

  12. Consumers' perceptions of stakeholder credibility: who has it and who perceives it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the case of US consumer choice of beef steak brands, this study investigates how individual perceptions of information source credibility influence food brand choices. In particular, it tackles the questions: which stakeholders inside or outside the food chain are perceived as credible info

  13. Consumers' perceptions of stakeholder credibility: who has it and who perceives it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the case of US consumer choice of beef steak brands, this study investigates how individual perceptions of information source credibility influence food brand choices. In particular, it tackles the questions: which stakeholders inside or outside the food chain are perceived as credible

  14. The credibility of a source influences the rate of unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, M L; Marsh, R L; Hicks, J L; Howard, J D

    1999-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between the credibility of information and later unconscious plagiarism of that information. In each experiment, ideas concerning ways to reduce traffic accidents were presented from a more credible source (traffic planners) and a less credible source (college freshmen). After a distractor task, participants were asked to generate novel ways to reduce traffic accidents. In Experiments 1 and 2, unconscious plagiarism of ideas presented from the more credible source was greater than from the less credible source. In neither experiment was explicit memory for ideas from each source different in tests of source monitoring or free recall. However, the difference in unconscious plagiarism was eliminated in Experiment 3 by having participants generate the implications of ideas at study. The results are discussed in terms of the explicit factors that affect the incidence of unconscious plagiarism.

  15. A Professional Employee Counseling Program: Credibility Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puder, Marilyn

    This paper concerns the increasing number of employee counseling programs and the critical issues underlying their credibility. The history and current services of an employee counseling program at Citibank are briefly reviewed. The critical issues for credibility include: (1) a program appropriate to the structure and needs of the organization;…

  16. Bayesian credible interval construction for Poisson statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The construction of the Bayesian credible (confidence) interval for a Poisson observable including both the signal and background with and without systematic uncertainties is presented.Introducing the conditional probability satisfying the requirement of the background not larger than the observed events to construct the Bayesian credible interval is also discussed.A Fortran routine,BPOCI,has been developed to implement the calculation.

  17. Establishing the Department's Credibility with Central Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makay, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents some of the comments the author has shared in recent years with a number of faculty, particularly colleagues who attended workshops he conducted at Bowling Green State University for new department chairs. Explains how the department increased its credibility. Blends explanations with ideas for establishing credibility from three…

  18. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami; Peterson, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Shaping Effect of Charitable Organizations’ Information Disclosure on Their Public Credibility:Analyzing the Recent Evolution of Charitable Organizations’ Public Credibility in China%论慈善组织信息公开的公信力塑造功能--基于近年中国慈善组织公信力嬗变视角的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春雷

    2015-01-01

    公信力是慈善组织生存和发展之本,但中国慈善组织在之前特定环境中建立的初始公信力,却在近年市民社会发育、信息社会深化和政府公信力转型的影响下,遇到严峻挑战,导致一些慈善组织面临公信力危机。慈善组织信息公开具有正面信息传播、虚假信息证伪、公众权益实现、信任关系固化等功能,这有助于重构慈善组织与社会公众之间的信任关系。因此,应该从信息源的改善、信息公开内容的保证、信息公开服务的优质提供、信息公开过程的优化等方面做好信息公开工作,以重塑中国慈善组织的公信力。%The public credibility is essential to the survival and development of any charitable organi-zation. But the original credibility which Chinese charitable organizations gained in the specific histori-cal and social environments are facing severe challenges in the current context of the quick develop-ment of civil society, information disclosure and the transformation in government’s public credibility. Some charitable organizations in China are now confronted with credibility crisis. Since the information disclosure can serve such functions as to spread positive information, deny false information, fulfill the rights and interests of the public and consolidate the trust between various stakeholders, it is urgent to improve the source of information, guarantee the reliability of the information disclosed, provide a quality service of information disclosure and optimize the process of information disclosure. Only by so doing can Chinese charitable organizations regain their public credibility.

  20. Corporate Governance and the Credibility of Financial Statements in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eyesan Leslie Dabor; Semiu Babatunde Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Optimal decision-making is based on the quality of information available to the decision maker. Financial statements published by companies are the major sources of financial information available to investors and other stakeholders of the company. The credibility of these financial statements has very salient implications for the quality of decisions that investors can make. By using primary data collected from two hundred and forty eight respondents, and secondary data from twenty quoted co...

  1. Accuracy, Confidence, and Calibration: How Young Children and Adults Assess Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Elizabeth R.; Small, Jenna E.; Kondrad, Robyn L.; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Spellman, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Do children and adults use the same cues to judge whether someone is a reliable source of information? In 4 experiments, we investigated whether children (ages 5 and 6) and adults used information regarding accuracy, confidence, and calibration (i.e., how well an informant's confidence predicts the likelihood of being correct) to judge informants'…

  2. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  3. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral

    2016-06-01

    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  4. The Impact of Foreign Accent on Credibility: An Analysis of Cognitive Statement Ratings in a Swiss Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ladina

    2017-06-01

    The present paper reports on a study investigating whether the presence of a foreign accent negatively affects credibility judgments. Previous research suggests that trivia statements recorded by speakers with a foreign accent are judged as less credible than when recorded by native speakers due to increased cognitive demands (Lev-Ari and Keysar in J Exp Soc Psychol 46(6):1093-1096, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.05.025 ). In the present study, 194 French- and 183 Swiss-German-speaking participants were asked to judge the truthfulness of 48 trivia statements recorded by speakers with French, Swiss-German, Italian and English accents by means of an online survey. Before submitting the survey, raters were asked to attribute given labels-including adjectives referring to credibility-to a language group aiming to elicit raters' stereotypes in a direct manner. Although the results of this task indicate that the raters do hold different stereotypes concerning credibility of speech communities, foreign accent does not seem to have an impact on credibility ratings in the Swiss context.

  5. Factorial structure of Web credibility in a population of Italian Internet users: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giuseppina; Caci, Barbara; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies by Fogg and his colleagues have defined a new psychological construct called Web credibility. It describes the principal dimensions which lead people to believe (or not) online information. In this framework, the factorial structure of Web credibility was explored in a sample of 152 Italian students of psychology who were Internet users, using a questionnaire. A consistent four-factorial structure emphasized crucial aspects of Web credibility, namely, Inaccuracy, Efficiency, Social Validation, and Commercial Features. Such results seem in line with Fogg's theoretical model; however, further research is required to identify dimensions of this construct.

  6. Credibility of digital content in a healthcare collaborative community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wail M; Saini, Dinesh K; Hasan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    With the increased number of new diseases that are appearing in the world, such as swine flu [influenza A(H1N1)], and the increased awareness of the importance of sharing medical ideas, information, experience, knowledge, and research results, there is an urgent demand for a collaboration framework. Such a framework depends on deploying, discovering, and using digital content. This inevitably leads to the generation of large amounts of digital content from different healthcare users, which requires massive resources to process, store, and retrieve them. Moreover, the digital content currently suffers from a lack of credibility, which is vital in healthcare applications. Thus, this chapter discusses briefly how grid computing can boost Web 2.0 communities. In addition, the chapter discusses a proposed scenario for offering a way of measuring the credibility of the published digital content.

  7. Consider the source: persuasion of implicit evaluations is moderated by source credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan; Nosek, Brian A

    2013-02-01

    The long history of persuasion research shows how to change explicit, self-reported evaluations through direct appeals. At the same time, research on how to change implicit evaluations has focused almost entirely on techniques of retraining existing evaluations or manipulating contexts. In five studies, we examined whether direct appeals can change implicit evaluations in the same way as they do explicit evaluations. In five studies, both explicit and implicit evaluations showed greater evidence of persuasion following information presented by a highly credible source than a source low in credibility. Whereas cognitive load did not alter the effect of source credibility on explicit evaluations, source credibility had an effect on the persuasion of implicit evaluations only when participants were encouraged and able to consider information about the source. Our findings reveal the relevance of persuasion research for changing implicit evaluations and provide new ideas about the processes underlying both types of evaluation.

  8. How Experienced SoTL Researchers Develop the Credibility of Their Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Billot

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning research in higher education, often referred to as the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, is still relatively novel in many academic contexts compared to the mainstay of disciplinary research. One indication of this is the challenges those who engage in SoTL report in terms of how this work is valued or considered credible amongst disciplinary colleagues and in the face of institutional policies and practices. This paper moves beyond the literature that describes these specific challenges to investigate how 23 experienced SoTL researchers from five different countries understood the notion of credibility in relationship to their SoTL research and how they went about developing credibility for their work. Semi-structured interviews were facilitated and analyzed using inductive analysis. Findings indicate that notions of credibility encompassed putting SoTL research into action and building capacity and community around research findings, as well as gaining external validation through traditional indicators such as publishing. SoTL researchers reported a variety of strategies and approaches they were using, both formal and informal, to develop credibility for their work. The direct focus of this paper on credibility of SoTL work as perceived by experienced SoTL researchers, and how they go about developing credibility, is a distinct contribution to the discussions about the valuing of SoTL work.

  9. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding m

  10. Empirical Bayes Credibility Models for Economic Catastrophic Losses by Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrová Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic events affect various regions of the world with increasing frequency and intensity. The number of catastrophic events and the amount of economic losses is varying in different world regions. Part of these losses is covered by insurance. Catastrophe events in last years are associated with increases in premiums for some lines of business. The article focus on estimating the amount of net premiums that would be needed to cover the total or insured catastrophic losses in different world regions using Bühlmann and Bühlmann-Straub empirical credibility models based on data from Sigma Swiss Re 2010-2016. The empirical credibility models have been developed to estimate insurance premiums for short term insurance contracts using two ingredients: past data from the risk itself and collateral data from other sources considered to be relevant. In this article we deal with application of these models based on the real data about number of catastrophic events and about the total economic and insured catastrophe losses in seven regions of the world in time period 2009-2015. Estimated credible premiums by world regions provide information how much money in the monitored regions will be need to cover total and insured catastrophic losses in next year.

  11. A framework to establish credibility of computational models in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice P

    2017-10-01

    Computational models in biology and biomedical science are often constructed to aid people's understanding of phenomena or to inform decisions with socioeconomic consequences. Model credibility is the willingness of people to trust a model's predictions and is often difficult to establish for computational biology models. A 3 × 3 matrix has been proposed to allow such models to be categorised with respect to their testability and epistemic foundation in order to guide the selection of an appropriate process of validation to supply evidence to establish credibility. Three approaches to validation are identified that can be deployed depending on whether a model is deemed untestable, testable or lies somewhere in between. In the latter two cases, the validation process involves the quantification of uncertainty which is a key output. The issues arising due to the complexity and inherent variability of biological systems are discussed and the creation of 'digital twins' proposed as a means to alleviate the issues and provide a more robust, transparent and traceable route to model credibility and acceptance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying Information Senders of Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshikiyo; Kawahara, Daisuke; Inui, Kentaro; Kurohashi, Sadao; Shibata, Tomohide

    The source of information is one of the crucial elements when judging the credibility of the information. On the current Web, however, the information about the source is not readily available to the users. In this paper, we formulate the problem of identifying the information source as the problem of identifying the information sender configuration (ISC) of a Web page. An information sender of a Web page is an entity which is involved in the publication of the information on the page. An information sender configuration of a Web page describes the information senders of the page and the relationship among them. Information sender identification is a sub-problem of identifying ISC, and we present a method for extracting information senders from Web pages, along with its evaluation. ISC provides a basis for deeper analysis of information on the Web.

  13. In the CJEU Judges Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges' trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...... references by national courts. However, there is still a gap in the literature on the development of trust as a functional principle encouraging co-operation between national and international courts. This article explores the nature, causes and potentials of judicial trust for the EU judicial system....... A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges' trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification and profile, to their attitudes towards the EU, and to their beliefs about the CJEU's ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance on European Union law, and 2...

  14. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  15. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using informati

  16. The Relationship of Somatotype to Source Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomb, Kevin; Divers, Lawrence T.

    A study was designed to measure the effects of the source's body type--endomorph (fat), mesomorph (muscular), and ectomorph (thin)--in relation to his perceived credibility by the receiver. Five hundred subjects were randomly selected from a basic communication course and, in groups of twenty in a classroom setting, were each given a…

  17. Empirical Study on the Personal Information Disclosure of Micro-blog Users Based on Credibility Analysis:Taking the Sina Micro-blog as Example%基于可信度分析的微博用户个人信息泄露实证研究*--以新浪微博为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常文英; 刘冰

    2015-01-01

    以新浪微博用户为研究对象,采用信息追溯方法对150名研究样本在新浪微博的相关活动进行持续跟踪与回溯,以获取相关数据信息。利用内容分析方法对所获信息中的用户个人基本特征信息和私密信息进行提取,并对其可信性进行对比分析。研究发现,微博作为一种典型社交媒体,用户注册信息与发布信息具有较高可信度。微博各项功能均可成为泄露用户个人信息的重要渠道。%With Sina Weibo`s users as the research object and using the information traceability method, this paper tracked and backtracked related activities of 150 research samples in Sina micro-blog to obtain relevant information. Then extracted the users’ personal basic char-acteristic information and private information by the method of content analysis, and further analysed their credibility. The study found that micro-blog, as a typical social media, its registration information and released information have high credibility. The micro-blog function could become an important channel for disclosure of personal information.

  18. Chinese Judge At WTO Court

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China had its first judge appointed to the World Trade Organization (WTO) when the world body recently selected four senior jus- tices to its seven-people Appellate Body—top court.Lawyer Zhang Yuejiao was one of the four appointed on November 27 by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) for a four-year term.Her tenure will commence on June 1,2008.

  19. Staff Judge Advocate Deskbook. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    eight Family Law OThirty-nine Taxation Forty Servicemember Protections Forty-one Consumer Law Forty-two Practice Aids PAWT VII ADMINSTRATIV... Consumer Law Guide; and e. L1al Asistance Officer’s Dekbook and Form Book. D. 11mlized forms 1. Simple forms Wills 2. Form letters a. Form letterto creditor...Assistance Division (Code 36) R. Consumer Law Guide, Pub JA 265, The Judge Advocate General’s School, U.S. Army Naval Justice School SJA Dekbook

  20. How to Work with Honest but Curious Judges? (Preliminary Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Jun; 10.4204/EPTCS.7.3

    2009-01-01

    The three-judges protocol, recently advocated by Mclver and Morgan as an example of stepwise refinement of security protocols, studies how to securely compute the majority function to reach a final verdict without revealing each individual judge's decision. We extend their protocol in two different ways for an arbitrary number of 2n+1 judges. The first generalisation is inherently centralised, in the sense that it requires a judge as a leader who collects information from others, computes the majority function, and announces the final result. A different approach can be obtained by slightly modifying the well-known dining cryptographers protocol, however it reveals the number of votes rather than the final verdict. We define a notion of conditional anonymity in order to analyse these two solutions. Both of them have been checked in the model checker MCMAS.

  1. The influence of source cues and topic familiarity on credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    An important cue in the evaluation of the credibility of online information is the source from which the information comes. Earlier, it has been hypothesized that the source of information is less important when one is familiar with the topic at hand. However, no conclusive results were found to con

  2. The Effect of Task and Personal Relevance on Credibility Judgements while Searching on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkyla, Adrius Viktoras

    2010-01-01

    People can view the Internet as an endless source of information although it is not known how individuals might evaluate the credibility of information that is presented on websites. A methodology is needed to incorporate how the information seeking task, as well as the level of personal relevance, influences the criteria individuals use to…

  3. The influence of source cues and topic familiarity on credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    An important cue in the evaluation of the credibility of online information is the source from which the information comes. Earlier, it has been hypothesized that the source of information is less important when one is familiar with the topic at hand. However, no conclusive results were found to

  4. Genetics blogs as a public health tool: assessing credibility and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L; Paquin, R; Persky, S

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is becoming an important source of information about genetics and holds promise for public health applications. However, the public has concerns about the credibility of online genetics information. We conducted a content analysis of genetics blogs (n = 94). Specifically, we assessed the prevalence of various genetics-related topics and perceived credibility indicators. The relationship between content indicators, credibility indicators, and blog influence, measured as links between blogs, was evaluated. Coverage of issues related to health or self-knowledge (31%) and life science (26%) was most common among genetics blogs. In terms of credibility indicators, most blogs disclosed authors' full names (81%) and biographical information (67%). Many blog authors reported having genetics (67%) or life science expertise (59%). However, only 7% of blogs were affiliated with educational or medical institutions. Overall, blogs that focused on ancestry, that had authors with life science expertise, and that posted more frequently tended to be more influential. Findings suggest that life scientists and those who blog frequently may figure more centrally in shaping the genetics information available to the public via blogs. There is room for institutions that are likely to be perceived as credible sources of genetics information to assume a greater presence through blogs.

  5. Whose credibility is it anyway:professional authority and relevance in forensic nurse examinations of sexual assault survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Gethin

    2012-01-01

    There is an inherent tension in the information gathering and recording stages of the forensic medical examination of rape survivors. Medical practitioners do not wish to record information that can undermine a complainant’s credibility, but at the same time must ensure that they do not problematise their own credibility by appearing partisan (for instance, by omitting information that might be relevant). Drawing upon semi-structured interviews with Forensic Nurse Examiners (FNEs) and their t...

  6. Credibility of the Printed Media: The Swine Flu as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Žlof

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of credibility becomes especially pronounced in times of crises, which characteristically abound in the unknown, uncertainty, and doubt. Such crises are mostly sudden, often complex, andsometimes mired in controversial events. The public subsequently craves more information in times of crises, such that they may obtain more precise guidance, and ease their ability to cope. Given the relatively low frequency of crisis situations, most people lack actual experience relevant to a given predicament. The appearance of Virus A (H1N1 at the onset of 2009 is one such case. Despite H1N1’s classification as a broad-scale, serious health hazard, preventive vaccinations failed to reach a large segment of the population. We contend that the lack of credibility in informing the public through the media contributed considerably to this failure. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the level of credible information provided by the print media from which the general public could have taken an informed position on the crisis in question. Quantitative research and content analysis ascertained from a body of print media sources with national coverage reveals that the Croatian print media, contrary to our expectations, largely rely on official sources and transparently cite authors, which contributes to a higher degree of credibility. Yet further analysis of the number of sources suggests that most journalists used on average only one or no named sources, which significantly reduces the credibility of the published articles.

  7. Aggregated trustworthiness: Redefining online credibility through social validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Johan; Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of social dynamics on online credibility. Empirical studies by Pettingill (2006) and Hargittai, et al. (2010) suggest that social validation and online trustees play increasingly important roles when evaluating credibility online. This dynamic puts pressure...

  8. 4 CFR 28.22 - Administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative judges. 28.22 Section 28.22 Accounts... Procedures Hearing Procedures for Cases Before the Board-General § 28.22 Administrative judges. (a) Exercise of authority. Administrative judges may exercise authority as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  9. Public Debt Policy: Credibility and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Pavelek

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers modern frameworks of public debt management from a credibility perspective. It focuses on the institutional and operational arrangements of effective debt management. In particular, the author seeks to shed light upon the contemporary problems of Czech debt manager compared with OECD and EU debt managers. The author calls for a broader public debate of public debt management in the Czech Republic, citing the country?s increasing level of public debt and accession to the EU...

  10. Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

    1981-04-01

    Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

  11. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; van 't Veer, Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; de Vries, Jan

    2017-07-17

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis for food regulations and dietary guidelines. Its collaborative and interdisciplinary research has accomplished much, scientifically and socially. Despite this, nutrition science appears to be in crisis and is currently confronted with a public reluctance to trust nutritional insights. Though deflating trust is a general phenomenon surrounding the scientific community, its impact on nutrition science is particularly strong because of the crucial role of nutrition in everyone's daily life. We, a Dutch collective of nutritionists, medical doctors, philosophers and sociologists of science ( http://www.nutritionintransition.nl ), have diagnosed that nutrition science is meeting inherent boundaries. This hampers conceptual and methodological progress and the translation of novel insights into societal benefit and trust. In other words, nutrition science is facing limitations to its capability and credibility, impeding its societal value. We take up the challenge to halt the threatening erosion of nutrition science's capability and credibility, and explore a way forward. We analyse limitations to capability and credibility, then argue that nutrition science is caught in a vicious circle, and end by offering some suggestions to transcend the limitations and escape the current deadlock. We invite nutritional experts as well as scholars from adjacent disciplines to engage in the discussion.

  12. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare tw

  13. Distributed Fault Detection Based on Credibility and Cooperation for WSNs in Smart Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Sujie; Guo, Shaoyong; Qiu, Xuesong

    2017-04-28

    Due to the increasingly important role in monitoring and data collection that sensors play, accurate and timely fault detection is a key issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in smart grids. This paper presents a novel distributed fault detection mechanism for WSNs based on credibility and cooperation. Firstly, a reasonable credibility model of a sensor is established to identify any suspicious status of the sensor according to its own temporal data correlation. Based on the credibility model, the suspicious sensor is then chosen to launch fault diagnosis requests. Secondly, the sending time of fault diagnosis request is discussed to avoid the transmission overhead brought about by unnecessary diagnosis requests and improve the efficiency of fault detection based on neighbor cooperation. The diagnosis reply of a neighbor sensor is analyzed according to its own status. Finally, to further improve the accuracy of fault detection, the diagnosis results of neighbors are divided into several classifications to judge the fault status of the sensors which launch the fault diagnosis requests. Simulation results show that this novel mechanism can achieve high fault detection ratio with a small number of fault diagnoses and low data congestion probability.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMER-GENERATED MEDIA ON VIETNAMESE TRAVELERS’ DECISION MAKING - MEDIATION ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CREDIBILITY AND TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Nhon Thanh Hoang; Mai Ngoc Khuong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing consumer perception of credibility of online travel-related information on online communities, especially on online social networks and, in turn, the degree to which the perception of online information credibility affects trust and travel decision making. Online and offline surveys of Vietnamese consumers were conducted with a total of 328 individuals responding to questionnaires regarding the determinants of consumer perceptions, online trust ...

  15. The crustal micro-deformation anomaly and the credible precursor*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁滨; 蒋骏; 钱家栋; 陈京; 和升棋; 张燕; 和平

    2002-01-01

    @@ What is a credible seismic precursor in observation of deformation A real seismic precursor ought to be resulted from the variations in the earth strain and stress. The deformation observation can provide the information during earthquake gestation and occurrence period for us. Usually the seismic precursors can be divided into field and epicentral region precursors. The precursor information is very useful for seismic prediction from epicentral region or near epicentral region. Micro-deformation observation mainly includes tilt, strain and gravity observation. Compared with GPS, geodesy and mobile deformation observation, micro-deformation (tilt, strain) shows the change of deformation which is continual in a limited volume with dominant observed range of 10(6~10(10 m. Because the variation of the crustal nature and cracking can be directly obtained by micro-deformation observation, it is an effective way to find middle-short term and short-term precursor.

  16. The User, not the Tool: Perceptions of Credibility and Relevance Affect the Uptake of Prioritisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatkoski Kim, Milena; Evans, Louisa; Scherl, Lea M.; Marsh, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Prioritisation methods have been used in conservation planning for over 20 years. The scientific literature focuses on the technical aspects of prioritisation, providing limited information on factors affecting the uptake of priorities. We focused on the Back on Track species prioritisation program in Queensland, Australia, used to prioritise species conservation efforts across Queensland from 2005. The program had low uptake by intended users. Our study aimed to identify the perceived limitations in the technical-scientific quality of this species-based prioritisation process and its outcomes in terms of credibility (scientific adequacy of the technical evidence) and relevance (of information to the needs of decision-makers). These criteria have been used to understand the uptake of scientific information in policy. We interviewed 73 key informants. Perceptions of credibility were affected by concerns related to the use of expert judgement (rather than empirical evidence) to assess species, impressions that key experts were not included in the planning process, and the lack of confidence in the information supporting prioritisation. We identified several trade-offs and synergies between the credibility and relevance of priorities to potential users. The relevance of the output plans was negatively affected by the lack of clarity about who were potential users and implementers of the priorities identified. We conclude with recommendations to enhance the credibility and relevance of such initiatives.

  17. Cheap Talk and Credibility: The Consequences of Confidence and Accuracy on Advisor Credibility and Persuasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Moore, Don A.; MacCoun, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to increase one's influence simply by behaving more confidently? Prior research presents two competing hypotheses: (1) the confidence heuristic holds that more confidence increases credibility, and (2) the calibration hypothesis asserts that overconfidence will backfire when others find out. Study 1 reveals that, consistent with the…

  18. 5 CFR 2421.9 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 2421.9 Section... Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases......

  19. Maintaining Credibility with the Media and Public in Uncertain Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosansky, D.

    2010-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is in a unique position with regard to the complex interface between science, policy makers, the media, and the general public. Because NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), it enjoys great credibility. At the same time, it is managed by a non-profit consortium of universities and therefore is free of the constraints that government scientists sometimes face when communicating with reporters and the public. The NCAR Media Office strategically works to protect the credibility of scientists. Its overriding goal is to ensure that the center and the larger scientific community remain a trusted source of information about weather and climate topics, including such controversial topics as climate change. Scientists are freely available to talk with reporters without needing any official clearance. A multi-tier approach is adopted for disseminating science news to the media and public, ranging from news releases for significant, peer-reviewed research results to online, non-technical summaries for research that is more specialized or still in process. The media office directs reporters not only to NCAR scientists, but also to researchers at federal agencies and universities. It works closely with media officers and researchers at other organizations, often helping scientific collaborators connect with reporters. These approaches have helped make NCAR well known in the media industry as an authoritative, credible, and accessible source of information. To further disseminate information about science, the NCAR Media Office is expanding its efforts into multimedia, including video interviews and other footage; animations; and still images. These efforts are often undertaken in collaboration with NSF and other scientific organizations. In addition, the office is putting a greater emphasis on social media, using such tools as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube to communicate major scientific developments in

  20. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Alzahrani, Shrooq; Lonigro, Samantha; Purser, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas. Our novel findings show an effect of psychological accessibility (driven by partial contextual information; Kahneman, 2003) on utilitarian moral behavior and response time for rational choices. Enhanced accessibility of utilitarian outcomes through comprehensive information about moral actions and consequences boosted utility maximization in moral choices, with rational choices taking less time. Moreover, our result suggests that previous results indicating emotional interference, with rational choices taking more time to make, may have been artifacts of presenting partial information.

  1. Propensity to trust and the influence of source and medium cues in credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Credibility evaluation has become a daily task in the current world of online information that varies in quality. The way this task is performed has been a topic of research for some time now. In this study, we aim to extend this research by proposing an integrated layer model of trust. According to

  2. The Effect of "Twitter" Posts on Students' Perceptions of Instructor Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater numbers of instructors are turning to social networking sites to communicate with students. This study examined whether posting social, scholarly, or a combination of social and scholarly information to "Twitter" has an impact on the perceived credibility of the instructor. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: a…

  3. Propensity to trust and the influence of source and medium cues in credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Credibility evaluation has become a daily task in the current world of online information that varies in quality. The way this task is performed has been a topic of research for some time now. In this study, we aim to extend this research by proposing an integrated layer model of trust. According to

  4. The differential depiction of female athletes in judged and non-judged sport magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Gray, James J

    2006-12-01

    Sports magazines portrayal of female athletes over the past ten years, in terms of body size, age, and race was examined. Using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), estimated body size was obtained for cover models on a set of judged and non-judged sport magazines. The frequency with which the full bodies of models were depicted on the covers of these magazines was also investigated. Cover models on judged sport magazines were rated as significantly thinner than cover models on non-judged sport magazines. Judged sport magazines also displayed a higher number of full-body images than non-judged sport magazines. These findings suggest that individuals who read judged sport magazines are more likely to be exposed to thin media images than those reading non-judged sport magazines.

  5. Indirect treatment comparison/network meta-analysis study questionnaire to assess relevance and credibility to inform health care decision making: an ISPOR-AMCP-NPC Good Practice Task Force report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Jeroen P; Trikalinos, Thomas; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Daw, Jessica; Andes, Sherry; Eldessouki, Randa; Salanti, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great realized or potential value of network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial evidence to inform health care decision making, many decision makers might not be familiar with these techniques...

  6. Aggregated trustworthiness: Redefining online credibility through social validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Johan; Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of social dynamics on online credibility. Empirical studies by Pettingill (2006) and Hargittai, et al. (2010) suggest that social validation and online trustees play increasingly important roles when evaluating credibility online. This dynamic puts pressure...... on the dominant theory of online credibility presented by Fogg and Tseng (1999). To remedy this problem we present a new theory we call “aggregated trustworthiness” based on social dynamics and online navigational practices....

  7. Effect of tattoos on perceptions of credibility and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, John S; Hatch, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the effects of tattooing on perception of a male's and a female's credibility and attractiveness. 74 undergraduates viewed a photograph of a tattooed or nontattooed male or female model and then rated dimensions of the models' credibility and attractiveness. Analysis indicated that, although the models' attractiveness ratings were not affected by having a tattoo, their credibility ratings were generally lower when wearing a tattoo than when not wearing one.

  8. Effects of Tattoos on Perceptions of Credibility and Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Seiter, John S.; Hatch, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of tattooing on perception of a male's and a female's credibility and attractiveness. 74 undergraduates viewed a photograph of a tattooed or nontattooed male or female model and then rated dimensions of the models' credibility and attractiveness. Analysis indicated that, although the models' attractiveness ratings were not affected by having a tattoo, their credibility ratings were generally lower when wearing a tattoo than when not wearing one.

  9. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  12. Interviewing Judges in the Transnational Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mak, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of qualitative interviewing in the field of legal studies, and more precisely the practice of interviewing judges. In the last five years the authors of this article conducted two different research projects which involved interviewing judges as a research method.

  13. Reputation, credibility and monetary policy effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Caldas Montes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As reputation and credibility are important elements for monetary policy effectiveness, the paper aims at exploring the concepts of both and its importance in a context where central banks policies are not neutral, that is, monetary policy affects real and nominal variables. The paper seeks to contribute with a new analysis of how the sort of reputation developed by the monetary authority affects the state of expectations, and then the economic performance, enabling a particular situation that we call "credibility trap" - which makes monetary policy ineffective to affect real activity when necessary. Although the paper presents some similarities to the orthodox approach regarding both reputation and credibility's importance for central banks and its policies, it is different from the orthodox approach speaking of distinct forms of monetary policy recommendations and the sort of reputation that it recommends to be developed.Como reputação e credibilidade são importantes elementos para a eficácia da política monetária, o trabalho explora os conceitos de ambos e suas importâncias em um contexto em que as políticas dos bancos centrais não são neutras, sendo capazes de afetar variáveis reais e nominais. O trabalho busca contribuir com uma nova análise de como o tipo de reputação desenvolvido pela autoridade monetária afeta o estado de expectativas e, assim, o desempenho econômico, possibilitando um caso particular que chamaremos de "armadilha de credibilidade" - a qual torna a política monetária ineficaz em afetar a atividade econômica real quando necessário. Embora a abordagem proposta pelo trabalho apresente algumas similaridades com a abordagem ortodoxa acerca da importância da reputação e da credibilidade para os bancos centrais e suas políticas, a abordagem distingue-se da ortodoxa em termos de recomendações de política monetária e do tipo de reputação que deve ser desenvolvida.

  14. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The credibility of evidence or information submitted in the applicant's request for a waiver; and (ii... security clearance necessary to review classified or otherwise protected information and evidence. If the... not include evidence or information that was not presented to TSA in the request for a waiver under...

  15. Institutional credibility and the future of Danish journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    Credibility is frequently represented as both an ideal goal for journalism as a profession (Vultree, 2010) and as an integral part of the survival strategy of the news industry (Meyer, 2004). Yet there exists no widely accepted operationalization of the concept of credibility. In this paper we...... present the results of a study of credibility in Danish news media. In our study credibility is defined at an institutional level as a question of both the accuracy of the news reports featured in leading Danish news media (both newspapers, online news and television news), and as a question of press...

  16. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  17. Correction: An Indicator of Media Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Vilović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of publishing corrections, clarifi cations, and letters to the editor, entail a high level of respect among the media for their audiences as they signify accountability and media credibility.This study began on the general assumption that the Croatian media is reluctant to publish corrections regularly, projecting an image that errors simply do not occur. Certainly errorless reporting is impossible due to fact that journalism is a profession prone to human error. Therefore, this study has enacted a content analysis methodology to follow the four primary Croatian daily newspapers, Jutarnji list, Večernji list, 24 sata and Vjesnik, for the period between May 6 and 30, 2010. The primary conclusion is that Croatian newspaper editors are hesitant to publish corrections if they are not under pressure from the Media Law.

  18. Establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This is not a talk about archaeoastronomy per se, but rather about how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative helps us deal with archaeoastronomical sites as potential World Heritage.In 2011, an attempt to nominate a prehistoric “observatory” site onto the World Heritage List proved unsuccessful because UNESCO rejected the interpretation as statistically and archaeologically unproven. The case highlights an issue at the heart of archaeoastronomical methodology and interpretation: the mere existence of astronomical alignments in ancient sites does not prove that they were important to those who constructed and used the sites, let alone giving us insights into their likely significance and meaning. Advances in archaeoastronomy over several decades have resulted in the development of a substantial body of theory and practice (Ruggles 2014) where the most favoured interpretations depend upon integrating methods from astronomy, anthropology and other disciplines, but individual cases can still engender considerable controversy.The fact that more archaeoastronomical sites are now appearing on national tentative lists prior to their WHL nomination means that this is no longer just an academic issue; establishing the credibility of the archaeoastronomical interpretations is crucial to any assessment of their value in heritage terms.In this talk I shall describe progress that has been made within the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative towards establishing broadly acceptable measures of archaeoastronomical credibility that make sense in the context of the heritage evaluation process. I will focus particularly, but not exclusively, on sites that are included in the Thematic Studies and/or are already included on national Tentative Lists, such as the Portuguese/Spanish seven-stone antas (Neolithic dolmens) and Chankillo in Peru (solar observation device dating to c. 300BC). I will also mention how the recognition of astronomical attributes of potential

  19. Enhancing the credibility of decisions based on scientific conclusions: transparency is imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreider, Jay; Barrow, Craig; Birchfield, Norman; Dearfield, Kerry; Devlin, Dennis; Henry, Sara; Kramer, Melissa; Schappelle, Seema; Solomon, Keith; Weed, Douglas L; Embry, Michelle R

    2010-07-01

    Transparency and documentation of the decision process are at the core of a credible risk assessment and, in addition, are essential in the presentation of a weight of evidence (WoE)-based approach. Lack of confidence in the risk assessment process (as the basis for a risk management decision), beginning with evaluation of raw data and continuing through the risk decision process, is largely because of issues surrounding transparency. There is a critical need to implement greater transparency throughout the risk assessment process, and although doing so will not guarantee the correctness of the risk assessment or that all risk assessors come up with the same conclusions, it will provide essential information on how a particular conclusion or decision was made, thereby increasing confidence in the conclusions. Recognizing this issue, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute convened a multisector committee tasked with discussing this issue and examining existing guidance and recommendations related to transparency in risk assessment. The committee concluded that transparency is inextricably linked to credibility: credibility of the data, credibility of the risk assessment process, and credibility of the resulting decision making. To increase this credibility, existing guidance concerning criteria elements of transparency related to the risk assessment process must be more widely disseminated and applied, and raw data for studies used in human health and environmental risk assessment must be more widely available. Finally, the decision-making process in risk management must be better documented and a guidance framework established for both the process itself and its communication to the public.

  20. 信息可信度对消费者转基因技术应用态度的影响%Influence of Information Credibility on Consumers' Attitude toward GM Technology Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明杨; 展进涛

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication of risks and benefits helps to promote consumers' judgment.Based on structural equation models, this paper studies the influence of information dissemination of genetically modified foods on consumers' overall attitude.The conclusions are as follows:The more confidence con-sumers have on authorized and professional information promulgator, and/or the more trust consumers have on information with positive attribute, the less perceived risk and the more perceived benefits they will get, and then they tend to have a positive attitude toward genetically modified technology;Informa-tion from unauthorized and unprofessional promulgator and information with negative attribute, on the oth-er hand, acting quite opposite function on consumers.Also, perceived risks and benefits are affected by general attitude, subjective perception and objective perception about GM technology or GMF together.%有效的风险与收益沟通有助于提升消费者的判断能力. 通过梳理转基因风险沟通与收益沟通的机制,构建消费者转基因技术应用态度影响因素的理论模型,探讨信息发布主体和信息内容如何通过感知风险与收益进而影响消费者态度. 基于城市消费者调查数据的实证结果表明:消费者对专业可靠的信息发布主体越信任,抑或对具有积极属性的信息内容越信任,他们的感知风险越小,感知收益越大,进而消费者转基因技术应用态度越积极;而非专业可靠的信息发布主体和具有消极属性的信息内容产生的作用恰恰相反. 此外,感知风险与收益还受到消费者一般态度、消费者认知的共同影响.

  1. Institutional credibility and the future of Danish journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    present the results of a study of credibility in Danish news media. In our study credibility is defined at an institutional level as a question of both the accuracy of the news reports featured in leading Danish news media (both newspapers, online news and television news), and as a question of press...

  2. Credibility and the media as a political institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Credibility is frequently represented as both an ideal goal for journalism as a profession and as an integral part of the news industry’s survival strategy. Yet there is no widely accepted operationalization of the concept of credibility. In the current article, we present the results of a study ...

  3. Message framing and credibility: application in dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R

    2000-01-01

    This study uses an experimental approach to test the influence of message framing and credibility on the attitude toward a dental exam and consumers' intention to use the dental office. The findings indicate a strong effect of credibility on attitude as well as intention. The influence of framing is also statistically significant. Implications for marketers in terms of message strategy are discussed.

  4. Factors Underlying the Public's Credibility Perceptions in Educational Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how evaluation audiences perceive credibility can help evaluators design evaluations and reports that support appropriate use. While researchers have studied credibility assessment among various educational stakeholders, little research has been conducted with the broader public. This study explored potential factors affecting the…

  5. Role of Demand Awareness in the Communicator Credibility Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Monte M.

    1970-01-01

    The results of this communicator credibility and opinion change experiment suggest that demand characteristics and persuasion are confounded in laboratory opinion experiments; however, the results of manipulations like communicator credibility may be entirely due to the demand characteristics of the situation. (DB)

  6. Factors Underlying the Public's Credibility Perceptions in Educational Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how evaluation audiences perceive credibility can help evaluators design evaluations and reports that support appropriate use. While researchers have studied credibility assessment among various educational stakeholders, little research has been conducted with the broader public. This study explored potential factors affecting the…

  7. The credibility of the European exchange rate mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, K.H.W.; Sturm, J.E.; de Haan, J.

    Using a panel data approach and three different credibility measures, we argue that unemployment, inflation, and budget deficits in participating countries have affected the credibility of the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the EMS. In contrast to most previous research, which focuses upon the

  8. The credibility of the European exchange rate mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, K.H.W.; Sturm, J.E.; de Haan, J.

    1998-01-01

    Using a panel data approach and three different credibility measures, we argue that unemployment, inflation, and budget deficits in participating countries have affected the credibility of the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the EMS. In contrast to most previous research, which focuses upon the credibili

  9. 29 CFR 102.36 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of administrative law judge. 102.36 Section... Hearings § 102.36 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge... chief administrative law judge, in Washington, DC, the associate chief judge, in San...

  10. 22 CFR 1421.8 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative law judge. 1421.8 Section 1421.8... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.8 Administrative law judge. Administrative law judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any administrative law judge designated by the Chief...

  11. 29 CFR 457.17 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 457.17 Section 457.17 Labor... GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.17 Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the...

  12. 29 CFR 458.80 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. 458.80 Section... Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall designate another Administrative Law Judge for...

  13. 20 CFR 901.43 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 901.43 Section 901... Termination of Enrollment § 901.43 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An administrative law judge... Administrative Law Judge. Among other powers, the Administrative Law Judge shall have authority, in...

  14. 22 CFR 128.2 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 128.2 Section 128.2... § 128.2 Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge referred to in this part is an Administrative Law Judge appointed by the Department of State. The Administrative Law Judge is authorized...

  15. Communicating soil carbon science to farmers: Incorporating credibility, salience and legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Julie; Mills, Jane; Dibari, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    science and practice in the context of communicating information about soil carbon management. It focuses on the information producing process and on stakeholder (adviser, farmer representative, policy maker etc) assessment of the attributes credibility, salience and legitimacy. In doing this it draws....... Some insights are gained into how to achieve more effective communication about soil carbon management, including the need to provide opportunities in projects and research programmes for dialogue to engender better understanding between science and practice....

  16. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Italy is among the countries with the highest litigation rate and those with the highest duration of trials. This article shows that judge turnover contributes negatively to delays in Italian courts and outlines possible policies for improvement. In Italy, judges can voluntarily move from one...... office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...

  17. 2009 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  18. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  19. 7 CFR 900.6 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Proceedings To Formulate Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.6 Judges....

  20. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the...

  1. 2010 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  2. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision.

  3. Different Web Credibility Assessment as a Result of One Year Difference in Education. A Study on the Dimensions of Credibility of Commercial Presentation Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on the hypothesis that one year of study difference between students underlines different evaluations of the dimensions of commercial presentation websites’ credibility. The objectives of this study are: (- highlighting significant differences of credibility dimensions evaluation between second and third year of study students; (- highlighting the dimensions considered to be important by the second year of study students; (- highlighting the dimensions considered to be important by the third year of study students. For presentation commercial Websites, as approached by this study, second year of study students consider “site-user connection” and “information support” as important dimensions; for the same category of Websites, third year of study students consider “ease of use”, “real world feel” and “site-etiquette” as important dimensions.

  4. Credibility battles in the autism litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Anna

    2012-04-01

    That vaccines do not cause autism is now a widely accepted proposition, though a few dissenters remain. An 8-year court process in the US federal vaccine injury compensation court ended in 2010 with rulings that autism was not an adverse reaction to vaccination. There were two sets of trials: one against the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and one against the mercury-based preservative thimerosal. The MMR story is more widely known because of publicity surrounding the main proponent of an MMR-autism link, British doctor Andrew Wakefield, but the story of thimerosal in court is largely untold. This study examines the credibility battles and boundary work in the two cases, illuminating the sustaining world of alternative science that supported the parents, lawyers, researchers, and expert witnesses against vaccines. After the loss in court, the families and their advocates transformed their scientific arguments into an indictment of procedural injustice in the vaccine court. I argue that the very efforts designed to produce legitimacy in this type of lopsided dispute will be counter-mobilized as evidence of injustice, helping us understand why settling a scientific controversy in court does not necessarily mean changing anyone's mind.

  5. IS MISS SYMPATHY A CREDIBLE DEFENDANT ALLEGING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN A TRIAL FOR MURDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that judicial inferencing and judgement-making are subject to biased appraisals. This study assessed the factors reported in the literature associated to the appraisal of criminality in a mock case of a battered woman standing trial for murdering her husband, and who pleaded legitimate self-defence in response to an instance of intimate partner violence. A nationwide sample of 169 police officers from different cities in Spain freely volunteered to participate in the study. Using a mock trial design, the defendant´s prototypicality (prototypical vs. non-prototypical, and physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive were manipulated. Participants were required to assess the criminality (credibility, responsibility, and controllability of a battered woman accused of murdering her husband, and who alleged legitimate self-defence in response to an incident of intimate partner violence. The results showed that a defendant perceived as the prototype of a battered woman was judged as having less or no control of the situation; physical attractiveness increased the perception of the defendant´s responsibility in committing the crime; and an interaction between prototypicality and attractiveness in assigning credibility to the defendant´s testimony. Moreover, hostile sexism mediated the relationship between the defendant´s prototypicality and controllability. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for judicial judgement making in cases of battered women who kill their aggressors.

  6. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  7. The Concept of Credibility (Validity in Television and Internet News Discourse: Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Ružić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reverses the traditional notion of media (television, radio or news papers as a unidirectional agent of communication from producer to receiver to a more appropriate paradigm inwhich information is not embedded with hierarchy. The new media perspective and the appropriation of technology (Internet have changed the nature of information dissemination. One cannot discuss authenticity or credibility in terms of ”telling the truth or lying”. On the contrary, users today can verify information by contrasting traditional media, or by autonomous investigation on the Internet. In this manner, the obtained information is rendered semantically ambiguous. With an approach akin to cultural studies, the authority of the speakers becomes important (unlike today in mainstream television media where a speaker is hidden behind his or her program. New media provides a unique perspective in which the user is always the arbiter of informational usefulness. The crisis that is manifested in traditional media by the lack of subjectivity of the reporter becomes diametrically opposite on the Internet. The all-knowing subject vanishes and gives place to an inter-subjective exchange which deletes hierarchy and the ontology of the ”truth”. A mirror perspective becomes the dominant order, by which one becomes inter-subjective par excellence. Within the present and future of new media, credibility will not be reserved for the ideological mass producers of information, but rather the credibility of the users. By becoming media, users begin to bear the burden of subjective analysis and multivocality.

  8. Staff Judge Advocate Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    19CY Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Jones 235 Long Street Los Angeles, CA 14790-9999 Dear Mr. and Mrs. Jones: I regret the necessity of informing you that your son...be approved. NOTE: This category should be added. It could include such punishments as loss of numbers, lineal position, seniority, reprimand, or

  9. Moderators of Framing Effects on Political Attitudes: Is Source Credibility Worth Investigating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Raluca Buturoiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on indirect (mediated media effects. In particular, we discuss which independent variables might intervene in and moderate the impact of framing effects on public attitudes (namely political trust, both in short-term and medium-term contexts. Among these, we focus on source credibility as a possible moderator of framing effects over time. The purpose of this study was to examine if and how source credibility influences individuals’ political trust. The moderator role of source credibility is analysed according to the exposure to different types of frames (repetitive or competitive at different moments (one week or one month. By means of a framing experiment (N=769 on political topics, we argue that media frames could influence political trust: Source credibility has a marginal influence, which suggests that, with stronger stimulus material (video, as opposed to written press articles, the source could play an important role in the willingness of people to trust political figures in general. Thus, we might argue that the media play a significant role not only in offering information about politics and politicians, but also in altering people’s perceptions about them. On the other hand, time seems to matter, since framing effects are more powerful after competitive media exposures. This study proposes new theoretical insights into framing effects, in the sense that classical theories should be revisited in various cultural or political contexts

  10. Gender, smiling, and witness credibility in actual trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Jacklyn E; Brodsky, Stanley L; Weeter, Kaycee

    2014-01-01

    It has been acknowledged that females exhibit more smiling behaviors than males, but there has been little attention to this gender difference in the courtroom. Although both male and female witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of gender and smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility (as measured by the Witness Credibility Scale) of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials in a mid-sized Southern city. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale. "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including speaking/expressive and listening/receptive smiles. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency for male and female witnesses. However, the presence of smiling was found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Smiling female witnesses were found to be more likeable than smiling male and non-smiling female witnesses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Building credibility in international banking and financial markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2008-01-01

    - The results of the research are intended to bring increased attention to the rhetorical options for managing reputations and their potential effects on corporate credibility discourse. Originality/value - The study demonstrates how dimensions of credibility can be conceptualised at a level relevant both...... appeal forms. A corpus of 74 print adverts was then analysed in order to establish how financial marketers use the appeal forms to strengthen their corporate reputations. The patterns of credibility appeals obtained were then linked to the supporting visuals to provide a fuller picture of the industry...

  12. EVALUATION OF NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA MONETARY POLICY CREDIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the models from the economic literature, the authors study the credibility level of National Bank of Romania (NRB during the time span Mars 2007 – Mars 2008. We will use three types of credibility indexes - two from the economic literature and one proposed by the authors. Also, we will emphasize the impact of unpredictable shocks - the natural calamities (drought which affected the aggregate supply in the summer of 2007 and the depreciation of RON against the euro - on the NBR credibility.

  13. Influence of Source Credibility on Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reasoning mechanism behind the consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods (GMFs in China, and investigates influence of source credibility on consumer acceptance of GMFs. Based on the original Persuasion Model—which was developed by Carl Hovland, an American psychologist and pioneer in the study of communication and its effect on attitudes and beliefs—we conducted a survey using multistage sampling from 1167 urban residents, which were proportionally selected from six cities in three economic regions (south, central, and north in the Jiangsu province through face to face interviews. Mixed-process regression that could correct endogeneity and ordered probit model were used to test the impact of source credibility on consumers’ acceptance of GMFs. Our major finding was that consumer acceptance of GMFs is affected by such factors as information source credibility, general attitudes, gender, and education levels. The reliability of biotechnology research institutes, government offices devoted to management of GM organisms (GMOs, and GMO technological experts have expedited urban consumer acceptance of GM soybean oil. However, public acceptance can also decrease as faith in the environmental organization. We also found that ignorance of the endogeneity of above mentioned source significantly undervalued its effect on consumers’ acceptance. Moreover, the remaining three sources (non-GMO experts, food companies, and anonymous information found on the Internet had almost no effect on consumer acceptance. Surprisingly, the more educated people in our survey were more skeptical towards GMFs. Our results contribute to the behavioral literature on consumer attitudes toward GMFs by developing a reasoning mechanism determining consumer acceptance of GMFs. Particularly, this paper quantitatively studied the influence of different source credibility on consumer acceptance of GMFs by using mixed-process regression to

  14. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  15. Brand emotional credibility: effects of mixed emotions about branded products with varying credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Antonio; Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of mixed emotions on the positioning and on the intention to purchase different categories of branded products (i.e., Attractiveness-products, Expertise-products, and Trustworthiness-products), in relation to their main component of credibility (Ohanian, 1990). On the basis of a focus group (n = 12) aimed to identify the three branded products used as stimuli and a pre-test (n = 240) directed to discover emotions elicited by them, two studies (n = 630; n = 240) were carried out. Positioning and multiple regression analyses showed that positive and negative emotions are positively related with the positioning and the purchase intention of Attractiveness-products, and, respectively, positively and negatively related with those of Trustworthiness-products; whereas negative emotions are negatively associated with those of Expertise-products. Brand Emotional Credibility--i.e., the emotional believability of the brand positioning signals--may help to identify unconscious elements and the simultaneous importance of mixed emotions associated with different products to match consumers' desires and expectations.

  16. Judge upholds jury award over employer's HIV disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    A Federal judge has refused to overturn or reduce a jury's $125,000 award to a Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) employee who said his privacy was invaded when his superiors learned he was taking an AIDS medication. The employee, known as John Doe, charged that Judith Pierce, the chief administrative officer of SEPTA, looked at the records of the agency's prescription drug plan to confirm her suspicions that he had HIV. Pierce, who claimed drug report review was part of her job in controlling costs, contended that she wanted to make sure the plan's new administrator, Rite-Aid Corp., was charging the right prices for prescriptions. The judge agreed with the jury that Pierce went far beyond her role as auditor of the drug plan when she asked Rite-Aid to link individuals' names to specific prescriptions and then informed Doe's supervisor, associate, and another employee about Doe's AIDS medication.

  17. Establishing Credibility in the Multicultural Classroom: When the Instructor Speaks with an Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Chikako Akamatsu

    2007-01-01

    Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)

  18. Smoking Artifacts as Indicators of Homophily, Attraction, and Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mark, III; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study of the influence of smoking artifacts on the perceptions of a source's homophily, interpersonal attraction, and credibility. Significant differences were found based upon the type of smoking artifact used and the sex of the subject. (JMF)

  19. The NHS should take the blame for credibility gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellard, Katherine

    2010-03-03

    Much space is devoted to what is wrong with nurse education (editorial, news, analysis and letters February 17). But the issues of student attrition and the credibility of educators are two old chestnuts that have been knocking around for decades.

  20. Does the Credible Fiscal Policy Support the Prices Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the co-movement between fiscal policy and monetary policy rules in the context of price stabilization. More specifically, we observe the potential impact of fiscal policy credibility on the price stabilization in the inflation targeting framework. Motivated by the fact that empirical studies concerning this aspect are still limited, we take the case of Indonesia over the period 2001-2013. Based on the quarterly data analysis, we found that the impact of credibility typically depends on characteristics of fiscal rules commitment. On one hand, the credibility of debt rule reduces the inflation rate. In contrast, the incredible deficit rule policy does not have any impact on the inflation rate and therefore does not support to inflation targeting. Given those results, we conclude that credibility matters in stabilizing price levels. Accordingly, those findings suggest tightening coordination between monetary and fiscal policy to maintain fiscal sustainability in accordance with price stabilization policy

  1. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the Administrator of the EPA. The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws. Administrative Law Judges preside in enforcement and permit proceedings in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act. Most enforcement actions initiated by the EPA are for the assessment of civil penalties. The Decisions and Orders are organized into three categories: (1) alphabetical listing by the respondent involved, (2) reverse chronological listing by date, and (3) Decisions and Orders under FIFRA Section 6. This dataset includes Decisions and Orders dating back to 1989 in the Reverse Chronological list, Decisions and Orders dating back to 1997 in the Alphabetical list, and a few Decisions and Orders dating back to 1974 under FIFRA Section 6.

  2. Credibility of a salesperson in retailing: judgments on the basis of their demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Urbonavicius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The study aims to add the scientific and managerial knowledge about the fit between buyer and salesperson, by analyzing judgments of buyers about salespeople, based just on visual information. The results of the analysis. Buyers evaluate credibility of salespeople based on a relatively large number of their characteristics, forming factors of salesperson credibility. The result of this evaluation predetermines whether an advice of this person is to be considered, and, subsequently, whether the purchase will be made. The decision whether to ask for an assistance of a salesperson is often made spontaneously, based just on a visual presence of a salesperson. The stereotyping of visual impressions can be limited to the age and genders of a salesperson, and out of these characteristics potential buyers derive believes about personal and professional characteristics of a salesperson, and develop overall judgments regarding the trustfulness of the recommendations. In the study, three research questions have been analyzed: RQ1: How evaluations of salesperson credibility differ, depending on his/her age and gender?; RQ2: What dimensions of salesperson credibility have influenced higher or lower judgments about the overall credibility of salespeople who have different demographic characteristics?; RQ3: How evaluations of credibility of salespeople, who differ in age and gender, vary depending on the age and gender of buyers? Respondents have been shown four pre-tested pictures of salespeople, who differ among themselves in terms of their age and gender. The age categories matched to those of the respondents; two salespeople (male and female represented younger adults, two others – elder adults. The research instrument measured eight dimensions of salesperson credibility: Attractiveness, Experience, Dynamism, Comprehensiveness, Objectiveness, Sincerity, Expertise, and Accommodation on a seven point Likert scale. RQ1. Repeated

  3. Your client credibility: are your pharmacy practices helping or hindering?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, Walter

    2004-01-01

    When recommending a specific pharmaceutical, more has to be taken into account than whether the API is indicated for the illness in question. Based on the preceding discussion, product source can have a tremendous impact on efficacy, on therapeutic success, and on practitioners' credibility in the eyes of their clients. However, product source goes beyond simple credibility, encompassing professional ethics and liability. In answering the Ethical question of the month--December 2001 "Should p...

  4. Public reporting of hospital infection rates: ranking the states on credibility and user friendliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ava; Birnbaum, David W; Black, Bernard; Hyman, David A

    2013-01-01

    Health-care associated infections ("HAIs") kill about 100,000 people annually; most are preventable, but many hospitals have not aggressively addressed the problem. In response, twenty-five states and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services require public reporting of hospital infection rates for at least some types of infections, and other states and private entities are implementing such reporting. The websites and related reports vary widely in ease of access, ease of use, usefulness of information, timeliness of updates, and credibility. We report on work in progress, in which we assess the quality and suitability of different state websites and reports for different target audiences (ordinary consumers; physicians, and infection control professionals) and the extent to which they meet best practices for online communication, including Stanford's "Fogg" Guidelines for Web Credibility and user-friendliness metrics developed by other researchers. We find wide variation in quality, and substantial correlation between measures of website credibility and user-friendliness. We identify ways to improve usability, usefulness, and tailoring for information to different target audiences. Our analysis suggests that the "one website (and report format) fits all users" model may not work well in delivering complex, technical information to users with widely varying needs and sophistication.

  5. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  6. 46 CFR 5.19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 5.19 Section 5.19 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) An Administrative Law Judge... has delegated to Administrative Law Judges the authority to admonish, suspend, with or...

  7. 49 CFR 386.54 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 386.54 Section 386.54... General Rules and Hearings § 386.54 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Powers of an Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge may take any action and may prescribe all necessary rules and...

  8. 28 CFR 68.26 - Designation of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of Administrative Law Judge... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Designation of Administrative Law Judge. Hearings shall be held before an Administrative Law Judge...

  9. 4 CFR 28.23 - Disqualification of administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disqualification of administrative judges. 28.23 Section... of administrative judges. (a) In the event that an administrative judge considers himself or herself... there is a basis for disqualification. (c) The administrative judge shall rule on the withdrawal...

  10. 5 CFR 1201.125 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge. 1201.125... § 1201.125 Administrative law judge. (a) An administrative law judge will hear a disciplinary action... administrative law judge will issue an initial decision on the complaint pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 557. The...

  11. 29 CFR 102.37 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of administrative law judge. 102.37... Hearings § 102.37 Disqualification of administrative law judge. An administrative law judge may withdraw.... If, in the opinion of the administrative law judge, such affidavit is filed with due diligence and...

  12. 29 CFR 101.11 - Administrative law judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision. 101.11 Section 101.11... Administrative law judge's decision. (a) At the conclusion of the hearing the administrative law judge prepares a... administrative law judge may recommend dismissal or sustain the complaint, in whole or in part, and...

  13. 47 CFR 0.341 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 0.341... Delegations of Authority Administrative Law Judges § 0.341 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) After an administrative law judge has been designated to preside at a hearing and until he has issued an initial...

  14. 29 CFR 18.30 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unavailability of administrative law judge. 18.30 Section 18... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.30 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  15. 29 CFR 18.29 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority of administrative law judge. 18.29 Section 18.29... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.29 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part, the administrative law judge shall have all...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1308 - Decision by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision by administrative law judge. 4... Decision by administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall issue a written decision.... (b) If the administrative law judge concludes that the individual is liable for an individual...

  17. 40 CFR 209.18 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge. 209.18... law judge. (a) General. The administrative law judge shall conduct a fair and impartial hearing in... form whenever in the opinion of the administrative law judge oral testimony is not necessary for...

  18. 43 CFR 4.1157 - Determination by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination by administrative law judge... judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall incorporate in his decision concerning the civil penalty.... (b) If the administrative law judge finds that— (1) A violation occurred or that the fact...

  19. 30 CFR 44.20 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of administrative law judge. 44.20... STANDARDS Hearings § 44.20 Designation of administrative law judge. Within 5 days after receipt of a... Judge shall designate an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of Title 5 of the...

  20. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  1. 28 CFR 68.29 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING... FRAUD § 68.29 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge. In the event the Administrative Law Judge... another Administrative Law Judge for the purpose of further hearing or other appropriate action....

  2. 14 CFR 13.205 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges. 13.205 Section... Administrative law judges. (a) Powers of an administrative law judge. In accordance with the rules of this subpart, an administrative law judge may: (1) Give notice of, and hold, prehearing conferences...

  3. 17 CFR 12.305 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. 12.305 Section 12.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) At his own request. An Administrative Law Judge may withdraw from... of a party. Any party may request an Administrative Law Judge to disqualify himself on the grounds...

  4. 29 CFR 18.25 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of administrative law judge. 18.25 Section 18.25... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.25 Designation of administrative law judge. Hearings shall be held before an administrative law judge appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 and assigned to...

  5. 20 CFR 410.635 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. No Administrative Law Judge shall conduct a hearing in a case in... Administrative Law Judge shall consider such objection and shall, in his discretion, either proceed with...

  6. 29 CFR 457.18 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chief Administrative Law Judge. 457.18 Section 457.18 Labor... GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.18 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210....

  7. 22 CFR 1421.9 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Chief Administrative Law Judge. 1421.9 Section... OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.9 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge of the Authority....

  8. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  9. 28 CFR 0.117 - Office of Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Chief Immigration Judge. 0.117... Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.117 Office of Chief Immigration Judge. The Chief Immigration Judge shall provide general supervision to the Immigration Judges in performance of their duties...

  10. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  11. 32 CFR 776.31 - Former judge or arbitrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Former judge or arbitrator. 776.31 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.31 Former judge or arbitrator. (a) Former judge or arbitrator: (1... substantially as a judge or other adjudicative officer, arbitrator, or law clerk to such a person, unless...

  12. Credibility and Authenticity of Digitally Signed Videos in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Grgurević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of insuring the credibilityand authenticity of the surveillance camera video by digitalsigning, using the public key infrastructure as part of interoperabletraffic and information system in the future intelligenttransport systems. The surveillance camera video is a sequenceof individual frames and a unique digital print, i. e. hash valueis calculated for each of these. By encryption of the hash valuesof the frames using private encryption key of the surveillancecentre, digital signatures are created and they are stored in thedatabase. The surveillance centre can issue a copy of the videoto all the interested subjects for scientific and research workand investigation. Regardless of the scope, each subsequentmanipulation of the video copy contents will certainly changethe hash value of all the frames. The procedure of determiningthe authenticity and credibility of videos is reduced to the comparisonof the hash values of the frames stored in the databaseof the surveillance centre with the values obtained from the interestedsubjects such as the traffic experts and investigators,surveillance-security services etc.

  13. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  14. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  15. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  16. Judging the international transfer of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology

  17. 7 CFR 900.55 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... matter as a part of the record and decision in the proceeding, after making such investigation or holding... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.55 Judges....

  18. 7 CFR 1200.7 - Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... matter as a part of the record and decision in the proceeding, after making such investigation or holding... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judge. 1200.7 Section 1200.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  19. Judging The International Transfer Of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology transfe

  20. The 'credibility paradox' in China's science communication: Views from scientific practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to increasing debates on China's rising status as a global scientific power, issues of China's science communication remain under-explored. Based on 21 in-depth interviews in three cities, this article examines Chinese scientists' accounts of the entangled web of influence which conditions the process of how scientific knowledge achieves (or fails to achieve) its civic authority. A main finding of this study is a 'credibility paradox' as a result of the over-politicisation of science and science communication in China. Respondents report that an absence of visible institutional endorsements renders them more public credibility and better communication outcomes. Thus, instead of exploiting formal channels of science communication, scientists interviewed were more keen to act as 'informal risk communicators' in grassroots and private events. Chinese scientists' perspectives on how to earn public support of their research sheds light on the nature and impact of a 'civic epistemology' in an authoritarian state.

  1. Credibility Assessment of Deterministic Computational Models and Simulations for Space Biomedical Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Human missions beyond low earth orbit to destinations, such as to Mars and asteroids will expose astronauts to novel operational conditions that may pose health risks that are currently not well understood and perhaps unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of health risk countermeasures for these missions. Consequently, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working to develop and implement computational models and simulations (M&S) to help predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. In order to effectively accomplish these goals, the DAP evaluates its models and simulations via a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment process to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to both inform research intended to mitigate potential risk as well as guide countermeasure development. In doing so, DAP works closely with end-users, such as space life science researchers, to establish appropriate M&S credibility thresholds. We will present and demonstrate the process the DAP uses to vet computational M&S for space biomedical analysis using real M&S examples. We will also provide recommendations on how the larger space biomedical community can employ these concepts to enhance the credibility of their M&S codes.

  2. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed.

  3. 8 CFR 1003.42 - Review of credible fear determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... asylum pursuant to a bilateral or multilateral agreement (the Agreement) under section 208(a)(2)(A) of... the Service. (h) Safe third country agreement—(1) Arriving alien. An immigration judge has no... officer has found that an arriving alien qualifies for an exception to the Agreement, an immigration judge...

  4. Credibility Assessments as 'Normative Leakage': Asylum Applications, Gender and Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Wikström

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that credibility assessments function as 'normative leakage' within the asylum process, we analyse how narratives of gender and class are articulated, rendered meaningful, or silenced in credibility assessments. Two cases concerning male applicants are selected in order to illustrate these processes. In relation to the existing concepts of internal/external credibility, we wish to introduce the concept of social credibility, which focuses on how the assessors read different socio-cultural narratives. While previous research has shown that the postcolonial will to protect women favours women as victims of patriarchal cultures, we wish to point out the continuity of this line of argumentation in relation to male and female applicants by adopting a theoretical generalization: male applicants instead become situated at the other end of the spectrum of postcolonial notions of modernity as non-victims, victims of other circumstances or perpetrators. We argue that these processes are accentuated in relation to credibility assessments. In order to prevent processes of social exclusion and to enhance inclusive practice, authorities need to acknowledge the 'normative leakage' associated with the assessment process.

  5. The non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: is it better at predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance than the RAVLT recognition score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Davis, Jeremy J

    2015-03-01

    The ability of both the non-credible score of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT NC) and the recognition score of the RAVLT (RAVLT Recog) to predict credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance was examined. Credible versus non-credible group membership was determined according to diagnostic criteria with consideration of performance on two stand-alone performance validity tests. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen for neuropsychological testing within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 175) showed that RAVLT Recog demonstrated better classification accuracy than RAVLT NC in predicting credible versus non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Specifically, an RAVLT Recog cutoff of ≤9 resulted in reasonable sensitivity (48%) and acceptable specificity (91%) in predicting non-credible neuropsychological test performance. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Note: The views contained here within are those of the authors and not representative of the institutions with which they are associated.

  6. Assessing Perceived Credibility of Web Sites in a Terrorism Context: The PFLP, Tamil Tigers, Hamas, and Hezbollah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Brandon Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to contribute to the overall understanding of terrorist organizations' use of the Internet and to increase researchers' knowledge of Web site effectiveness. The methodological approach was evaluation of the perceived credibility of Web sites based on existing criteria derived from information users. The Web sites of…

  7. Practical Skills of Rhythmic Gymnastics Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villarino, Maria A.; Bobo-Arce, Marta; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the practical skills of rhythmic gymnastics judges and to identify how their degree and experience influence the assessment of these skills. Sixty one rhythmic gymnastics judges participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This tool was composed of 28 questions and divided into six categories: identification, experience, initial training, continuing education, skills and training needs. The results suggest that the most valued skills are those related to the sport’s technical parameters and the ability to adapt to any level of competition with self-confidence and self-assuredness. Significant differences were found regarding the variables for: the ability to communicate (p = 0.002) and for the ability to observe, identify and register performance (p = 0.005). The results showed that experience was not a decisive factor in assessing skills. This study thus presents evidence that rhythmic gymnastics judges must implement and optimise a set of skills that contribute to the effectiveness of the assessment process. These findings might help in the design of programs and training models that contribute to effective professional development. PMID:24511360

  8. Wavelet Analysis for Investigation of Precise Gnss Solutions' Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Klos, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the results of searching short-term oscillations of the ASG network sites using wavelet transform. Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-EUPOS) is the multifunctional precise satellite positioning system established by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in 2008. The adjusted network consisted of over 130 stations from Poland and neighbouring countries. The period covered observations gathered from June 2008 to July 2010. The method of processing elaborated in the CAG (Centre of Applied Geomatics, Warsaw Military University of Technology), which is one of the 17 EPN LAC (EUREF Permanent Network Local Analysis Centre) acting now in Europe, established at the end of 2009, is similar with the official one used in EPN. It is based on the Bernese 5.0 software, but the difference to the EPN's solutions lies in the resolution of resulting coordinates. In the presented research the 1-hour sampling rate with 3-hour windowing (66% of correlation) is applied. This allows us to make the interpretations concerning short period information in GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) coordinates series. Analyses using FFT and least squares (tidal) gave very coherent results and confirmed several millimetres diurnal and sub-diurnal oscillations. Wavelet analysis is aimed at the investigation of credibility of the precise GNSS solutions in terms of changes of the amplitude of oscillations in time. As a result of this study the changes in the amplitude of oscillations at diurnal and sub-diurnal frequency bands were obtained. These could be caused by the artificial modulations of the near-by frequencies, but also some geophysical signals could be clearly distinguished. Additionally the comparison of Continuous Wavelet Transforms of near stations (three pairs from ASG-EUPOS network) was performed. This comparison showed different behaviour of oscillations of residual coordinates, mainly due to the different thermal response or artefacts related to the

  9. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  10. "Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed

  11. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  12. Conquering Credibility for Monetary Policy Under Sticky Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylson Jair da Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We derive a best-reply monetary policy when the confidence by price setters on the monetary authority’s commitment to price level targeting may be both incomplete and sticky. We find that complete confidence (or full credibility is not a necessary condition for the achievement of a price level target even when heterogeneity in firms’ price level expectations is endogenously time-varying and may emerge as a long-run equilibrium outcome. In fact, in the absence of exogenous perturbations to the dynamic of confidence building, it is the achievement of a price level target for long enough that, due to stickiness in the state of confidence, rather ensures the conquering of full credibility. This result has relevant implications for the conduct of monetary policy in pursuit of price stability. One implication is that setting a price level target matters more as a means to provide monetary policy with a sharper focus on price stability than as a device to conquer credibility. As regards the conquering of credibility for monetary policy, it turns out that actions speak louder than words, as the continuing achievement of price stability is what ultimately performs better as a confidence-building device.

  13. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  14. CREDIBILITY AND TRANSPARENCY - SOURCES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorzsak Magdalena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that the monetary policy credibility and transparency represent two powerful sources for the improvement of macroeconomic performances. In order to achieve this goal, the authors adapted the methodology developed by Kr

  15. Building credibility in international banking and financial markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2008-01-01

    to practitioners and to academic writing courses. Additionally, our application of the credibility appeals disconfirms the expectation that financial services providers are increasingly branding themselves to the market on the basis of their character and concern for customers' well-being....

  16. Testing Public Anxiety Treatments against a Credible Placebo Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Desiree C.; Levine, Timothy R.; Beatty, Michael J.; Woolbright, Jessica; Park, Hee Sun

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating public speaking anxiety treatments is subject to demand effects. This study tests the relative effectiveness of systematic desensitization (SD) and multiple treatment method (MT) containing visualization therapy against no-treatment and credible placebo controls. Data (N = 238) were collected at six points in a public…

  17. Recent Efforts for Credible CFD Simulations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some recent efforts for credible computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations in China are reviewed. The most important effort is that, following similar activities in the West such as ECARP and AIAA Drag Prediction Workshops, a series of workshops on credible CFD simulations had been initiated. These workshops were with ambitions to assess the status of CFD in China. Another major effort is an ongoing project to establish a software platform for studying the credibility of CFD solvers and performing credible CFD simulations. The platform, named WiseCFD, was designed to implement a seamless CFD process and to circumvent tedious repeating manual operations. It had also been a powerful job manager for CFD with capabilities to support plug and play (PnP solver integration as well as distributed or parallel computations. Some future work on WiseCFD was proposed, and also envisioned was how WiseCFD and the European QNET-CFD Knowledge Base can benefit mutually.

  18. An experimental study of credible deviations and ACDC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot Ruiz, A.; Offerman, T.; Onderstal, S.

    2011-01-01

    We test the Average Credible Deviation Criterion (ACDC), a stability measure and refinement for cheap talk equilibria introduced in De Groot Ruiz, Offerman & Onderstal (2011b). ACDC has been shown to be predictive under general conditions and to organize data well in previous experiments meant to te

  19. Perceptions of credibility of sexual abuse victims across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David; Mellor, David

    2016-01-01

    The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, "baby boomers", and "builders". One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  1. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  2. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  3. Organics, trust, and credibility: a management and media research perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Rittenhofer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to qualify the relations between trust, credibility, and the field of organics by way of creating a dialogue between two independent Organic Research, Development and Demonstration Programme "MultiTrust" subprojects. Both projects explore the explanatory value of trust and credibility for the success of organic labels in the fields of management research and media research. Our key objectives were to critically scrutinize the trust and credibility constructs applied in each of these two fields, to reflect on their explanatory value in the performance of organics from both a management and media perspective, and to set out an agenda for future interdisciplinary research. We conclude that relations between organic products, labels, and consumers are still poorly understood, that the belief in organic labels' direct impact on consumer choices in favor of organic food purchase cannot be supported, and that the explanatory value of trust for the success of organic production remains unproven. We propose for future research to investigate the relevance of credibility and trust for organics in multidisciplinary mixed-methods studies that focus on the emergence of trust, as well as on other social factors impacting the success of organic production. This would best be achieved through interdisciplinary work.

  4. Credibility of institutions : Forestry, social conflict and titling in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Petrus

    2006-01-01

    In the reform of a forestry sector governed by centralist, socialist principles towards a sector suited to the challenges of the market economy, the Chinese government needs to establish institutions that can be perceived as credible by social actors. In other words, the creation of institutions

  5. The Consumer as 'Voter', 'Judge' and 'Jury'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . It was, however, the development of market research methods during the 1930s and 1940s, which provided the crucial backdrop for the sudden rise to prominence of an idea that assumes that consumers dictate what is produced through their ‘‘votes,’’ that is, daily choices. Innovations in the measurement...... of consumer preferences, such as consumer juries, panel surveys, and the program analyzer technique, provided the final touch of scientific credibility to this idea. An understanding of the historical origins and political—philosophical implications of the equation of consumer markets and democracies......This article discusses the origins of the idea that a consumer’s choice is equivalent to a citizen’s vote or a juror’s verdict and that markets therefore resemble the political process of a democracy. The idea of the consumer as sovereign driver of the marketplace emerged during the enlightenment...

  6. How to Develop and Interpret a Credibility Assessment of Numerical Models for Human Research: NASA-STD-7009 Demystified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Myers, Jerry G.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Columbia accident, the NASA-STD-7009 [1] credibility assessment was developed as a unifying platform to describe model credibility and the uncertainties in its modeling predictions. This standard is now being adapted by NASAs Human Research Program to cover a wide range of numerical models for human research. When used properly, the standard can improve the process of code development by encouraging the use of best practices. It can also give management more insight in making informed decisions through a better understanding of the models capabilities and limitations.To a newcomer, the abstractions presented in NASA-STD-7009 and the sheer volume of information that must be absorbed can be overwhelming. This talk is aimed at describing the credibility assessment, which is the heart of the standard, in plain terms. It will outline how to develop a credibility assessment under the standard. It will also show how to quickly interpret the graphs and tables that result from the assessment and how to drill down from the top-level view to the foundation of the assessment. Finally, it will highlight some of the resources that are available for further study.

  7. TweetCred: A Real-time Web-based System for Assessing Credibility of Content on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Aditi; Castillo, Carlos; Meier, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    During large scale events, a large volume of content is posted on Twitter, but not all of this content is trustworthy. The presence of spam, advertisements, rumors and fake images reduces the value of information collected from Twitter, especially during sudden-onset crisis events where information from other sources is scarce. In this research work, we describe various facets of assessing the credibility of user-generated content on Twitter during large scale events, and develop a novel real-time system to assess the credibility of tweets. Firstly, we develop a semi-supervised ranking model using SVM-rank for assessing credibility, based on training data obtained from six high-impact crisis events of 2013. An extensive set of forty-five features is used to determine the credibility score for each of the tweets. Secondly, we develop and deploy a system--TweetCred--in the form of a browser extension, a web application and an API at the link: http://twitdigest.iiitd.edu.in/TweetCred/. To the best of our knowled...

  8. 29 CFR 501.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 501.37 Section 501.37... to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed pursuant to and... shall be filed of record in the Office of the Chief Administrative Law Judge and shall, respectively,...

  9. 31 CFR 501.740 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.740 Decision of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare a decision that constitutes his or her final disposition of...

  10. 31 CFR 15.737-19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 15.737-19... CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105 (1966), shall...

  11. 29 CFR 502.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37... § 502.37 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  12. 31 CFR 8.62 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 8.62... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.62 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105, shall conduct...

  13. 14 CFR 302.607 - Decision by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by administrative law judge. 302... Proceedings Concerning Airport Fees § 302.607 Decision by administrative law judge. The administrative law judge shall issue a decision recommending a disposition of a complaint or request for...

  14. 31 CFR 501.736 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.736 Authority of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall have authority to do all things necessary and appropriate to discharge his or...

  15. 43 CFR 4.439 - Action by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action by administrative law judge. 4.439... Involving Questions of Fact § 4.439 Action by administrative law judge. Upon completion of the hearing and the incorporation of the summary or transcript in the record, the administrative law judge will...

  16. 17 CFR 200.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization § 200.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551-559) and the federal securities laws, the Office of Administrative Law Judges conducts hearings in proceedings instituted by the Commission. The Administrative Law Judges are responsible for the fair...

  17. 20 CFR 655.1035 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655... Attestations Filed by Employers Utilizing F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.1035 Administrative law judge....1020 of this part, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly appoint an administrative...

  18. 10 CFR 706.12 - Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judges. 706.12 Section 706.12 Energy... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.12 Administrative Law Judges. By agreement with the National Labor Relations Board, a panel of cleared NLRB administrative law judges...

  19. 29 CFR 500.224 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 500.224 Section 500... Hearing § 500.224 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  20. 43 CFR 4.1121 - Powers of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powers of administrative law judges. 4... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1121 Powers of administrative law judges. (a) Under the regulations of this part, an administrative law judge may— (1) Administer oaths and affirmations; (2) Issue subpoenas; (3) Issue...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1204 - Determination by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination by administrative law judge... administrative law judge. Upon a finding of a violation of section 703 of the act or 30 CFR 865.11, the administrative law judge shall order the appropriate affirmative relief, including but not limited to— (a)...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1122 - Conduct of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of administrative law judges. 4.1122 Section 4.1122 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1122 Conduct of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall adhere...

  3. 29 CFR 801.63 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 801.63 Section 801.63... § 801.63 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  4. 46 CFR 502.223 - Decisions-Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decisions-Administrative law judges. 502.223 Section 502... PROCEDURE Briefs; Requests for Findings; Decisions; Exceptions § 502.223 Decisions—Administrative law judges. To the administrative law judges is delegated the authority to make and serve initial or...

  5. 29 CFR 458.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 458.70 Section 458.70 Labor... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.70 Administrative Law Judge. Each enforcement proceeding instituted pursuant to this part shall be conducted before an Administrative Law Judge...

  6. 29 CFR 1603.202 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge. 1603.202 Section 1603.202 Labor... THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.202 Administrative law judge. The administrative law judge shall have all the powers necessary to conduct fair, expeditious, and impartial...

  7. 20 CFR 655.645 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655.645... Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.645 Administrative law judge proceedings... of this part, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly appoint an administrative law...

  8. 28 CFR 68.28 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge. 68... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Authority of Administrative Law Judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part,...

  9. 31 CFR 10.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 10.70... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.70 Administrative Law Judge. (a..., firm or other entity, or appraiser will be conducted by an Administrative Law Judge appointed...

  10. 78 FR 52389 - Hearing Officer and Administrative Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... 1992-AA36 Hearing Officer and Administrative Judge AGENCY: Office of Hearings and Appeals, Department... nuclear material by replacing the term ``Hearing Officer'' with ``Administrative Judge.'' DATES: This rule... clearance and in other areas, are commonly referred to as ``Administrative Judges.'' To accurately...

  11. 14 CFR 302.17 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges. 302.17 Section... Evidentiary Hearing Proceedings § 302.17 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers and delegation of authority. (1) An administrative law judge shall have the following powers, in addition to any others specified...

  12. 43 CFR 4.474 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4... (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.474 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge is vested with the duty and general authority to conduct the hearing in an...

  13. 34 CFR 76.901 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 76.901 Section 76... Procedures Does the Secretary Use To Get Compliance? § 76.901 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The Office of Administrative Law Judges, established under Part E of GEPA, has the following functions:...

  14. 22 CFR 1423.20 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges... RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.20 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  15. 29 CFR 6.6 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative Law Judge. 6.6 Section 6.6 Labor Office of... Administrative Law Judge. (a) Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the... provisions of this part 6, Administrative Law Judges shall have no power or authority to award attorney...

  16. 29 CFR 530.404 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 530.404 Section 530... Administrative Law Judge. Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing, the request and a copy of the notice of... Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  17. 31 CFR 8.68 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. As soon as practicable after the conclusion of a hearing and the receipt of any proposed findings and conclusions timely submitted by the parties, the Administrative Law Judge shall...

  18. 20 CFR 410.634 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 410.634 Section 410... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.634 Administrative Law Judge. The... appropriate case, the Deputy Commissioner may designate another Administrative Law Judge or a member...

  19. 20 CFR 655.435 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655.435... accordance with § 655.420, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall appoint an administrative law judge to hear the case. (b) Within 7 days following the assignment of the case, the administrative law...

  20. 24 CFR 17.153 - Determination of the Administrative Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Determination of the Administrative Judge. (a) Following the hearing or the review of the record, the Administrative Judge shall issue a written decision which includes the supporting rationale for the decision. The decision of the Administrative Judge concerning whether a debt or part of a debt is past-due and...

  1. 24 CFR 1720.145 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judge. (a) When an administrative law judge feels disqualified from presiding in a particular proceeding, the administrative law judge shall withdraw therefrom by notice on the record and shall notify the Secretary of such withdrawal. (b) Whenever any party believes that the administrative law...

  2. 31 CFR 10.76 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. (a) In general—(1) Hearings. Within 180 days after the conclusion of a hearing and the... adjudication. In the event that a motion for summary adjudication is filed, the Administrative Law Judge...

  3. 29 CFR 580.10 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 580.10 Section 580.10... Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely exception to a determination of... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. A copy of...

  4. 5 CFR 2421.10 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chief Administrative Law Judge. 2421.10 Section 2421.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.10 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief...

  5. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating scale…

  6. 29 CFR 18.605 - Competency of judge as witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competency of judge as witness. 18.605 Section 18.605 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.605 Competency of judge as...

  7. Science in public communication, culture, and credibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Does the general public need to understand science? And if so, is it scientists' responsibility to communicate? Critics have argued that, despite the huge strides made in technology, we live in a "scientifically illiterate" society--one that thinks about the world and makes important decisions without taking scientific knowledge into account. But is the solution to this "illiteracy" to deluge the layman with scientific information? Or does science news need to be focused around specific issues and organized into stories that are meaningful and relevant to people's lives? In this unprecedented, comprehensive look at a new field, Jane Gregory and Steve Miller point the way to a more effective public understanding of science in the years ahead.

  8. Credible Intervals for Precision and Recall Based on a K-Fold Cross-Validated Beta Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong

    2016-08-01

    In typical machine learning applications such as information retrieval, precision and recall are two commonly used measures for assessing an algorithm's performance. Symmetrical confidence intervals based on K-fold cross-validated t distributions are widely used for the inference of precision and recall measures. As we confirmed through simulated experiments, however, these confidence intervals often exhibit lower degrees of confidence, which may easily lead to liberal inference results. Thus, it is crucial to construct faithful confidence (credible) intervals for precision and recall with a high degree of confidence and a short interval length. In this study, we propose two posterior credible intervals for precision and recall based on K-fold cross-validated beta distributions. The first credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the beta posterior distribution inferred by all K data sets corresponding to K confusion matrices from a K-fold cross-validation. Second, considering that each data set corresponding to a confusion matrix from a K-fold cross-validation can be used to infer a beta posterior distribution of precision (or recall), the second proposed credible interval for precision (or recall) is constructed based on the average of K beta posterior distributions. Experimental results on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that the first credible interval proposed in this study almost always resulted in degrees of confidence greater than 95%. With an acceptable degree of confidence, both of our two proposed credible intervals have shorter interval lengths than those based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution. Meanwhile, the average ranks of these two credible intervals are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the degree of confidence and are superior to that of the confidence interval based on a corrected K-fold cross-validated t distribution for the

  9. Disciplinary Responsibility Of Judges And Judicial Employees In England And Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury M. Filippov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the topical issues of the judges and judicial employees’ disciplinary responsibility in England and Wales after the adoption of the Constitutional Reform Act and creation of the new disciplinary bodies. Present article contains a short analysis of the mechanism of professional and ethical standards among judges and magistrates of England and Wales maintenance, possible conflict of interests settlement and questions of conduct in the need of disciplinary trial. Author consider features of the lord powers - chancellor in the questions of bringing judges and magistrates to the disciplinary responsibility, interaction of the Lord Chancellor with the Lord - Supreme Judge and the Ministry of Justice in the questions of the disciplinary investigations organization and conduct. At the same time author considers an aspect that responsibility before the civil society has an informal character and doesn't assume carrying out any trial. At the same time possibility of judge's and court's employees behavior discussion by public organizations and associations and also in press is a usual practice. In the conclusion author notes that to the number of features of English model of the disciplinary responsibility of judges and judicial employees it is necessary to include active participation of public authorities in the process of trial on the complaints in regard to actions of judges and judicial employees (Ministry of Justice is authorized to conduct such trials, the dual legal nature of such decision on the complaint which is taken out not only on behalf of the judicial community, but also a name of the Lord Chancellor appointed by the Parliament, general procedure of the judge's and worker's of courts, and also coroners accountability.

  10. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurentiu DUMBRAVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  11. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurenţiu DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  12. DOES A DIFFERENT YEAR OF STUDY MEANS DIFFERENT IMPORTANT CREDIBILITY DIMENSIONS? A STUDY ON THE DIMENSIONS OF CREDIBILITY OF ONLINE SALES WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Web sites credibility is an important e-marketing issue that influences consumer behavior and buying intention. Two sub-samples were investigated in this study. The purpose of study is to identify differences in perception of the two sub-samples on dimensions of credibility of online sales Website. The aims are: (1 to identify dimensions significantly differently evaluated by the two categories of respondents; (2 to identify important dimensions from the perspective of one of the groups; (3 to identify important dimensions from the other group’s perspective. While students in second year of study (the first sub-sample consider five dimensions to be important (detailed information, relationship – communication, expertise, framing adverts and personal experience, third year of study students (the second sub-sample put a special emphasis on two dimensions (real world feel and expertise. We notice that both categories of students consider the dimension of expertise to be important. Different year of study means different professional experience due to certain courses.

  13. Investigating electronic word-of-mouth effects on online discussion forums: the role of perceived positive electronic word-of-mouth review credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Wang, Kai-Yu; Hsu, Li-Chun; Huang, Su-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been an important factor influencing consumer purchase decisions. Using the ABC model of attitude, this study proposes a model to explain how eWOM affects online discussion forums. Specifically, we propose that platform (Web site reputation and source credibility) and customer (obtaining buying-related information and social orientation through information) factors influence purchase intentions via perceived positive eWOM review credibility, as well as product and Web site attitudes in an online community context. A total of 353 online discussion forum users in an online community (Fashion Guide) in Taiwan were recruited, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that Web site reputation, source credibility, obtaining buying-related information, and social orientation through information positively influence perceived positive eWOM review credibility. In turn, perceived positive eWOM review credibility directly influences purchase intentions and also indirectly influences purchase intentions via product and Web site attitudes. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

  14. Judging the Judges: An Analysis of Ballots in Impromptu and Extemporaneous Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn-Mills, Daniel; Croucher, Stephen M.

    The goal of forensics is to teach students the complexity and impact of communication on the human condition. The ballot is the key to the educational process within the competitive realm of forensics. The judge is both an adjudicator and a teacher within each round, and, therefore, ballots should provide students with comments indicating reasons…

  15. On the complexity of traffic judges' decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional judges in traffic courts sentence many hundreds of offenders per year. Using 639 case files from archives, we compared the Matching Heuristic (MH to compensatory, weighing algorithms (WM. We modeled and cross validated the models on different subsets of the data, and took several other methodological precautions such as allowing each model to select the optimal number of variables and ordering and weighing the variables in accordance to different logics. We did not reproduce the finding by Dhami (2003, who found the MH to be superior to a compensatory algorithm in modeling bail-granting decisions. These simulations brought out the inner logic of the two family of models, showing what combination of parameters works best. It remains remarkable that using only a fraction of the variables and combining them non-compensatorily, MH obtained nearly as good a fit as the weighing method.

  16. Federal Reserve Credibility and the Term Structure of Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lakdawala, Aeimit; Wu, Shu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how the degree of central bank credibility influences the level, slope and curvature of the term structure of interest rates. In an estimated structural model, we find that historical yield curve data are best matched by the Federal Reserve conducting policy in a loose commitment framework, rather than the commonly used discretion and full commitment assumptions. The structural impulse responses indicate that the past history of realized shocks play a crucial role in d...

  17. Image Credibility Analysis with Effective Domain Transferred Deep Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhiwei; Cao, Juan; Luo, Jiebo; Zhang, Yongdong

    2016-01-01

    Numerous fake images spread on social media today and can severely jeopardize the credibility of online content to public. In this paper, we employ deep networks to learn distinct fake image related features. In contrast to authentic images, fake images tend to be eye-catching and visually striking. Compared with traditional visual recognition tasks, it is extremely challenging to understand these psychologically triggered visual patterns in fake images. Traditional general image classificati...

  18. Credibility - an Honest Claim in the Current Romanian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Negrea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analysed a series of discursive processes used by some Romanian journalists to give credibility to their texts. As a case study we chose the most visited news portal in Romania since the parliamentary elections in 2012. We analysed the few hundred materials written on this temp and managed to establish a writing grid so as to raise the level of reliability of the data.

  19. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray.

  20. 8 CFR 208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credible fear determinations involving... REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND WITHHOLDING OF REMOVAL Credible Fear of Persecution § 208.30 Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible pursuant to...

  1. 8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credible fear determinations involving..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND WITHHOLDING OF REMOVAL Credible Fear of Persecution § 1208.30 Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for...

  2. An analysis of possible applications of fuzzy set theory to the actuarial credibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Waldemar

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we review the basic concepts of actuarial credibility theory from the point of view of introducing applications of the fuzzy set-theoretic method. We show how the concept of actuarial credibility can be modeled through the fuzzy set membership functions and how fuzzy set methods, especially fuzzy pattern recognition, can provide an alternative tool for estimating credibility.

  3. Construction of Quality Security and Credibility Mechanism for Chinese Food Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; LI

    2014-01-01

    Credibility deficiency of food enterprises is a major threat for food security in China. Analysis of causes for the credibility deficiency of Chinese food enterprises,and construction of an effective quality security and credibility mechanism are not only the key to constructing a long-term supervision mechanism for food security,but also the important guarantee for coordinating social and economic development.

  4. Credibility of Deterrence Threats- A Social Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sheikh

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the prevailing ambiguities, impressionistic beliefs and perhaps distortions that shroud the contemporary deterrence theory and the various strategies of deterrence associated with it, this paper attempts to break fresh grounds, particularly in the area of threat credibility. By focusing the level of analysis somewhere between the individual personality and social structures and thus using a social psychological approach, it attempts to explain the behaviour (as related to the credibility of deterrence threats of national decision-makers, during acute international crises. After analyzing and re-evaluating the relevant literature in the field, the paper presents a functional model of threat perception involving two opponents. The model takes into account such variables as: (1 basic human needs; (2 role of reference groups; (3credibility and specificity of international threats; (4 leaders intentions and predispositions; and (5 self-perception of threats. The major conclusions of the paper are: (1 no communicative means for influencing human behaviour are uniformally effective because of the problem of distortion of perception; evidence suggests in most cases rationality under high fear is impaired because fear tends to reduce the range of clues which are available for the consideration of the threatened party.

  5. Credibility assessment of testimonies provided by victims with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. MANZANERO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obstacles in the way of access to justice for the victims with intellectual disability comes from the stereotypes referred to their ability to produce a statement at police legal procedures, with the consequence that some consider their statements less reliable than the rest of the victims, and others considerate their statements more reliable given their inability to create complex lies. This article reviews three of the most recent studies done by the UCM group of Psychology of Testimony, with the objective of analyzing the role of experience and intuition in the evaluation of credibility in people with intellectual disability (ID, and also it aims to prove whether the credibility analysis procedures such as Reality Monitoring (RM and Statement Validity Assessment (SVA would be valid procedures to discriminate between real and false statements within these collectives. From the results of these studies, it can be deducted that experience may not seem to be enough in order to discriminate between real and simulated victims, but analyzing the characteristics of the statements as the only indicator doesn’t seem to be enough either. As an alternative, the general procedure HELPT is proposed for the evaluation of credibility of people with ID.

  6. Country's Image as Judged by International Indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    which results to a country's perception by outsiders such as foreign investors, donor .... Control of corruption index is closely related with the quality of the ... and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such.

  7. Formulated Evaluation of M&S Credibility%M&S可信度的形式化评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王石; 张跃东; 曲庆军; 戴金海

    2011-01-01

    Credibility evaluation of modeling & simulation is the key of VV&A, and it is crucial to using information efficiently provided by VV&A activities for promoting the accuracy of simulation credibility. In this paper, the accuracy of simulation credibility was studied from formulated evaluation. Firstly, the paper described the definition of simulation credibility. Secondly, from subject probability opinion, the formulated definition of credibility of M&S was formulated from the followings: generalization of the probability concept, conditional independence, hierarchy and consistency with the similarity law. Finally, based on the hierarchy structure of models and M&S lifecycle, the paper discussed the applications of formulated evaluation of simulation credibility. Through discussion and analyses, it shows that the formulated evaluation definition of simulation credibility is operable and correct. The method proposed by this paper considers M&S lifecycle evaluation compared with traditional evaluation methods.%针对仿真可信度评估是VV&A的核心内容,为了有效的利用VV&A活动的有关信息,提高可信度的准确性和可操作性,提出根据形式化评估来提高可信度的准确性和可操作性.首先对仿真可信度的概念进行了描述,然后从主观概率的观点出发,指出了M&S可信度的形式化的概念——概率概念的某种推广、具有条件独立性、层次性以及与相似性原理的一致性.最后结合模型层次性结构和M&S开发生命周期,论证了可信度形式化概念的具体应用.通过分析和论证,表明了M&S可信度形式化评估的可操作性和准确性.和传统的方法相比,新提出的评估方法考虑了M&S全生命周期的评估,为仿真模型可信度评估提供了正确方法.

  8. Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate Generals Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    leadership networks may be formal or informal in nature, but share the trait that all of the nodes of the network create products or perform services ...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate General’s Corps SSG Kenneth Conklin and SSG

  9. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  10. Let’s Talk About Same Sex: How Social Workers Can Make Judges Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Boys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have created a diverse toolbox of literature reporting that same sex cohabitating relationships are strikingly similar to heterosexual marriages in amicus curiae briefs submitted to the courts. However, judges are trained to fit information into legal frameworks and to ignore data that does not fit the rhetoric of a case. The following article aims to fit existing data on same sex relationships into the framework judges will use to decide whether same sex marriage can be prohibited. The primary precedent used to support same sex marriage is based on the analogy of a case prohibiting marriage discrimination based on race. The legal framework created by this case requires social work policy practitioners to frame research in terms of the evolution that has occurred in scientific understanding of same sex attraction and public opinion. A simple shift in the discourse used to frame the data can significantly impact whether judges listen.

  11. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  12. Judge-Jury Interaction in Deliberation: Enhancement or Obstruction of Independent Jury Decision-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyup Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean jury system, jurors deliberate without interference of anyone, except when they cannot reach a unanimous verdict, in which case they must hear the judge’s opinion. If jurors convict the defendant, they also deliberate with the judge on sentencing and provide their opinions. This unique feature of the Korean jury system provides rare opportunities to examine the interaction of the lay people and judges in deliberation. Through direct observation and the content analysis of the shadow jury deliberations on actual cases in Korea, we will examine whether the judge’s intervention was helpful in jury decision-making or hampers the independent judgment of the jury. The result shows the collaborative deliberation amongst jurors and judges in sentencing, and in some cases in conviction, will mutually benefit both. In turn, jurors will retain the credibility of the judiciary while the judges will reflect upon their decisions in accordance with the legal consciousness of the lay people. En el sistema de jurados de Corea, los miembros del jurado deliberan sin interferencia de nadie, excepto cuando no pueden llegar a un veredicto unánime, en cuyo caso deben escuchar la opinión del juez. Si los miembros del jurado condenan al acusado, también deliberan con el juez a la hora de dictar sentencia y expresan sus opiniones. Esta característica única del sistema de jurados de Corea ofrece pocas oportunidades para examinar la interacción del jurado popular y los jueces durante su deliberación. A través de la observación directa y el análisis del contenido de las deliberaciones del jurado en la sombra sobre casos reales en Corea, se analizará si la intervención del juez fue útil en la toma de decisiones del jurado o dificulta su independencia de criterio. El resultado demuestra que la deliberación entre los miembros del jurado y los jueces a la hora de dictar sentencia, y en algunos casos al declarar culpable al acusado, beneficia a

  13. Influencing Factors of Credibility of Internet Word-of-Mouth%网络口碑可信度的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学君

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing the credibility of Internet word-of-mouth(IWOM) from four dimensions,namely source credibility,channel credibility,information credibility and receiver features,and constructs the model of influencing factor of IWOM credibility.The result indicates as follows:the credibility of IWOM is affected by sender's professional,website's authority,website's loyalty,website's type,vendor's credibility,IWOM's type,IWOM's direction,receiver's trust propensity and receiver's product involvement significantly,and is not affected by relation intensity and IWOM's length.%从来源可信度、渠道可信度、信息可信度以及接收者特征4个维度构建了网络口碑可信度影响因素模型。实证研究结果表明:评论者专业性、网站权威性、网站忠诚度、网站类型、商家信誉度、口碑类型、口碑方向、接收者的信任倾向、接收者的产品涉入程度以及接收者的专业性均显著影响消费者的网络口碑可信度,但关系强度及口碑信息长度对网络口碑可信度无显著影响。

  14. Facebook versus Twitter: Which one is more credible in a South African context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Viljoen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies conducted have shown that half of the South African population uses either or both Facebook and Twitter social networking sites for social satisfaction and for the evaluation of products and purchase decisions. This is a direct result of the continuous technological advancements worldwide and the permeative nature of social media.Objective: The focus of this study is to evaluate the credibility of Facebook and Twitter messages while establishing which of the mediums is perceived as more believable by consumers. The results of this research direct information technology practitioners, business managers, business owners, and marketing managers on the viability of these communication mediums.Method: A positivistic paradigm was used in this study through the use of a descriptive research design which consisted of a survey of 446 respondents located in East London, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Respondents were either selected randomly or through convenience sampling and were between age 18 and 55.Results: It was established that both Facebook and Twitter are significantly related to the independent variable of ‘intention to purchase’, with Twitter having a stronger correlation with the independent variable than Facebook. The context of the study was set in relation to the purchase intention of specific mobile phone brands.Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that Twitter electronic word-of-mouth can be considered to be more credible than Facebook electronic word-of-mouth; thus this should be considered when advertising or promoting products via these mediums.

  15. Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis: An Approach Using Expert Judgment and Evidential Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When dealing with complex systems, all decision making occurs under some level of uncertainty. This is due to the physical attributes of the system being analyzed, the environment in which the system operates, and the individuals which operate the system. Techniques for decision making that rely on traditional probability theory have been extensively pursued to incorporate these inherent aleatory uncertainties. However, complex problems also typically include epistemic uncertainties that result from lack of knowledge. These problems are fundamentally different and cannot be addressed in the same fashion. In these instances, decision makers typically use subject matter expert judgment to assist in the analysis of uncertainty. The difficulty with expert analysis, however, is in assessing the accuracy of the expert's input. The credibility of different information can vary widely depending on the expert’s familiarity with the subject matter and their intentional (i.e., a preference for one alternative over another and unintentional biases (heuristics, anchoring, etc.. This paper proposes the metric of evidential credibility to deal with this issue. The proposed approach is ultimately demonstrated on an example problem concerned with the estimation of aircraft maintenance times for the Turkish Air Force.

  16. On the Credibility Basis of Cyberspace Legalization%论网络空间法治化的诚信基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛立先

    2015-01-01

    Ruling by law and credibility exist side by side and support each other, i.e.,credibility is the foundation of ruling by law,which in turn is the guarantee of credibility.The credibility basis of cyberspace legalization consists of four aspects—credibility construction of network management institutions, credibility construction of network service providers, credibility construction of internet users,and credibility construction of network communities. The core for the credibility construction of network management institutions lies in the effective supervision of power,both internally and externally,and the supervision of leading cadres and authorities.The credibility construction of internet service providers includes credibility management, social order maintenance and protection of internet users’rights and interests,whose key is to realize information credibility. The credibility construction of internet users calls for political, economic and cultural consideration,among which strengthening instruction and guidance is an effective way out.The credibility construction of network communities needs to start from “the very heart”,which requires the promotion and guarantee of the relevant systems and mechanisms.%法治与诚信,二者相辅相成、互相支撑,诚信是法治的基础,法治是诚信的保障。网络空间法治化的诚信基础包含四个方面:网络管理机构的诚信建设,网络服务商的诚信建设,网民的诚信建设,网络社会的诚信风气建设。网络管理机构的诚信建设,核心内容是对权力进行有效监督,包括自身监督和外部监督,还包括对领导干部的监督和权力机构的监督。网络服务商的诚信建设,包括诚信经营,维护社会秩序和保护网民权益等方面,关键在于实现信息诚信。网民的诚信建设,需要从政治、经济、文化的各个方面加以考虑,其中,加强教育引导是有效的现实途径。网络

  17. 36 CFR 1150.53 - Disqualification of judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of judge. 1150.53 Section 1150.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS...) If the judge does not disqualify himself/herself, he/she shall so rule upon the record, stating the...

  18. 42 CFR 498.45 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 498.45 Section 498.45 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... CERTAIN NFs IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.45 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a)...

  19. 42 CFR 498.74 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 498.74 Section 498.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.74 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis...

  20. 42 CFR 423.1068 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 423.1068 Section 423.1068 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1068 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis and content....

  1. 29 CFR 102.6 - Administrative law judge; hearing officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge; hearing officer. 102.6 Section 102.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.6 Administrative law judge; hearing officer. The term administrative law...

  2. 42 CFR 423.1026 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 423.1026 Section 423.1026 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 423.1026 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) An ALJ...

  3. 42 CFR 422.1026 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 422.1026 Section 422.1026 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Penalties § 422.1026 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) An ALJ may not conduct a hearing in...

  4. 24 CFR 1720.525 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.525 Decision of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall make and file a decision within 30 days after the close of the taking of evidence... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of administrative...

  5. 42 CFR 422.1068 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 422.1068 Section 422.1068 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Penalties § 422.1068 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis and content. As soon...

  6. 49 CFR 1503.607 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative law judges. 1503.607 Section 1503... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.607 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers...

  7. 8 CFR 235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 235.6 Section 235.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.6 Referral to immigration judge. (a) Notice—(1) Referral by Form...

  8. 13 CFR 134.404 - Decision by Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by Administrative Law Judge. 134.404 Section 134.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... 8(a) Program § 134.404 Decision by Administrative Law Judge. Appeal proceedings brought under...

  9. Cultivating the Possible: A Tribute to Harry Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    When he arrived in Oxford in the early 1970s, Harry Judge and this author were already good friends. They had spent a lot of time talking about their respective concerns--the author on how "mind" should be conceived, and Judge on how and by whom "mind" should be cultivated in the educational process. The author believed then that schools should…

  10. Judging Criteria for Intercollegiate Limited Preparation Speaking Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. Thomas, Jr.

    To gain insight into whether debate judges actually do treat impromptu speaking as miniextemporaneous speaking, a study compared the comments judges wrote to extemporaneous speakers with those they wrote to impromptu speakers during the first two rounds of a forensic tournament. Approximately 1,000 comments from 152 ballots (102 impromptu and 50…

  11. When The Judiciary Flouts Separation of Powers: Attenuating the Credibility of the National Prosecuting Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe Maqutu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stature of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has been subverted through highly publicised political interference by the executive. Beginning with the marathon legal entanglements of the current South African president the decisions of sitting National Directors of Public Prosecutions (NDPP on high-profile criminal matters, particularly those involving prominent members of the political leadership, have been marred with controversy. Undoubtedly unwarranted intrusion into the prosecutorial domain, at the behest of key political protagonists, has blighted the repute of the NPA. The judiciary too has played a pivotal, if lesser role, in eroding the sagging reputation of the NPA. This article charts the narrative of judicial influence on the diminishing credibility of the NPA, using selected cases from the recent past. It shows that key political events such as the Zuma corruption saga have placed the judiciary together with political forces at centre stage where the focus is their culpability for exceeding their lawful mandate. Finding itself vulnerable as a result of its being the target of rhetoric casting doubt on its integrity and threatening its independence, the judiciary (through a crucial judgment entered the political fray and positioned itself behind what it judged to be the pervasive political sentiment of the day. The article examines whether, subsequently, in an effort to curb undue political influence of the executive on the NPA, the Constitutional Court in Democratic Alliance v President of South Africa interpreted and extended judicial authority in a manner that violated the doctrine of separation of powers. Furthermore, the article argues that in Freedom Under Law v National Director of Public Prosecutions the court again misconstrued its powers by unduly interfering with the discretionary decision-making powers of the NDPP. These cases illustrate that, once they have been issued, the far reaching consequences of judicial

  12. Quantifying lost information due to covariance matrix estimation in parameter inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heavens, Alan F.

    2017-02-01

    Parameter inference with an estimated covariance matrix systematically loses information due to the remaining uncertainty of the covariance matrix. Here, we quantify this loss of precision and develop a framework to hypothetically restore it, which allows to judge how far away a given analysis is from the ideal case of a known covariance matrix. We point out that it is insufficient to estimate this loss by debiasing the Fisher matrix as previously done, due to a fundamental inequality that describes how biases arise in non-linear functions. We therefore develop direct estimators for parameter credibility contours and the figure of merit, finding that significantly fewer simulations than previously thought are sufficient to reach satisfactory precisions. We apply our results to DES Science Verification weak lensing data, detecting a 10 per cent loss of information that increases their credibility contours. No significant loss of information is found for KiDS. For a Euclid-like survey, with about 10 nuisance parameters we find that 2900 simulations are sufficient to limit the systematically lost information to 1 per cent, with an additional uncertainty of about 2 per cent. Without any nuisance parameters, 1900 simulations are sufficient to only lose 1 per cent of information. We further derive estimators for all quantities needed for forecasting with estimated covariance matrices. Our formalism allows to determine the sweetspot between running sophisticated simulations to reduce the number of nuisance parameters, and running as many fast simulations as possible.

  13. Disasters, the media and social structures: a typology of credibility hierarchy persistence based on a newspaper coverage of the Love Canal and six other disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, P

    1997-06-01

    The starting-point of this paper is the assumption that credibility and the right to be heard are differentially distributed in any social system and therefore a 'hierarchy of credibility' exists. To test this, the media coverage of the Love Canal, New York, hazardous waste landfill disaster and six other disasters was examined to determine if this hierarchy exists in all cases. A hierarchy of credibility emphasising the views of established news sources with routine and habitual access to the media was demonstrated in the majority of events examined However, the Love Canal disaster was one of two where this hierarchy was disrupted due to a number of factors. These included the contentious or political nature of the event, its duration, the extent of competition of credibility and coverage among news sources, the extent of information shortage, the type of news medium, the degree of sympathetic and representational salience of victims and the extent to which they organized and achieved status as 'newsmakers'. Building on disaster research, a model of the operation of the credibility hierarchy in coverage of disasters is presented and discussed.

  14. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  15. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool NaDeA (Natural......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...

  16. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    using pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool Na......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...

  17. 云计算的可信性概念建模%Modeling for Credibility Concept of Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小军; 温巧燕; 张玉清; 吴亚飚

    2016-01-01

    云计算是一种新的计算模式和资源管理模式,但在技术和管理上仍然存在许多安全威胁,导致云计算发展过程面临着可信问题。云计算的可信性概念建模是云计算可信问题研究的基础内容之一。在信息技术领域,研究者们对可信性概念的理解存在差异性,而且目前对云计算的可信性概念也没有清晰定义。为此,文章提出一种基于本体的概念建模方法。本体是用于描述事物和事物之间关系的重要工具,也是用于进行概念建模有效方法。文章首先分析了云计算的可信因素工作,并将这些因素总结为云服务、云资源、云提供者三个方面;然后利用统一建模语言分别给出了云计算和云计算的可信性两个概念的模型表示,同时给出了可信性概念模型的形式化定义。最后文章从模型的完备性、合理性和清晰性三个角度进行分析,结果表明提出的方法可以比较清晰地描述云计算的可信性概念,有助于可信性概念研究者进一步达成共识。%Cloud computing represents the new computing and resource management pattern. However, there are still many security threats in the technology and management, which result to the credibility problem in the development of cloud computing. Credibility concept modeling, is one of the basic content of the research on the credibility problem of cloud computing. In the information technology ifeld, researchers have different understandings of credibility, and there is no clear concept deifnition on credibility of cloud computing. This paper proposes a concept modeling method based on ontology. Ontology is an important tool used to describe the relationship between things and things, and it is also an effective method for conceptual modeling. First, the credibility factor of cloud computing is analyzed and these factors are summarized to three aspects, including cloud services, cloud resources

  18. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  19. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF COUNTRY CREDIBILITY ON THE CHANCE OF CURRENCY CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Kagan Ozdemir

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between country credibility and currency crises by using crosscountry pooled data with a multinomial logit model. We use Corruption Perception Index (CPI) published by Transparency International, which is a global non-governmental organization devoted to combating corruption, as a proxy for country credibility. The main findings from the multinomial logit models indicate that country credibility has a significant influence on currency crisis. The applied...

  20. Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal BACHRI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for future study in Islamic banking.

  1. Strategies Employed by Citizen Science Programs to Increase the Credibility of Their Data

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag, Amy; Meyer, Ryan; Whiteman, Liz

    2016-01-01

    The success of citizen science in producing important and unique data is attracting interest from scientists and resource managers. Nonetheless, questions remain about the credibility of citizen science data. Citizen science programs desire to meet the same standards of credibility as academic science, but they usually work within a different context, for example, training and managing significant numbers of volunteers with limited resources. We surveyed the credibility-building strategies of...

  2. Quantifying lost information due to covariance matrix estimation in parameter inference

    CERN Document Server

    Sellentin, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Parameter inference with an estimated covariance matrix systematically loses information due to the remaining uncertainty of the covariance matrix. Here, we quantify this loss of precision and develop a framework to hypothetically restore it, which allows to judge how far away a given analysis is from the ideal case of a known covariance matrix. We point out that it is insufficient to estimate this loss by debiasing a Fisher matrix as previously done, due to a fundamental inequality that describes how biases arise in non-linear functions. We therefore develop direct estimators for parameter credibility contours and the figure of merit. We apply our results to DES Science Verification weak lensing data, detecting a 10% loss of information that increases their credibility contours. No significant loss of information is found for KiDS. For a Euclid-like survey, with about 10 nuisance parameters we find that 2900 simulations are sufficient to limit the systematically lost information to 1%, with an additional unc...

  3. Distributed Online Judge System for Interactive Theorem Provers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takahisa; Nishizaki, Shin-ya

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new software design of an online judge system for interactive theorem proving. The distinctive feature of this architecture is that our online judge system is distributed on the network and especially involves volunteer computing. In volunteers' computers, network bots (software robots) are executed and donate computational resources to the central host of the online judge system. Our proposed design improves fault tolerance and security. We gave an implementation to two different styles of interactive theorem prover, Coq and ACL2, and evaluated our proposed architecture. From the experiment on the implementation, we concluded that our architecture is efficient enough to be used practically.

  4. Distributed Online Judge System for Interactive Theorem Provers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Takahisa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new software design of an online judge system for interactive theorem proving. The distinctive feature of this architecture is that our online judge system is distributed on the network and especially involves volunteer computing. In volunteers’ computers, network bots (software robots are executed and donate computational resources to the central host of the online judge system. Our proposed design improves fault tolerance and security. We gave an implementation to two different styles of interactive theorem prover, Coq and ACL2, and evaluated our proposed architecture. From the experiment on the implementation, we concluded that our architecture is efficient enough to be used practically.

  5. Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the credibility of early literature about famous North American wolves (Canis lupus). Many famous wolves were reported to be older than they actually were, and we estimated they did not live long enough to have caused purported damage to livestock and game animals. Wolf kill rates on free-ranging livestock appeared to be inflated compared to recently published kill rates on native ungulates and livestock. Surplus killing of sheep and goats may have accounted for some high kill rates, but surplus killing of free-ranging longhorn cattle probably did not occur. Some famous wolves may actually have been dogs (C. familiaris), wolf-dog hybrids, or possibly coyote (C. latrans)-dog hybrids. We documented instances where early authors appeared to embellish or fabricate information about famous wolves. Caution should be exercised when using early literature about wolves as a basis for wolf management decisions.

  6. MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN ONLINE SOCIAL PROGRAMS: OHANIAN MODEL OF SOURCE CREDIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Corina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.

  7. An optimization design for evacuation planning based on fuzzy credibility theory and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Evacuation planning is an important activity in disaster management. It has to be planned in advance due to the unpredictable occurrence of disasters. It is necessary that the evacuation plans are as close as possible to the real evacuation work. However, the evacuation plan is extremely challenging because of the inherent uncertainty of the required information. There is a kind of vehicle routing problem based on the public traffic evacuation. In this paper, the demand for each evacuation set point is a fuzzy number, and each routing selection of the point is based on the fuzzy credibility preference index. This paper proposes an approximate optimal solution for this problem by the genetic algorithm based on the fuzzy reliability theory. Finally, the algorithm is applied to an optimization model, and the experiment result shows that the algorithm is effective.

  8. Empowerment and bariatric surgery: negotiations of credibility and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Today obesity is understood as a chronic illness. Programs developed to deal with obesity often build on an explicit aim to "empower" patients to take increased responsibility for their health, in line with contemporary neoliberal discourses. There is little empirically based knowledge about this so-called empowering process. In this article we focus on how an empowering program for patients diagnosed as morbidly obese worked on individuals' identity. The program encompassed a course in lifestyle change, bariatric surgery, and aftercare. We conducted qualitative interviews with 9 individuals at different stages of their treatment process and applied discourse analysis to interpret their constructions and negotiations as they progressed through the program. We found that dimensions of control and credibility framed the respondents' identity work. Based on the findings we suggest that contemporary discourses of empowerment as practice might leave the participants "trapped" within the ambivalence of freedom and control.

  9. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  11. Human Terrain Teams: An Enabler for Judge Advocates and Paralegals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Tanabe

    2010-01-01

      [...] the Future Concepts Directorate (FCD) offers this practice note to identify and describe an additional enabler judge advocates and paralegals can leverage to accomplish their complex missions when deployed...

  12. 29 CFR 2704.307 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the position of the Secretary was substantially justified; if at issue, the judge shall also make... otherwise acted in bad faith or whether special circumstances make the award unjust. Under either...

  13. Harmless error analysis: How do judges respond to confession errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D Brian; Kassin, Saul M

    2012-04-01

    In Arizona v. Fulminante (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court opened the door for appellate judges to conduct a harmless error analysis of erroneously admitted, coerced confessions. In this study, 132 judges from three states read a murder case summary, evaluated the defendant's guilt, assessed the voluntariness of his confession, and responded to implicit and explicit measures of harmless error. Results indicated that judges found a high-pressure confession to be coerced and hence improperly admitted into evidence. As in studies with mock jurors, however, the improper confession significantly increased their conviction rate in the absence of other evidence. On the harmless error measures, judges successfully overruled the confession when required to do so, indicating that they are capable of this analysis.

  14. Judging the Capability of Search Engines and Search Terms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study aims to judge the capability of five selected search engines and search terms on the basis of first ten results and to identify most appropriate search term and search engine...

  15. 儒家诚信局限下会计诚信的缺失%On Lack of Credibility and Integrity of Accountants from the Confucian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张羽

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Chinese society has been facing the so-called crisis of credibility which leads to the serious lack of accountants' credibility and integrity. As a kind of informal restriction, such credibility is rooted in the environment of ethics. And the root of Chinese ethics is in Confucianism. In modern society, the Confucian credibility view is confined in the peoples served, definition of human nature and the institutional construction. In terms of accountants' credibility and integrity, such limitations are expressed in the forms of non-socialization, illusion, and non-institutionalization. The accountants' credibility should be strengthened in terms of service consciousness, views to ward fame and faith, and the institutional construction.%近年来,中国社会所面临的“诚信危机”致使会计诚信严重缺失。会计诚信作为一种非正式约束,必然会在民族伦理道德环境中生成,而我国的民族伦理道德的根源在儒学。在现代社会中,儒家诚信的局限主要表现在服务对象的局限、对人本质假定的局限及制度化建设上的局限。反映在会计诚信上,就表现为会计诚信的非社会化、虚幻化、非制度化。会计诚信的加强,应从会计人员的服务意识、信利观及会计诚信的制度化建设方面着手。

  16. The Public Credibility Research of the Nomocracy’s Mode%法治方式的公信力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金钊; 邱成梁

    2014-01-01

    法治方式的公信力视角,首先是作为治道方式的法治所具有的公信力,其次是具体法治方式的优化能有效提升法治公信力。法治公信力内涵着合法性与合理性的价值理念,其要义是通过各种层次的体系化信号传递,法律权威得到公众的信任,从而实现博弈的均衡。具体法治方式的整体优化,一是通过立法博弈来实现法律权威的系统化塑造,二是以信息公开为切入点来疏通信号传递,三是间接性地促进社会信任机制的系统建构。%The mode of nomocracy in the perspective of public credibility covers two aspects. Firstly, the credibility of nomocracy is the credibility of the nomocracy as a governance way. Secondly, the optimization of specific way can directly and indirectly enhance the public credibility of nomocracy. The public credibility of nomocracy contains value concepts of legitimacy and rationality. Its essence is that legal authority gradually gets the public’s trust in the way of signal transmission system, and then it contributes to the game equilibrium. The whole optimization of the nomocracy’s mode can directly enhance the nomocracy credibility on three levels. Firstly, the systematic legal authority can be shaped by legislative game. Secondly, we should dredge the signal transmission in terms of information disclosure. Finally,it can indirectly contribute to promote the construction of social trust mechanism.

  17. New Criteria for Judging Generalized Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-song

    2015-01-01

    Generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrices play a wide and important role in computational mathematics, mathematical physics, theory of dynamical systems, etc. But it is difficult to judge a matrix is or not generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrix. In this paper, by using the properties of α-chain diagonally dominant matrix, we obtain new criteria for judging generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrix, which enlarge the identification range.

  18. Assessing Website quality in context: retrieving information about genetically modified food on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire R. McInerney

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of Websites on any topic. Method. This study sought to use the WQET to determine the quality of Websites in the context of biotechnology or genetically modified food and to seek one or more easily identified characteristics, such as bias, commitment, use of metatags and site update-access interval (length of time between last update of the site and the date reviewed that might be used as a quick discriminator of a Website's quality. Analysis. Using SPSS, ANOVA and regression analyses were performed with the website variables of a population of one hundred Websites about genetically modified food. Results. Only the site update-access interval was determined to be a shortcut quality indicator with an inverse relationship. The longer the interval the lower the quality score. Conclusion. The study established a model for Website quality evaluation. The update-access interval proved to be the single clear-cut indicator to judge Website quality in everyday information seeking.

  19. "It's Always the Judge's Fault": Attention, Emotion Recognition, and Expertise in Rhythmic Gymnastics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhorst, Lindsey G; Knapová, Lenka; Majoranc, Kim; Szebeni, Zea K; Táborský, Adam; Tomić, Dragana; Cañadas, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In many sports, such as figure skating or gymnastics, the outcome of a performance does not rely exclusively on objective measurements, but on more subjective cues. Judges need high attentional capacities to process visual information and overcome fatigue. Also their emotion recognition abilities might have an effect in detecting errors and making a more accurate assessment. Moreover, the scoring given by judges could be also influenced by their level of expertise. This study aims to assess how rhythmic gymnastics judges' emotion recognition and attentional abilities influence accuracy of performance assessment. Data will be collected from rhythmic gymnastics judges and coaches at different international levels. This study will employ an online questionnaire consisting on an emotion recognition test and attentional test. Participants' task is to watch a set of videotaped rhythmic gymnastics performances and evaluate them on the artistic and execution components of performance. Their scoring will be compared with the official scores given at the competition the video was taken from to measure the accuracy of the participants' evaluations. The proposed research represents an interdisciplinary approach that integrates cognitive and sport psychology within experimental and applied contexts. The current study advances the theoretical understanding of how emotional and attentional aspects affect the evaluation of sport performance. The results will provide valuable evidence on the direction and strength of the relationship between the above-mentioned factors and the accuracy of sport performance evaluation. Importantly, practical implications might be drawn from this study. Intervention programs directed at improving the accuracy of judges could be created based on the understanding of how emotion recognition and attentional abilities are related to the accuracy of performance assessment.

  20. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosuosso Amedeo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I, Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it. ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be

  1. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, Amedeo; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2003-07-01

    Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I), Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail: enlsc@unipv.it). ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be acritically pro-science.

  2. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  3. The Importance of Being…Social? Instructor Credibility and the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Megan W.

    2016-01-01

    Using the framework of generational identity, the current study explores how a range of characteristics impact Millennial perceptions of instructor credibility. Millennial Generation student ratings of the impact of competence, character, and sociability on instructor credibility were compared to faculty ratings of the same characteristics.…

  4. The Importance of Being…Social? Instructor Credibility and the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Megan W.

    2016-01-01

    Using the framework of generational identity, the current study explores how a range of characteristics impact Millennial perceptions of instructor credibility. Millennial Generation student ratings of the impact of competence, character, and sociability on instructor credibility were compared to faculty ratings of the same characteristics.…

  5. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness and Spokesperson Sex on Perceived Source and Organization Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donna L.; And Others

    To explore the dimensions of credibility and physical attractiveness in a public relations setting, the impact of public relations (PR) spokesperson physical attractiveness--as operationalized as photographs of the spokesperson attached to a press release--on perceptions of both the writer's and the organization's credibility was examined.…

  6. Credible Set Estimation, Analysis, and Applications in Synthetic Aperture Radar Canonical Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    image space are orthogonal in phase history. However, the likelihood and CLEAN assumptions contradict each other, therefore we must accept the...of credible solutions. Determination of a credible region becomes especially important in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Automated Target Recognition ...fine zoom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.16 SAR image for multiple shape test scene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4.17 Marginal PMFs

  7. The ‘devils triangle’ of MSC certification: Balancing credibility, accessibility and continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Toonen, H.M.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has continued to strengthen its position in the market based on its credibility as a transparent, accountable and science-based third party certification scheme. However, the consolidation of MSC's credibility risks being undermined by the poor representation of

  8. In Your Facebook: Examining Facebook Usage as Misbehavior on Perceived Teacher Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason S.; Hayes, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers sometimes do things that negatively impact their own credibility in classroom settings. One way instructors maintain credibility among students is by keeping a veil between their personal and professional personas. The advent of Facebook presents new challenges for instructors seeking to keep their personal lives private in order to…

  9. Body Type and Sex of Receiver: Their Effects on Source Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Bruce K.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    This study focused on whether actual or stereotypic associations with a speaker's body type would affect his or her credibility. Effects on the source-credibility ratings submitted by a total of 165 students were investigated for three different sources' body types. A significant main effect was found for body type but not for the blocked…

  10. IMPACT OF CORPORATE AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON THE CREDIBILITY OF INTERNET NEWS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    And ALGÜL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intensive use of news in the social media leads to the discussions about whether the social media is reliable in terms of news. The study aims to reveal what the elements which affect the credibility of Internet news media are, whether there is any difference in media credibility between corporate and non-corporate Internet news organizations, and the impacts of demographic characteristics on the credibility of Internet news media. Therefore, a questionnaire was performed with some 936 university students in April 2015 by employing the method of random sampling. The result of the research reveals that although the use of mobile devices and personal computers in terms of the use of the media is at a higher rate than the other types of media, television ranks first at the level of credibility in media news. Another important result puts forward that the credibility of Internet news media decreases with an increase in the ages of respondents; thus, a break with this media is experienced. Even though the presence of a positive correlation between the perceptions of credibility of Internet news media organizations – whether they are corporate or not – appears an advantage, the occurrence of a decrease in the credibility perceived with an increase in the ages of respondents indicates that there are many castles which must be won in terms of credibility.

  11. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  12. When Can Forensic Psychologists Comment on the Credibility of Criminal Defendants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Flores de Apodaca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychological examiners are often confronted with assessments in the guilt phase of criminal cases in which a Defendant denies his/her charged conduct, but the existing evidence clearly contradicts their account. This happens often in cases involving charges of violence, sex offending and or substance abuse (Langton, Barbaree, Harkins, Arenovich, McNamee & Peacock, 2008. What is the proper role of the examiner in such instances?; granting the benefit of the doubt and accepting the Defendant’s account, using the one contained in the differing evidence, or making an independent judgment about which is more likely to be true? Does accepting any version mean the expert is offering an opinion on the Ultimate Issue in the case, and encroaching on the role of the Trier of Fact? The Federal Rules of Evidence (FREE dictate that judgments about Ultimate Issues belong solely to the Trier of Fact, yet the DSM-5 Manual (APA, 2013 instructs us to consider Malingering in every forensic situation; i.e. is the Defendant being honest about his mental state, and by implication, his/her credibility?  Our recommendation is that examiners offer no opinions about which conflicting version in a criminal case is the more credible during the guilt phase, and instead, offer “if, then” assessments about a Defendant’s propensity for violence or sexual offending; i.e. if the charges are true, then s/he poses certain levels of risk going forward, for reasons detailed in the report. Such a stance avoids experts “taking sides” during the guilt phase of a case and allows them to fully inform the adversarial, legal process as it deliberates on possible Plea Bargains or Sentencing decisions. We argue that this impartial approach serves a useful function in legal proceedings while adhering to our Ethical Guidelines (APA, 2010.

  13. Acceptance of Climate Change by Rural Farming Communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Effect of Science and Government Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine Delta State rural farming communities’ attitude to climate change in relation to science and government credibility. A preparatory assessment of Delta State rural communities’ understanding of climate change and insights into potential barriers to communication were given by influences on their attitudes. Average of 60.46% of the farmers reported that climate change was occurring and asserted that climate change was the consequence of human activities. Most (91.23% were certain that climate change is adversely affecting their farming businesses. Many (mean=1.40 found climate change information not easily comprehensible. However the farmers have negative view about the credibility of science, but had low levels of confidence in government. They reported that lack of information was a barrier to adaptation to climate change. This suggests that such barrier lies with the Delta State extension service. There is also an indication that government through the public extension service, need to wake up to her responsibilities of sending related information the rural farming communities. The government should consider the local socio-cultural economic and biophysical environment of the farmers the information is meant for.

  14. Resonant communicators, effective communicators. Communicator’s flow and credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene García-Ureta, Ph.D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication studies have been integrating the latest developments in cognitive sciences and acknowledging the importance of understanding the subjective processes involved in communication. This article argues that communication studies should also take into account the psychology of the communicator. This article presents the theoretical basis and the results of a training programme designed for audiovisual communicators. The programme is based on the theories of self-efficacy and flow and seeks to improve students’ communication competencies through the use of presentation techniques and psychological skills to tackle communication apprehension. The programme involves an active methodology that is based on modelling, visualisation, immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. A repeated-measures ANOVA shows that the programme successfully decreases the level of communication apprehension, improves the perceived self-efficacy, improves the psychological state needed to perform better in front of the cameras (flow, and improves students’ communication skills. A path analysis proved that the perceived self-efficacy and anxiety levels predict the level of flow during the communication act. At the end of the training programme, those who experienced higher levels of flow and enjoyment during the communication task achieved higher quality levels in their communication exercise. It is concluded that the concepts of self-efficacy and flow facilitate advancing in the understanding of the factors that determine a communicator’s credibility and ability to connect with the audience.

  15. Credibility and Security of Weighing System for Large Structure Object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The weighing system designed for large structure object is mainly composed of three parts. The part of hydraulic system is made up of hydraulic cylinders, high pressure hydraulic hoses and electric pumps; the part of computer controlling system comprises pressure sensors, displacement sensors, data acquisitions, RS 485 network and the computer controlling model; the part of loading system is composed of the fulcrum structure and the concrete girder. The measurement principle and composition of the weighing system are discussed in this paper. Credibility and security of the weighing system are fully considered during the design phase. The hydraulic system is controlled by pilot operated check valves in case of the sudden loss of system pressure. The states of all gauges and RS485 network are monitored by computer controlling system functioning in different modules. When the system is running incorrectly, it will be switched to manual mode and givealarm. The finite element method is employed to analyze fulcrum structure so that the system has enough intensity to be lifted. Hence the reliability of the whole system is enhanced.

  16. The corporation and the community: Credibility, legitimacy, and imposed risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C. (ed.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Rosenthal, I. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Risk and Decision Processes)

    1991-10-01

    In this age of rapid changes, large segments of society no longer trust any institution or authority in regard to pronouncements on what is safe. Because of this distrust, the public has demanded and obtained increased rights for individuals to intervene directly in decisions affecting them. Rosenthal warns that an organization that just fulfills its legal requirements for safety is no longer doing enough. Industry leaders must work toward re-establishing credibility by identifying persons who are potentially at risk as a result of industry activities, involving them in the communication process, and justifying the firm's social benefits. Seeking social legitimacy, chemical manufacturers have formed self-assessment groups and community councils, which have reaped unexpected benefits but have forced them to deal with issues they would have preferred to avoid. To industry leaders who contend that these types of activities are not worth the effort, Rosenthal presents a timely warning. Government and business must reduce public concerns significantly and make stakeholders more willing to tolerate imposed risk because of perceived benefits. It the public's concern is not reduced, we will all be required to make greater and greater investments in an inefficient and largely fruitless pursuit of absolute safety. 16 refs.

  17. The credibility challenge for global fluvial flood risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, M. A.; Birch, C. E.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Pappenberger, F.; Dutra, E.; Ward, P. J.; Winsemius, H. C.; Salamon, P.; Dottori, F.; Rudari, R.; Kappes, M. S.; Simpson, A. L.; Hadzilacos, G.; Fewtrell, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying flood hazard is an essential component of resilience planning, emergency response, and mitigation, including insurance. Traditionally undertaken at catchment and national scales, recently, efforts have intensified to estimate flood risk globally to better allow consistent and equitable decision making. Global flood hazard models are now a practical reality, thanks to improvements in numerical algorithms, global datasets, computing power, and coupled modelling frameworks. Outputs of these models are vital for consistent quantification of global flood risk and in projecting the impacts of climate change. However, the urgency of these tasks means that outputs are being used as soon as they are made available and before such methods have been adequately tested. To address this, we compare multi-probability flood hazard maps for Africa from six global models and show wide variation in their flood hazard, economic loss and exposed population estimates, which has serious implications for model credibility. While there is around 30%-40% agreement in flood extent, our results show that even at continental scales, there are significant differences in hazard magnitude and spatial pattern between models, notably in deltas, arid/semi-arid zones and wetlands. This study is an important step towards a better understanding of modelling global flood hazard, which is urgently required for both current risk and climate change projections.

  18. 服务型政府背景下政府公信力的提升路径%The Approach to Enhance the Government Credibility Based on Service-oriented Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟

    2016-01-01

    Service-oriented government construction connects with the government credibility closely. Service-oriented government concept, including contains multiple value such as limitation, democracy, law, integrity, publicity and so on, injected new core value to enhance the government credibility and became an important support that push service-oriented government to gain credibility. In the process of service-oriented government, it is to define the credibility by construction of limited government, to gain the credibility by promoting political democratization degree, to maintain the credibility by legalization of government management, to enhance the credibility by quickening the construction of integrity government, to evaluate credibility by perfecting the system of government information publicity.%服务型政府建设同政府公信力有着密切关系。服务型政府理念内含“有限、民主、法治、诚信、公开”等多重价值,为提升政府公信力注入了新的价值内核,成为推动服务型政府获取公信力的重要支撑。在推进服务型政府进程中,应通过推动建设有限政府,界定公信力;提升政治民主化程度,获得公信力;推动政府治理法治化,维护公信力;加快诚信政府建设,增强公信力;完善政府信息公开制度,评价公信力。

  19. Towards a More Responsive Judge: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld W. de Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the changes that have taken place in the attitude of judges towards their role and tasks as well as actual judicial practices. The result of this exploration is a reflection upon the challenges and opportunities for a new, more responsive judge. The main characteristic of this new judge is that he or she looks beyond the purely legal coordinates of the dispute, in order to discuss which method of dispute resolution (a settlement, a referral to mediation or a court decision is most likely to result in a viable and sustainable solution. These changes in attitude are part of broader developments that have taken place in actual judicial practices. The context in which these changes have occurred helps us to gain a better understanding of the changes, the barriers to change and the opportunities to overcome these challenges. The leading assumption in this research is that during the past ten years there has been an extensive change in the way judges think about their role in dispute resolution and at the same time many judges experience difficulties in applying their new-found understanding to their work in the courts. Our data have been gathered through court observations, interviews and expert meetings. In addition, our analyses are based on relevant literature in the field of judicial dispute resolution (JDR as well as insights from our own previous research projects. We primarily focus on civil and administrative disputes in the Netherlands. Occasionally, we also point to trends and challenges elsewhere.

  20. New judging model of fuzzy cluster optimal dividing based on rough sets theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun; Liu Qinghong; Mu Yong; Shi Kaiquan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the judging problem of optimal dividing matrix among several fuzzy dividing matrices in fuzzy dividing space, correspondingly, which is determined by the various choices of cluster samples in the totality sample space, two algorithms are proposed on the basis of the data analysis method in rough sets theory: information system discrete algorithm (algorithm 1) and samples representatives judging algorithm (algorithm 2).On the principle of the farthest distance, algorithm 1 transforms continuous data into discrete form which could be transacted by rough sets theory.Taking the approximate precision as a criterion, algorithm 2 chooses the sample space with a good representative.Hence, the clustering sample set in inducing and computing optimal dividing matrix can be achieved.Several theorems are proposed to provide strict theoretic foundations for the execution of the algorithm model.An applied example based on the new algorithm model is given, whose result verifies the feasibility of this new algorithm model.

  1. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  2. A judging principle of crucial vibrational transmission paths in plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Dong-Xu; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yi-Huan

    2016-10-01

    This paper developed a judging principle of crucial vibrational transmission path (VTP) in plates. Novel generalized definitions of VTPs are given referred to the meaning of streamlines. And by comparing governing equations, the similarity between energy flow and fluid motion is firstly found so that an analytic method of VTPs in plates is proposed by analogy with fluid motion. Hereafter, the crucial VTP is defined for energy flows at objective points and relative judging criteria is given. Finally, based on two numerical experiments of passive control, the judging principle is indirectly verified by comparing the reduction effects of energy flows at focused points and relative judgment results of crucial VTPs. This paper is meaningful for analyzing and applying the VTPs in plates to guide the control design in future.

  3. An exploratory pilot study to design and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Lewith, George; Brien, Sarah; Little, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Kinesiology is a complementary therapy assessing subtle change in manual muscle testing results to select individualised treatments. We report the exploratory 2-stage development and pilot of a sham kinesiology treatment for use in a clinical trial to evaluate the specific effects of this intervention. 1. To design, pilot and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment in a kinesiology-aware population. 2. To pilot the sham kinesiology in a cross-over study of sham versus real kinesiology, and to make an exploratory assessment of its credibility in a kinesiology-naïve population. 1. 10 kinesiology-aware volunteers received a specially designed sham treatment weekly for 5 weeks which was subject to a credibility assessment. 2. 10 kinesiology-naïve patients with low back pain were randomised to receive 4 real and 4 sham treatments in a cross-over design; the treatments were subject to a credibility assessment. 100% of participants found the sham protocol a credible treatment as measured by the credibility questionnaire. 100% of patients having real treatment first did not recognise that the second set of treatments were sham. Small numbers precluded the use of formal statistical tests. In this small sample it appeared feasible to deliver an apparently credible sham kinesiology treatment. This feasibility study has allowed us to develop a sham treatment for use in a larger prospective clinical trial of kinesiology in patients with low back pain. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Credibility of the combined test in prenatal diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are the cause of perinatal death in 20-25% of the cases, while 3% of children are born with malformation of varying size. The objective of this study was to examine the predictive value and define the credibility ratio of the combined test results. Of 317 examined pregnant women, we had sixteen (5.05% with the result of pathological karyotype after amniocentesis including: nine (2.84% with fetal numerical aberrations and seven (2.21% with fetal structural aberrations. While determining the ultrasonographic parameters of the combined test we used the standards of the Fetal Medicine Foundation. We carried out the quantitative settings of free β-HCG and PAPP-A from vein blood of patients by applying commercial tests of firm DPC-USA. Tests were based on the analytical immunochemiluminescence assay and were realized by using the automated analyzer IMMULITE 2000. Manufacturer of the analyzer is also the firm DPC-USA. Sensitivity of the test is 94%, and specificity is 99%. Positive likelihood ratio [likelihood ratio test (LR+] is 94.00, a negative likelihood ratio is [likelihood ratio test (LR-] 12:06. Pretest probability that pregnant women carries fetus with chromosomal abnormality is 1:250 or 0004. Posttest odds after the combined test to discover this abnormality is 0.3760, and probability of the same case is 0.2732 if it happens that the test result is positive. The result of our study confirms the justification of combined test usage in routine clinical practice, since the posttest odds rate in the case of a positive screening increases several times over (almost 90 times, the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality was about 70 times. Combined screening test if used methodologically correct, has a high predictive value in detecting fetal congenital anomalies.

  5. 29 CFR 801.67 - Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. 801.67... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 801.67 Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. (a) The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare, as promptly as practicable after the expiration of the time set...

  6. Evaluating performance feedback: a research study into issues of credibility and utility for nursing clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereday, Jennifer; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2004-01-01

    Performance feedback is information provided to employees about how well they are performing in their work role. The nursing profession has a long history of providing formal, written performance reviews, traditionally from a manager to subordinate, with less formal feedback sources including peers, clients and multidisciplinary team members. This paper is based on one aspect of a PhD research study exploring the dynamics of performance feedback primarily from the nursing clinicians' perspective. The research reported here discusses the impact of the social relationship (between the source and recipient of performance feedback) on the recipient's evaluation of feedback as being 'credible' and 'useful' for self-assessment. Focus group interviews were utilised to ascertain the nursing clinicians' perspectives of performance feedback. Thematic analysis of the data was informed by the Social Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz (1967) specifically his theories of intersubjective understanding. Findings supported the level of familiarity between the feedback source and the nursing clinician as a significant criterion influencing the acceptance or rejection of feedback. Implications for the selection of performance feedback sources and processes within nursing are discussed.

  7. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  8. Judging Amy: Automated legal assessment using OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Wortel, L.; El-Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most salient tasks in law is legal assessment, and concerns the problem of determining whether some case is allowed or disallowed given an appropriate body of legal norms. In this paper we describe a system and Protégé 4 plugin, called OWL Judge, that uses standard OWL 2 DL reasoning for

  9. Bias on the Bench: Sex, Judges, and Mock Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette S.; Zeigler, Sara L.; Westbrook, Miranda N.

    2011-01-01

    Given substantial evidence of sex discrimination in the legal profession and the role of attorneys and judges in perpetuating gender stereotypes, educators have an obligation to prepare female students for the challenges they will face, educate students of both sexes about the role of bias in litigation, and seek to mitigate the influence of…

  10. The judge on Facebook; neglecting a persistent ritual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between their representatives and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why the civil law judge cannot be expected to begin using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the

  11. 8 CFR 1240.50 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.50 Section 1240.50 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.31 - Authority of immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of immigration judges. 1240.31 Section 1240.31 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.12 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.12 Section 1240.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  14. 8 CFR 1235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.6 Referral to immigration...

  15. The judge on Facebook; neglecting a persistent ritual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between their representatives and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why the civil law judge cannot be expected to begin using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the

  16. Mephisto vor den Richtern – Mephisto before the judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnikow Marie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mephisto before the judges: The Mephisto trials – how the reader was discovered, and then denied any decision‐making capacity Mephisto vor den Richtern – Von der Entdeckung zur Entmündigung des Lesers in den Mephisto‐Prozessen

  17. Integrating an Automatic Judge into an Open Source LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Katerina; Guerreiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the successful integration of the evaluation engine of Mooshak into the open source learning management system Claroline. Mooshak is an open source online automatic judge that has been used for international and national programming competitions. although it was originally designed for programming competitions, Mooshak has also…

  18. Conceptions of Creativity and Relations with Judges' Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe naive conceptions of creativity and offer some explanation for their variability. Two methods are used to analyze conceptions of creativity. The first one consists of analyzing adjectives that are associated by naive judges with the notion of creativity of an advertisement. The second one consists of predicting…

  19. Multicultural conflicts and national judges: A general approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoekema

    2008-01-01

    This article queries what judges and legal actors in general do as a matter of fact in multicultural conflicts brought before them. When, to what extent and why do they take minority legal sensibilities into account? Portraying the present living together of "communities" with different world views,

  20. OJPOT: Online Judge & Practice Oriented Teaching Idea in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming…

  1. 7 CFR 900.60 - Oral hearings before judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.60 Oral... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... proceeding is guilty of unethical or unprofessional conduct, the judge may order that such person be...

  2. Contributions, Controversies, and Credibility: Citizen Science and Understandings of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, J.; Bonney, R.

    2011-12-01

    Studying the impacts of global climate change on earth systems requires data to be gathered at vast spatial and temporal scales. Numerous citizen science projects, including the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count and the Cooperative Observer Program of the National Weather Service, engage volunteers in collecting environmental information. Some projects span countries or even continents and have been operating for decades, meaning long-term and geographically distributed data are already available for analysis. Citizen science projects have made significant contributions to understanding the effects of climate change by revealing changing patterns in phenology, shifts in species' ranges and distributions, and trends in temperature and rainfall patterns. In addition, citizen science presents opportunities for developing public understanding of climate change and its consequences. According to the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC), public responses to this issue can be categorized into six groups - from alarmed to dismissive - with each group characterized as much by attitudes about climate change as by understandings of the topic. Participants in citizen science projects run by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, who tend to be highly educated and hold positive views towards the environment, exhibit an unexpected degree of skepticism and misunderstandings regarding climate science. This parallels findings by YPCCC suggesting that, on the issue of climate change, the American public is more meaningfully segmented by ideology and cultural affiliation than by educational background and economic status. No matter how they are segmented, if the public perceives a controversy, individuals often decide what to believe based on who they trust to impart credible information. Citizen science has long endured - and in most fields, has largely overcome - questions of credibility. With refined and sophisticated measures to ensure data quality, the

  3. Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project Verification, Validation, and Credibility (VVandC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.; Boley, L.; Keenan, L.; Kerstman, E.; Shah, R.; Young, M.; Saile, L.; Garcia, Y.; Meyers, J.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project supports end user requests by employing the Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) and IMM tools as well as subject matter expertise within the Project. The iMED houses data used by the IMM. The IMM is designed to forecast relative changes for a specified set of crew health and mission success risk metrics by using a probabilistic model based on historical data, cohort data, and subject matter expert opinion. A stochastic approach is taken because deterministic results would not appropriately reflect the uncertainty in the IMM inputs. Once the IMM was conceptualized, a plan was needed to rigorously assess input information, framework and code, and output results of the IMM, and ensure that end user requests and requirements were considered during all stages of model development and implementation, as well as lay the foundation for external review and application. METHODS: In 2008, the Project team developed a comprehensive verification and validation (VV) plan, which specified internal and external review criteria encompassing 1) verification of data and IMM structure to ensure proper implementation of the IMM, 2) several validation techniques to confirm that the simulation capability of the IMM appropriately represents occurrences and consequences of medical conditions during space missions, and 3) credibility processes to develop user confidence in the information derived from the IMM. When the NASA-STD-7009 (7009) [1] was published, the Project team updated their verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) project plan to meet 7009 requirements and include 7009 tools in reporting VVC status of the IMM. Construction of these tools included meeting documentation and evidence requirements sufficient to meet external review success criteria. RESULTS: IMM Project VVC updates are compiled recurrently and include updates to the 7009 Compliance and Credibility matrices. Reporting tools have evolved over the lifetime of

  4. Parallel Machine Scheduling Models with Fuzzy Parameters and Precedence Constraints: A Credibility Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Fu-jun; WU Qi-zong

    2007-01-01

    A method for modeling the parallel machine scheduling problems with fuzzy parameters and precedence constraints based on credibility measure is provided.For the given n jobs to be processed on m machines, it is assumed that the processing times and the due dates are nonnegative fuzzy numbers and all the weights are positive, crisp numbers.Based on credibility measure, three parallel machine scheduling problems and a goal-programming model are formulated.Feasible schedules are evaluated not only by their objective values but also by the credibility degree of satisfaction with their precedence constraints.The genetic algorithm is utilized to find the best solutions in a short period of time.An illustrative numerical example is also given.Simulation results show that the proposed models are effective, which can deal with the parallel machine scheduling problems with fuzzy parameters and precedence constraints based on credibility measure.

  5. Civil Society and the Conduct of Free, Fair and Credible Election ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Free, Fair and Credible Election: Lessons from the Ghanaian Experience. ... The conduct of regular elections is considered the single most important ... wake up to their responsibility, work together with their governments to make electoral ...

  6. The Influence of the Avatar on Online Perceptions of Anthropomorphism, Androgyny, Credibility, Homophily, and Attraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowak, Kristine L; Rauh, Christian

    2005-01-01

    .... In this study, participants (N = 255) evaluated a series of avatars in a static context in terms of their androgyny, anthropomorphism, credibility, homophily, attraction, and the likelihood they would choose them during an interaction...

  7. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  8. Assimilation and contrast in persuasion: the effects of source credibility in multiple message situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormala, Zakary L; Clarkson, Joshua J

    2007-04-01

    The present research explores a contextual perspective on persuasion in multiple message situations. It is proposed that when people receive persuasive messages, the effects of those messages are influenced by other messages to which people recently have been exposed. In two experiments, participants received a target persuasive message from a moderately credible source. Immediately before this message, participants received another message, on a different topic, from a source with high or low credibility. In Experiment 1, participants' attitudes toward the target issue were more favorable after they had first been exposed to a different message from a low rather than high credibility source (contrast). In Experiment 2, this effect only emerged when a priming manipulation gave participants a dissimilarity mindset. When participants were primed with a similarity mindset, their attitudes toward the target issue were more favorable following a different message from a high rather than low credibility source (assimilation).

  9. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a positive relationship with purchase intention. Created spokesperson is perceived to be more trustworthy and competent whereas the celebrity endorser is found to be more attractive by the respondents. This study is unique in a way that it covers fairly new and rapidly growing Turkish market. One factor that makes this study unique in Turkey, in which the usage of celebrity endorsers holds significant part in the marketing of products, is the lack of studies that would measure the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and the Effects of Source Credibility on Health Risk Message Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulenaer, Sarah; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Dens, Nathalie

    2017-01-17

    The present study aims to explore the relationship between perceived message source (spokesperson) credibility and message compliance in response to a health risk message. Based on an experiment in Ireland (n = 406) and Belgium (n = 410), we test how the relationship between source credibility and message compliance is mediated by perceived threat and efficacy of the message, and moderated by power distance and uncertainty avoidance. A source that is perceived as more credible is found to increase message compliance by increasing both the perceived message threat and efficacy. The indirect effect of source credibility on message compliance through perceived efficacy is stronger for individuals with lower power distance and higher uncertainty avoidance.

  11. The Relationship Between Attractiveness and Credibility of Television Commercials as Perceived by Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.; Powell, Jon T.

    1973-01-01

    This study tested whether children like commercials they believe or believe commercials they like. Results indicated a moderate correlation between the perceived attractiveness and the credibility of the commercials. (CH)

  12. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  13. Reducing Homeland Insecurities: Ending Abuse of the Asylum and Credible Fear Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    INSECURITIES: ENDING ABUSE OF THE ASYLUM AND CREDIBLE FEAR PROGRAM by Anja Freudenthal March 2015 Thesis Co-Advisors: Fathali...March 2015 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REDUCING HOMELAND INSECURITIES: ENDING ABUSE OF TIIE ASYLUM AND CREDffiLE FEAR...public release; distribution is unlimited A 13. ABSTRACT (maximwn 200 words) This thesis investigates gaps in the credible fear process within the asylum

  14. A New Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm for Fuzzy Multiobjective Programming Problem Based on Credibility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zu-Tong Wang; Jian-Sheng Guo; Ming-Fa Zheng; Ying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the credibility theory, this paper is devoted to the fuzzy multiobjective programming problem. Firstly, the expected-value model of fuzzy multiobjective programming problem is provided based on credibility theory; then two new approaches for obtaining efficient solutions are proposed on the basis of the expected-value model, whose validity has been proven. For solving the fuzzy MOP problem efficiently, Latin hypercube sampling, fuzzy simulation, support vector machine, an...

  15. Impact of Brand Credibility and Consumer Values on Consumer Purchase Intentions in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sheeraz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to examine association of brand credibility and consumer values with purchase intentions of consumers in Pakistan. Brand credibility is studied in three dimensions (trustworthiness, expertise and attractiveness and consumer values are measured through LOV (List of variables measure. Data was collected from 102 students from different universities. A self administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from respondents by method of convenient sampling. Results of statistical analysis revealed that brand credibility and consumer values are significantly and positively associated with consumer purchase intentions. Our study imply that brand credibility and consumer values both have positive association with consumer purchase intentions so marketer also focus on brand credibility as well as consumer values and should establish long lasting credibility. This study has some limitations that can be reduced by future research. This study was examined on students but in future it can be expanded on to other general consumers. This study focused on cold drinks of a company further it can be broaden to other products and results will be more obvious and effective.

  16. Significance of model credibility in estimating climate projection distributions for regional hydroclimatological risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ensembles of historical climate simulations and climate projections from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were investigated to determine how model credibility affects apparent relative scenario likelihoods in regional risk assessments. Methods were developed and applied in a Northern California case study. An ensemble of 59 twentieth century climate simulations from 17 WCRP CMIP3 models was analyzed to evaluate relative model credibility associated with a 75-member projection ensemble from the same 17 models. Credibility was assessed based on how models realistically reproduced selected statistics of historical climate relevant to California climatology. Metrics of this credibility were used to derive relative model weights leading to weight-threshold culling of models contributing to the projection ensemble. Density functions were then estimated for two projected quantities (temperature and precipitation), with and without considering credibility-based ensemble reductions. An analysis for Northern California showed that, while some models seem more capable at recreating limited aspects twentieth century climate, the overall tendency is for comparable model performance when several credibility measures are combined. Use of these metrics to decide which models to include in density function development led to local adjustments to function shapes, but led to limited affect on breadth and central tendency, which were found to be more influenced by 'completeness' of the original ensemble in terms of models and emissions pathways. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  18. Civil Justice: Lay Judges in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Machura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lay judges fulfill important functions for the justice system of a country. In the European Union member states, scholars have analysed the use of lay judges in criminal cases. However, little is known about lay participation in civil justice. The paper introduces commonly cited reasons to have lay judges as well as the principal forms of lay participation and then surveys the EU countries for its implementation in civil cases. Mixed tribunals, involving lay judges under the leadership of a professional judge, are relatively frequent. Several countries have special labour courts or commercial courts with lay members and others have single lay judges, or all-lay judge panels. Roughly a third of the 28 EU member states have no lay participation in civil justice but only three of those have no lay judges in any branch of the courts. Almost all the reasons for including lay decision makers are served somehow by the existing forms, including providing different experiences and perhaps expert knowledge. The article concludes, citing non-EU states and lay participation in criminal and administrative courts as further evidence, that lay judges in one form or another are an element of European legal systems. Los jueces legos cumplen funciones importantes para el sistema de justicia de un país. En los Estados miembro de la Unión Europea, académicos han analizado el uso de jueces legos en casos criminales. Sin embargo, se sabe poco acerca de la participación de los legos en la justicia civil. El artículo presenta las razones que habitualmente se citan para tener jueces legos, así como las formas principales de la participación de legos, para a continuación medir su implementación en casos civiles en los países de la Unión Europea. Son relativamente frecuentes los tribunales mixtos, en los que participan jueces legos, bajo la dirección de un juez profesional. Varios países tienen tribunales laborales especiales o tribunales comerciales con

  19. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  20. VALIDITY AND CREDIBILITY OF A CHILD’S TESTIMONY OF SEXUAL ABUSE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Argo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The allegation by a child victim of sexual abuse is, in many cases, the most important evidence of wrongdoing, especially in absence of medical or physical evidence or confessions of guilt. The Rorschach inkblot test is a projective personality assessment technique used to evaluate child witnesses. We report a case of three girls allegedly abused by the father, in which the psychometric evaluation with the Rorschach test did not give credibility to the testimony of the children. When interrogating a minor, it is very difficult to distinguish between a true and a lie. Indeed, many different elements can affect the dialogue, such as the child’s age, the events being discussed, interrogation environment, factors linked to the interviewer, etc. Therefore, it is possible errors of evaluation, misunderstandings or confusion happen frequently. The aim of this case report is to highlight that employment of methodologies and criteria recognised by the scientific community could simplify the acquisition and assessment of information from a minor.