WorldWideScience

Sample records for judging information credibility

  1. Credibility of the emotional witness: a study of ratings by court judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ellen; Drevland, Guri C B; Eilertsen, Dag Erik; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the emotional behavior displayed during testimony may affect the perceived credibility of the witness. The present study compares credibility ratings by Norwegian court judges with those made by lay people. The participants viewed one of three video-recorded versions of a rape victim's statement, role played by a professional actress. The statement was given in a free-recall manner with one of three kinds of emotions displayed, termed congruent, neutral, and incongruent emotional expression. The results show that, in contrast to lay people, the credibility ratings of court judges and their votes for a guilty verdict were not influenced by the emotions displayed by the witness. Results are discussed in terms of professional expertise.

  2. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  3. Format as a False Judge of Credibility: Messages from Librarians and Faculty and Student Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to explore how students make sense of and respond to messages about information in higher education. This study identifies the messages students in higher education receive about information gathering, conducting research, and the credibility and authority of information sources. This research revealed that students are receiving the message from faculty that format is a stand-in for credibility. Research to date focuses on how to steer students to information privileged by the academy: academic, peer reviewed articles, and books. The voice of students is often absent. This study employs the critical framework of Paulo Freire in order to give voice to student perceptions of information.

  4. Topic familiarity and information skills in online credibility evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of user generated content, evaluating the credibility of information has become increasingly important. It is already known that various user characteristics influence the way credibility evaluation is performed. Domain experts on the topic at hand primarily focus on semantic features

  5. Source credibility and the effectiveness of firewise information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan D. Bright; Andrew W. Don Carlos; Jerry J. Vaske; James D. Absher

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how residents of the wildlandurban interface (WUI) react to information about firewise behavior can enhance efforts to communicate safety information to the public. This study explored the multiple roles of source credibility on the elaboration and impact of messages about conducting firewise behaviors in the WUI. A mail-back survey to residents of the...

  6. Perceptions of livestock information credibility available through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results in the study area depict that, majority of the livestock owners preferred mostly to access the information through Internet in local language and from bilingual web sites. The results prove that with the current pitfalls, the respondents that availed Internet services may not be in position to prove the good image and ...

  7. The Source and Credibility of Colorectal Cancer Information on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SoHyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Park, Gibeom; Suh, Bongwon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rapid penetration of social media in modern life, there has been limited research conducted on whether social media serves as a credible source of health information. In this study, we propose to identify colorectal cancer information on Twitter and assess its informational credibility. We collected Twitter messages containing colorectal cancer-related keywords, over a 3-month period. A review of sample tweets yielded content and user categorization schemes. The results of the sample analysis were applied to classify all collected tweets and users, using a machine learning technique. The credibility of the information in the sampled tweets was evaluated. A total of 76,119 tweets were analyzed. Individual users authored the majority of tweets (n = 68,982, 90.6%). They mostly tweeted about news articles/research (n = 16,761, 22.0%) and risk/prevention (n = 14,767, 19.4%). Medical professional users generated only 2.0% of total tweets (n = 1509), and medical institutions rarely tweeted (n = 417, 0.6%). Organizations tended to tweet more about information than did individuals (85.2% vs 63.1%; P users. Coupled with the Internet's potential to increase social support, Twitter may contribute to enhancing public health and empowering users, when used with proper caution.

  8. The effect of source credibility on consumers' perceptions of the quality of health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon; Ahmed, Rukhsana; Hopson, Danielle

    2006-03-01

    Recent use of the Internet as a source of health information has raised concerns about consumers' ability to tell 'good' information from 'bad' information. Although consumers report that they use source credibility to judge information quality, several observational studies suggest that consumers make little use of source credibility. This study examines consumer evaluations of web pages attributed to a credible source as compared to generic web pages on measures of message quality. In spring 2005, a community-wide convenience survey was distributed in a regional hub city in Ohio, USA. 519 participants were randomly assigned one of six messages discussing lung cancer prevention: three messages each attributed to a highly credible national organization and three identical messages each attributed to a generic web page. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare each attributed message to its counterpart attributed to a generic web page on measures of trustworthiness, truthfulness, readability, and completeness. The results demonstrated that differences in attribution to a source did not have a significant effect on consumers' evaluations of the quality of the information.Conclusions. The authors offer suggestions for national organizations to promote credibility to consumers as a heuristic for choosing better online health information through the use of media co-channels to emphasize credibility.

  9. The public information challenge: confidence and credibility through communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, H.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Canada's Atomic Energy Control Board, considered the oldest independent nuclear regulatory body in the world, has made significant progress toward openness and visibility through public information policy initiatives and communications activities, particularly in the last five years. A number of public information projects are described, and successes as well as disappointments are outlined. The importance in terms of enhanced credibility and public confidence in the regulatory agency is stressed. In looking toward the future, the linking of communications to the operational functions and activities of the regulator is presented as a key requirement. (author)

  10. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Scott, Barbara J

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to test and describe a model for evaluating Websites related to breastfeeding. Forty Websites most likely to be accessed by the public were evaluated for extent, accuracy, credibility, presentation, ease of use, and adherence to ethical and medical Internet publishing standards. Extent and accuracy of Website content were determined by a checklist of critical information. The majority of Websites reviewed provided accurate information and complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Approximately half the Websites complied with standards of medical Internet publishing. While much information on breastfeeding on the Internet is accurate, there is wide variability in the extent of information, usability of Websites, and compliance with standards of medical Internet publishing. Results of this study may be helpful to health care professionals as a model for evaluating breastfeeding-related Websites and to highlight considerations when recommending or designing Websites.

  11. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  12. Pengaruh Brand Credibility Terhadap Information Efficiency Dan Risk Reduction, Serta Dampaknya Atas Repurchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Aekram

    2015-01-01

    This research conducted to know the influence of Brand Credibility to Information efficiency and Risk reduction, also the influence of Information efficiency and Risk reduction to Repurchase intention. This research aimed to know the influence of Brand Credibility to Repurchase intention that mediated by Information efficiency and Risk reduction. The methodology of this research is testing hypothesis research. The sample collecting by questionnaire of 150 respondents from Starb...

  13. Trust and Credibility in Web-Based Health Information: A Review and Agenda for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaffi, Laura; Rowley, Jennifer

    2017-06-19

    Internet sources are becoming increasingly important in seeking health information, such that they may have a significant effect on health care decisions and outcomes. Hence, given the wide range of different sources of Web-based health information (WHI) from different organizations and individuals, it is important to understand how information seekers evaluate and select the sources that they use, and more specifically, how they assess their credibility and trustworthiness. The aim of this study was to review empirical studies on trust and credibility in the use of WHI. The article seeks to present a profile of the research conducted on trust and credibility in WHI seeking, to identify the factors that impact judgments of trustworthiness and credibility, and to explore the role of demographic factors affecting trust formation. On this basis, it aimed to identify the gaps in current knowledge and to propose an agenda for future research. A systematic literature review was conducted. Searches were conducted using a variety of combinations of the terms WHI, trust, credibility, and their variants in four multi-disciplinary and four health-oriented databases. Articles selected were published in English from 2000 onwards; this process generated 3827 unique records. After the application of the exclusion criteria, 73 were analyzed fully. Interest in this topic has persisted over the last 15 years, with articles being published in medicine, social science, and computer science and originating mostly from the United States and the United Kingdom. Documents in the final dataset fell into 3 categories: (1) those using trust or credibility as a dependent variable, (2) those using trust or credibility as an independent variable, and (3) studies of the demographic factors that influence the role of trust or credibility in WHI seeking. There is a consensus that website design, clear layout, interactive features, and the authority of the owner have a positive effect on trust or

  14. Information Literacy on the Web: How College Students Use Visual and Textual Cues to Assess Credibility on Health Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L. Pariera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important literacy skills in today’s information society is the ability to determine the credibility of online information. Users sort through a staggering number of websites while discerning which will provide satisfactory information. In this study, 70 college students assessed the credibility of health websites with a low and high design quality, in either low or high credibility groups. The study’s purpose was to understand if students relied more on textual or visual cues in determining credibility, and to understand if this affected their recall of those cues later. The results indicate that when viewing a high credibility website, high design quality will bolster the credibility perception, but design quality will not compensate for a low credibility website. The recall test also indicated that credibility does impact the participants’ recall of visual and textual cues. Implications are discussed in light of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

  15. The Internet's Impact on Policy Evaluation: Information Compression and Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry

    2004-01-01

    As with all media, the Internet structures and frames information, rewarding some information search and decision behaviors while punishing others and, thereby, strongly influences evaluation research results and possibilities. Now that the Internet is for many evaluators the information medium of choice, the impacts of the medium on evaluation…

  16. Source Credibility and the Biasing Effect of Narrative Information on the Perception of Vaccination Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.

  17. Adolescent Health Literacy: The Importance of Credible Sources for Online Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad F.; Valerio, Melissa A.; Garcia, Carolyn M.; Hansen, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined adolescent health literacy and its relationship with online health information sources. The purpose of this study is to explore health literacy among a predominantly Hispanic adolescent population and to investigate whether exposure to a credible source of online health information, MedlinePlus[R], is…

  18. Assessing the Credibility of Climate Science Information: A Roadmap for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although there is an overwhelming scientific consensus that humans are driving modern day climate change, a significant portion of Americans are still not convinced. One reason for this gap in understanding results from a large body of misinformation that is easily accessible by students and educators. Here the author presents an effective teaching model to allow students to assess the credibility of organizations and their authors who publish climate science information aimed toward the general public.

  19. Students’ Trust Formation and Credibility Judgements in Online Health Information – A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health information is a frequent subject for online information seeking. Research on the phenomenon has to a certain extent included students. This review, based on an analysis of 61 articles, shows the current state of the art of research on students’ trust in online health information. The review covers methodological approaches and findings of previous previous empirical studies: research design; trustworthy health information sources; credibility assessment; and factors impacting on trust formation. The analysis of research designs reveals that the survey method was most frequent, but small qualitative studies were also occurring. More than half of the studies were administered in the USA, while only a smaller part concerned ‘non-Western’ countries. Female subjects were more frequent than male.The concept of trust was not always explicitly defined in the studies. The students' actual propensity to use internet was generally taken as an expression of trust. The antecedents of trust identified in the studies can be summarized as the perceived quality of the information, the perceived credibility of the source or source provider, the users’ general inclination to trust, the actual use of information, and the perceived intelligibility of the information. The findings show that Internet was among the main sources for health information, but parents or other family members, friends, schools, health professionals were also frequent sources of health information, and students were not immediately accepting online information as trustworthy. The students’ trust and credibility judgments were influenced by social and demographic, cultural, psychological, knowledge and skills-related, and source, system and content-related factors. Governmental and organizational websites were reported as the most trustful sources, although some issues regarding website features and presentation of content were reported as barriers. Easy access were of

  20. Influence of User Ratings, Expert Ratings and Purposes of Information Use on the Credibility Judgments of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook; Steffel, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined whether user ratings, expert ratings and the purpose of the use of a book on a user-generated site influenced the credibility of the book. It also examined whether the effects of user ratings and expert ratings on credibility judgments of the book varied according to the purpose of information use. In addition,…

  1. A conceptual model of the automated credibility assessment of the volunteered geographic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, N H; Jackson, M J; Ishak, M H I

    2014-01-01

    The use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in collecting, sharing and disseminating geospatially referenced information on the Web is increasingly common. The potentials of this localized and collective information have been seen to complement the maintenance process of authoritative mapping data sources and in realizing the development of Digital Earth. The main barrier to the use of this data in supporting this bottom up approach is the credibility (trust), completeness, accuracy, and quality of both the data input and outputs generated. The only feasible approach to assess these data is by relying on an automated process. This paper describes a conceptual model of indicators (parameters) and practical approaches to automated assess the credibility of information contributed through the VGI including map mashups, Geo Web and crowd – sourced based applications. There are two main components proposed to be assessed in the conceptual model – metadata and data. The metadata component comprises the indicator of the hosting (websites) and the sources of data / information. The data component comprises the indicators to assess absolute and relative data positioning, attribute, thematic, temporal and geometric correctness and consistency. This paper suggests approaches to assess the components. To assess the metadata component, automated text categorization using supervised machine learning is proposed. To assess the correctness and consistency in the data component, we suggest a matching validation approach using the current emerging technologies from Linked Data infrastructures and using third party reviews validation. This study contributes to the research domain that focuses on the credibility, trust and quality issues of data contributed by web citizen providers

  2. Imperatives of Bridging the Audit Expectation Gap and Enhancing the Credibility of Corporate Financial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Otalor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available he study sought to ascertain if reducing the audit expectation gap would led to greater public confidence in corporate financial information. Self-administered questionnaires were used in the study. The data generated from the responses of the subjects were analyzed using descriptive and statistical analysis through the computer (Eview3.1.   The result showed that the higher the audit expectation gap, the higher the negative impact on the credibility of corporate financial reports. Thus, audit expectation gap creates doubt on the reliability of financial statements. Based on the findings and conclusion, it was recommended that the scope of auditors’ responsibilities should be expanded; companies should create a forum for regular interface between management, auditors and financial statement users to enhance confidence in financial reports and strengthening the audit committee and regulatory oversight of auditors to enhance their respective performances.

  3. Credibility and Usefulness of Health Information on Facebook: A Survey Study with U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines ways in which college students perceive the credibility and usefulness of health information on Facebook, depending on topic sensitivity, information source and demographic factors. Method: With self-selection sampling, data were collected from two universities through an online survey; 351 responses were used for…

  4. A Recommender System for Programming Online Judges Using Fuzzy Information Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Yera Toledo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Programming online judges (POJs are an emerging application scenario in e-learning recommendation areas. Specifically, they are e-learning tools usually used in programming practices for the automatic evaluation of source code developed by students when they are solving programming problems. Usually, they contain a large collection of such problems, to be solved by students at their own personalized pace. The more problems in the POJ the harder the selection of the right problem to solve according to previous users performance, causing information overload and a widespread discouragement. This paper presents a recommendation framework to mitigate this issue by suggesting problems to solve in programming online judges, through the use of fuzzy tools which manage the uncertainty related to this scenario. The evaluation of the proposal uses real data obtained from a programming online judge, and shows that the new approach improves previous recommendation strategies which do not consider uncertainty management in the programming online judge scenarios. Specifically, the best results were obtained for short recommendation lists.

  5. How Experts' Use of Medical Technical Jargon in Different Types of Online Health Forums Affects Perceived Information Credibility: Randomized Experiment With Laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2018-01-23

    Online health forums are widely used, but the quality of advice differs as much as the knowledge backgrounds of the audience members who receive the advice. It is important to understand how people judge the information given online. In line with the communication accommodation theory (CAT), online forums represent specific social contexts of communication which can present either accommodative or nonaccommodative language to an audience. Accordingly, use of accommodative or nonaccommodative language might affect people's perceived trust in the communicator. The objective of this study was to investigate how experts who use accommodative (vs nonaccommodative) language are evaluated by passive users of an online forum. Participants (n=98) took part in an online experiment and read experts' posts about 10 nutrition myths. Following a 2 x 2 mixed design, experts' posts were written using either low or high amounts of medical technical jargon (MTJ) (within factor) and were directed at different audiences (mainly other medical experts [in a professional forum] vs a user group mainly comprising laypersons [in an advisory forum]) (between factor). Accommodation occurred where experts used high amounts of MTJ to address other medical experts in the professional forum; it also occurred when experts used low amounts of MTJ to address laypersons in the advisory forum. Conversely, nonaccommodation occurred when experts used high amounts of MTJ in the advisory forum and low amounts of MTJ in the professional forum. In each condition, participants evaluated the credibility of the information, the trustworthiness of the experts, and the accommodation by the experts. Overall, participants judged the credibility of information to be higher when experts used MTJ that was accommodative to the designated audience, F 1,95 =3.10, P=.04, η p 2 =.031. In addition, participants judged the experts in professional forums to be more trustworthy than experts in advisory forums (all F 1,96

  6. From intermediation to disintermediation and apomediation: new models for consumers to access and assess the credibility of health information in the age of Web2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses the model that, as a result of the social process of disintermediation enabled by digital media, traditional intermediaries are replaced by what this author calls apomediaries, which are tools and peers standing by to guide consumers to trustworthy information, or adding credibility to information. For apomediation to be an attractive and successful model for consumers, the recipient has to reach a certain degree of maturity and autonomy. Different degrees of autonomy may explain differences in information seeking and credibility appraisal behaviours. It is hypothesized that in an apomediated environment, tools, influential peers and opinion leaders are the primary conveyors of trust and credibility. In this environment, apomediary credibility may become equally or more important than source credibility or even message credibility. It is suggested to use tools of network analysis to study the dynamics of apomediary credibility in a networked digital world. There are practical implications of the apomediation model for developers of consumer health websites which aspire to come across as "credible: Consumers need and want to be able to be co-creators of content, not merely be an audience who is broadcasted to. Web2.0 technology enables such sites. Engaging and credible Web sites are about building community and communities are built upon personal and social needs.

  7. Supporting the Evaluation and Implementation of Musculoskeletal Models of Care: A Globally Informed Framework for Judging Readiness and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Jordan, Joanne E; Jennings, Matthew; Speerin, Robyn; Bragge, Peter; Chua, Jason; Woolf, Anthony D; Slater, Helen

    2017-04-01

    To develop a globally informed framework to evaluate readiness for implementation and success after implementation of musculoskeletal models of care (MOCs). Three phases were undertaken: 1) a qualitative study with 27 Australian subject matter experts (SMEs) to develop a draft framework; 2) an eDelphi study with an international panel of 93 SMEs across 30 nations to evaluate face validity, and refine and establish consensus on the framework components; and 3) translation of the framework into a user-focused resource and evaluation of its acceptability with the eDelphi panel. A comprehensive evaluation framework was developed for judging the readiness and success of musculoskeletal MOCs. The framework consists of 9 domains, with each domain containing a number of themes underpinned by detailed elements. In the first Delphi round, scores of "partly agree" or "completely agree" with the draft framework ranged 96.7%-100%. In the second round, "essential" scores ranged 58.6%-98.9%, resulting in 14 of 34 themes being classified as essential. SMEs strongly agreed or agreed that the final framework was useful (98.8%), usable (95.1%), credible (100%) and appealing (93.9%). Overall, 96.3% strongly supported or supported the final structure of the framework as it was presented, while 100%, 96.3%, and 100% strongly supported or supported the content within the readiness, initiating implementation, and success streams, respectively. An empirically derived framework to evaluate the readiness and success of musculoskeletal MOCs was strongly supported by an international panel of SMEs. The framework provides an important internationally applicable benchmark for the development, implementation, and evaluation of musculoskeletal MOCs. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. A proactive public information policy: a key element for regulator independence and credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindelan, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry will depend to a large extent on the perception that the members of the public have of it. However, our mission as regulatory bodies is not to change the pro-or anti- nuclear feelings of the public, but to set in them the confidence that the use currently made of nuclear energy is carried out with the greatest guarantees of safety. We should continue to avoid their feeling of fear without reasons or their perception of uncertainty regarding processes that are duly controlled and supervised. I am convinced that whatever progress we make in increasing transparency will lead to an increase in the public credibility of the organisations that we represent. The reason underlying our need for this credibility, this reputation for autonomy and efficiency, for good performance, is that without it we will not have sufficient authority in the eyes of the regulated sector or other private political and economic interests, and will not, therefore, be in a position to provide a sensation of confidence to the members of the public, whose tranquillity and interests are our obligation. (author)

  9. "I Don't Know That I've Ever Felt Like I Got the Full Story": A Qualitative Study of Courtroom Interactions Between Judges and Litigants in Domestic Violence Protective Order Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Cara J; Moracco, Kathryn E Beth; Agnew-Brune, Christine; Bowling, J Michael

    2018-01-01

    One in three U.S. women has experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and many seek domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs) for secondary IPV prevention. Because judges have considerable autonomy making DVPO decisions, there is a need to describe how courtroom interactions and information available to judges may influence DVPO dispositions. We conducted DVPO hearing observations and phone interviews with District Court Judges. Qualitative themes emerged that may influence judges' decision making in DVPO hearings: case information availability, judge engagement level, and litigant credibility. Recommendations include more time for judges to review case files, IPV-related training for judges, and increased court advocate use.

  10. The Importance of 'Likes': The Interplay of Message Framing, Source, and Social Endorsement on Credibility Perceptions of Health Information on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Porismita; Xiao, Xizhu

    2018-01-01

    Online sources not only permeate the information-seeking environment of the younger generation, but also have profound influence in shaping their beliefs and behaviors. In this landscape, examining the factors responsible for credibility perceptions of online information is fundamental, particularly for health-related information. Using a 2 (frames: gain vs. loss) × 2 (source: expert vs. non-expert) × 2 (social endorsement: high vs. low) randomized between-subjects experimental design, this study examines the effect of health message framing and the moderating effects of social endorsement and source type on credibility perceptions of Facebook posts. Testing across two issues--physical activity and alcohol consumption--findings indicate that the gain-framed message was perceived as most credible. Additionally, significant three-way interactions suggest that social endorsement and source type affect the relationship between message framing and credibility perceptions. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that a gain-framed message from an expert source with high number of 'likes' is considered the most credible message. These findings have significant implications for information gathering from social media sources, such as the influence of 'likes' on health information.

  11. Views on the Credibility of the Nonfinancial Information – New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Tamas - Szora

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is the method of presentation of non-financial information and information on diversity by certain businesses and large groups, in accordance with amendments made by Directive 2014/95/EU. The study was carried out under public poll organized by U.E. () in relation to the guide of presentation of financial information currently under development at EU. The result is represente...

  12. Views on the Credibility of the Nonfinancial Information – New approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Tamas - Szora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is the method of presentation of non-financial information and information on diversity by certain businesses and large groups, in accordance with amendments made by Directive 2014/95/EU. The study was carried out under public poll organized by U.E. (DIGIT-EUSURVEY@NOMAIL.EC.EUROPA.EU in relation to the guide of presentation of financial information currently under development at EU. The result is represented by the test the usefulness of non-financial information depending on a number of qualitative characteristics such as: avoid undue administrative tasks, comprehensiveness, fairness and balance, comparability, understandability, reliability, usefulness and materiality or relevance of the information. This test was to identify those characteristics and results of non- financial information that are most significant for different users of financial and non-financial information, depending on the type and issuer of such information. The study will be continued by developing, based on testing, of a standard model report including non-financial information, as well as models of such reports specific to different types of issuers and / or users, depending of the area of specific interest.

  13. Consumer Health Information Websites with High Visual Design Ratings Likely to Be also Highly Rated for Perceived Credibility. A Review of: Robins, D., Holmes, J., & Stansbury, M. (2010. Consumer health information on the web: The relationship of visual design and perceptions of credibility. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(1, 13-19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To answer two research questions: 1 What is the relationship between the visual design of a consumer health information web site and perceptions of the credibility of information found on it? 2 Is there a relationship between brand recognition, visual design preference, and credibility judgments?Design – Qualitative (correlation of rating of response to stimulus and quantitative (credibility coding of participant commentsSetting – Not stated; assumed to be academic institutions in the United States.Subjects – Thirty-four participants over the age of 35 (34 for statistical power and age over 35 on the hypothesis that this age group is most likely to seek health information on the Internet.Methods – Screen shots of 31 consumer health information sites chosen from the results of a Google search using the term “consumer health information” were converted to slide format and shown to participants. The 31 sites included 12 of the top ranked consumer health information sites derived from three sources: the Consumer and Patient Health Information Section (CAPHIS of the Medical Library Association (MLA, the MLA itself, and Consumer Reports. Participants were read and shown a script explaining the process prior to being asked to view and rate the 31 sites. Participants were first shown a blank slide with a crosshair to focus attention. Then a stimulus slide was shown for 2.8 seconds. A blank black screen was shown while they determined their rating. Participants were first asked to rate the visual design and aesthetics of the 31 web sites using a rating scale of -4 to -1 for negative judgments and +1 to +4 for positive judgments. Then they were asked to remember why they had made positive or negative ratings and why some web sites were preferred to others. The process was repeated with the slides re-ordered, and participants were asked to rate the credibility of the sites using the same rating scales. Upon completion

  14. Credibility and (disuse of feedback to inform teaching : a qualitative case study of physician-faculty perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr TF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation plays a central role in teaching in that physician-faculty theoretically use evaluations from clinical learners to inform their teaching. Knowledge about how physician-faculty access and internalize feedback from learners is sparse and concerning given its importance in medical training. This study aims to broaden our understanding. Using multiple data sources, this cross-sectional qualitative case study conducted in Spring of 2014 explored the internalization of learner feedback among physician-faculty teaching medical students, residents and fellows at a southwest academic medical center. Twelve one-on-one interviews were triangulated with observation notes and a national survey. Thematic and document analysis was conducted. Results revealed that the majority accessed and reviewed evaluations about their teaching. Most admitted not using learner feedback to inform teaching while a quarter did use them. Factors influencing participants use or disuse of learner feedback were the a reporting metrics and mechanisms, and b physician-faculty perception of learner credibility. Physician-faculty did not regard learners’ ability to assess and recognize effective teaching skills highly. To refine feedback for one-on-one teaching in the clinical setting, recommendations by study participants include: a redesigning of evaluation reporting metrics and narrative sections, and b feedback rubric training for learners.

  15. Information credibility for radiation contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident (3). Undergraduates panel data from one and four months after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Takashi; Miura, Asako; Ogura, Kanayo

    2011-01-01

    We examined the changes in information credibility, attitude of mass media, and risk perception concerning radiation contamination of foods after the Fukushima nuclear accident. We used a two-wave panel data of 277 undergraduates who completed the scales twice, one month and four months after the accident. Our findings indicated that the information credibility of optimistic experts, citizens' web pages and government press conferences decreased with time. On the other hand, the credibility of newspaper and TV news programs increased. In addition, while the critical attitude of mass media and the knowledge of radiation health effects increased after four months, the risk perception for foods under legal limits of radiation contamination decreased. A causal analysis carried out with the panel data found that (1) critical thinking attitude affected media literacy. In turn, (2) media literacy affected bias perception of mass media, information credibility, active information search, and risk perception of contamination foods. Finally, (3) this causal relationship was constant from the first to the fourth month after the accident. (author)

  16. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOGRAPHICS AND THE USAGE AND PERCEIVED CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ACCOMMODATION PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.

  17. Individual uncertainty and the uncertainty of science: The impact of perceived conflict and general self-efficacy on the perception of tentativeness and credibility of scientific information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny eFlemming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that

  18. The Credibility of Science Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen, L. H.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the media marketplace and an increased need for visibility to secure funding are leading inevitably to faster, simpler and more aggressive science communication. This article presents the results of an exploratory study of potential credibility problems in astronomy press releases, their causes, consequences and possible remedies. The study consisted of eleven open-ended interviews with journalists, scientists and public information officers. Results suggest that credibility issues are central to communication, deeply integrated into the workflow and can have severe consequences for the actors (especially the scientist, but are an unavoidable part of thecommunication process.

  19. Improving credibility evaluations on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schmettow, Martin; Wiering, Caro H.; Pieters, Jules M.; Boer, Henk

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, ongoing research on trust in Wikipedia is used as a case study to illustrate the design process of a support tool for Wikipedia, following the ASCE-model. This research is performed from a cognitive perspective and aims at users actively evaluating the credibility of information on

  20. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Aziz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.

  1. Impact of Celebrity Credibility on Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Aziz; Usman Ghani; Abdullah Niazi

    2013-01-01

    Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards t...

  2. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  3. Establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings: the plot thickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; McKenna, H P

    1999-08-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly recognized and valued and its unique place in nursing research is highlighted by many. Despite this, some nurse researchers continue to raise epistemological issues about the problems of objectivity and the validity of qualitative research findings. This paper explores the issues relating to the representativeness or credibility of qualitative research findings. It therefore critiques the existing distinct philosophical and methodological positions concerning the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings, which are described as follows: quantitative studies should be judged using the same criteria and terminology as quantitative studies; it is impossible, in a meaningful way, for any criteria to be used to judge qualitative studies; qualitative studies should be judged using criteria that are developed for and fit the qualitative paradigm; and the credibility of qualitative research findings could be established by testing out the emerging theory by means of conducting a deductive quantitative study. The authors conclude by providing some guidelines for establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings.

  4. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  5. The Judge on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between ‘key agents’ and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why as yet the civil law judge cannot be expected to start using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the judicial decision-making process in a relatively open, form-free interaction with his or her ‘clients’. This explanation is grounded on the hybrid character of social networking sites. On the one hand, these sites are direct, interactive, informal, and personalized media; but on the other, they are public and basically permanent. Their direct, interactive, informal and personalized character is highly compatible with the multimodal, network-embedded, form-free self-representation of the modern judge in the courtroom. However, their public and permanent character manifests in the second performance of a judge, being held publicly and permanently accountable for what is decided. This performance is characterized by a unimodal, ‘punctualized’, formal self-representation. Referring to the work of legal sociologists as well as discourse scholars, it is underlined how much this public judicial self-representation is part of a persistent ritual that renders it incompatible with direct, interactive, informal and personalized communication. The hybrid character of social media does not allow judges to utilize them to act as key-agents: to open up the ‘backstage area’ to reveal the actual dynamics of the decision-making process, and to transparently connect the judicial performance in the courtroom session with the second performance when issuing a decision.

  6. Employee Reviews on Company Independent Sites and its Impact on Organizational Attractiveness: Role of Information Realism, Person – Environment Fit and Source Credibility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavleen Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on recruitment has focused on the traditional sources of recruitment like company brochures, career fairs, and impact of such sources on intent to join the organization, productivity and turnover intention. The influence of recruitment related information on pre hire outcomes is still scarce and inconclusive. With the advent of technology and access to Internet, company websites have become an important source of recruitment. Apart from company websites, job seekers are now using company independent websites, forums or online communities to gather a more truthful picture and information about the job and organizational attributes. Social media too has become increasingly important medium where the current employees’ share how it is to work with the organization However research on web based recruitment is limited to company websites. Despite the widespread growth and practical use of these new and innovative media very little is known about how these independent sites influence recruitment pre hire outcomes. In this direction the proposed study presents a conceptual framework about how job seekers perceive company independent websites as a tool for providing recruitment communication and their impact on organizational attractiveness using Information Realism, Person-Environment fit framework, Source Credibility framework.

  7. Discovery, utilisation and analysis of credible threats for 2×2 incomplete information games in the Theory of Moves framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jolie; Sen, Sandip

    2014-04-01

    Steven Brams's [(1994). Theory of moves. Cambridge University Press] Theory of Moves (TOM) is an alternative to traditional game theoretic treatment of real-life interactions, in which players choose strategies based on analysis of future moves and counter-moves that arise if game play commences at a specified start state and either player can choose to move first. In repeated play, players using TOM rationality arrive at nonmyopic equilibria. One advantage of TOM is its ability to model scenarios in which power asymmetries exist between players. In particular, threat power, i.e. the ability of one player to threaten and sustain immediate, globally disadvantageous outcomes to force a desirable result long term, can be utilised to induce Pareto optimal states in games such as Prisoner's Dilemma which result in Pareto-dominated outcomes using traditional methods. Unfortunately, prior work on TOM is limited by an assumption of complete information. This paper presents a mechanism that can be used by a player to utilise threat power when playing a strict, ordinal 2×2 game under incomplete information. We also analyse the benefits of threat power and support in this analysis with empirical evidence.

  8. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  9. Credibility judgments of narratives: language, plausibility, and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahari, Galit; Glicksohn, Joseph; Nachson, Israel

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to find out whether textual features of narratives differentially affect credibility judgments made by judges having different levels of absorption (a disposition associated with rich visual imagination). Participants in both experiments were exposed to a textual narrative and requested to judge whether the narrator actually experienced the event he described in his story. In Experiment 1, the narrative varied in terms of language (literal, figurative) and plausibility (ordinary, anomalous). In Experiment 2, the narrative varied in terms of language only. The participants' perceptions of the plausibility of the story described and the extent to which they were absorbed in reading were measured. The data from both experiments together suggest that the groups applied entirely different criteria in credibility judgments. For high-absorption individuals, their credibility judgment depends on the degree to which the text can be assimilated into their own vivid imagination, whereas for low-absorption individuals it depends mainly on plausibility. That is, high-absorption individuals applied an experiential mental set while judging the credibility of the narrator, whereas low-absorption individuals applied an instrumental mental set. Possible cognitive mechanisms and implications for credibility judgments are discussed.

  10. Credibility assessment in child sexual abuse investigations: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  12. Comparison of credible patients of very low intelligence and non-credible patients on neurocognitive performance validity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Klayton; Boone, Kyle; Victor, Tara; Miora, Deborah; Cottingham, Maria; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle; Wright, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this archival study was to identify performance validity tests (PVTs) and standard IQ and neurocognitive test scores, which singly or in combination, differentiate credible patients of low IQ (FSIQ ≤ 75; n = 55) from non-credible patients. We compared the credible participants against a sample of 74 non-credible patients who appeared to have been attempting to feign low intelligence specifically (FSIQ ≤ 75), as well as a larger non-credible sample (n = 383) unselected for IQ. The entire non-credible group scored significantly higher than the credible participants on measures of verbal crystallized intelligence/semantic memory and manipulation of overlearned information, while the credible group performed significantly better on many processing speed and memory tests. Additionally, credible women showed faster finger-tapping speeds than non-credible women. The credible group also scored significantly higher than the non-credible subgroup with low IQ scores on measures of attention, visual perceptual/spatial tasks, processing speed, verbal learning/list learning, and visual memory, and credible women continued to outperform non-credible women on finger tapping. When cut-offs were selected to maintain approximately 90% specificity in the credible group, sensitivity rates were highest for verbal and visual memory measures (i.e., TOMM trials 1 and 2; Warrington Words correct and time; Rey Word Recognition Test total; RAVLT Effort Equation, Trial 5, total across learning trials, short delay, recognition, and RAVLT/RO discriminant function; and Digit Symbol recognition), followed by select attentional PVT scores (i.e., b Test omissions and time to recite four digits forward). When failure rates were tabulated across seven most sensitive scores, a cut-off of ≥ 2 failures was associated with 85.4% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity, while a cut-off of ≥ 3 failures resulted in 95.1% specificity and 66.0% sensitivity. Results are discussed in light of

  13. Chapter 8: The credibility crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumadere, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the credibility crisis, a generalized state of conflicting cognitions is probably prevalent, along with possible individual and social pathologies. These cognitive conflicts and emotional traumas are linked to both the characteristics of Chernobyl as a human-made disaster and the specific nature of Chernobyl as a nuclear disaster. Three major elements as constituents of this nature are identified: The rupture of a social contract, the loss of a socially valued object, and the sudden removal of established distances. Further research and basic information are needed in this area where little specific observation is reported. A better grasp of the impact of nuclear energy on our societies can lead to better adapted policy, increased local and social solidarity, more decentralized initiative and risk management, and better organized primary prevention in nuclear disaster. (orig./DG)

  14. Distortions in Judged Spatial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Distortions in judgments of relative geographical relations were observed, particularly when the locations were in different geographical or political units. Subjects distorted the judged relation to conform with the relation of the superordinate political unit. A model for the hierachical storage of spatial information is presented. (Author/RD)

  15. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  16. Credibility Discourse of PR Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Maria; Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm

    2008-01-01

    to giving assurance of their expertise, trustworthiness and empathy, thus confirming our overall expectation that corporate credibility discourse is relatively uniform from a European perspective. However, contrary to our assumptions, the results of our study show that PR credibility discourse demonstrates...

  17. Gaze Behavior of Gymnastics Judges: Where Do Experienced Judges and Gymnasts Look While Judging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra; Möller, Carsten; Plessner, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics judges and former gymnasts have been shown to be quite accurate in detecting errors and accurately judging performance. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine if this superior judging performance is reflected in judges' gaze behavior. Method: Thirty-five judges were asked to judge 21 gymnasts who performed a skill on…

  18. Would a madman have been so wise as this?" The effects of source credibility and message credibility on validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E; LoCasto, Paul C; Briner, Stephen W; Dyar, Samantha

    2017-02-01

    Readers rapidly check new information against prior knowledge during validation, but research is inconsistent as to whether source credibility affects validation. We argue that readers are likely to accept highly plausible assertions regardless of source, but that high source credibility may boost acceptance of claims that are less plausible based on general world knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants read narratives with assertions for which the plausibility varied depending on the source. For high credibility sources, we found that readers were faster to read information confirming these assertions relative to contradictory information. We found the opposite patterns for low credibility characters. In Experiment 2, readers read claims from the same high or low credibility sources, but the claims were always plausible based on general world knowledge. Readers consistently took longer to read contradictory information, regardless of source. In Experiment 3, participants read modified versions of "The Tell-Tale Heart," which was narrated entirely by an unreliable source. We manipulated the plausibility of a target event, as well as whether high credibility characters within the story provided confirmatory or contradictory information about the narrator's description of the target event. Though readers rated the narrator as being insane, they were more likely to believe the narrator's assertions about the target event when it was plausible and corroborated by other characters. We argue that sourcing research would benefit from focusing on the relationship between source credibility, message credibility, and multiple sources within a text.

  19. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, M Q

    1999-12-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems.

  20. Factual accuracy and trust in information: the role of expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the task of judging the credibility of information has shifted from trained professionals (e.g., editors) to end users of information (e.g., casual Internet users). Lacking training in this task, it is highly relevant to research the behavior of these end users. In this

  1. Factual Accuracy and Trust in Information: The Role of Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the task of judging the credibility of information has shifted from trained professionals (e.g., editors) to end users of information (e.g., casual Internet users). Lacking training in this task, it is highly relevant to research the behavior of these end users. In this

  2. Soft Regulators, though judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geest, G.G.A.; Dari Mattiacci, G.

    Judges have a tendency to be more demanding than regulators. In the United States, a majority of the courts has adopted the rule that the unexcused violation of a statutory standard is negligence per se. However, the converse does not hold: compliance with regulation does not relieve the injurer of

  3. Risky Business: Communicating with Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Leonard S.

    2011-01-01

    In hostile situations, a communicator's goal is to establish and maintain trust and credibility with the audience. School business officials need the special skills and techniques of what's known as "risk communication." Few people are natural risk communicators. Those who do it well honed their skills over many years spent in hostile…

  4. Instructor Credibility across Disciplines: Identifying Students' Differentiated Expectations of Instructor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermiller, Carl; Ruppert, Bryan; Atwood, April

    2012-01-01

    Business communication instructors can face a unique set of challenges to maintain their credibility with students. Communication plays an important role in the instructor-student relationship, and students judge instructors' ability to teach communication based on their ability to practice what they teach. The authors' empirical study shows that…

  5. Mathematical Validation and Credibility of Diagnostic Blocks for Spinal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andrew J; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blocks are used in different ways for the diagnosis of spinal pain, but their validity has not been fully evaluated. Four clinical protocols were analyzed mathematically to determine the probability of correct responses arising by chance. The complement of this probability was adopted as a measure of the credibility of correct responses. The credibility of responses varied from 50% to 95%, and was determined less by the agents used but more by what information was given to patients and if the agents were fully randomized for each block. Randomized, comparative local anesthetic blocks offer a credibility of 75%, but randomized, placebo-controlled blocks provide a credibility of 95%, and are thereby suitable as a criterion standard for diagnostic blocks. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Credibility judgments in web page design - a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selejan, O; Muresanu, D F; Popa, L; Muresanu-Oloeriu, I; Iudean, D; Buzoianu, A; Suciu, S

    2016-01-01

    Today, more than ever, knowledge that interfaces appearance analysis is a crucial point in human-computer interaction field has been accepted. As nowadays virtually anyone can publish information on the web, the credibility role has grown increasingly important in relation to the web-based content. Areas like trust, credibility, and behavior, doubled by overall impression and user expectation are today in the spotlight of research compared to the last period, when other pragmatic areas such as usability and utility were considered. Credibility has been discussed as a theoretical construct in the field of communication in the past decades and revealed that people tend to evaluate the credibility of communication primarily by the communicator's expertise. Other factors involved in the content communication process are trustworthiness and dynamism as well as various other criteria but to a lower extent. In this brief review, factors like web page aesthetics, browsing experiences and user experience are considered.

  7. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  8. Credibility is the first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecher, William

    2002-01-01

    The first principle of an effective public affairs program on nuclear energy is credibility. If credibility is lacking, no matter how artful the message, it will not be persuasive. There has long been a problem in the United States. For years much of the industry followed the practice, when there was an event at a nuclear power plant that resulted in an unplanned release of radioactivity, to tell the public there was 'no release' if in fact the release was below the technical specifications of what the NRC mandates as being safe. The NRC is a safety regulator. It can tell nuclear power plant operators what to do, or not do, when it comes to safety, but doesn't have the right to tell them what to say to the public. The example of an emergency exercise and the NRC press release on that occasion showed the direction how companies could be influenced to behave in order to prevent such avoidably negative news coverage, i.e. attaining credibility when public anxiety is concerned

  9. Evaluating judge performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A

    2004-01-01

    Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.

  10. Judging the Judges: finding value in these problematic characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L R Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical judges are well known for their less than exemplary behaviour. In the past, these judges have been appreciated largely as examples of how a charismatic leader should not behave. In spite of the judges� questionable morals, the writer of the book of Hebrews commends four of them (Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, and Samson for their faith. This paper evaluates these judges in light of their characterisations in the book of Hebrews and in the book of Judges and suggests that our struggle with the judges parallels the contemporary integrity crisis in Christian leadership.

  11. Evaluation measures for relevance and credibility in ranked lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Birger

    2017-01-01

    Recent discussions on alternative facts, fake news, and post truth politics have motivated research on creating technologies that allow people not only to access information, but also to assess the credibility of the information presented to them by information retrieval systems. Whereas technology...

  12. CREDIBILITY OF WEBSITES THROUGH FACETS AND DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ȚUGULEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate important aspects to concern on when building a commercial presentation website, in order to increase the credibility of the certain categories of a presentation website. Factor analysis was used in order to identify the dimensions of each category. The categories and resulted dimensions discussed were: “image” – with the following dimensions: Projected image, Specialist, Advert and Coherence, “relationship” – with the following dimensions: Bi-directional communication and Contact information, “product presentation” – with the following dimensions: In-depth description and Variety and “site functionality” – with the following dimensions: Usefulness, Official relationship, Complete communication, Exterior communication, Information format and References.

  13. The Effect of Top-Level Domains and Advertisements on Health Web Site Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Loh, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    Background Concerns over health information on the Internet have generated efforts to enhance credibility markers; yet how users actually assess the credibility of online health information is largely unknown. Objective This study set out to (1) establish a parsimonious and valid questionnaire instrument to measure credibility of Internet health information by drawing on various previous measures of source, news, and other credibility scales; and (2) to identify the effects of Web-site domains and advertising on credibility perceptions. Methods Respondents (N = 156) examined one of 12 Web-site mock-ups and completed credibility scales in a 3 x 2 x 2 between-subjects experimental design. Factor analysis and validity checks were used for item reduction, and analysis of variance was employed for hypothesis testing of Web-site features' effects. Results In an attempt to construct a credibility instrument, three dimensions of credibility (safety, trustworthiness, and dynamism) were retained, reflecting traditional credibility sub-themes, but composed of items from disparate sources. When testing the effect of the presence or absence of advertising on a Web site on credibility, we found that this depends on the site's domain, with a trend for advertisements having deleterious effects on the credibility of sites with .org domain, but positive effects on sites with .com or .edu domains. Conclusions Health-information Web-site providers should select domains purposefully when they can, especially if they must accept on-site advertising. Credibility perceptions may not be invariant or stable, but rather are sensitive to topic and context. Future research may employ these findings in order to compare other forms of health-information delivery to optimal Web-site features. PMID:15471750

  14. Inter-Judge Agreement in Classifying Students as Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Susan; And Others

    Eighteen judges with backgrounds in assessment, decision making, and learning disabilities were asked to use an array of information to differentiate learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled students. Each judge was provided with forms containing information on 42 test or subtest scores of 50 school-identified LD students and 49 non-LD…

  15. The problem of the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Perederij

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop a classification of factors influencing the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics. As a result of consolidation of theoretical information and practical experience was a list of the factors that negatively affect the behavior of judges in gymnastics, which were divided into two groups: the objective and non-objective (subjective. Objective factors include intense competition schedule, fatigue, especially memory, attention, competition rules, to the subjective: the ratio of judges to their gymnast (team or to the opposing team, the lack of interest in the performance, composition of the judging panel, the influence of authority and popularity sportswomen dependence on its management. Respondents were unanimous in that independent professional judges are needed in a rhythmic gymnastics. It is set that 64% respondent mark the presence of pressure on judges from the side of competitors.

  16. Novelties in the judges's selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Getoš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the legal position of the judiciary in the separation of powers in the Republic of Croatia, as well as the procedure for the election of members of the State Judicial Council and its President, its scope and operation. The analysis covers the principle, as well as the practical and normative level, hereby especially focusing on the provisions of the ‘State Judicial Council Act’ from 2010 (ZDSV, which introduced significant novelties to the appointment procedure of judges. This is due to the fact that, according to the authors, the role of judges, appointed by the State Judicial Council, in the way of the Croatian accession to the European Union is quite significant, since the judges with their work, and how the interpretation of applicable regulations in the spirit of EU law, provide the essential convergence judiciary in Croatia with the acquis and the highest standards of the European Union. It gives a special and comprehensive view of general and special conditions in the appointment of judges for the period before and after 31 December 2012, and a comparative view on conditions of appointment of judges in continental European countries, the circle of countries, where Croatia belongs to, with special reference to legal status, scope, operation and role of the State School for the judicial officers in the process of appointing judges. Performs the analysis and outlines the procedure for appointment of judges, with special emphasis on each stage: the stage of calling the ads and collecting applications, testing stage of candidates for judges and candidates who are not judges and the decision stage on the appointment, with special emphasis on the criteria and evaluation of candidates who have been determined for the appointment, in the normative sense and practical action, which is a standardized procedure, the legal level and in essence, ZDSV, along with suggestions de lege ferenda.

  17. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  18. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  19. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  20. Ranking the Online Documents Based on Relative Credibility Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dahlan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information searching is the most popular activity in Internet. Usually the search engine provides the search results ranked by the relevance. However, for a certain purpose that concerns with information credibility, particularly citing information for scientific works, another approach of ranking the search engine results is required. This paper presents a study on developing a new ranking method based on the credibility of information. The method is built up upon two well-known algorithms, PageRank and Citation Analysis. The result of the experiment that used Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient to compare the proposed rank (generated by the method with the standard rank (generated manually by a group of experts showed that the average Spearman 0 < rS < critical value. It means that the correlation was proven but it was not significant. Hence the proposed rank does not satisfy the standard but the performance could be improved.

  1. Evidence for a neural correlate of a framing effect: bias-specific activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during credibility judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, M; Schwindt, W; Krämer, J; Kugel, H; Plassmann, H; Kenning, P; Ringelstein, E B

    2005-11-15

    Neural processes within the medial prefrontal cortex play a crucial role in assessing and integrating emotional and other implicit information during decision-making. Phylogenetically, it was important for the individual to assess the relevance of all kinds of environmental stimuli in order to adapt behavior in a flexible manner. Consequently, we can in principle not exclude that environmental information covertly influences the evaluation of actually decision relevant facts ("framing effect"). To test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex is involved into a framing effect we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a binary credibility judgment task. Twenty-one subjects were asked to judge 30 normalized news magazine headlines by forced answers as "true" or "false". To confound the judgments by formally irrelevant framing information we presented each of the headlines in four different news magazines characterized by varying credibility. For each subject the susceptibility to the judgment confounder (framing information) was assessed by magazine-specific modifications of the answers given. We could show that individual activity changes of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the judgments correlate with the degree of an individual's susceptibility to the framing information. We found (i) a neural correlate of a framing effect as postulated by behavioral decision theorists that (ii) reflects interindividual differences in the degree of the susceptibility to framing information.

  2. Credible nuclear waste management: a legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffords, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The past credibility of the AEC, ERDA, and NRC, along with the present credibility of DOE and NRC, are questioned. The results of voter responses to a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power are linked to the question of past credibility of these Federal agencies. It is proposed that the future of nuclear power be linked directly to the Executive Branch of the government via a new bureaucracy, a Waste Management Authority. This new bureaucracy would be completely separated from the construction or licensing phase of nuclear power, except it would have final say over any nuclear power expansion pending an acceptable solution to the waste reprocessing question

  3. Strategy to Increase U.S. Credibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shanks, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...) National Security Strategy (NSS). The public's mistrust of the United States is born out of a widespread misunderstanding and mistrust of its policies and a lack of USG credibility especially in the Greater Middle East...

  4. How Organizational Design Can Make Delegation Credible

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai J.

    2005-01-01

    Credible delegation of discretion obtains when it is a rational strategy for managers not to overrule employee decisions that are based on delegated decision rights or renege on the level of delegated discretion (and this is common knowledge). Making delegation of discretion credible becomes a crucial issue when organizations want to sustain the advantages that may flow from delegation: Such advantages are dependent on motivated employees, and managerial overruling or reneging is harmful to m...

  5. Credibility and trust in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Levine, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper attempts to summarize the major findings of the psychological and sociological literature on trust and credibility, and to apply these findings to the specific arena of risk communication. A few guidelines for risk communication that appear appropriate for the social and institutional context in which the risk debate takes place are presented. The case studies of credibility of nuclear energy, biotechnology, medicine, and aviation are discussed. (DG)

  6. Exchange rate stabilization under imperfect credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Guillermo; Vegh, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes stabilization policy under predetermined exchange rates in a cash-in-advance, staggered-prices model. Under full credibility, a reduction in the rate of devaluation results in an immediate and permanent reduction in the inflation rate, with no effect on output or consumption. In contrast, a non-credible stabilization results in an initial expansion of output, followed by a later recession. The inflation rate of home goods remains above the rate of devaluation throughout...

  7. Practical differences among probabilities, possibilities, and credibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Moulin, Caroline

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents some important differences that exist between theories, which allow the uncertainty management in data fusion. The main comparative results illustrated in this paper are the followings: Incompatibility between decisions got from probabilities and credibilities is highlighted. In the dynamic frame, as remarked in [19] or [17], belief and plausibility of Dempster-Shafer model do not frame the Bayesian probability. This framing can however be obtained by the Modified Dempster-Shafer approach. It also can be obtained in the Bayesian framework either by simulation techniques, or with a studentization. The uncommitted in the Dempster-Shafer way, e.g. the mass accorded to the ignorance, gives a mechanism similar to the reliability in the Bayesian model. Uncommitted mass in Dempster-Shafer theory or reliability in Bayes theory act like a filter that weakens extracted information, and improves robustness to outliners. So, it is logical to observe on examples like the one presented particularly by D.M. Buede, a faster convergence of a Bayesian method that doesn't take into account the reliability, in front of Dempster-Shafer method which uses uncommitted mass. But, on Bayesian masses, if reliability is taken into account, at the same level that the uncommited, e.g. F=1-m, we observe an equivalent rate for convergence. When Dempster-Shafer and Bayes operator are informed by uncertainty, faster or lower convergence can be exhibited on non Bayesian masses. This is due to positive or negative synergy between information delivered by sensors. This effect is a direct consequence of non additivity when considering non Bayesian masses. Unknowledge of the prior in bayesian techniques can be quickly compensated by information accumulated as time goes on by a set of sensors. All these results are presented on simple examples, and developed when necessary.

  8. In the CJEU Judges Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    . A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges' trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification and profile, to their attitudes towards the EU, and to their beliefs about the CJEU's ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance on European Union law, and 2......This article aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges' trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...

  9. Supply Chain Risk Management: An Introduction to the Credible Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    van.poindexter@dau.mil. Figure 3. Trusted Suppliers Source: “ Managing Information Communications Technology Global Supply Chain Risk Awareness...Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 18 Supply Chain Risk Management An Introduction to the Credible Threat Heath Ferry n Van Poindexter 19...cybersecurity breach. This article examines the elements of supply chain risk management , the national security risks associated with exploitation, and

  10. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  11. Cultural Variation in Situation Assessment: Influence of Source Credibility and Rank Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heacox, N

    2000-01-01

    .... Although information content, rank status, and source credibility have received much attention by researchers in command and control decision-making, cultural variations in these factors have seldom been studied...

  12. How accurately do instructors judge students' attitudes online? A measurement of expectations and level of satisfaction with an Online Information Systems masters program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren-Nicole Macht

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to run a successful educational program, instructors as well as staff members must constantly review and adapt to the expectations, concerns, demographics and satisfaction level of their student consumers. This study was conducted in order to examine these issues in an online educational setting. First, interviews were given to the program instructors in order to determine their opinions about the students' expectations and satisfaction levels. This information was then used to create a student survey that assessed the students' expectations and level of satisfaction. These two sets of results were then compared This comparison revealed that the online instructors did have a good grasp of the online students' expectations, concerns, demographics and satisfaction level. The only areas where the instructors' concepts of student views were slightly less accurate was student concerns and student feelings about the program administration, where the instructors overestimated the level of concern the students had about successfully returning to the learning environment and underestimated the students' satisfaction with the program's administration. This leads us to conclude that, even with the added online factor, instructors strongly understand student expectations, satisfaction levels, demographics and concerns.

  13. Eletronuclear's relationship with the Brazilian media: transparency and credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    In a capitalist economy the most valued assets are not money, shares or facilities, but credibility. Lack of money can ruin a company, but often it is reputation that delivers the final blow. It has become challenging to safeguard reputation in a world where Communication is increasingly connected and with such an intense and lightning fast flow of information. This is particularly true for the electricity sector - a commodity so prevalent in everyday modern life, but, whose business dealings, are hardly known by the general public. When it comes to nuclear energy, the challenge of establishing an effective Communication with transparency and credibility touches on even more complex elements. The topic of this paper is the scenario through which the Communication process, along with its characteristics and approaches, unfolds between the nuclear sector and the Brazilian media. (author)

  14. Credibility Perceptions of User Generated Content

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, Dr. P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Social media users generate a large volume of user generated content in various social media platforms to share their experiences in using a brand or a service. In the travel industry, the user generated content reviews are used by the prospective travellers to decide their travel plans. In the 1950’s credibility research of the media was started when television was introduced as a new media in the world dominated by newspapers. In the Social Media platforms, the credibility assessment is muc...

  15. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  16. Consider the source: persuasion of implicit evaluations is moderated by source credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan; Nosek, Brian A

    2013-02-01

    The long history of persuasion research shows how to change explicit, self-reported evaluations through direct appeals. At the same time, research on how to change implicit evaluations has focused almost entirely on techniques of retraining existing evaluations or manipulating contexts. In five studies, we examined whether direct appeals can change implicit evaluations in the same way as they do explicit evaluations. In five studies, both explicit and implicit evaluations showed greater evidence of persuasion following information presented by a highly credible source than a source low in credibility. Whereas cognitive load did not alter the effect of source credibility on explicit evaluations, source credibility had an effect on the persuasion of implicit evaluations only when participants were encouraged and able to consider information about the source. Our findings reveal the relevance of persuasion research for changing implicit evaluations and provide new ideas about the processes underlying both types of evaluation.

  17. A framework to establish credibility of computational models in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice P

    2017-10-01

    Computational models in biology and biomedical science are often constructed to aid people's understanding of phenomena or to inform decisions with socioeconomic consequences. Model credibility is the willingness of people to trust a model's predictions and is often difficult to establish for computational biology models. A 3 × 3 matrix has been proposed to allow such models to be categorised with respect to their testability and epistemic foundation in order to guide the selection of an appropriate process of validation to supply evidence to establish credibility. Three approaches to validation are identified that can be deployed depending on whether a model is deemed untestable, testable or lies somewhere in between. In the latter two cases, the validation process involves the quantification of uncertainty which is a key output. The issues arising due to the complexity and inherent variability of biological systems are discussed and the creation of 'digital twins' proposed as a means to alleviate the issues and provide a more robust, transparent and traceable route to model credibility and acceptance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Empirical Bayes Credibility Models for Economic Catastrophic Losses by Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrová Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic events affect various regions of the world with increasing frequency and intensity. The number of catastrophic events and the amount of economic losses is varying in different world regions. Part of these losses is covered by insurance. Catastrophe events in last years are associated with increases in premiums for some lines of business. The article focus on estimating the amount of net premiums that would be needed to cover the total or insured catastrophic losses in different world regions using Bühlmann and Bühlmann-Straub empirical credibility models based on data from Sigma Swiss Re 2010-2016. The empirical credibility models have been developed to estimate insurance premiums for short term insurance contracts using two ingredients: past data from the risk itself and collateral data from other sources considered to be relevant. In this article we deal with application of these models based on the real data about number of catastrophic events and about the total economic and insured catastrophe losses in seven regions of the world in time period 2009-2015. Estimated credible premiums by world regions provide information how much money in the monitored regions will be need to cover total and insured catastrophic losses in next year.

  19. How Experienced SoTL Researchers Develop the Credibility of Their Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Billot

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning research in higher education, often referred to as the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, is still relatively novel in many academic contexts compared to the mainstay of disciplinary research. One indication of this is the challenges those who engage in SoTL report in terms of how this work is valued or considered credible amongst disciplinary colleagues and in the face of institutional policies and practices. This paper moves beyond the literature that describes these specific challenges to investigate how 23 experienced SoTL researchers from five different countries understood the notion of credibility in relationship to their SoTL research and how they went about developing credibility for their work. Semi-structured interviews were facilitated and analyzed using inductive analysis. Findings indicate that notions of credibility encompassed putting SoTL research into action and building capacity and community around research findings, as well as gaining external validation through traditional indicators such as publishing. SoTL researchers reported a variety of strategies and approaches they were using, both formal and informal, to develop credibility for their work. The direct focus of this paper on credibility of SoTL work as perceived by experienced SoTL researchers, and how they go about developing credibility, is a distinct contribution to the discussions about the valuing of SoTL work.

  20. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  1. Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xufeng Xu, Joydeep Mitra

    have found that credibility theory, which broadens the scope of fuzzy set theory, is an effective tool for representing fuzzy events, and have developed a theoretical .... Based on the status of switches, the distribution system can be divided into multiple SPSS, which are connected with tie switches. For example, SPSS.

  2. 13 CFR 134.218 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. The AA/OHA will assign all other cases before OHA to either an Administrative Law Judge... Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.218 Judges. (a) Assignment. The AA...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  4. Trust and credibility: measured by multidimensional scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warg, L.E.; Bodin, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: in focus of much of today's research interest in risk communication, is the fact that the communities do not trust policy and decision makers such as politicians, government or industry people. This is especially serious in the years to come when we are expecting risk issues concerning for example the nuclear industry, global warming and hazardous waste, to be even higher on the political and social agenda all over the world. Despite the research efforts devoted to trust, society needs an in depth understanding of trust for conducting successful communication regarding environmental hazards. The present abstract is about an experimental study in psychology where focus has been on the possibility to use the multidimensional scaling technique to explore the characteristics people consider to be of importance when they say that certain persons are credible. In the study, a total of 61 students of the University of Oerebro, Sweden, were required to make comparisons of the similarity between 12 well-known swedish persons from politics science, media, industry, 'TV-world' and literature (two persons at a time), regarding their credibility when making statements about risks in society. In addition, the subjects were rating the importance of 19 factors for the credibility of a source. These 61 persons comprised three groups of students: pedagogists, business economists, and chemists. There were 61 % women and 39% men and the mean age was 23 years. The results will be analyzed using multidimensional scaling technique. Differences between the three groups will be analyzed and presented as well as those between men and women. In addition, the 19 factors will be discussed and considered when trying to label the dimensions accounted for by the multidimensional scaling technique. The result from this study will contribute to our understanding of important factors behind human judgments concerning trust and credibility. It will also point to a

  5. Evaluation method of nuclear nonproliferation credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Eun-ha; Ko, Won Il

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multicriteria analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of a state's nuclear nonproliferation credibility level. Underscoring the implications of policy on the sources of political demand for nuclear weapons rather than focusing on efforts to restrict the supply of specific weapons technology from the 'haves' to the 'have-nots', the proposed methodology considers the political, social, and cultural dimensions of nuclear proliferation. This methodology comprises three steps: (1) identifying the factors that influence credibility formation and employing them to construct a criteria tree that will illustrate the relationships among these factors; (2) defining the weight coefficients of each criterion through pairwise comparisons of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); and (3) assigning numerical scores to a state under each criterion and combining them with the weight coefficients in order to provide an overall assessment of the state. The functionality of this methodology is examined by assessing the current level of nuclear nonproliferation credibility of four countries: Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Switzerland.

  6. Establishing model credibility involves more than validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.

    1991-01-01

    One widely used definition of validation is that the quantitative test of the performance of a model through the comparison of model predictions to independent sets of observations from the system being simulated. The ability to show that the model predictions compare well with observations is often thought to be the most rigorous test that can be used to establish credibility for a model in the scientific community. However, such tests are only part of the process used to establish credibility, and in some cases may be either unnecessary or misleading. Naylor and Finger extended the concept of validation to include the establishment of validity for the postulates embodied in the model and the test of assumptions used to select postulates for the model. Validity of postulates is established through concurrence by experts in the field of study that the mathematical or conceptual model contains the structural components and mathematical relationships necessary to adequately represent the system with respect to the goals for the model. This extended definition of validation provides for consideration of the structure of the model, not just its performance, in establishing credibility. Evaluation of a simulation model should establish the correctness of the code and the efficacy of the model within its domain of applicability. (24 refs., 6 figs.)

  7. Aggregated trustworthiness: Redefining online credibility through social validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Johan; Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of social dynamics on online credibility. Empirical studies by Pettingill (2006) and Hargittai, et al. (2010) suggest that social validation and online trustees play increasingly important roles when evaluating credibility online. This dynamic puts pressure...

  8. Controversy matters: Impacts of topic and solution controversy on the perceived credibility of a scientist who advocates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Beall

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the potential influence of a scientist's advocacy position on the public's perceived credibility of scientists as a whole. Further, we examine how the scientist's solution position (information only, non-controversial, and controversial affects the public's perception of the scientist's motivation for sharing information about specific issues (flu, marijuana, climate change, severe weather. Finally, we assess how perceived motivations mediate the relationship between solution position and credibility. Using data from a quota sample of American adults obtained by Qualtrics (n = 2,453, we found that in some conditions advocating for a solution positively predicted credibility, while in one condition, it negatively predicted scientist credibility. We also found that the influence of solution position on perceived credibility was mediated by several motivation perceptions; most notably through perception that the scientist was motivated to: (a serve the public and (b persuade the public. Further results and implications are discussed.

  9. Judging Judges: A Study of U.S. Federal District Court Judges in the 10th Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Wald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the demographics of federal district court judges in the 10th Circuit. Consistent with the glass-ceiling effect literature in positions of power and influence in the legal profession, the study finds that women judges are under-represented on the 10th Circuit bench compared with their numbers as lawyers in the jurisdictions of the Circuit. However, the study finds that minority judges are over-represented in the Circuit. The paper next explores the relationship between under-representation, over-representation and discrimination. Under-representation that cannot be explained in terms of merit criteria or informed opting out, such as the under-representation of women on the 10th Circuit, strongly suggests the lingering effects of past exclusion and discrimination, as well as the current effects of implicit bias. As demonstrated by the over-representation of minority judges, the political commission process can break through the gender glass-ceiling by over-representing qualified women judges in the short run until their overall numbers better reflect equality. Este artículo examina la demografía de los jueces federales de tribunales de distrito del 10º Circuito. Corroborando la literatura sobre el efecto del techo de cristal en posiciones de poder e influencia en la profesión jurídica, el estudio descubre que las juezas están infrarrepresentadas en el 10º Circuito en comparación con el número de abogadas en las jurisdicciones del Circuito. Sin embargo, el estudio descubre que los jueces de grupos sociales minoritarios están sobrerrepresentados en el Circuito. A continuación, el artículo explora la relación entre la infrarrepresentación, la sobrerrepresentación y la discriminación. La infrarrepresentación que no puede ser explicada en términos de criterios de mérito o de la renuncia informada, como es el caso de la infrarrepresentación de mujeres en el 10º Circuito, apoya fuertemente la idea de que

  10. Optical, gravitational, and kinesthetic determinants of judged eye level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoper, Arnold E.; Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    Subjects judged eye level, defined in three distinct ways relative to three distinct reference planes: a gravitational horizontal, giving the gravitationally referenced eye level (GREL); a visible surface, giving the surface-referenced eye level (SREL); and a plane fixed with respect to the head, giving the head-referenced eye level (HREL). The information available for these judgements was varied by having the subjects view an illuminated target that could be placed in a box which: (1) was pitched at various angles, (2) was illuminated or kept in darkness, (3) was moved to different positions along the subject's head-to-foot body axis, and (4) was viewed with the subjects upright or reclining. The results showed: (1) judgements of GREL made in the dark were 2.5 deg lower than in the light, with a significantly greater variability; (2) judged GREL was shifted approximately half of the way toward SREL when these two eye levels did not coincide; (3) judged SREL was shifted about 12 percent of the way toward HREL when these two eye levels did not coincide, (4) judged HREL was shifted about half way toward SREL when these two eye level did not coincide and when the subject was upright (when the subject was reclining, HREL was shifted approx. 90 percent toward SREL); (5) the variability of the judged HREL in the dark was nearly twice as great with the subject reclining than with the subject upright. These results indicate that gravity is an important source of information for judgement of eye level. In the absence of information concerning the direction of gravity, the ability to judge HREL is extremely poor. A visible environment does not seem to afford precise information as to judgements of direction, but it probably does afford significant information as to the stability of these judgements.

  11. Credibility of the Printed Media: The Swine Flu as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Žlof

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of credibility becomes especially pronounced in times of crises, which characteristically abound in the unknown, uncertainty, and doubt. Such crises are mostly sudden, often complex, andsometimes mired in controversial events. The public subsequently craves more information in times of crises, such that they may obtain more precise guidance, and ease their ability to cope. Given the relatively low frequency of crisis situations, most people lack actual experience relevant to a given predicament. The appearance of Virus A (H1N1 at the onset of 2009 is one such case. Despite H1N1’s classification as a broad-scale, serious health hazard, preventive vaccinations failed to reach a large segment of the population. We contend that the lack of credibility in informing the public through the media contributed considerably to this failure. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the level of credible information provided by the print media from which the general public could have taken an informed position on the crisis in question. Quantitative research and content analysis ascertained from a body of print media sources with national coverage reveals that the Croatian print media, contrary to our expectations, largely rely on official sources and transparently cite authors, which contributes to a higher degree of credibility. Yet further analysis of the number of sources suggests that most journalists used on average only one or no named sources, which significantly reduces the credibility of the published articles.

  12. The Credibility of Policy Reporting Across Learning Disciplines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, S.; Youtie, J.; Solomon, G.; Porter, A.

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a credibility map argues that everyone has a distinctive map that dictates the preference given to different types and sources of information. When seeking to influence other academic fields, scholars will likely turn to scientific and technical information though other types, such as policy reports, may also be relevant. We draw on the credibility mapping concept to understand how a major policy report is taken up by the target academic community. The report, How People Learn, was published by the US National Academies in 2000, to expose the education community (mainly educational researchers but also knowledge-seeking practitioners) to major cognitive science research findings of relevance to learning. We applied several search strings to measure the take up of this report in the target community. We used Google Scholar to evince that that How People Learn was cited in nearly 15,000 publications, these citations grew particularly steeply from 2000 to 2008, and most were in education-related journal papers. We performed a similar analysis using the Web of Science, which showed that most of the citations were substantial as opposed to perfunctory. (Author)

  13. CredibleMeds.org: What does it offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, Raymond L; Black, Kristin; Heise, C William; Romero, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Since the 1990s, when numerous non-cardiac drugs were first recognized to have the potential to prolong the QT interval and cause torsades de pointes (TdP), clinicians, drug regulators, drug developers, and clinical investigators have become aware of the complexities of assessing evidence and determining TdP causality for the many drugs being marketed or under development. To facilitate better understanding, the Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics, known as AZCERT, has developed the CredibleMeds.org website which includes QTdrugs, a listing of over 220 drugs placed in four risk categories based on their association with QT prolongation and TdP. Since the site was launched in 1999, it has become the single and most reliable source of information of its kind for patients, healthcare providers, and research scientists. Over 96,000 registered users rely on the QTdrugs database as their primary resource to inform their medication use, their prescribing or their clinical research into the impact of QT-prolonging drugs and drug-induced arrhythmias. The QTdrugs lists are increasingly used as the basis for clinical decision support systems in healthcare and for metrics of prescribing quality by healthcare insurers. A free smartphone app and an application program interface enable rapid and mobile access to the lists. Also, the CredibleMeds website offers numerous educational resources for patients, educators and healthcare providers that foster the safe use of medications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2018-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  15. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  16. The Influence of Peer Reviews on Source Credibility and Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L. Nowak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM is information shared on the Internet about a product, which allows people to receive information from others they may not otherwise encounter. Online product reviews are a type of eWOM where a user posts a comment about a product and selects an image to represent the self. The perception of the image and the text in the product review can influence source credibility and the perception of the product, as well as the likelihood that someone will purchase the product. This study examines the effect of the product reviews and their different images and text on perceived credibility, source trustworthiness and purchase intention. Consistent with predictions based on the information processing theory, perceived anthropomorphism influences perceived credibility, source trust, and purchase intention.

  17. On the credibility of scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Leibnitz, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since the beginning of the so-called nuclear controversy, problems of risk and of safety increasingly have come to be discussed also by persons not really qualified for the job; often, results and findings were presented which, although technically unfounded or based on wrong assumptions or conclusions, have greatly helped to create fear and concern about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In a study of the credibility gap faced by science, criteria are given for the competency of experts vis-a-vis specific problems. The most important aspect in arriving at the truth is felt to be the weighing of alternative decisions. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Benchmarking the Kansas 4-H Judging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Taylor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the methods and policies associated with 4-H project judging at the county level within the Kansas 4-H Program. Extension Agents surveyed about current 4-H judging processes indicated a variety of methods used. Data collected showed that 21.8% of the counties surveyed practiced some type of project judging without the 4-H member present. In regard to feedback received by the youth in non-livestock project judging, 64.1% of counties reported both verbal and written forms of feedback, with 25.6% receiving only verbal. In livestock project judging, 93.8% reported that youth receive feedback only verbally. The majority of non-livestock projects are judged using the Danish system, while the number of livestock projects judged are split among both the Danish system and peer system of competitive judging. It was concluded that a wide-variety of judging methods are used, resulting in incongruent programs offered to 4-H members.

  19. Incorrect, fake, and false: Journalists' perceived online source credibility and verification behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the extent journalists verify information provided by online sources, and tests to what extent this verification behavior can be explained by journalists' perceived credibility of online information and other factors, such as journalism education of journalists, work and

  20. 5 CFR 2421.9 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases under 5 U.S.C... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 2421.9 Section...

  1. Measuring Credibility Perceptions in CSR Communication: A Scale Development to Test Readers’ Perceived Credibility of CSR Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Irina; Seele, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Credibility is central to communication but often jeopardized by “credibility gaps.” This is especially true for communication about corporate social responsibility (CSR). To date, no tool has been available to analyze stakeholders’ credibility perceptions of CSR communication. This article presents a series of studies conducted to develop a scale to assess the perceived credibility of CSR reports, one of CSR communication’s most important tools. The scale provides a novel operationalization of credibility using validity claims of Habermas’s ideal speech situation as subdimensions. The scale development process, carried out in five studies including a literature review, a Delphi study, and three validation studies applying confirmatory factor analysis, resulted in the 16-item Perceived Credibility (PERCRED) scale. The scale shows convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and nomological validity and is the first validated measure for analyzing credibility perceptions of CSR reports. PMID:29278260

  2. Measuring Credibility Perceptions in CSR Communication: A Scale Development to Test Readers' Perceived Credibility of CSR Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Irina; Seele, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Credibility is central to communication but often jeopardized by "credibility gaps." This is especially true for communication about corporate social responsibility (CSR). To date, no tool has been available to analyze stakeholders' credibility perceptions of CSR communication. This article presents a series of studies conducted to develop a scale to assess the perceived credibility of CSR reports, one of CSR communication's most important tools. The scale provides a novel operationalization of credibility using validity claims of Habermas's ideal speech situation as subdimensions. The scale development process, carried out in five studies including a literature review, a Delphi study, and three validation studies applying confirmatory factor analysis, resulted in the 16-item Perceived Credibility (PERCRED) scale. The scale shows convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and nomological validity and is the first validated measure for analyzing credibility perceptions of CSR reports.

  3. Development of a Severe Accident Mitigation Support with Speediness and Credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sup; Park, Jae Chang; Choi, Jong Gyun; Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, Chang Hwoi

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests a methodology of severe accident mitigation support with speediness and credibility. Using this methodology, the severe accident is automatically identified based on the information credibility check. And then, proper mitigation function, available mitigation routes, and an optimal mitigation path are automatically suggested. The basic logic of the information credibility is based on environmental evaluation, historical evaluation and some conventional methods such as redundancy and diversity comparison of instruments. To identify the available mitigation routes, availability of paths and components, source status, process limitation, expected adverse effect, and mitigation capability of the path are automatically were evaluated. Among the available routes, the optimal mitigation path was finally suggested based on the path priority criteria and physical relationship

  4. From aggregation to interpretation: how assessors judge complex data in a competency-based portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudkerk Pool, Andrea; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Driessen, Erik W

    2018-05-01

    While portfolios are increasingly used to assess competence, the validity of such portfolio-based assessments has hitherto remained unconfirmed. The purpose of the present research is therefore to further our understanding of how assessors form judgments when interpreting the complex data included in a competency-based portfolio. Eighteen assessors appraised one of three competency-based mock portfolios while thinking aloud, before taking part in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis of the think-aloud protocols and interviews revealed that assessors reached judgments through a 3-phase cyclical cognitive process of acquiring, organizing, and integrating evidence. Upon conclusion of the first cycle, assessors reviewed the remaining portfolio evidence to look for confirming or disconfirming evidence. Assessors were inclined to stick to their initial judgments even when confronted with seemingly disconfirming evidence. Although assessors reached similar final (pass-fail) judgments of students' professional competence, they differed in their information-processing approaches and the reasoning behind their judgments. Differences sprung from assessors' divergent assessment beliefs, performance theories, and inferences about the student. Assessment beliefs refer to assessors' opinions about what kind of evidence gives the most valuable and trustworthy information about the student's competence, whereas assessors' performance theories concern their conceptualizations of what constitutes professional competence and competent performance. Even when using the same pieces of information, assessors furthermore differed with respect to inferences about the student as a person as well as a (future) professional. Our findings support the notion that assessors' reasoning in judgment and decision-making varies and is guided by their mental models of performance assessment, potentially impacting feedback and the credibility of decisions. Our findings also lend further

  5. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act, the...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part the...

  7. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Alzahrani, Shrooq; Lonigro, Samantha; Purser, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas. Our novel findings show an effect of psychological accessibility (driven by partial contextual information; Kahneman, 2003) on utilitarian moral behavior and response time for rational choices. Enhanced accessibility of utilitarian outcomes through comprehensive information about moral actions and consequences boosted utility maximization in moral choices, with rational choices taking less time. Moreover, our result suggests that previous results indicating emotional interference, with rational choices taking more time to make, may have been artifacts of presenting partial information.

  8. Correction: An Indicator of Media Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Vilović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of publishing corrections, clarifi cations, and letters to the editor, entail a high level of respect among the media for their audiences as they signify accountability and media credibility.This study began on the general assumption that the Croatian media is reluctant to publish corrections regularly, projecting an image that errors simply do not occur. Certainly errorless reporting is impossible due to fact that journalism is a profession prone to human error. Therefore, this study has enacted a content analysis methodology to follow the four primary Croatian daily newspapers, Jutarnji list, Večernji list, 24 sata and Vjesnik, for the period between May 6 and 30, 2010. The primary conclusion is that Croatian newspaper editors are hesitant to publish corrections if they are not under pressure from the Media Law.

  9. Establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This is not a talk about archaeoastronomy per se, but rather about how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative helps us deal with archaeoastronomical sites as potential World Heritage.In 2011, an attempt to nominate a prehistoric “observatory” site onto the World Heritage List proved unsuccessful because UNESCO rejected the interpretation as statistically and archaeologically unproven. The case highlights an issue at the heart of archaeoastronomical methodology and interpretation: the mere existence of astronomical alignments in ancient sites does not prove that they were important to those who constructed and used the sites, let alone giving us insights into their likely significance and meaning. Advances in archaeoastronomy over several decades have resulted in the development of a substantial body of theory and practice (Ruggles 2014) where the most favoured interpretations depend upon integrating methods from astronomy, anthropology and other disciplines, but individual cases can still engender considerable controversy.The fact that more archaeoastronomical sites are now appearing on national tentative lists prior to their WHL nomination means that this is no longer just an academic issue; establishing the credibility of the archaeoastronomical interpretations is crucial to any assessment of their value in heritage terms.In this talk I shall describe progress that has been made within the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative towards establishing broadly acceptable measures of archaeoastronomical credibility that make sense in the context of the heritage evaluation process. I will focus particularly, but not exclusively, on sites that are included in the Thematic Studies and/or are already included on national Tentative Lists, such as the Portuguese/Spanish seven-stone antas (Neolithic dolmens) and Chankillo in Peru (solar observation device dating to c. 300BC). I will also mention how the recognition of astronomical attributes of potential

  10. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, comp...

  11. The dual impact of "appeal" and "researcher credibility" on mail survey response rate in the context of preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angur, M G; Nataraajan, R; Chawla, S K

    1994-01-01

    Health and fitness centers are becoming increasingly aware of their importance in the realm of preventive health care. Many hospitals have begun to open and run fitness centers, a trend that seems very likely to continue. In a competitive environment, every center would desire to obtain maximum valid customer information at minimum cost, and this paper addresses this issue. The authors investigate the confluence of both appeal and researcher credibility on mail questionnaire response rates from a metropolitan membership of a large fitness center. Personal appeal with high researcher credibility was found to generate significantly higher response rate followed by the hybrid appeal with low researcher credibility.

  12. 4 CFR 28.22 - Administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Administrative judges shall conduct fair and impartial hearings and take all necessary action to avoid delay in...; (8) Require the filing of memoranda of law and the presentation of oral argument with respect to any...

  13. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the...

  14. 2010 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  15. 2009 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  16. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  17. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that an...

  18. 22 CFR 128.2 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 128.2 Section 128.2... § 128.2 Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge referred to in this part is an Administrative Law Judge appointed by the Department of State. The Administrative Law Judge is authorized to...

  19. Nuclear strategy: India's march towards credible deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-01-01

    May 1998 was a momentous event in India's life. At one level, the five nuclear tests marked the culmination of the long debate on India's nuclear status. At another level, they initiated the country's journey towards credible nuclear deterrence. In the eleventh year of its existence as a state with nuclear weapons, India is engaged in a range of activities to meaningfully integrate the nuclear weapon into its national security strategy. The US and the USSR, at the same stage of their lives were engaged in pretty much a similar exercise. However, unlike the superpowers, for whom the immense destructive potential of the atomic weapon and its implications for inter-state relations suddenly burst on the scene and sent them scrambling to craft strategies that could fit the new reality, India's acquisition of nuclear weapons capability, though dictated by circumstances, came with a basic understanding of the ground rules of the game of nuclear deterrence. In fact, it may be recalled that soon after the tests, there was a spate of books and studies on India's nuclear strategy. A draft nuclear doctrine was made public just fifteen months after the tests and operational issues were beginning to be grappled with

  20. Marginality, Credibility, and Impression Management: The Asian Sociologist in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, N. Prabha

    1988-01-01

    Relates personal experiences of a sociologist of Asian origin in an effort to illustrate problems inherent in the process of becoming accepted as an academic sociologist. Identifies important themes of marginality, credibility, and impression management. Points out ways in which the Asian sociologists can go about achieving credibility. (KO)

  1. Data Credibility: A Perspective from Systematic Reviews in Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Andrew S.; Knight, Teri M.

    2009-01-01

    To use environmental program evaluation to increase effectiveness, predictive power, and resource allocation efficiency, evaluators need good data. Data require sufficient credibility in terms of fitness for purpose and quality to develop the necessary evidence base. The authors examine elements of data credibility using experience from critical…

  2. Institutional credibility and the future of Danish journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    Credibility is frequently represented as both an ideal goal for journalism as a profession (Vultree, 2010) and as an integral part of the survival strategy of the news industry (Meyer, 2004). Yet there exists no widely accepted operationalization of the concept of credibility. In this paper we...... ethics among Danish journalists....

  3. Building credibility in international banking and financial markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2008-01-01

    . There is also clear evidence that corporate advertising is in fact strongly focussed on communicating credibility with less than 10% of discourse and visuals devoted to credibility-free themes and issues. Research implications/limitations - The study takes a production perspective, using discourse......Purpose - The research draws a detailed picture of how international corporate banks and financial institutions approach image advertising to enhance impressions of their credibility. The purpose of the work is twofold, namely to demonstrate (1) how corporate credibility can be conceptualised...... appeal forms. A corpus of 74 print adverts was then analysed in order to establish how financial marketers use the appeal forms to strengthen their corporate reputations. The patterns of credibility appeals obtained were then linked to the supporting visuals to provide a fuller picture of the industry...

  4. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactor power distribution pattern judging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Tadashi.

    1992-01-01

    The judging device of the present invention comprises a power distribution readout system for intaking a power value from a fuel segment, a neural network having an experience learning function for receiving a power distribution value as an input variant, mapping it into a desirable property and self-organizing the map, and a learning date base storing a plurality of learnt samples. The read power distribution is classified depending on the similarity thereof with any one of representative learnt power distribution, and the corresponding state of the reactor core is outputted as a result of the judgement. When an error is found in the classified judging operation, erroneous cases are additionally learnt by using the experience and learning function, thereby improving the accuracy of the reactor core characteristic estimation operation. Since the device is mainly based on the neural network having a self-learning function and a pattern classification and judging function, a judging device having a human's intuitive pattern recognition performance and a pattern experience and learning performance is obtainable, thereby enabling to judge the state of the reactor core accurately. (N.H.)

  6. IS MISS SYMPATHY A CREDIBLE DEFENDANT ALLEGING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN A TRIAL FOR MURDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that judicial inferencing and judgement-making are subject to biased appraisals. This study assessed the factors reported in the literature associated to the appraisal of criminality in a mock case of a battered woman standing trial for murdering her husband, and who pleaded legitimate self-defence in response to an instance of intimate partner violence. A nationwide sample of 169 police officers from different cities in Spain freely volunteered to participate in the study. Using a mock trial design, the defendant´s prototypicality (prototypical vs. non-prototypical, and physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive were manipulated. Participants were required to assess the criminality (credibility, responsibility, and controllability of a battered woman accused of murdering her husband, and who alleged legitimate self-defence in response to an incident of intimate partner violence. The results showed that a defendant perceived as the prototype of a battered woman was judged as having less or no control of the situation; physical attractiveness increased the perception of the defendant´s responsibility in committing the crime; and an interaction between prototypicality and attractiveness in assigning credibility to the defendant´s testimony. Moreover, hostile sexism mediated the relationship between the defendant´s prototypicality and controllability. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for judicial judgement making in cases of battered women who kill their aggressors.

  7. The Concept of Credibility (Validity) in Television and Internet News Discourse: Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Ružić

    2010-01-01

    This article reverses the traditional notion of media (television, radio or news papers) as a unidirectional agent of communication from producer to receiver to a more appropriate paradigm inwhich information is not embedded with hierarchy. The new media perspective and the appropriation of technology (Internet) have changed the nature of information dissemination. One cannot discuss authenticity or credibility in terms of ”telling the truth or lying”. On the contrary, users today can verify ...

  8. Brand emotional credibility: effects of mixed emotions about branded products with varying credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, Antonio; Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of mixed emotions on the positioning and on the intention to purchase different categories of branded products (i.e., Attractiveness-products, Expertise-products, and Trustworthiness-products), in relation to their main component of credibility (Ohanian, 1990). On the basis of a focus group (n = 12) aimed to identify the three branded products used as stimuli and a pre-test (n = 240) directed to discover emotions elicited by them, two studies (n = 630; n = 240) were carried out. Positioning and multiple regression analyses showed that positive and negative emotions are positively related with the positioning and the purchase intention of Attractiveness-products, and, respectively, positively and negatively related with those of Trustworthiness-products; whereas negative emotions are negatively associated with those of Expertise-products. Brand Emotional Credibility--i.e., the emotional believability of the brand positioning signals--may help to identify unconscious elements and the simultaneous importance of mixed emotions associated with different products to match consumers' desires and expectations.

  9. The use of tags and tag clouds to discern credible content in online health message forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Laura; Wathen, C Nadine; Charnaw-Burger, Jill; Betel, Lisa; Shachak, Aviv; Luke, Robert; Hockema, Stephen; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2012-01-01

    Web sites with health-oriented content are potentially harmful if inaccurate or inappropriate medical information is used to make health-related decisions. Checklists, rating systems and guidelines have been developed to help people determine what is credible, but recent Internet technologies emphasize applications that are collaborative in nature, including tags and tag clouds, where site users 'tag' or label online content, each using their own labelling system. Concepts such as the date, reference, author, testimonial and quotations are considered predictors of credible content. An understanding of these descriptive tools, how they relate to the depiction of credibility and how this relates to overall efforts to label data in relation to the semantic web has yet to emerge. This study investigates how structured (pre-determined) and unstructured (user-generated) tags and tag clouds with a multiple word search feature are used by participants to assess credibility of messages posted in online message forums. The targeted respondents were those using web sites message forums for disease self-management. We also explored the relevancy of our findings to the labelling or indexing of data in the context of the semantic web. Diabetes was chosen as the content area in this study, since (a) this is a condition with increasing prevalence and (b) diabetics have been shown to actively use the Internet to manage their condition. From January to March 2010 participants were recruited using purposive sampling techniques. A screening instrument was used to determine eligibility. The study consisted of a demographic and computer usage survey, a series of usability tests and an interview. We tested participants (N=22) on two scenarios, each involving tasks that assessed their ability to tag content and search using a tag cloud that included six structured credibility terms (statistics, date, reference, author, testimonial and quotations). MORAE Usability software (version 3

  10. eWOM credibility on social networking sites: A framework

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Gillian; Muzellec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) offer brands the ability to spread positive electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) for the purposes of building awareness and acquiring new customers. However, the credibility of eWOM is threatened of late as marketers increasingly try to manipulate eWOM practices on SNS. A greater understanding of eWOM credibility is necessary to better enable marketers to leverage true consumer engagement by generating credible peer-to-peer communications. Yet, to date, there is no on...

  11. Assessing the credibility of diverting through containment penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A viable approach has been developed for identifying those containment penetrations in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which are credible diversion routes. The approach is based upon systematic engineering and design analyses and is applied to each type of penetration to determine which penetrations could be utilized to divert nuclear material from a reprocessing facility. The approach is described and the results of an application are discussed. In addition, the concept of credibility is developed and discussed. For a typical reprocessing plant design, the number of penetrations determined to be credible without process or piping modifications was approx. 16% of the penetrations originally identified

  12. EVALUATION OF NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA MONETARY POLICY CREDIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the models from the economic literature, the authors study the credibility level of National Bank of Romania (NRB during the time span Mars 2007 – Mars 2008. We will use three types of credibility indexes - two from the economic literature and one proposed by the authors. Also, we will emphasize the impact of unpredictable shocks - the natural calamities (drought which affected the aggregate supply in the summer of 2007 and the depreciation of RON against the euro - on the NBR credibility.

  13. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...... in judicial performance over two years of time...

  14. The Concept of Credibility (Validity in Television and Internet News Discourse: Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Ružić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reverses the traditional notion of media (television, radio or news papers as a unidirectional agent of communication from producer to receiver to a more appropriate paradigm inwhich information is not embedded with hierarchy. The new media perspective and the appropriation of technology (Internet have changed the nature of information dissemination. One cannot discuss authenticity or credibility in terms of ”telling the truth or lying”. On the contrary, users today can verify information by contrasting traditional media, or by autonomous investigation on the Internet. In this manner, the obtained information is rendered semantically ambiguous. With an approach akin to cultural studies, the authority of the speakers becomes important (unlike today in mainstream television media where a speaker is hidden behind his or her program. New media provides a unique perspective in which the user is always the arbiter of informational usefulness. The crisis that is manifested in traditional media by the lack of subjectivity of the reporter becomes diametrically opposite on the Internet. The all-knowing subject vanishes and gives place to an inter-subjective exchange which deletes hierarchy and the ontology of the ”truth”. A mirror perspective becomes the dominant order, by which one becomes inter-subjective par excellence. Within the present and future of new media, credibility will not be reserved for the ideological mass producers of information, but rather the credibility of the users. By becoming media, users begin to bear the burden of subjective analysis and multivocality.

  15. Moderators of Framing Effects on Political Attitudes: Is Source Credibility Worth Investigating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Raluca Buturoiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on indirect (mediated media effects. In particular, we discuss which independent variables might intervene in and moderate the impact of framing effects on public attitudes (namely political trust, both in short-term and medium-term contexts. Among these, we focus on source credibility as a possible moderator of framing effects over time. The purpose of this study was to examine if and how source credibility influences individuals’ political trust. The moderator role of source credibility is analysed according to the exposure to different types of frames (repetitive or competitive at different moments (one week or one month. By means of a framing experiment (N=769 on political topics, we argue that media frames could influence political trust: Source credibility has a marginal influence, which suggests that, with stronger stimulus material (video, as opposed to written press articles, the source could play an important role in the willingness of people to trust political figures in general. Thus, we might argue that the media play a significant role not only in offering information about politics and politicians, but also in altering people’s perceptions about them. On the other hand, time seems to matter, since framing effects are more powerful after competitive media exposures. This study proposes new theoretical insights into framing effects, in the sense that classical theories should be revisited in various cultural or political contexts

  16. Does Exonerating an Accused Researcher Restore the Researcher's Credibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Greitemeyer

    Full Text Available Scientific misconduct appears to be on the rise. However, an accused researcher may later be exonerated. The present research examines to what extent participants adhere to their attitude toward a researcher who allegedly committed academic misconduct after learning that the researcher is innocent. In two studies, participants in an exoneration and an uncorrected accusation condition learned that the ethics committee of a researcher's university demanded the retraction of one of the researcher's articles, whereas participants in a control condition did not receive this information. As intended, this manipulation led to a more favorable attitude toward the researcher in the control compared to the exoneration and the uncorrected accusation conditions (pre-exoneration attitude. Then, participants in the exoneration condition learned that the researcher was exonerated and that the article was not retracted. Participants in the uncorrected accusation and the control condition were not informed about the exoneration. Results revealed that the exoneration effectively worked, in that participants in the exoneration condition had a more favorable attitude (post-exoneration attitude toward the researcher than did participants in the uncorrected accusation condition. Moreover, the post-exoneration attitude toward the researcher was similar in the exoneration and the control conditions. Finally, in the exoneration condition only, participants' post-exoneration attitude was more favorable than their pre-exoneration attitude. These findings suggest that an exoneration of an accused researcher restores the researcher's credibility.

  17. Does Exonerating an Accused Researcher Restore the Researcher's Credibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Scientific misconduct appears to be on the rise. However, an accused researcher may later be exonerated. The present research examines to what extent participants adhere to their attitude toward a researcher who allegedly committed academic misconduct after learning that the researcher is innocent. In two studies, participants in an exoneration and an uncorrected accusation condition learned that the ethics committee of a researcher's university demanded the retraction of one of the researcher's articles, whereas participants in a control condition did not receive this information. As intended, this manipulation led to a more favorable attitude toward the researcher in the control compared to the exoneration and the uncorrected accusation conditions (pre-exoneration attitude). Then, participants in the exoneration condition learned that the researcher was exonerated and that the article was not retracted. Participants in the uncorrected accusation and the control condition were not informed about the exoneration. Results revealed that the exoneration effectively worked, in that participants in the exoneration condition had a more favorable attitude (post-exoneration attitude) toward the researcher than did participants in the uncorrected accusation condition. Moreover, the post-exoneration attitude toward the researcher was similar in the exoneration and the control conditions. Finally, in the exoneration condition only, participants' post-exoneration attitude was more favorable than their pre-exoneration attitude. These findings suggest that an exoneration of an accused researcher restores the researcher's credibility.

  18. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  19. Does the Credible Fiscal Policy Support the Prices Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the co-movement between fiscal policy and monetary policy rules in the context of price stabilization. More specifically, we observe the potential impact of fiscal policy credibility on the price stabilization in the inflation targeting framework. Motivated by the fact that empirical studies concerning this aspect are still limited, we take the case of Indonesia over the period 2001-2013. Based on the quarterly data analysis, we found that the impact of credibility typically depends on characteristics of fiscal rules commitment. On one hand, the credibility of debt rule reduces the inflation rate. In contrast, the incredible deficit rule policy does not have any impact on the inflation rate and therefore does not support to inflation targeting. Given those results, we conclude that credibility matters in stabilizing price levels. Accordingly, those findings suggest tightening coordination between monetary and fiscal policy to maintain fiscal sustainability in accordance with price stabilization policy

  20. Waiver Process Places Judges in Pivotal Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Although U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan ultimately decides which states get relief from key requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, a group of outside judges will wield tremendous influence in deciding states' fates. With states facing compliance deadlines under the law and Congress moving slowly on reauthorizing the Elementary and…

  1. Judging the Ability of Friends and Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L; Murphy, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Collaboration leads us to judge our own ability to be more similar to our collaborators and their ability to be more similar to our own, while competition leads us to exaggerate the gap between our abilities. How does this happen and what does it mean? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  3. 7 CFR 1.173 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proceeding, (2) is related within the third degree by blood or marriage to any party to the proceeding, or (3... present. Any memorandum or other communication addressed to the Judicial Officer or a Judge, during the... prior to any hearing to be conducted by telephone or audio-visual telecommunication; (8) Require that...

  4. 22 CFR 1421.8 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases under 22 U.S.C. 4115, and such other matters as may be... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative law judge. 1421.8 Section 1421.8... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.8 Administrative law judge. Administrative law judge means the...

  5. 28 CFR 0.117 - Office of Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Chief Immigration Judge. 0.117... Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.117 Office of Chief Immigration Judge. The Chief Immigration Judge shall provide general supervision to the Immigration Judges in performance of their duties in...

  6. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  7. 49 CFR 386.54 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 386.54 Section 386.54... General Rules and Hearings § 386.54 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Powers of an Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge may take any action and may prescribe all necessary rules and regulations...

  8. The 'Thin film of gold': monetary rules and policy credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Niall Ferguson; Moritz Schularick

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks whether developing countries can reap credibility gains from submitting policy to a strict monetary rule. Following earlier work, we look at the gold standard era (1880-1914) as a "natural experiment" to test whether adoption of a rule-based monetary framework such as the gold standard increased policy credibility. On the basis of the largest possible dataset covering almost sixty independent and colonial borrowers in the London market, we challenge the traditional view that g...

  9. Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization under Imperfect Credibility

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Calvo; Carlos A. Végh Gramont

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes stabilization policy under predetermined exchange rates in a cash-in-advance, staggered-prices model. Under full credibility, a reduction in the rate of devaluation results in an immediate and permanent reduction in the inflation rate, with no effect on output or consumption. In contrast, a non-credible stabilization results in an initial expansion of output, followed by a later recession. The inflation rate of home goods remains above the rate of devaluation throughout th...

  10. GROWTH, LIQUIDITY CONSTRAINTS, CREDIBILITY AND THE EFFECTS OF SHOCKS UNDER A NON-CREDIBLE GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURMUŞ ÖZDEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overlapping generations model for a small open economy. The model is calibrated to fit data for Turkey. Simulations suggest that for a fairly open economy such as Turkey, credibility and liquidity constraints matter and the choice of income taxation rate, the mix of government spending and the long-run government debt/GDP ratio can all significantly affect the economic growth. The paper also examines the effectiveness of fiscal policy under different levels of liquidity constraint in an open economy within a dynamic framework. It shows that liquidity constraints can affect the outcome of any fiscal policy. Hence fiscal policy is even more important for the less developed economies of the world.

  11. Extension and Application of Credibility Models in Predicting Claim Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-tao Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In nonlife actuarial science, credibility models are one of the main methods of experience ratemaking. Bühlmann-Straub credibility model can be expressed as a special case of linear mixed models (LMMs with the underlying assumption of normality. In this paper, we extend the assumption of Bühlmann-Straub model to include Poisson and negative binomial distributions as they are more appropriate for describing the distribution of a number of claims. By using the framework of generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs, we obtain the generalized credibility premiums that contain as particular cases another credibility premium in the literature. Compared to generalized linear mixed models, our extended credibility models also have an advantage in that the credibility factor falls into the range from 0 to 1. The performance of our models in comparison with an existing model in the literature is also evaluated through numerical studies, which shows that our approach produces premium estimates close to the optima. In addition, our proposed model can also be applied to the most commonly used ratemaking approach, namely, the net, the optimal Bonus-Malus system.

  12. Influence of Source Credibility on Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reasoning mechanism behind the consumer acceptance of genetically modified foods (GMFs in China, and investigates influence of source credibility on consumer acceptance of GMFs. Based on the original Persuasion Model—which was developed by Carl Hovland, an American psychologist and pioneer in the study of communication and its effect on attitudes and beliefs—we conducted a survey using multistage sampling from 1167 urban residents, which were proportionally selected from six cities in three economic regions (south, central, and north in the Jiangsu province through face to face interviews. Mixed-process regression that could correct endogeneity and ordered probit model were used to test the impact of source credibility on consumers’ acceptance of GMFs. Our major finding was that consumer acceptance of GMFs is affected by such factors as information source credibility, general attitudes, gender, and education levels. The reliability of biotechnology research institutes, government offices devoted to management of GM organisms (GMOs, and GMO technological experts have expedited urban consumer acceptance of GM soybean oil. However, public acceptance can also decrease as faith in the environmental organization. We also found that ignorance of the endogeneity of above mentioned source significantly undervalued its effect on consumers’ acceptance. Moreover, the remaining three sources (non-GMO experts, food companies, and anonymous information found on the Internet had almost no effect on consumer acceptance. Surprisingly, the more educated people in our survey were more skeptical towards GMFs. Our results contribute to the behavioral literature on consumer attitudes toward GMFs by developing a reasoning mechanism determining consumer acceptance of GMFs. Particularly, this paper quantitatively studied the influence of different source credibility on consumer acceptance of GMFs by using mixed-process regression to

  13. Use of sustainability appraisal by English planning inspectors and judges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therivel, Riki, E-mail: riki@levett-therivel.co.uk

    2013-01-15

    This article considers how sustainability appraisals (SA - an English form of SEA that also considers social and economic issues) are treated at the end of the plan-making process: by planning inspectors who review plans before they are adopted, and by judges in the case of legal challenge to plans and their SAs. It briefly describes the role of inspectors and judges, and how their decisions influence SA. It presents the conclusions of 81 planning inspectors' reports about local authority development plans and their SAs, including three cases where inspectors required further SA information and reasons given by inspectors for not challenging the legal adequacy of other SAs. The three main successful English legal challenges to SA are then summarised. Planning inspectors seemed prone, until recently, to not challenge even quite poor quality SAs. This seems to be changing in the wake of recent court judgements, and in turn is affecting planners' SA practice. However it is unclear whether these changes will affect only the procedural aspects of SA or also planners' and inspectors' 'hearts and minds'. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspectors tend to err in favour of the submitted plan, even where its sustainability or the quality of its SA is dubious. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In contrast to inspectors, judges seem to be taking a broad and rigorous view of SEA requirements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Planners and inspectors are changing their behaviour to avoid legal challenge.

  14. Use of sustainability appraisal by English planning inspectors and judges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therivel, Riki

    2013-01-01

    This article considers how sustainability appraisals (SA — an English form of SEA that also considers social and economic issues) are treated at the end of the plan-making process: by planning inspectors who review plans before they are adopted, and by judges in the case of legal challenge to plans and their SAs. It briefly describes the role of inspectors and judges, and how their decisions influence SA. It presents the conclusions of 81 planning inspectors' reports about local authority development plans and their SAs, including three cases where inspectors required further SA information and reasons given by inspectors for not challenging the legal adequacy of other SAs. The three main successful English legal challenges to SA are then summarised. Planning inspectors seemed prone, until recently, to not challenge even quite poor quality SAs. This seems to be changing in the wake of recent court judgements, and in turn is affecting planners' SA practice. However it is unclear whether these changes will affect only the procedural aspects of SA or also planners' and inspectors' ‘hearts and minds’. - Highlights: ► Inspectors tend to err in favour of the submitted plan, even where its sustainability or the quality of its SA is dubious. ► In contrast to inspectors, judges seem to be taking a broad and rigorous view of SEA requirements. ► Planners and inspectors are changing their behaviour to avoid legal challenge.

  15. Establishing Credibility in the Multicultural Classroom: When the Instructor Speaks with an Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Chikako Akamatsu

    2007-01-01

    Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)

  16. Credibility and Authenticity of Digitally Signed Videos in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Grgurević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of insuring the credibilityand authenticity of the surveillance camera video by digitalsigning, using the public key infrastructure as part of interoperabletraffic and information system in the future intelligenttransport systems. The surveillance camera video is a sequenceof individual frames and a unique digital print, i. e. hash valueis calculated for each of these. By encryption of the hash valuesof the frames using private encryption key of the surveillancecentre, digital signatures are created and they are stored in thedatabase. The surveillance centre can issue a copy of the videoto all the interested subjects for scientific and research workand investigation. Regardless of the scope, each subsequentmanipulation of the video copy contents will certainly changethe hash value of all the frames. The procedure of determiningthe authenticity and credibility of videos is reduced to the comparisonof the hash values of the frames stored in the databaseof the surveillance centre with the values obtained from the interestedsubjects such as the traffic experts and investigators,surveillance-security services etc.

  17. Shifting Roles, Enduring Values: The Credible Journalist in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A.; Singer, J.; Ceppos, J.

    2007-01-01

    When everyone can be a publisher, what distinguishes the journalist? This article considers contemporary challenges to institutional roles in a digital media environment, then focuses on three broad journalistic normative values -- authenticity, accountability and autonomy -- that affect the credibility of both the journalist and the content he or she provides. A set of questions that can help citizens determine the trustworthiness of the information available to them also is provided.

  18. MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN ONLINE SOCIAL PROGRAMS: OHANIAN MODEL OF SOURCE CREDIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Corina

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This ...

  19. The 'credibility paradox' in China's science communication: Views from scientific practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to increasing debates on China's rising status as a global scientific power, issues of China's science communication remain under-explored. Based on 21 in-depth interviews in three cities, this article examines Chinese scientists' accounts of the entangled web of influence which conditions the process of how scientific knowledge achieves (or fails to achieve) its civic authority. A main finding of this study is a 'credibility paradox' as a result of the over-politicisation of science and science communication in China. Respondents report that an absence of visible institutional endorsements renders them more public credibility and better communication outcomes. Thus, instead of exploiting formal channels of science communication, scientists interviewed were more keen to act as 'informal risk communicators' in grassroots and private events. Chinese scientists' perspectives on how to earn public support of their research sheds light on the nature and impact of a 'civic epistemology' in an authoritarian state. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Eletronuclear's relationship with the Brazilian media: transparency and credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Gloria, E-mail: galvarez@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In a capitalist economy the most valued assets are not money, shares or facilities, but credibility. Lack of money can ruin a company, but often it is reputation that delivers the final blow. It has become challenging to safeguard reputation in a world where Communication is increasingly connected and with such an intense and lightning fast flow of information. This is particularly true for the electricity sector - a commodity so prevalent in everyday modern life, but, whose business dealings, are hardly known by the general public. When it comes to nuclear energy, the challenge of establishing an effective Communication with transparency and credibility touches on even more complex elements. The topic of this paper is the scenario through which the Communication process, along with its characteristics and approaches, unfolds between the nuclear sector and the Brazilian media. (author)

  1. Neutron weapons. War prevention by credible deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    The neutron bomb has prompted fierce and controversial public discussions which are more emotional than based on facts. Unaware of the factual repercussions this weapon has, it has been described as the most inhumane weapon ever. By saying so, the public is wrongly informed and is made feel insecure. The following contributions made by competent authorities may be used for getting to the point, pointing out that the neutron bomb is primarily a defensive weapon. (orig.) [de

  2. Vigilance and reason - The keys to continued credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlotto, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    I have entitle my speech open-quotes Vigilance and Reason-The Keys to Continued Credibilityclose quotes. A partitioning of the words gives insight into my view of where we are, where we may be going, and that we have control of our fate. open-quotes Continuedclose quotes indicates that I believe, at present, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and Standards process has credibility. open-quotes Keysclose quotes connotes that we are at a crossroads and something must be done to stay on track. And open-quotes Vigilance and Reasonclose quotes suggest that we can achieve our goal of continued credibility through exercising vigilance and reason. We cannot rest on our laurels. We must take conscious, positive actions to strengthen the credibility of our products; otherwise we will backslide. It is up to us

  3. Credibility of experts and institutions in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Kastenholz, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article deals with the most important results of communication and psychological studies on credibility and trust in emergency situations. The central insight in this paper has been that communication about the different elements of credibility needs to start before any emergency in order to build trust among the various constituents. In addition, emergency handling institutions need to reflect the experiences they have made during an emergency and involve the public in a social learning process to improve the existing emergency plans. Credibility of institutions relies on the congruence between the expectations of the public with respect to the demanded performance and the preception of the actual performance. Any institution needs to adjust its communication about public expectations as well as institute sufficient control and monitoring to improve actual performance. (orig.) [de

  4. "Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed

  5. Credibility and the media as a political institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of credibility in Danish news media. Credibility is defined at an institutional level by two dimensions: A) the accuracy and reliability of the news stories featured in leading Danish news media, and B) journalists’ knowledge and understanding of the Danish code of press ethics. The results show that sources...... only find objective errors in 14.1% of the news stories, which is a lower figure than most other studies report. The results also show that Danish journalists find bad press ethics to be an increasing problem and attribute this problem to increased pressure in the newsroom....

  6. Credible accident analyses for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.C.; Kathren, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    Credible accidents were developed and analyzed for TRIGA and TRIGA-fueled reactors. The only potential for offsite exposure appears to be from a fuel-handling accident that, based on highly conservative assumptions, would result in dose equivalents of less than or equal to 1 mrem to the total body from noble gases and less than or equal to 1.2 rem to the thyroid from radioiodines. Credible accidents from excess reactivity insertions, metal-water reactions, lost, misplaced, or inadvertent experiments, core rearrangements, and changes in fuel morphology and ZrH/sub x/ composition are also evaluated, and suggestions for further study provided

  7. Science in public communication, culture, and credibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Does the general public need to understand science? And if so, is it scientists' responsibility to communicate? Critics have argued that, despite the huge strides made in technology, we live in a "scientifically illiterate" society--one that thinks about the world and makes important decisions without taking scientific knowledge into account. But is the solution to this "illiteracy" to deluge the layman with scientific information? Or does science news need to be focused around specific issues and organized into stories that are meaningful and relevant to people's lives? In this unprecedented, comprehensive look at a new field, Jane Gregory and Steve Miller point the way to a more effective public understanding of science in the years ahead.

  8. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Livestock Judges Training Provides Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott; Harrison, Steve; Packham, Joel; Sanchez, Dawn; Jensen, Jim; Kaysen, Brett; King, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The judging of a market animal at a fair is the highlight of a youth-owned livestock project. Livestock judges are hired to evaluate youth projects at fairs. They are critical ambassadors for agriculture and influence countless youths and adults. Judges must be knowledgeable about current animal evaluation methods that support youth development.…

  10. 16 CFR 0.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 0.14 Section 0.14 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. Administrative law judges are officials to whom the...

  11. Psychological Peculiarities of Judge Professional Activity and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspanov, Zholdybai T.; Turabayeva, Dana S.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the psychological peculiarities of judge professional activity and decision-making, judge's mental set and requirements to ethical and moral requirements and quality. Moreover, this work offers original job analysis and competency model of judge professional activity. The authors have studied the problems concerning the…

  12. 29 CFR 101.11 - Administrative law judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision. 101.11 Section 101.11... Practice Cases Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.11 Administrative law judge's decision. (a) At the conclusion of the hearing the administrative law judge prepares a...

  13. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  14. 14 CFR 302.17 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges. 302.17 Section... Evidentiary Hearing Proceedings § 302.17 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers and delegation of authority. (1) An administrative law judge shall have the following powers, in addition to any others specified in...

  15. 31 CFR 10.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 10.70... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.70 Administrative Law Judge. (a..., firm or other entity, or appraiser will be conducted by an Administrative Law Judge appointed as...

  16. 31 CFR 15.737-19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 15.737-19... CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105 (1966), shall conduct...

  17. 31 CFR 8.62 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 8.62... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.62 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105, shall conduct proceedings...

  18. THE RECONFIGURATION OF THE JUDGE`S ROLE IN THE ROMANO-GERMANIC LAW SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The role assigned to the judge varies from one legal system to another. In the Anglo-Saxon legal systems, in the context of the absence of an independent legislative body, judge is the one who creates law; his mission consists in solving a specific case, given the existing judicial precedents; if he can not find an appropriate rule of law, the judge has to create one and to apply it. On the other hand, in the continental system, creation of law is the mission of the legislator. Evolving under the influence of Roman law, the continental law systems differ from the Anglo-Saxons by: the assuming of Corpus iuris civilis; the tendency to abstraction, leading to the creation of a rational law; the rule of law, with the consequence of blurring the role of jurisprudence. In spite of these essential differences, the last decades of the twentieth century have found out the convergence of the written coded system and the common law system. Thus, the increasing of the legislature`s role in common law system is accompanied by the reconsideration of the judge`s role in the Roman-Germanic legal system. While Anglo-Saxons accept the "compromise" of coding, Continentals shyly step towards rethinking the status of law source of the jurisprudence. History has shown that, one by one, law and jurisprudence have disputed the the role of prime creator of law. Emphasizing the creative force of jurisprudence, Vladimir Hanga wrote: "The law remains in its essence abstract, but the appreciation of the jurisprudence makes it alive, as the judge, understanding the law, examining the interests of parties and taking inspiration from equity, ensures the ultimate purpose of the law: suum cuique tribuere”1. However, as we shall see below, in the Roman-Germanic law system, the creative role of jurisprudence still raises controversy.

  19. Assessing Perceived Credibility of Web Sites in a Terrorism Context: The PFLP, Tamil Tigers, Hamas, and Hezbollah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Brandon Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to contribute to the overall understanding of terrorist organizations' use of the Internet and to increase researchers' knowledge of Web site effectiveness. The methodological approach was evaluation of the perceived credibility of Web sites based on existing criteria derived from information users. The Web sites of…

  20. Currency option pricing in a credible exchange rate target zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines currency option pricing within a credible target zone arrangement where interventions at the boundaries push the exchange rate back into its fluctuation band. Valuation of such options is complicated by the requirement that the reflection mechanism should prevent the arbitrage

  1. Currency option pricing in a credible exchange rate target zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines currency option pricing within a credible target zone arrangement where interventions at the boundaries push the exchange rate back into its fluctuation band. Valuation of such options is complicated by the requirement that the reflection mechanism should prevent the arbitrage

  2. The Credibility of Fiscal Rules Policy and Business Cycle Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold; first, it studies the impact of the credibility of fiscal rule policy on the stability of output growth; second, it compares the effectiveness of fiscal rule policy to discretionary and automatic stabilizer fiscal policies to address the fluctuation of output growth. Employing quarterly data over the period 2001-2013 in the case of Indonesia, we obtain that the credible debt rule leads to a decrease in the volatility of output growth while the non-credible deficit rule does not have any effect. Both unsystematic and systematic components of discretionary fiscal policy have a stabilizing function. Interestingly, the automatic stabilization tends to induce the volatility of output growth. Given those results, we infer that government spending is not a good automatic stabilizer. It seems that the lower ratio of government expenditure to GDP along with improving credibility of deficit rule policy has a smoother effect on the economy. Therefore, they implicitly support expenditure cuts when implementing fiscal adjustment with the purpose of reaching fiscal sustainability in the short-run and a stable economic growth in the long-run.

  3. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  4. Credible Phenomenological Research: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Korcuska, James S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors conducted a 3-phase investigation into the credible standards for phenomenological research practices identified in the literature and endorsed by a sample of counselor education qualitative research experts. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the findings offer evidence that professional counseling has a distinctive format in which…

  5. Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory | Xu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a hybrid algorithm based on fuzzy simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is applied to determine fuzzy reliability indices of distribution system. This approach can obtain fuzzy expected values and their variances of reliability indices, and the credibilities of reliability indices meeting specified ...

  6. Deflation Risk in the Euro Area and Central Bank Credibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Galati (Gabriele); Z. Gorgi (Zion); R. Moessner (Richhild); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how the perceived risk that the euro area will experience deflation has evolved over time, and what this risk implies for the credibility of the ECB. We use a novel data set on market participants’ perceptions of short- to long-term deflation risk implied by

  7. Conquering Credibility for Monetary Policy Under Sticky Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylson Jair da Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We derive a best-reply monetary policy when the confidence by price setters on the monetary authority’s commitment to price level targeting may be both incomplete and sticky. We find that complete confidence (or full credibility is not a necessary condition for the achievement of a price level target even when heterogeneity in firms’ price level expectations is endogenously time-varying and may emerge as a long-run equilibrium outcome. In fact, in the absence of exogenous perturbations to the dynamic of confidence building, it is the achievement of a price level target for long enough that, due to stickiness in the state of confidence, rather ensures the conquering of full credibility. This result has relevant implications for the conduct of monetary policy in pursuit of price stability. One implication is that setting a price level target matters more as a means to provide monetary policy with a sharper focus on price stability than as a device to conquer credibility. As regards the conquering of credibility for monetary policy, it turns out that actions speak louder than words, as the continuing achievement of price stability is what ultimately performs better as a confidence-building device.

  8. Inflation Targeting and Liquidity Traps under Endogenous Credibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.

    2015-01-01

    We derive policy implications for an inflation targeting central bank, who's credibility is endogenous and depends on its past ability to achieve its targets. We do this in a New Keynesian framework with heterogeneous agents and boundely rational expectations. Our assumptions about expectation

  9. Investors Assessment of the Credibility of Management Disclosures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study, is to examine the issue of the assessment of the credibility of management disclosures about a company from the perspective of the investors. It presents the results from a questionnaire survey of a sample of financial Analysts, accountants and other investor. The data were analyzed using the one ...

  10. Perceptions of Credibility of Male and Female Syndicated Political Columnists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andsager, Julie L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines perceptions of the credibility of male and female syndicated political columnists. Finds that college students exhibited little prejudice against female versus male bylines in political interpretive columns. Finds a small tendency for male readers to evaluate male bylines higher in stereotypical ways, but female readers do not do this.…

  11. Why Follow the Leader? Collective Action, Credible Commitment and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Most analyses of conflict assume that conflicting groups act in a unitary fashion. This assumption is often violated: to reduce their risk of replacement, group leaders prevent both group members and soldiers from acting collectively, making it difficult for leaders to make credible commitments to them. Lifting the assumption that groups are unitary shifts the analysis of a wide range of c...

  12. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  13. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  14. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  15. The Influence of Peer Reviews on Source Credibility and Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Kristine; McGloin, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) is information shared on the Internet about a product, which allows people to receive information from others they may not otherwise encounter. Online product reviews are a type of eWOM where a user posts a comment about a product and selects an image to represent the self. The perception of the image and the text in the product review can influence source credibility and the perception of the product, as well as the likelihood that someone will purchase the pr...

  16. 29 CFR 18.614 - Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Calling and interrogation of witnesses by judge. 18.614... interrogation of witnesses by judge. (a) Calling by the judge. The judge may, on the judge's own motion or at... thus called. (b) Interrogation by the judge. The judge may interrogate witnesses, whether called by the...

  17. Online health information search and evaluation: observations and semi-structured interviews with college students and maternal health experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Park, Sun-Young; Bozeman, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    While the Internet is a popular source of health information, health seekers' inadequate skills to locate and discern quality information pose a potential threat to their healthcare decision-making. We aimed to examine health information search and appraisal behaviours among young, heavy users of the Internet. In study 1, we observed and interviewed 11 college students about their search strategies and evaluation of websites. In study 2, three health experts evaluated two websites selected as the best information sources in study 1. Familiarity with health websites and confidence in search strategies were major factors affecting search and evaluation behaviours. Website quality was mostly judged by aesthetics and peripheral cues of source credibility and message credibility. In contrast to users' favourable website evaluation, the experts judged the websites to be inappropriate and untrustworthy. Our results highlight a critical need to provide young health seekers with resources and training that are specifically geared toward health information search and appraisal. The role of health seekers' knowledge and involvement with the health issue in search effort and success warrants future research. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Building Credible Human Capital Analytics for Organizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2018-01-01

    Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress the import......Despite the enormous interest in human capital analytics (HCA), organizations have struggled to move from operational reporting to HCA. This is mainly the result of the inability of analytics teams to establish credible internal HCA and demonstrate its value. In this article, we stress...... the importance of conceptualizing HCA as an organizational capability and suggest a method for its operationalization. We argue that the development of HCA within an organization requires working with three dimensions of HCA: data quality, analytics capabilities, and strategic ability to act. Moreover, such work...

  19. Credible baseline analysis for multi-model public policy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, S.C.; Gass, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of public decision-making and resource allocation is such that many complex interactions can best be examined and understood by quantitative analysis. Most organizations do not possess the totality of models and needed analytical skills to perform detailed and systematic quantitative analysis. Hence, the need for coordinated, multi-organization studies that support public decision-making has grown in recent years. This trend is expected not only to continue, but to increase. This paper describes the authors' views on the process of multi-model analysis based on their participation in an analytical exercise, the ORNL/MITRE Study. One of the authors was the exercise coordinator. During the study, the authors were concerned with the issue of measuring and conveying credibility of the analysis. This work led them to identify several key determinants, described in this paper, that could be used to develop a rating of credibility.

  20. Maximum credible accident analysis for TR-2 reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manopulo, E.

    1981-01-01

    A new reactor, TR-2, of 5 MW, designed in cooperation with CEN/GRENOBLE is under construction in the open pool of TR-1 reactor of 1 MW set up by AMF atomics at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center. In this report the fission product inventory and doses released after the maximum credible accident have been studied. The diffusion of the gaseous fission products to the environment and the potential radiation risks to the population have been evaluated

  1. Credibility assessment of testimonies provided by victims with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. MANZANERO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obstacles in the way of access to justice for the victims with intellectual disability comes from the stereotypes referred to their ability to produce a statement at police legal procedures, with the consequence that some consider their statements less reliable than the rest of the victims, and others considerate their statements more reliable given their inability to create complex lies. This article reviews three of the most recent studies done by the UCM group of Psychology of Testimony, with the objective of analyzing the role of experience and intuition in the evaluation of credibility in people with intellectual disability (ID, and also it aims to prove whether the credibility analysis procedures such as Reality Monitoring (RM and Statement Validity Assessment (SVA would be valid procedures to discriminate between real and false statements within these collectives. From the results of these studies, it can be deducted that experience may not seem to be enough in order to discriminate between real and simulated victims, but analyzing the characteristics of the statements as the only indicator doesn’t seem to be enough either. As an alternative, the general procedure HELPT is proposed for the evaluation of credibility of people with ID.

  2. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray.

  3. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  4. Judging Fairness in Class Action Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Piché

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe the face of modern civil justice and discuss four paradoxes which justify re-evaluating the role of the judge responsible for reviewing class action settlements, in light of modern judicial culture. I also critically evaluate the existing procedures applicable to the fairness review as well as the judicial role described in the caselaw and doctrine, before suggesting a revised, three-parted role for the reviewing judge in the class action settlement context. Ultimately, I suggest that to reach fairness of process and outcome in class action settlements, judges should remain active and creative in their inquisitorial assessment of proposed class action settlements. They should also remain conciliatory, participating in the search for solutions regarding the proposed settlement, always seeking to find the truth (and what is “just” about the proposed settlement, in the utmost respect for the rights of absent class members, the respect of their interests, and the additional consideration of the interests of the defendants and of the public. Dans cet article, je présente l’état de la face de la justice civile moderne et je discute quatre paradoxes qui justifient une réévaluation du rôle du juge responsable de la révision et de l’approbation d’un règlement de recours collectif, à la lumière de la culture juridique moderne. Je propose aussi une évaluation critique des procédures en place s’appliquant à l’évaluation du caracters équitable de la transaction, de même que le rôle du juge décrit dans la jurisprudence et la doctrine, avant de suggérer un rôle révisé. Ce rôle modifié se décline en trois parties. Finalement, je suggère que pour atteindre l’équité de procédure et de résultat dans le cas de règlements en recours collectif, les juges devraient demeurer actifs et créatifs en enquêtant pour évaluer des règlements proposés dans les cas de recours collectifs. Ils et elles

  5. The nuclear regulatory challenge of judging safety back fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The economic pressures of electricity market competition have led nuclear power plant operators to seek ways to increase electricity production and to reduce operating costs at their plants. Corresponding pressures on the regulatory bodies include operator demand to reduce regulatory burdens perceived as unnecessary and general resistance to consider safety back-fits sought by the regulator. The purpose of this report is to describe potential situations giving rise to safety back-fit questions and to discuss regulatory approaches for judging the back-fits. The intended audience for this report is primarily nuclear regulators, although the information and ideas may also be of interest to nuclear operating organisations, other industry organisations and the general public. (author)

  6. Credible enough? Forward guidance and per-ceived National Bank of Poland’s policy rule

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Baranowski; Pawel Gajewski

    2015-01-01

    Credible forward guidance should reduce the perceived impact of macroeconomic variables on the interest rate. Using a micro-level dataset we test the perception of monetary policy in Poland among professional forecasters and find evidence for forward guidance credibility.

  7. 29 CFR 457.17 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases under 5 U.S.C. 7120 or 22 U.S.C. 4117 as implemented by... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 457.17 Section 457.17 Labor... GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.17 Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law...

  8. Examining the Effect of Endorser Credibility on the Consumers' Buying Intentions: An Empirical Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertoglu, Aysegul Ermec; Catlı, Ozlem; Korkmaz, Sezer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  9. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu; Ozlem Catli; Sezer Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  10. Credible or not : A study on the factors influencing consumers' credibility assessment of product placements on Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Kulin, Elin; Blomgren, Linnéa

    2016-01-01

    Background: To align with the new trend of using social media in the marketing mix, product placement has been adapted to social media platforms as one strategy to create attention. Especially on Instagram, product placements have gained popularity among companies. While scholars have focused on measuring the effectiveness of the strategy, suggesting that credibility is one component necessary for success, a gap in the research is illuminated when focusing on what makes a product placement on...

  11. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  12. 8 CFR 1208.30 - Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for admission found inadmissible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credible fear determinations involving..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR ASYLUM AND WITHHOLDING OF REMOVAL Credible Fear of Persecution § 1208.30 Credible fear determinations involving stowaways and applicants for...

  13. LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION, A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNIT, REPORT NUMBER 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WAS PRESENTED ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION. IN HIS PREPARATION, THE AUTHOR FIRST IDENTIFIED PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE LAND CLASSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRITION BY EXAMINING RELEVANT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. USING THIS INFORMATION, HE THEN FORMED A TEAM OF 16…

  14. 78 FR 25537 - Professional Conduct of Attorneys Practicing Under the Cognizance and Supervision of the Judge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... ``covered attorney'' does not include those civil service or civilian attorneys who practice law or perform... (Civil Law), in all other cases. Sec. 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may... Civil Law Branch (JAR), Judge Advocate (JA) Division, Headquarters United States Marine Corps (HQMC...

  15. 77 FR 25685 - Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... members prominent in the fields of quality, innovation, and performance management and appointed by the..., Maryland 20899. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Harry Hertz, Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence... Quality Award Panel of Judges AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of...

  16. 78 FR 63168 - Judges Panel of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Fangmeyer, Acting Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, National... Baldrige National Quality Award AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of... Quality Award (Judges Panel) will meet in closed session Monday through Friday, November 4-8, 2013, 8:30 a...

  17. 76 FR 44577 - Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... prominent in the fields of quality, innovation, and performance management and appointed by the Secretary of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Harry Hertz, Director, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program... Quality Award Panel of Judges AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of...

  18. Getting beyond "Gut Feeling": Understanding How Mentors Judge Readiness to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Fiona; Haigh, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Assessing whether or not a teacher candidate is ready to take their own class is a high-stakes decision that requires consideration of multiple, often competing, sources of information. Three research instruments were designed to explore how mentors judge readiness to teach during final practicum placements. This article describes the three…

  19. Investigating electronic word-of-mouth effects on online discussion forums: the role of perceived positive electronic word-of-mouth review credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Wang, Kai-Yu; Hsu, Li-Chun; Huang, Su-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been an important factor influencing consumer purchase decisions. Using the ABC model of attitude, this study proposes a model to explain how eWOM affects online discussion forums. Specifically, we propose that platform (Web site reputation and source credibility) and customer (obtaining buying-related information and social orientation through information) factors influence purchase intentions via perceived positive eWOM review credibility, as well as product and Web site attitudes in an online community context. A total of 353 online discussion forum users in an online community (Fashion Guide) in Taiwan were recruited, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that Web site reputation, source credibility, obtaining buying-related information, and social orientation through information positively influence perceived positive eWOM review credibility. In turn, perceived positive eWOM review credibility directly influences purchase intentions and also indirectly influences purchase intentions via product and Web site attitudes. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

  20. Let’s Talk About Same Sex: How Social Workers Can Make Judges Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Boys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have created a diverse toolbox of literature reporting that same sex cohabitating relationships are strikingly similar to heterosexual marriages in amicus curiae briefs submitted to the courts. However, judges are trained to fit information into legal frameworks and to ignore data that does not fit the rhetoric of a case. The following article aims to fit existing data on same sex relationships into the framework judges will use to decide whether same sex marriage can be prohibited. The primary precedent used to support same sex marriage is based on the analogy of a case prohibiting marriage discrimination based on race. The legal framework created by this case requires social work policy practitioners to frame research in terms of the evolution that has occurred in scientific understanding of same sex attraction and public opinion. A simple shift in the discourse used to frame the data can significantly impact whether judges listen.

  1. Cross-validation of the Dot Counting Test in a large sample of credible and non-credible patients referred for neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Courtney; Boone, Kyle B; Ermshar, Annette; Cottingham, Maria; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A; Wright, Matthew

    2018-01-18

    To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52.8%). However, the cut-off could be substantially lowered to ≥13.80, while still maintaining adequate specificity (≥90%), and raising sensitivity to 70.0%. Examination of non-credible subgroups revealed that Dot Counting Test sensitivity in feigned mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was 55.8%, whereas sensitivity was 90.6% in patients with non-credible cognitive dysfunction in the context of claimed psychosis, and 81.0% in patients with non-credible cognitive performance in depression or severe TBI. Thus, the Dot Counting Test may have a particular role in detection of non-credible cognitive symptoms in claimed psychiatric disorders. Alternative to use of the E-score, failure on ≥1 cut-offs applied to individual Dot Counting Test scores (≥6.0″ for mean grouped dot counting time, ≥10.0″ for mean ungrouped dot counting time, and ≥4 errors), occurred in 11.3% of the credible sample, while nearly two-thirds (63.6%) of the non-credible sample failed one of more of these cut-offs. An E-score cut-off of 13.80, or failure on ≥1 individual score cut-offs, resulted in few false positive identifications in credible patients, and achieved high sensitivity (64.0-70.0%), and therefore appear appropriate for use in identifying neurocognitive performance invalidity.

  2. 13 CFR 134.404 - Decision by Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by Administrative Law Judge. 134.404 Section 134.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... 8(a) Program § 134.404 Decision by Administrative Law Judge. Appeal proceedings brought under this...

  3. 5 CFR 1201.125 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Original Jurisdiction Cases Special Counsel Disciplinary Actions § 1201.125 Administrative law judge. (a) An administrative law judge will hear a disciplinary action... complaint seeking disciplinary action against a Federal or District of Columbia government employee for a...

  4. Judging children's participatory parity from social justice and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge ...

  5. 8 CFR 235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 235.6 Section 235.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.6 Referral to immigration judge. (a) Notice—(1) Referral by Form I...

  6. 8 CFR 1235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.6 Referral to immigration judge...

  7. 49 CFR 1503.607 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative law judges. 1503.607 Section 1503... PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.607 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers of...) Administer oaths and affirmations. (4) Issue subpoenas authorized by law. (5) Rule on offers of proof. (6...

  8. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...... pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool NaDeA (Natural...

  9. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...... using pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool Na...

  10. Facts, perception of facts, and the credibility of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses nuclear opposition in the United States, in particular as concerns construction of new facilities. The US adopted in 1969 the National Environmental Policy Act and subsequently, other regulations designed to assure public access to the decision-making process. However nuclear opponents continue to use every level of legal recourse open which results in doubts, delays and erosion of the credibility of the regulatory process. The author concludes that the most important objective is the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants. (NEA) [fr

  11. Nuclear snow job: utilities struggle to avoid credibility meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, A.

    1979-01-01

    Electric utilities and the US nuclear industry are criticized for giving a public relations response to safety concerns following the accident at Three Mile Island and for passing the cost of the response on to utility customers. The large amounts of money budgeted by Babcock and Wilcox, Bechtel Power Corporation, the Atomic Industrial Forum, Electric Power Research Institute, Nuclear Energy Women, and others to minimize the incident and counter anti-nuclear arguments with media events are seen here by Feeney as evidence that the utilities and nuclear industry are afraid of political consequences as their technical credibility vanishes

  12. CPSFS: A Credible Personalized Spam Filtering Scheme by Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Email spam consumes a lot of network resources and threatens many systems because of its unwanted or malicious content. Most existing spam filters only target complete-spam but ignore semispam. This paper proposes a novel and comprehensive CPSFS scheme: Credible Personalized Spam Filtering Scheme, which classifies spam into two categories: complete-spam and semispam, and targets filtering both kinds of spam. Complete-spam is always spam for all users; semispam is an email identified as spam by some users and as regular email by other users. Most existing spam filters target complete-spam but ignore semispam. In CPSFS, Bayesian filtering is deployed at email servers to identify complete-spam, while semispam is identified at client side by crowdsourcing. An email user client can distinguish junk from legitimate emails according to spam reports from credible contacts with the similar interests. Social trust and interest similarity between users and their contacts are calculated so that spam reports are more accurately targeted to similar users. The experimental results show that the proposed CPSFS can improve the accuracy rate of distinguishing spam from legitimate emails compared with that of Bayesian filter alone.

  13. The ‘credibility paradox’ in China’s science communication: Views from scientific practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to increasing debates on China’s rising status as a global scientific power, issues of China’s science communication remain under-explored. Based on 21 in-depth interviews in three cities, this article examines Chinese scientists’ accounts of the entangled web of influence which conditions the process of how scientific knowledge achieves (or fails to achieve) its civic authority. A main finding of this study is a ‘credibility paradox’ as a result of the over-politicisation of science and science communication in China. Respondents report that an absence of visible institutional endorsements renders them more public credibility and better communication outcomes. Thus, instead of exploiting formal channels of science communication, scientists interviewed were more keen to act as ‘informal risk communicators’ in grassroots and private events. Chinese scientists’ perspectives on how to earn public support of their research sheds light on the nature and impact of a ‘civic epistemology’ in an authoritarian state. PMID:26307594

  14. Facebook versus Twitter: Which one is more credible in a South African context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Viljoen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies conducted have shown that half of the South African population uses either or both Facebook and Twitter social networking sites for social satisfaction and for the evaluation of products and purchase decisions. This is a direct result of the continuous technological advancements worldwide and the permeative nature of social media. Objective: The focus of this study is to evaluate the credibility of Facebook and Twitter messages while establishing which of the mediums is perceived as more believable by consumers. The results of this research direct information technology practitioners, business managers, business owners, and marketing managers on the viability of these communication mediums. Method: A positivistic paradigm was used in this study through the use of a descriptive research design which consisted of a survey of 446 respondents located in East London, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Respondents were either selected randomly or through convenience sampling and were between age 18 and 55. Results: It was established that both Facebook and Twitter are significantly related to the independent variable of ‘intention to purchase’, with Twitter having a stronger correlation with the independent variable than Facebook. The context of the study was set in relation to the purchase intention of specific mobile phone brands. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that Twitter electronic word-of-mouth can be considered to be more credible than Facebook electronic word-of-mouth; thus this should be considered when advertising or promoting products via these mediums.

  15. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  16. When The Judiciary Flouts Separation of Powers: Attenuating the Credibility of the National Prosecuting Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe Maqutu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stature of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has been subverted through highly publicised political interference by the executive. Beginning with the marathon legal entanglements of the current South African president the decisions of sitting National Directors of Public Prosecutions (NDPP on high-profile criminal matters, particularly those involving prominent members of the political leadership, have been marred with controversy. Undoubtedly unwarranted intrusion into the prosecutorial domain, at the behest of key political protagonists, has blighted the repute of the NPA. The judiciary too has played a pivotal, if lesser role, in eroding the sagging reputation of the NPA. This article charts the narrative of judicial influence on the diminishing credibility of the NPA, using selected cases from the recent past. It shows that key political events such as the Zuma corruption saga have placed the judiciary together with political forces at centre stage where the focus is their culpability for exceeding their lawful mandate. Finding itself vulnerable as a result of its being the target of rhetoric casting doubt on its integrity and threatening its independence, the judiciary (through a crucial judgment entered the political fray and positioned itself behind what it judged to be the pervasive political sentiment of the day. The article examines whether, subsequently, in an effort to curb undue political influence of the executive on the NPA, the Constitutional Court in Democratic Alliance v President of South Africa interpreted and extended judicial authority in a manner that violated the doctrine of separation of powers. Furthermore, the article argues that in Freedom Under Law v National Director of Public Prosecutions the court again misconstrued its powers by unduly interfering with the discretionary decision-making powers of the NDPP. These cases illustrate that, once they have been issued, the far reaching consequences of judicial

  17. Judging in Rhythmic Gymnastics at Different Levels of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Catarina; Ávila-Carvalho, Lurdes; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena; Bobo-Arce, Marta

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to analyse the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics, at different levels of performance. The sample consisted of 1152 difficulty scores concerning 288 individual routines, performed in the World Championships in 2013. The data were analysed using the mean absolute judge deviation from the final difficulty score, a Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intra-class correlations, for consistency and reliability assessment. For validity assessment, mean deviations of judges' difficulty scores, the Kendall's coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were calculated. Overall, the results in terms of consistency (Cronbach's alpha mostly above 0.90) and reliability (intra-class correlations for single and average measures above 0.70 and 0.90, respectively) were satisfactory, in the first and third parts of the ranking on all apparatus. The medium level gymnasts, those in the second part of the ranking, had inferior reliability indices and highest score dispersion. In this part, the minimum of corrected item-total correlation of individual judges was 0.55, with most values well below, and the matrix for between-judge correlations identified remarkable inferior correlations. These findings suggest that the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics may be compromised at certain levels of performance. In future, special attention should be paid to the judging analysis of the medium level gymnasts, as well as the Code of Points applicability at this level.

  18. Communicating soil carbon science to farmers: Incorporating credibility, salience and legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Julie; Mills, Jane; Dibari, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    A key narrative within climate change science is that conserving and improving soil carbon through agricultural practices can contribute to agricultural productivity and is a promising option for mitigating carbon loss through sequestration. This paper examines the potential disconnect between...... science and practice in the context of communicating information about soil carbon management. It focuses on the information producing process and on stakeholder (adviser, farmer representative, policy maker etc) assessment of the attributes credibility, salience and legitimacy. In doing this it draws...... on results from consultations with stakeholders in the SmartSOIL project which aimed to provide decision support guidelines about practices that optimise carbon mitigation and crop productivity. An iterative methodology, used to engage stakeholders in developing, testing and validating a range of decision...

  19. Getting the balance right? : a mismatch in interaction demands between target and judge impacts on judgement accuracy for some traits but not others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, Helen; Taylor, Paul J.; Campbell, Claire

    The present study examined the role of target and judge interaction demands on first impression accuracy (n = 195). Specifically, the role of targets' self-presentation concerns and judges' information processing demands on accuracy for interpersonal traits (i.e., traits likely to be accentuated

  20. Credibility elements of eWOM messages in the context of health care services. A Romanian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcarea, V L; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, C M

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Romanian consumers' determinants of eWOM messages' perceived credibility in the context of health care services. We selected a sample of 127 women and we administered a questionnaire. We used the partial least squares to uncover the established relationships between the variables of the model, namely the argument strength and the source credibility of a eWOM message and the intention to purchase a health care service based on the information embedded in the eWOM messages. The results revealed that all variables had positive direct correlations with each other but the argument strength of a message has the highest impact on the intention.

  1. How to recover credibility of nuclear technologies in Japan where people wish to have 'Anshin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Although it is inevitable to recover credibility of utilities, there are no clear ways to realize a final target yet. Credibility issue is a very difficult especially in Japan, where the word of 'Anshin' has special importance in the mind of people. In this paper, the word of 'Anshin' in Japan was discussed in order to find out differences in other countries by comparison of culture and customs, especially ways to prepare food, i.e. agriculture and hunting and gathering and so on. The meanings of 'Anshin' were decomposed into several elements, and each element was discussed and clarified. Human factor is important in both operation of plants and risk communication. The philosophy and attitude of COE of utilities are those of very important factors to regain credibility. The utilities' responsibilities are important, but not enough by themselves. In order to assure transparency of information used in risk communication, improvement of people's scientific literacy and their attitude to elect their representatives are absolutely necessary. Especially, risk information related to Level 3 RPA to be opened to public have to be fully transparent. Risk is one of most difficult concept for Japanese people to handle. The reoperation issue of nuclear power plants will involve several difficulties, but challenges to overcome this issue will be a good chance to change a way of decision making in Japan. (author)

  2. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  3. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  4. 20 CFR 655.645 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of the Limitations Imposed on Employers Using... administrative law judge shall notify all interested parties of the date, time and place of the hearing. All...

  5. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gary C Kessler

    2011-01-01

    As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper d...

  6. Revisiting Organizational Credibility and Organizational Reputation – A Situational Crisis Communication Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Jamilah; Abu Bakar Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Organizational credibility, the extent of which an organization as the source of messages is perceived as trustworthy and reliable, is one important aspect to determine organization’s survival. The perceived credibility of the messages will either strengthen or worsen an organization reputation. The primary objective of this paper is to revisit the concept of organizational credibility and its interaction with organizational outcomes such as organizational reputation. Based on the situational...

  7. Credibility and Consumer Behavior of Islamic Bank in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal BACHRI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept “credibility” has become significant attention from academics and practitioners because it played an important role in creating and maintaining consumer behavior. This study uses twenty- seven references relates to credibility, customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Several studies have discussed the relationship between credibility and consumer behavior and also elaborated dimensions of credibility. It also presented the shortcomings of current research and the trends for future study in Islamic banking.

  8. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization's adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization's intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization's intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization's adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  9. How Environmental Uncertainty Moderates the Effect of Relative Advantage and Perceived Credibility on the Adoption of Mobile Health Services by Chinese Organizations in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adoption of mobile health services by an organization on the diffusion of mobile technology in the big data era, it has received minimal attention in literature. This study investigates how relative advantage and perceived credibility affect an organization’s adoption of mobile health services, as well as how environmental uncertainty changes the relationship of relative advantage and perceived credibility with adoption. A research model that integrates relative advantage, perceived credibility, environmental uncertainty, and an organization’s intention to use mobile health service is developed. Quantitative data are collected from senior managers and information systems managers in 320 Chinese healthcare organizations. The empirical findings show that while relative advantage and perceived credibility both have positive effects on an organization’s intention to use mobile health services, relative advantage plays a more important role than perceived credibility. Moreover, environmental uncertainty positively moderates the effect of relative advantage on an organization’s adoption of mobile health services. Thus, mobile health services in environments characterized with high levels of uncertainty are more likely to be adopted because of relative advantage than in environments with low levels of uncertainty.

  10. End-of-life issues as perceived by Lebanese judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Salim M; Kawas, Sami H; Hajjar, Theresa A

    2003-05-01

    to assess the attitudes of judges in Beirut, Lebanon, regarding end-of-life issues such as assisted suicide and withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment. 85% of all currently acting and in-training judges and public prosecutors in Beirut (N=135) were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward intervention in five hypothetical cases. The associations of attitudes, on a scale from least to most 'sympathetic' toward assisting those who desire to end their lives, were measured by a variety of personal, social and professional variables. younger individuals, and those who have not yet been formally appointed as judges, were significantly more sympathetic to withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining devices when patients or their proxies requested it, and more in support of assisted suicide. Gender, religious denomination, religious practice, and personal experience with prolonged illness leading to death among close friends or family, were generally not significant predictors of respondents' attitudes. Years of experience as a judge correlated strongly with age and may have contributed to its predictive effect. a relatively more sympathetic attitude among younger judges, many of them women, and among trainees, may reflect a historical evolution in younger age-groups in Lebanon today. A survey of opinions in the public may help reach a more conclusive understanding in this regard. In any case, judges in Lebanon will remain important partners in the debate, as they will continue to be the final interpreters of the letter of the law in end-of-life issues.

  11. Public confidence in local management officials: organizational credibility and emergency behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Confidence issues create potential risks for the public in any emergency situation. They do so because credibility and associated perceptions of legitimacy and competency of organizations are determinants of human behavior in disasters. Credibility, however, is only one of numerous factors that shape response of people or organizations to a threatening event. The purposes of this paper are to review what is known about the way in which credibility and related constructs influence emergency response, discuss how this knowledge applies to radiological emergency planning, and suggest how credibility-induced risk can be minimized in emergency planning and response.

  12. Public confidence in local management officials: organizational credibility and emergency behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Confidence issues create potential risks for the public in any emergency situation. They do so because credibility and associated perceptions of legitimacy and competency of organizations are determinants of human behavior in disasters. Credibility, however, is only one of numerous factors that shape response of people or organizations to a threatening event. The purposes of this paper are to review what is known about the way in which credibility and related constructs influence emergency response, discuss how this knowledge applies to radiological emergency planning, and suggest how credibility-induced risk can be minimized in emergency planning and response

  13. MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN ONLINE SOCIAL PROGRAMS: OHANIAN MODEL OF SOURCE CREDIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Corina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.

  14. Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the credibility of early literature about famous North American wolves (Canis lupus). Many famous wolves were reported to be older than they actually were, and we estimated they did not live long enough to have caused purported damage to livestock and game animals. Wolf kill rates on free-ranging livestock appeared to be inflated compared to recently published kill rates on native ungulates and livestock. Surplus killing of sheep and goats may have accounted for some high kill rates, but surplus killing of free-ranging longhorn cattle probably did not occur. Some famous wolves may actually have been dogs (C. familiaris), wolf-dog hybrids, or possibly coyote (C. latrans)-dog hybrids. We documented instances where early authors appeared to embellish or fabricate information about famous wolves. Caution should be exercised when using early literature about wolves as a basis for wolf management decisions.

  15. Effects of argument quality, source credibility and self-reported diabetes knowledge on message attitudes: an experiment using diabetes related messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng; Hwang, Lih-Lian; Lai, Yung-Jye

    2017-05-17

    Previous studies have reported that credibility and content (argument quality) are the most critical factors affecting the quality of health information and its acceptance and use; however, this causal relationship merits further investigation in the context of health education. Moreover, message recipients' prior knowledge may moderate these relationships. This study used the elaboration likelihood model to determine the main effects of argument quality, source credibility and the moderating effect of self-reported diabetes knowledge on message attitudes. A between-subjects experimental design using an educational message concerning diabetes for manipulation was applied to validate the effects empirically. A total of 181 participants without diabetes were recruited from the Department of Health, Taipei City Government. Four group messages were manipulated in terms of argument quality (high and low) × source credibility (high and low). Argument quality and source credibility of health information significantly influenced the attitude of message recipients. The participants with high self-reported knowledge participants exhibited significant disapproval for messages with low argument quality. Effective health information should provide objective descriptions and cite reliable sources; in addition, it should provide accurate, customised messages for recipients who have high background knowledge level and ability to discern message quality. © 2017 Health Libraries Group Health Information & Libraries Journal.

  16. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosuosso Amedeo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I, Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it. ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be

  17. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, Amedeo; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I), Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it). ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be acritically pro-science. PMID

  18. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, Amedeo; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2003-07-01

    Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I), Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail: enlsc@unipv.it). ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be acritically pro-science.

  19. Individual Differences in Accurately Judging Personality From Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A; Goh, Jin X; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hagedorn, Christian

    2016-08-01

    This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first-person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who were more accurate in judging personality from text were more likely to be female; had personalities that were more agreeable, conscientious, and feminine, and less neurotic and dominant (all controlling for participant gender); scored higher on empathic concern; self-reported more interest in, and attentiveness to, people's personalities in their daily lives; and reported reading more for pleasure, especially fiction. Accuracy was not associated with SAT scores but had a significant relation to vocabulary knowledge. Accuracy did not correlate with tests of judging personality and emotion based on audiovisual cues. This research is the first to address individual differences in accurate judgment of personality from text, thus adding to the literature on correlates of the good judge of personality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Judge-Only” Justice V. Collaborators: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Reale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Who and how many are the collaborators of judges? The answer may differ according to the perspective under which Justice is considered. In this introduction, and in the light of the papers submitted in the first session of the workshop, a distinction is proposed between “direct” and “indirect” collaborators of judges, according to the side of Justice observed. If Justice is confined simply to the classical function performed by courts, i.e. deciding cases according to the law, it seems quite obvious to remark that judges never act alone, since they normally benefit from the help of different kinds of assistants who, at different levels, help them in their daily work. But when paying attention to the facet of Justice concerning the concrete enforcement of decision, it becomes inevitable to take into account different categories of subjects involved in the “administration” of justice. Under this second perspective, justice is a matter for everyone: not only judges and prosecutors, but other professionals and bodies, including also Governments and other public institutions, since their decisions concerning, for example, human and material resources assigned to the judicial system have inevitably an impact on Justice considered as a public service. Lastly, the aptitude of the public opinion cannot be ignored: the degree of public satisfaction with the judicial system may influence the demand of justice as well as its material functioning. Accordingly, even common citizens could be seen as a very peculiar sort of “collaborators” of judges.

  1. Towards a More Responsive Judge: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld W. de Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the changes that have taken place in the attitude of judges towards their role and tasks as well as actual judicial practices. The result of this exploration is a reflection upon the challenges and opportunities for a new, more responsive judge. The main characteristic of this new judge is that he or she looks beyond the purely legal coordinates of the dispute, in order to discuss which method of dispute resolution (a settlement, a referral to mediation or a court decision is most likely to result in a viable and sustainable solution. These changes in attitude are part of broader developments that have taken place in actual judicial practices. The context in which these changes have occurred helps us to gain a better understanding of the changes, the barriers to change and the opportunities to overcome these challenges. The leading assumption in this research is that during the past ten years there has been an extensive change in the way judges think about their role in dispute resolution and at the same time many judges experience difficulties in applying their new-found understanding to their work in the courts. Our data have been gathered through court observations, interviews and expert meetings. In addition, our analyses are based on relevant literature in the field of judicial dispute resolution (JDR as well as insights from our own previous research projects. We primarily focus on civil and administrative disputes in the Netherlands. Occasionally, we also point to trends and challenges elsewhere.

  2. The corporation and the community: Credibility, legitimacy, and imposed risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.; Rosenthal, I.

    1991-10-01

    In this age of rapid changes, large segments of society no longer trust any institution or authority in regard to pronouncements on what is safe. Because of this distrust, the public has demanded and obtained increased rights for individuals to intervene directly in decisions affecting them. Rosenthal warns that an organization that just fulfills its legal requirements for safety is no longer doing enough. Industry leaders must work toward re-establishing credibility by identifying persons who are potentially at risk as a result of industry activities, involving them in the communication process, and justifying the firm's social benefits. Seeking social legitimacy, chemical manufacturers have formed self-assessment groups and community councils, which have reaped unexpected benefits but have forced them to deal with issues they would have preferred to avoid. To industry leaders who contend that these types of activities are not worth the effort, Rosenthal presents a timely warning. Government and business must reduce public concerns significantly and make stakeholders more willing to tolerate imposed risk because of perceived benefits. It the public's concern is not reduced, we will all be required to make greater and greater investments in an inefficient and largely fruitless pursuit of absolute safety. 16 refs

  3. Reactor safety research - visible demonstrations and credible computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W B; Divakaruni, S M

    1985-11-01

    EPRI has been conducting nuclear safety research for a number of years with the primary goal of assuring the safety and reliability of the nuclear plants. The visibility is emphasized by sponsoring or participating in large scale test demonstrations to credibly support the complex computations that are the basis for quantification of safety margins. Recognizing the success of the airline industry in receiving favorable public perception, the authors compare the design and operation practices of the airline industry with those of the nuclear industry practices to identify the elements contributing to public concerns and unfavorable perceptions. In this paper, authors emphasize the importance of proper communications of research results to the public in a manner that non-specialists understand. Further, EPRI supported research and results in the areas of source term, seismic and structural engineering research, analysis using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), quantification of safety margins, digital technology development and implementation, and plant transient and performance evaluations are discussed in the paper. (orig./HP).

  4. Building confidence and credibility amid growing model and computing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. J.; Mahajan, S.; Veneziani, C.; Kennedy, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    As global Earth system models are developed to answer an ever-wider range of science questions, software products that provide robust verification, validation, and evaluation must evolve in tandem. Measuring the degree to which these new models capture past behavior, predict the future, and provide the certainty of predictions is becoming ever more challenging for reasons that are generally well known, yet are still challenging to address. Two specific and divergent needs for analysis of the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) model - but with a similar software philosophy - are presented to show how a model developer-based focus can address analysis needs during expansive model changes to provide greater fidelity and execute on multi-petascale computing facilities. A-PRIME is a python script-based quick-look overview of a fully-coupled global model configuration to determine quickly if it captures specific behavior before significant computer time and expense is invested. EVE is an ensemble-based software framework that focuses on verification of performance-based ACME model development, such as compiler or machine settings, to determine the equivalence of relevant climate statistics. The challenges and solutions for analysis of multi-petabyte output data are highlighted from the aspect of the scientist using the software, with the aim of fostering discussion and further input from the community about improving developer confidence and community credibility.

  5. The corporation and the community: Credibility, legitimacy, and imposed risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C. (ed.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Rosenthal, I. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Risk and Decision Processes)

    1991-10-01

    In this age of rapid changes, large segments of society no longer trust any institution or authority in regard to pronouncements on what is safe. Because of this distrust, the public has demanded and obtained increased rights for individuals to intervene directly in decisions affecting them. Rosenthal warns that an organization that just fulfills its legal requirements for safety is no longer doing enough. Industry leaders must work toward re-establishing credibility by identifying persons who are potentially at risk as a result of industry activities, involving them in the communication process, and justifying the firm's social benefits. Seeking social legitimacy, chemical manufacturers have formed self-assessment groups and community councils, which have reaped unexpected benefits but have forced them to deal with issues they would have preferred to avoid. To industry leaders who contend that these types of activities are not worth the effort, Rosenthal presents a timely warning. Government and business must reduce public concerns significantly and make stakeholders more willing to tolerate imposed risk because of perceived benefits. It the public's concern is not reduced, we will all be required to make greater and greater investments in an inefficient and largely fruitless pursuit of absolute safety. 16 refs.

  6. Resonant communicators, effective communicators. Communicator’s flow and credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene García-Ureta, Ph.D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication studies have been integrating the latest developments in cognitive sciences and acknowledging the importance of understanding the subjective processes involved in communication. This article argues that communication studies should also take into account the psychology of the communicator. This article presents the theoretical basis and the results of a training programme designed for audiovisual communicators. The programme is based on the theories of self-efficacy and flow and seeks to improve students’ communication competencies through the use of presentation techniques and psychological skills to tackle communication apprehension. The programme involves an active methodology that is based on modelling, visualisation, immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. A repeated-measures ANOVA shows that the programme successfully decreases the level of communication apprehension, improves the perceived self-efficacy, improves the psychological state needed to perform better in front of the cameras (flow, and improves students’ communication skills. A path analysis proved that the perceived self-efficacy and anxiety levels predict the level of flow during the communication act. At the end of the training programme, those who experienced higher levels of flow and enjoyment during the communication task achieved higher quality levels in their communication exercise. It is concluded that the concepts of self-efficacy and flow facilitate advancing in the understanding of the factors that determine a communicator’s credibility and ability to connect with the audience.

  7. Reactor safety research - visible demonstrations and credible computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, W.B.; Divakaruni, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    EPRI has been conducting nuclear safety research for a number of years with the primary goal of assuring the safety and reliability of the nuclear plants. The visibility is emphasized by sponsoring or participating in large scale test demonstrations to credibly support the complex computations that are the basis for quantification of safety margins. Recognizing the success of the airline industry in receiving favorable public perception, the authors compare the design and operation practices of the airline industry with those of the nuclear industry practices to identify the elements contributing to public concerns and unfavorable perceptions. In this paper, authors emphasize the importance of proper communications of research results to the public in a manner that non-specialists understand. Further, EPRI supported research and results in the areas of source term, seismic and structural engineering research, analysis using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), quantification of safety margins, digital technology development and implementation, and plant transient and performance evaluations are discussed in the paper. (orig./HP)

  8. Crisis of confidence: utilities, public relations, and credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    This book deals principally with the role of the public utility in the business sector and specifically with its patterns of communications in this turbulent era of changing public opinion. Offering the premise that time has almost run out to achieve public understanding in today's mounting energy crisis, Frank C. Sullivan diagnoses the problems, examines available communication techniques, and offers a pragmatic approach to action which will stimulate and challenge neophyte and professional alike. The book touches on the history of public relations, discusses its functions and role in utility management, and provides practical suggestions and sound advice on corporate credibility and accounting. Following a ''Rationale for Action'' the book's twenty-two chapters are grouped in four major sections: Public Relations and the Utility; Planning for Rate Increases; The Utility and its Publics, and Private vs. Public Ownership. In his epilogue, ''The Dimensions of Disbelief,'' the author sets forth his candid and provocative thesis for action and change.

  9. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  10. The Importance of Being…Social? Instructor Credibility and the Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Megan W.

    2016-01-01

    Using the framework of generational identity, the current study explores how a range of characteristics impact Millennial perceptions of instructor credibility. Millennial Generation student ratings of the impact of competence, character, and sociability on instructor credibility were compared to faculty ratings of the same characteristics.…

  11. Effects of message repetition and negativity on credibility judgments and political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, N.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the truth effect has demonstrated that statements are rated as more credible when they are repeatedly presented. However, current research indicates that there are limits to the truth effect and that too many repetitions can decrease message credibility. This study investigates whether

  12. Credible enough? Forward guidance and perceived National Bank of Poland’s policy rule

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Paweł; Gajewski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Credible forward guidance should bring down the perceived impact of macroeconomic variables on the interest rate. Using a micro-level dataset we test the perception of monetary policy in Poland among professional forecasters and find evidence for forward guidance credibility.

  13. In Your Facebook: Examining Facebook Usage as Misbehavior on Perceived Teacher Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason S.; Hayes, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers sometimes do things that negatively impact their own credibility in classroom settings. One way instructors maintain credibility among students is by keeping a veil between their personal and professional personas. The advent of Facebook presents new challenges for instructors seeking to keep their personal lives private in order to…

  14. When Can Forensic Psychologists Comment on the Credibility of Criminal Defendants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Flores de Apodaca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychological examiners are often confronted with assessments in the guilt phase of criminal cases in which a Defendant denies his/her charged conduct, but the existing evidence clearly contradicts their account. This happens often in cases involving charges of violence, sex offending and or substance abuse (Langton, Barbaree, Harkins, Arenovich, McNamee & Peacock, 2008. What is the proper role of the examiner in such instances?; granting the benefit of the doubt and accepting the Defendant’s account, using the one contained in the differing evidence, or making an independent judgment about which is more likely to be true? Does accepting any version mean the expert is offering an opinion on the Ultimate Issue in the case, and encroaching on the role of the Trier of Fact? The Federal Rules of Evidence (FREE dictate that judgments about Ultimate Issues belong solely to the Trier of Fact, yet the DSM-5 Manual (APA, 2013 instructs us to consider Malingering in every forensic situation; i.e. is the Defendant being honest about his mental state, and by implication, his/her credibility?  Our recommendation is that examiners offer no opinions about which conflicting version in a criminal case is the more credible during the guilt phase, and instead, offer “if, then” assessments about a Defendant’s propensity for violence or sexual offending; i.e. if the charges are true, then s/he poses certain levels of risk going forward, for reasons detailed in the report. Such a stance avoids experts “taking sides” during the guilt phase of a case and allows them to fully inform the adversarial, legal process as it deliberates on possible Plea Bargains or Sentencing decisions. We argue that this impartial approach serves a useful function in legal proceedings while adhering to our Ethical Guidelines (APA, 2010.

  15. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  16. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  17. Judging Criterion of Controlled Structures with Closely Spaced Natural Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Faxiang; Sun Limin

    2010-01-01

    The structures with closely spaced natural frequencies widely exist in civil engineering; however, the judging criterion of the density of closely spaced frequencies is in dispute. This paper suggests a judging criterion for structures with closely spaced natural frequencies based on the analysis on a controlled 2-DOF structure. The analysis results indicate that the optimal control gain of the structure with velocity feedback is dependent on the frequency density parameter of structure and the maximum attainable additional modal damping ratio is 1.72 times of the frequency density parameter when state feedback is applied. Based on a brief review on the previous researches, a judging criterion related the minimum frequency density parameter and the required mode damping ratio was proposed.

  18. Neural mechanism for judging the appropriateness of facial affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jeong, Bum Seok; Ki, Seon Wan; Im, Dong-Mi; Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Hong Shick

    2005-12-01

    Questions regarding the appropriateness of facial expressions in particular situations arise ubiquitously in everyday social interactions. To determine the appropriateness of facial affect, first of all, we should represent our own or the other's emotional state as induced by the social situation. Then, based on these representations, we should infer the possible affective response of the other person. In this study, we identified the brain mechanism mediating special types of social evaluative judgments of facial affect in which the internal reference is related to theory of mind (ToM) processing. Many previous ToM studies have used non-emotional stimuli, but, because so much valuable social information is conveyed through nonverbal emotional channels, this investigation used emotionally salient visual materials to tap ToM. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects volunteered for our study. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activation during the judgmental task for the appropriateness of facial affects as opposed to gender matching tasks. We identified activation of a brain network, which includes both medial frontal cortex, left temporal pole, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left thalamus during the judgmental task for appropriateness of facial affect compared to the gender matching task. The results of this study suggest that the brain system involved in ToM plays a key role in judging the appropriateness of facial affect in an emotionally laden situation. In addition, our result supports that common neural substrates are involved in performing diverse kinds of ToM tasks irrespective of perceptual modalities and the emotional salience of test materials.

  19. Are Clinicians Better Than Lay Judges at Recalling Case Details? An Evaluation of Expert Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher A; Keeley, Jared W; Eakin, Deborah K

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of expertise in clinicians' memory for case details. Clinicians' diagnostic formulations may afford mechanisms for retaining and retrieving information. Experts (N = 41; 47.6% males, 23.8% females; 28.6% did not report gender; age: mean [M] = 54.69) were members of the American Board of Professional Psychologists. Lay judges (N = 156; 25.4% males, 74.1% females; age: M = 18.85) were undergraduates enrolled in general psychology. Three vignettes were presented to each group, creating a 2 (group: expert, lay judge) x 3 (vignettes: simple, complex-coherent, complex-incoherent) mixed factorial design. Recall accuracy for vignette details was the dependent variable. Data analyses used multivariate analyses of variance to detect group differences among multiple continuous variables. Experts recalled more information than lay judges, overall. However, experts also exhibited more false memories for the complex-incoherent case because of their schema-based knowledge. This study supported clinical expertise as beneficial. Nonetheless, negative influences from experts' schema-based knowledge, as exhibited, could adversely affect clinical practices. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Judged seriousness of environmental losses: reliability and cause of loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Dawn Nannini; Robert B. Gorter; Paul A. Bell; George L. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Public judgments of the seriousness of environmental losses were found to be internally consistent for most respondents, and largely unaffected by attempts to manipulate responses by altering the mix of losses being judged. Both findings enhance confidence in the feasibility of developing reliable rankings of the seriousness of environmental losses to aid resource...

  1. Domestic abuse : even the judges are getting it wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrow-Marshall, LJ; Dubrow-Marshall, R

    2017-01-01

    A judge in a recent court case involving domestic abuse stated that the victim of abuse had not been vulnerable because of her university education and circle of supportive friends. The authors comment on the nature of coercive control, and the lack of understanding about the universal vulnerability to domestic abuse, which is not mitigated by education or social support.

  2. Preferences for School Finance Systems: Voters versus Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin D.; Fischel, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A theory that urges judges to decide that locally financed school systems are unconstitutional holds that courts must implement reforms because the legislative process is dominated by property-rich communities. However, the defeat of a New Hampshire gubernatorial candidate who advocated such reforms contradicts the theory. (JOW)

  3. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF MILITARY JUDGES IN SOUTH AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The status of military courts within the South African judicial system is ... that the question of financial security of military judges is a complex one and ...... that the force of the recommendations of the Commission is weak, as it is entirely.

  4. Bias on the Bench: Sex, Judges, and Mock Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette S.; Zeigler, Sara L.; Westbrook, Miranda N.

    2011-01-01

    Given substantial evidence of sex discrimination in the legal profession and the role of attorneys and judges in perpetuating gender stereotypes, educators have an obligation to prepare female students for the challenges they will face, educate students of both sexes about the role of bias in litigation, and seek to mitigate the influence of…

  5. Country's image as judged by international indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.12 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.12 Section 1240.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.31 - Authority of immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of immigration judges. 1240.31 Section 1240.31 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.50 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.50 Section 1240.50 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings To...

  9. OJPOT: Online Judge & Practice Oriented Teaching Idea in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming…

  10. 24 CFR 17.153 - Determination of the Administrative Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Judge shall issue a written decision which includes the supporting rationale for the decision. The... Department, the Department's Office of Finance and Accounting, the debtor, and the debtor's attorney or other... determination is received by the Department's Chief Financial Officer. No referral will be made to the IRS or...

  11. Financial security of military judges in South Africa | Tshivhase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of military courts within the South African judicial system is uncertain. This uncertainty makes it challenging to determine the acceptable degree of their independence, including determining the acceptable basic financial security of military judges. In Van Rooyen v The State (2002) 5 SA 246 (CC), the ...

  12. Integrating an Automatic Judge into an Open Source LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Katerina; Guerreiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the successful integration of the evaluation engine of Mooshak into the open source learning management system Claroline. Mooshak is an open source online automatic judge that has been used for international and national programming competitions. although it was originally designed for programming competitions, Mooshak has also…

  13. 29 CFR 2704.307 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of administrative law judge. 2704.307 Section 2704.307 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN COMMISSION PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...

  14. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  15. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... basic pay that equals or exceeds the applicant's highest previous Federal rate of basic pay, not to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930...

  16. 29 CFR 502.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF...

  17. The judge on Facebook; neglecting a persistent ritual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between their representatives and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why the civil law judge cannot be expected to begin using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the

  18. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has sole discretion to decide whether to appoint a settlement judge, except that a settlement judge... assigned to hear and decide the case. (ii) The settlement judge shall not be appointed to hear and decide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18...

  19. 20 CFR 404.944 - Administrative law judge hearing procedures-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... order to receive new and material evidence. The administrative law judge may decide when the evidence... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge hearing procedures... Determinations and Decisions Administrative Law Judge Hearing Procedures § 404.944 Administrative law judge...

  20. 43 CFR 30.243 - How will the judge decide my petition for reopening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the judge decide my petition for... the judge decide my petition for reopening? (a) If the judge finds that proper grounds are not shown, the judge will issue an order denying the petition for reopening and giving the reasons for the denial...

  1. 43 CFR 30.235 - What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....235 What will the judge's decision in a formal probate proceeding contain? The judge must decide the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will the judge's decision in a formal... requirements of this section. (a) In all cases, the judge's decision must: (1) Include the name, birth date...

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  3. PRINSIP HAKIM AKTIF DALAM PERKARA PERDATA / The Principle of Active Judge in Civil Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Keadilan harus dengan tegas ditegakkan. Tuntutan tersebut tidak memungkinkan untuk dimodifikasi karena penegakan keadilan sangat berhubungan dengan penegakan hak. Paradigma umum dalam melihat hukum acara perdata menempatkan Hakim bersifat pasif dalam menjalankan tugas dan fungsinya. Meskipun begitu terdapat keadaan-keadaan yang memposisikan hakim agar aktif menyelesaikan perkara perdata. Hal itu dapat terlihat pada penerapan Pasal 119 HIR pada saat Ketua Pengadilan Negeri memberikan bantuan berupa nasehat serta bantuan yang berhubungan dengan formalitas atau syarat-syarat gugatan agar gugatan dapat diterima dan memenuhi syarat-syarat formalitas gugatan kepada penggugat atau kuasanya. Selain itu, Pasal 130 HIR / Pasal 154 RBG, diwajibkan agar Ketua Pengadilan Negeri berusaha mendamaikan kedua belah pihak yang berperkara. Selanjutnya pada Pasal 132 HIR / Pasal 156 RBG, Hakim memiliki peranan aktif untuk menginformasikan kepada kedua belah pihak yang berperkara dan memberikan penjelasan kepada para pihak yang berperkara tentang adanya hak untuk melakukan upaya hukum serta hak untuk mengajukan alat-alat bukti di persidangan.   The Justice must be firmly maintained. This demand can not be modified due to it was closely related to the rights enforcement. The common paradigm in civil code perception makes judges passively work in civil cases handling. It can be seen in Article 119 HIR when the general court chief judge give a support as advice and help related to the formality or the terms of the lawsuit for the strike to be acceptable and meets the requirements of formality lawsuit against the plaintiff or attorney. Moreover, Article 130 HIR / RBG Article 154, required that general court chief judge attempted to reconcile the two parties litigant. Furthermore, in Article 132 HIR / RBG Article 156, the Judge has an active role to inform both litigants and provide an explanation to the litigants of their rights to take legal actions and the right to

  4. Civil Justice: Lay Judges in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Machura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lay judges fulfill important functions for the justice system of a country. In the European Union member states, scholars have analysed the use of lay judges in criminal cases. However, little is known about lay participation in civil justice. The paper introduces commonly cited reasons to have lay judges as well as the principal forms of lay participation and then surveys the EU countries for its implementation in civil cases. Mixed tribunals, involving lay judges under the leadership of a professional judge, are relatively frequent. Several countries have special labour courts or commercial courts with lay members and others have single lay judges, or all-lay judge panels. Roughly a third of the 28 EU member states have no lay participation in civil justice but only three of those have no lay judges in any branch of the courts. Almost all the reasons for including lay decision makers are served somehow by the existing forms, including providing different experiences and perhaps expert knowledge. The article concludes, citing non-EU states and lay participation in criminal and administrative courts as further evidence, that lay judges in one form or another are an element of European legal systems. Los jueces legos cumplen funciones importantes para el sistema de justicia de un país. En los Estados miembro de la Unión Europea, académicos han analizado el uso de jueces legos en casos criminales. Sin embargo, se sabe poco acerca de la participación de los legos en la justicia civil. El artículo presenta las razones que habitualmente se citan para tener jueces legos, así como las formas principales de la participación de legos, para a continuación medir su implementación en casos civiles en los países de la Unión Europea. Son relativamente frecuentes los tribunales mixtos, en los que participan jueces legos, bajo la dirección de un juez profesional. Varios países tienen tribunales laborales especiales o tribunales comerciales con

  5. Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project Verification, Validation, and Credibility (VVandC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.; Boley, L.; Keenan, L.; Kerstman, E.; Shah, R.; Young, M.; Saile, L.; Garcia, Y.; Meyers, J.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project supports end user requests by employing the Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) and IMM tools as well as subject matter expertise within the Project. The iMED houses data used by the IMM. The IMM is designed to forecast relative changes for a specified set of crew health and mission success risk metrics by using a probabilistic model based on historical data, cohort data, and subject matter expert opinion. A stochastic approach is taken because deterministic results would not appropriately reflect the uncertainty in the IMM inputs. Once the IMM was conceptualized, a plan was needed to rigorously assess input information, framework and code, and output results of the IMM, and ensure that end user requests and requirements were considered during all stages of model development and implementation, as well as lay the foundation for external review and application. METHODS: In 2008, the Project team developed a comprehensive verification and validation (VV) plan, which specified internal and external review criteria encompassing 1) verification of data and IMM structure to ensure proper implementation of the IMM, 2) several validation techniques to confirm that the simulation capability of the IMM appropriately represents occurrences and consequences of medical conditions during space missions, and 3) credibility processes to develop user confidence in the information derived from the IMM. When the NASA-STD-7009 (7009) [1] was published, the Project team updated their verification, validation, and credibility (VVC) project plan to meet 7009 requirements and include 7009 tools in reporting VVC status of the IMM. Construction of these tools included meeting documentation and evidence requirements sufficient to meet external review success criteria. RESULTS: IMM Project VVC updates are compiled recurrently and include updates to the 7009 Compliance and Credibility matrices. Reporting tools have evolved over the lifetime of

  6. The effects of stakeholder involvement on perceptions of an evaluation's credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Miriam R; Azzam, Tarek

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a study of the effects of stakeholder involvement on perceptions of an evaluation's credibility. Crowdsourced members of the public and a group of educational administrators read a description of a hypothetical program and two evaluations of the program: one conducted by a researcher and one conducted by program staff (i.e. program stakeholders). Study participants were randomly assigned versions of the scenario with different levels of stakeholder credibility and types of findings. Results showed that both samples perceived the researcher's evaluation findings to be more credible than the program staff's, but that this difference was significantly reduced when the program staff were described to be highly credible. The article concludes with implications for theory and research on evaluation dissemination and stakeholder involvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  8. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  9. Public Affairs: An Operational Planning Function to Safeguard Credibility and Public Opinion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cutler, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    ... context throughout all phases of conflict. Although the target audiences may differ when a commander is considering message dissemination through either the PA or IC channel, the consistency of the messages is important to credibility...

  10. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a positive relationship with purchase intention. Created spokesperson is perceived to be more trustworthy and competent whereas the celebrity endorser is found to be more attractive by the respondents. This study is unique in a way that it covers fairly new and rapidly growing Turkish market. One factor that makes this study unique in Turkey, in which the usage of celebrity endorsers holds significant part in the marketing of products, is the lack of studies that would measure the effectiveness of this method.

  11. Attitude Similarity and Therapist Credibility as Predictors of Attitude Change and Improvement in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study attempts to (1) assess the effects of therapist credibility and patient-therapist similarity on interpersonal persuasion; and (2) to further assess the relationship between patient attitude change and psychotherapy outcome. (HMV)

  12. Methodology for identifying credible disruptions to isolation of nuclear waste within Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of potential preclosure and postclosure disruptive events and processes is comprised of evaluation of (1) potential uncertainties and omissions associated with characterization of the site; (2) credible events and processes resulting from the dynamics of natural systems; (3) potential, credible changes in isolation conditions induced by the presence of the repository, and (4) potential, credible future changes impacting isolation capability resulting from man's activities, independent of repository construction/operation. This report presents the overall methodology for identification, classification and analysis of disruptive events based on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency guidelines proposed in drafts of 10 CFR 60 and 40 CFR 191. Potential credible disruptive events, processes, and conditions are considered with respect to whether they are anticipated or unanticipated, and determined to have reasonably foreseeable, very unlikely, or extremely unlikely probability of occurrence. 85 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  13. A comparison of inflation expectations and inflation credibility in South Africa: results from survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Rossouw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a comparison of South African household inflation expectations and inflation credibility surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. It tests for possible feed-through between inflation credibility and inflation expectations. It supplements earlier research that focused only on the 2006 survey results. The comparison shows that inflation expectations differed between different income groups in both 2006 and 2008. Inflation credibility differed between male and female respondents, but this difference did not feed through to inflation expectations. More periodic survey data will be required for developing final conclusions on the possibility of feed-through effects. To this end the structure of credibility surveys should be reconsidered, as a large percentage of respondents indicated that they ‘don’t know’ whether the historic rate of inflation is an accurate indication of price increases.

  14. How influencers’ credibility on Instagram is perceived by consumers and its impact on purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Marta Figueiredo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand the perception Instagram users, in other words consumers, have of influencers they follow on Instagram. Consumer perceived credibility of influencers, and its impact on the purchase intention, is therefore studied. This dissertation aims to highlight which credibility dimensions better explain the purchase intention. Gender is also explored to verify behavior differences between female and male consumers. To better analyze the perc...

  15. Vote Buying or Campaign Promises? Electoral Strategies When Party Credibility is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip; Vlaicu, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    What explains significant variation across countries in the use of vote buying instead of campaign promises to secure voter support? This paper explicitly models the tradeoff parties face between engaging in vote buying and making campaign promises, and explores the distributional consequences of this decision, in a setting where party credibility can vary. When parties are less credible they spend more on vote buying and target vote buying more heavily toward groups that do not believe campa...

  16. Positivity bias in judging ingroup members' emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerus, Talya; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Stolier, Ryan M; Freeman, Jonathan B; Cikara, Mina

    2016-12-01

    We investigated how group membership impacts valence judgments of ingroup and outgroup members' emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants, randomized into 2 novel, competitive groups, rated the valence of in- and outgroup members' facial expressions (e.g., fearful, happy, neutral) using a circumplex affect grid. Across all emotions, participants judged ingroup members' expressions as more positive than outgroup members' expressions. In Experiment 2, participants categorized fearful and happy expressions as being either positive or negative using a mouse-tracking paradigm. Participants exhibited the most direct trajectories toward the "positive" label for ingroup happy expressions and an initial attraction toward positive for ingroup expressions of fear, with outgroup emotion trajectories falling in between. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 and demonstrated that the effect could not be accounted for by targets' gaze direction. Overall, people judged ingroup faces as more positive, regardless of emotion, both in deliberate and implicit judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Assessing Website quality in context: retrieving information about genetically modified food on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire R. McInerney

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of Websites on any topic. Method. This study sought to use the WQET to determine the quality of Websites in the context of biotechnology or genetically modified food and to seek one or more easily identified characteristics, such as bias, commitment, use of metatags and site update-access interval (length of time between last update of the site and the date reviewed that might be used as a quick discriminator of a Website's quality. Analysis. Using SPSS, ANOVA and regression analyses were performed with the website variables of a population of one hundred Websites about genetically modified food. Results. Only the site update-access interval was determined to be a shortcut quality indicator with an inverse relationship. The longer the interval the lower the quality score. Conclusion. The study established a model for Website quality evaluation. The update-access interval proved to be the single clear-cut indicator to judge Website quality in everyday information seeking.

  18. Revisiting Organizational Credibility and Organizational Reputation – A Situational Crisis Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Jamilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational credibility, the extent of which an organization as the source of messages is perceived as trustworthy and reliable, is one important aspect to determine organization’s survival. The perceived credibility of the messages will either strengthen or worsen an organization reputation. The primary objective of this paper is to revisit the concept of organizational credibility and its interaction with organizational outcomes such as organizational reputation. Based on the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT, this paper focuses on the impact of organizational credibility on organizational reputation following a crisis. Even though the SCCT has been widely used in crisis communication research, the theory still has its own limitations in explaining factors that could potentially affect the reputation of an organization. This study proposes a model by integrating organizational credibility in the SCCT theoretical framework. Derived from the theoretical framework, three propositions are advanced to determine the relationships between organizational credibility with crisis responsibility and perceived organizational reputation. This paper contributes to further establishing the SCCT and posits key attributes in the organizational reputation processes..

  19. Can Simulation Credibility Be Improved Using Sensitivity Analysis to Understand Input Data Effects on Model Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Young, M.; Goodenow, Debra A.; Keenan, A.; Walton, M.; Boley, L.

    2015-01-01

    Model and simulation (MS) credibility is defined as, the quality to elicit belief or trust in MS results. NASA-STD-7009 [1] delineates eight components (Verification, Validation, Input Pedigree, Results Uncertainty, Results Robustness, Use History, MS Management, People Qualifications) that address quantifying model credibility, and provides guidance to the model developers, analysts, and end users for assessing the MS credibility. Of the eight characteristics, input pedigree, or the quality of the data used to develop model input parameters, governing functions, or initial conditions, can vary significantly. These data quality differences have varying consequences across the range of MS application. NASA-STD-7009 requires that the lowest input data quality be used to represent the entire set of input data when scoring the input pedigree credibility of the model. This requirement provides a conservative assessment of model inputs, and maximizes the communication of the potential level of risk of using model outputs. Unfortunately, in practice, this may result in overly pessimistic communication of the MS output, undermining the credibility of simulation predictions to decision makers. This presentation proposes an alternative assessment mechanism, utilizing results parameter robustness, also known as model input sensitivity, to improve the credibility scoring process for specific simulations.

  20. Administrative law judge as a watchdog for air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte-Postma, L.; Van Wee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Insight is given on the correctness of judgements of the judge for the administrative law in the Netherlands with regard to air quality and the discontinuation of related spatial planning and building and construction projects. Also attention is paid to the new Decree on Air Quality, including the regulation on balancing. This regulation implies that deteriorated air quality in one place must be compensated by improved air quality somewhere else [nl

  1. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    So this method brings certain difficulty for judgement. Hence the author further explores how one can use a great deal of the observational data such as a1,2 sin i, m1,2 sin3 i, K1,2 and f (m) in tables of binary stars to judge synchronization of rotation of binary stars by using apparent phenomenal descriptive methods. These.

  2. Grounds for the Specialization of Courts and Judges in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terekhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the different ways of specialization of courts and judges that exist under the legislation of the Russian Federation. The lack of a unified and circumspect approach is noted. The formation of specialized courts, according to the national legislation, takes the form of their establishing within the existing subsystems of regular and arbitration courts. As for the specialization of judges, it is more diversified and is presented by either creation of separate types of procedure (special proceedings, proceedings on cases arising from public relations and some other, or by introduction of special rules on jurisdiction that establish competence of specific courts to consider cases of a particular category: on the compensation for the excessive time taken to consider a case, on the adoption of a child by a foreign national and others.An analysis of existing literature on the issue in question shows that Russian scholars support the idea of judges’ specialization. Against specialization of courts the following arguments are brought: significant material costs, not being in accordance with the small number of cases decided by specialized courts; problems with access to justice; and the necessity to give special training to narrowly specialized judges.

  3. Improving Bayesian credibility intervals for classifier error rates using maximum entropy empirical priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mats G; Wallman, Mikael; Wickenberg Bolin, Ulrika; Göransson, Hanna; Fryknäs, M; Andersson, Claes R; Isaksson, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Successful use of classifiers that learn to make decisions from a set of patient examples require robust methods for performance estimation. Recently many promising approaches for determination of an upper bound for the error rate of a single classifier have been reported but the Bayesian credibility interval (CI) obtained from a conventional holdout test still delivers one of the tightest bounds. The conventional Bayesian CI becomes unacceptably large in real world applications where the test set sizes are less than a few hundred. The source of this problem is that fact that the CI is determined exclusively by the result on the test examples. In other words, there is no information at all provided by the uniform prior density distribution employed which reflects complete lack of prior knowledge about the unknown error rate. Therefore, the aim of the study reported here was to study a maximum entropy (ME) based approach to improved prior knowledge and Bayesian CIs, demonstrating its relevance for biomedical research and clinical practice. It is demonstrated how a refined non-uniform prior density distribution can be obtained by means of the ME principle using empirical results from a few designs and tests using non-overlapping sets of examples. Experimental results show that ME based priors improve the CIs when employed to four quite different simulated and two real world data sets. An empirically derived ME prior seems promising for improving the Bayesian CI for the unknown error rate of a designed classifier. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  5. Using an engaging approach to products to help create long-term credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.; Larkin, E.

    1993-01-01

    A long-term, thorough and engaging public information products plan is essential for supporting interaction between Nevadans and the scientists and staff of the US DOE Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). As members of the Institutional and External Affairs office on the YMP in Nevada, our focus is to create successful products for a Nevada audience, in accordance with DOE regulations. Our product plan is broad, but has the same theoretical foundation whether we are developing a new fact sheet of working with a scientist to help him or her communicate effectively. Our goals are to: Create products that help build long-term credibility; communicate honestly about risk; engage the public in meaningful, effective ways; be receptive to hearing Nevadans' concerns and questions; respond in ways that indicate that the public has been heard and respected; and to keep away from the open-quotes usclose quotes versus open-quotes themclose quotes orientation, distinguishing our communication approach from others. Explanations of our rationale, products plan, and goals and techniques for achieving them are stated, and related problems are described

  6. VALIDITY AND CREDIBILITY OF A CHILD’S TESTIMONY OF SEXUAL ABUSE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Argo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The allegation by a child victim of sexual abuse is, in many cases, the most important evidence of wrongdoing, especially in absence of medical or physical evidence or confessions of guilt. The Rorschach inkblot test is a projective personality assessment technique used to evaluate child witnesses. We report a case of three girls allegedly abused by the father, in which the psychometric evaluation with the Rorschach test did not give credibility to the testimony of the children. When interrogating a minor, it is very difficult to distinguish between a true and a lie. Indeed, many different elements can affect the dialogue, such as the child’s age, the events being discussed, interrogation environment, factors linked to the interviewer, etc. Therefore, it is possible errors of evaluation, misunderstandings or confusion happen frequently. The aim of this case report is to highlight that employment of methodologies and criteria recognised by the scientific community could simplify the acquisition and assessment of information from a minor.

  7. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  8. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  9. Evaluating the quality of Websites related to Hospital-Based Home Care: The Credibility Indicator as a prognostic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sanz-Lorente

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the documental quality of websites related to Home Care Services. Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of websites based on Home Care Services, using searches on Google to access the study population. The “fallacy sample” of this search engine was take into account. The quality was studied thought the 8 variables of the Credibility Indicator (CI. Results: A total of 215 active websites, mainly belonging to the media, were evaluated. None of the websites met all 8 items in the CI. Mean of 2,12 ± 0,07; Minimum of 0 and Maximum of 5; Median equal to 3. Within the studied websites, 74 (34,42% presented both authorship and affiliation. There was an association between the CI accomplishment and websites that had these 2 variables (p <0.001. Conclusions: The quality of websites covering issues of Hospital-Based Home Care services is still poor. It is confirmed that identifying authorship and affiliation is an important factor in predicting the quality of the information. The Credibility Indicator is a useful aid when determining the quality of a website.

  10. Constitutional judge and presidential reelection in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cárdenas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional provisions regarding presidential re-election have been modified in several Latin American countries in recent years. In some countries, these changes put the existence of democracy at risk. This article uses the principal-agent approach to analyze the role of the constitutional judge in presidential re-election as an accountability mechanism. It finds that immediate reelection in democracies of strong presidentialism can be a perverse mechanism that sharpens the concentration of power and deteriorates the welfare of the citizens instead of making politicians accountable.

  11. PA law judge recommends against Limerick-2 completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Ruling that Philadelphia Electric's Limerick 2 unit is not in the public interest, the court felt that a history of cost escalation makes the use of allowance for funds used during construction imprudent. Unit 1 will begin operating in 1986. Opponents to Unit 2 say that less costly power is available. The judge agreed with utility arguments that it will need additional capacity in the 1990s, but that customers must expect rate increases to pay for that power. An option to convert Unit 2 to coal has been ruled out, leaving the extension of existing plant life the preferred option

  12. INDEPENDENCE OF JUDGES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION POWERS OF JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Qamar

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore the independence of the judiciary as an important pillar of a rule of law. Independence of the judiciary is a necessary condition for maintaining the rule of law, only constitutional law has legitimacy that must be upheld and the court should have the ability to perform a task in deciding the law. The independence of judges to examine, prosecute and deciding have guaranteed in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945 and Act No. 48 of 2009 on Judic...

  13. Strategies Employed by Citizen Science Programs to Increase the Credibility of Their Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Freitag

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of citizen science in producing important and unique data is attracting interest from scientists and resource managers. Nonetheless, questions remain about the credibility of citizen science data. Citizen science programs desire to meet the same standards of credibility as academic science, but they usually work within a different context, for example, training and managing significant numbers of volunteers with limited resources. We surveyed the credibility-building strategies of 30 citizen science programs that monitor environmental aspects of the California coast. We identified a total of twelve strategies: Three that are applied during training and planning; four that are applied during data collection; and five that are applied during data analysis and program evaluation. Variation in the application of these strategies by program is related to factors such as the number of participants, the focus on group or individual work, and the time commitment required of volunteers. The structure of each program and available resources require program designers to navigate tradeoffs in the choices of their credibility strategies. Our results illustrate those tradeoffs and provide a framework for the necessary discussions between citizen science programs and potential users of their data—including scientists and decision makers—about shared expectations for credibility and practical approaches for meeting those expectations. This article has been corrected here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/cstp.91

  14. The Role of Sharia Judges in Indonesia: Between the Common Law and the Civil Law Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alfitri, Alfitri

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse the role of Religious Courts' (Pengadilan Agama or PA) Judges in the formation of Islamic law in Indonesia. As part of the civil legal system, PA Judges are bound by legal provisions in handling legal disputes in court. They must apply the applicable legal provisions to decide upon a case. This condition can also be understood from the aspect of appointment of judges in Indonesia, including PA Judges, which is conducted not through professional career path as in ...

  15. 29 CFR 6.19 - Decision of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts Subject to the Service Contract Act) § 6.19 Decision of the Administrative Law Judge. (a) Proposed... presented on the record. The decision of the Administrative Law Judge shall be based upon a consideration of... respondent is found to have violated the Service Contract Act, the Administrative Law Judge shall include in...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1444 - Administrative law judge hearing procedures-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in order to receive new and material evidence. The administrative law judge may decide when the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge hearing procedures... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Administrative Law Judge Hearing Procedures § 416.1444...

  17. 20 CFR 404.952 - Consolidated hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before us. (2) If the administrative law judge decides to hold the hearing on both claims, he or she... law judge. 404.952 Section 404.952 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... Determinations and Decisions Administrative Law Judge Hearing Procedures § 404.952 Consolidated hearing before an...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1452 - Consolidated hearings before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are involved in another claim you have pending before us. (2) If the administrative law judge decides... administrative law judge. 416.1452 Section 416.1452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION..., and Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Administrative Law Judge Hearing Procedures § 416.1452...

  19. 20 CFR 405.325 - Issues before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., before deciding the issue, provides you an opportunity to address it. The administrative law judge or any... Act, we already may have decided a fact that is an issue before the administrative law judge. If this... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issues before an administrative law judge...

  20. 20 CFR 405.315 - Time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judge will decide whether to have that person appear in person or by video teleconference... administrative law judge. 405.315 Section 405.315 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405...

  1. 29 CFR 6.41 - Referral to Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge to conduct such hearings as may be necessary to decide the disputed matters. A copy of... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Referral to Chief Administrative Law Judge. 6.41 Section 6... Substantial Interest Proceedings § 6.41 Referral to Chief Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon timely receipt of...

  2. 20 CFR 405.320 - Administrative law judge hearing procedures-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conduct of the hearing. The administrative law judge will decide the order in which the evidence will be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge hearing procedures... PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.320...

  3. 43 CFR 4.2 - Membership of appeals boards; decisions, functions of Chief Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct that an appeal may be decided by a panel of any two Administrative Judges of the Board, but if..., functions of Chief Judges. 4.2 Section 4.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... appeals boards; decisions, functions of Chief Judges. (a) The Appeals Boards consist of regular members...

  4. 43 CFR 30.239 - How will the judge decide a petition for rehearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the judge decide a petition for... the judge decide a petition for rehearing? (a) If proper grounds are not shown, or if the petition is not timely filed, the judge will: (1) Issue an order denying the petition for rehearing and including...

  5. 20 CFR 658.710 - Decision of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of the Administrative Law Judge. 658... Agencies § 658.710 Decision of the Administrative Law Judge. (a) The Administrative Law Judge shall have jurisdiction to decide all issues of fact and related issues of law and to grant or deny appropriate motions...

  6. 20 CFR 405.365 - Consolidated hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before us. (2) If the administrative law judge consolidates the claims, he or she will decide both claims... law judge. 405.365 Section 405.365 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS FOR ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Administrative Law Judge Hearing § 405.365...

  7. 43 CFR 30.145 - When can a judge reduce or disallow a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When can a judge reduce or disallow a... PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Claims § 30.145 When can a judge reduce or disallow a claim? The judge has discretion to decide whether part or all of an otherwise valid claim is unreasonable, and if so, to reduce...

  8. 32 CFR 776.53 - Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys. (a) Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General and supervisory attorneys. (1) The JAG and supervisory attorneys shall make reasonable efforts to... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Judge Advocate General...

  9. 5 CFR 1201.142 - Actions filed by administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions filed by administrative law... AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Original Jurisdiction Cases Actions Against Administrative Law Judges § 1201.142 Actions filed by administrative law judges. An administrative law judge who...

  10. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have...

  11. 49 CFR 821.16 - Interlocutory appeals from law judges' rulings on motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Appealable Orders § 821.16 Interlocutory appeals from law judges' rulings on motions. Rulings of law judges... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocutory appeals from law judges' rulings on motions. 821.16 Section 821.16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  12. 13 CFR 134.715 - Can a Judge reconsider his decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can a Judge reconsider his decision? 134.715 Section 134.715 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF....715 Can a Judge reconsider his decision? (a) The Judge may reconsider an appeal decision within 20...

  13. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  14. Preferred providers and the credible commitment problem in health insurance: first experiences with the implementation of managed competition in the Dutch health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Lieke H H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the impact of the transition towards managed competition in the Dutch health care system on health insurers' contracting behaviour. Specifically, we examine whether insurers have been able to take up their role as prudent buyers of care and examine consumers' attitudes towards insurers' new role. Health insurers' contracting behaviour is investigated by an extensive analysis of available information on purchasing practices by health insurers and by interviews with directors of health care purchasing of the four major health insurers, accounting for 90% of the market. Consumer attitudes towards insurers' new role are investigated by surveys among a representative sample of enrollees over the period 2005-2009. During the first four years of the reform, health insurers were very reluctant to engage in selective contracting and preferred to use 'soft' positive incentives to encourage preferred provider choice rather than engaging in restrictive managed care activities. Consumer attitudes towards channelling vary considerably by type of provider but generally became more negative in the first two years after the reform. Insurers' reluctance to use selective contracting can be at least partly explained by the presence of a credible-commitment problem. Consumers do not trust that insurers with restrictive networks are committed to provide good quality care. The credible-commitment problem seems to be particularly relevant to the Netherlands, since Dutch enrollees are not used to restrictions on provider choice. Since consumers are quite sensitive to differences in provider quality, more reliable information about provider quality is required to reduce the credible-commitment problem.

  15. Looking into the Credibility of Appearance: Exploring the Role of Color in Interface Aesthetics and How it Affects our Perception on System’s Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Syarief

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian  ini dikaji hasil tiga eksperimen sebagai kelanjutan studi yang pernah dilakukan oleh Kurosu-Kashimura [1] dan Noam Tractinsky [2] tentang  relasi antara persepsi pengguna dengan kualitas estetik dan usability tampilan interface. Berdasar dua premis utama yaitu bahwa persepsi estetik dipengaruhi latar belakang kultural serta tampilan yang atraktif dapat mempengaruhi persepsi kehandalan sebuah produk., Dalam penelitian ini dievaluasi bagaimana persepsi pengguna migran (:orang Indonesia yang berada di Jepang terhadap relasi antara tampilan estetik  dan apparent usability pada sebuah interface produk. Dalam eksperimen dilakukan investigasi efek tampilan warna pada sebuah interface produk terhadap persepsi trustworthy (tingkat kepercayaan dan credibility (tingkat kredibilitas produk secara umum. Sebagai stimulus, digunakan tampilan  layout-utama (hasil modifikasi layar ATM bank di Jepang. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa nilai estetik tampilan interface mempengaruhi persepsi user atas credibility (tingkat kredibilitas dan trustworthy (tingkat kepercayaan sebuah objek. Latar belakang budaya pengguna tidak memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap persepsi estetik tampilan interface apabila pengguna telah melakukan adaptasi eksperiential  atau memiliki pengalaman interaksi dengan produk dengan komposisi layout sejenis. Lebih lanjut hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa warna memiliki pengaruh penting dalam meningkatkan kualitas ke-atraktif-an, persepsi kredibiltas (credibility, dan tingkat penerimaan (acceptability pengguna (user. Eksperimen lebih lanjut perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana dan seperti apa sebuah kombinasi warna pada sebuah tampilan interface, dapat memiliki pengaruh yang bermakna  pada keterpakaian sebuah  produk.

  16. Online reviews credibility: Implications on traveller’s decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Romeu; Abrantes, José Luís; Kastenholz, ELISABETH

    2013-01-01

    The social web is the ideal place to share information, experiences and preferences among consumers. Nowadays, online reviews and recommendations are becoming increasingly important and seen as a new digital form of word-of-mouth, a key topic for researchers. Despite the significant body of literature about electronic word-of-mouth (EWOM), there is a lack of research that analyzes the phenomenon in the context of the hospitality industry, its drivers, conditioning factors and impacts. This re...

  17. What do the European Judges Strive for - An Empirical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Zajc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Caseload backlogs and the quality of judicial decision-making have attracted worldwide scholarly attention for quite some time. The puzzle lies in explaining the observed persistence of backlogs alongside the quest for improvement in judicial decision-making. This is especially true since many countries, while trying to cope with this challenging issue, continue to enact regulatory provisions to seemingly improve the judiciary. The principal and agent theory suggests that the incentives of the agent (courts and the principal (citizens are going to be aligned under certain circumstances. This article analyzes the incentive mechanisms of continental judicial administration in view of traditional principal-agent theory and provides additional insights into the current legal, behavioral and economic discussion. Specifically, the article analyzes whether the current incentives for judges are in line with theoretical predictions. If one takes for granted that the European-continental judicial systems can be treated as bureaucratic systems, then discussion should, apart from judicial salary increases, focus upon interpretation of the observed differences in evaluation of judges in different countries, and upon the main incentives for judges’ good performance and promotion. This article offers a multidisciplinary analysis of current European and most recent Finnish guidelines on effectiveness and quality of judicial administration, and provides a law and economics assessment of proposed guidelines. Moreover, the identified multiplication effect of sticks in judiciary setting offer an additional argument for cautious application or even complete abolishment of such an inducement mechanism.- By Katarina Zajc and Mitja Kovac

  18. Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorowicz Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution. Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

  19. Method of judging leak sources in a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable exact judgement for leak sources upon leak accident in a reactor container of BWR type power plants as to whether the sources are present in the steam system or coolant system. Method: If leak is resulted from the main steam system, the hydrogen density in the reactor container is about 170 times as high as the same amount of leak from the reactor water. Accordingly, it can be judged whether the leak source is present in the steam system or reactor water system based on the change in the indication of hydrogen densitometer within the reactor container, and the indication from the drain amount from the sump in the container or the indication of a drain flow meter in the container dehumidifier. Further, I-131, Na-24 and the like as the radioactive nucleides in sump water of the container are measured to determine the density ratio R = (I-131)/(Na-24), and it is judged that the leak is resulted in nuclear water if the density ratio R is equal to that of reactor water and that the leak is resulted from the main steam or like other steam system if the density ratio R is higher than by about 100 times than that of reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Brazilian abortion law: the opinion of judges and prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.

  1. Estimation of maximum credible atmospheric radioactivity concentrations and dose rates from nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegadas, K.

    1979-01-01

    A simple technique is presented for estimating maximum credible gross beta air concentrations from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, based on aircraft sampling of radioactivity following each Chinese nuclear test from 1964 to 1976. The calculated concentration is a function of the total yield and fission yield, initial vertical radioactivity distribution, time after detonation, and rate of horizontal spread of the debris with time. calculated maximum credible concentrations are compared with the highest concentrations measured during aircraft sampling. The technique provides a reasonable estimate of maximum air concentrations from 1 to 10 days after a detonation. An estimate of the whole-body external gamma dose rate corresponding to the maximum credible gross beta concentration is also given. (author)

  2. Credibility and music´s effect as therapeutic kind in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Cristine da Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as purpose to analise the professional´s music therapist´s perception about the credibility and approval of music therapy by their clients. It´s a qualitative research, developed in Goiânia-GO, between 2003, august and 2004, june. We verified that the professional´s majority noted their client´s credibility related to music capacity in transmitting pleasant sensations and its capacity to act in a efficient way on the healing process of some diseases. They too evidence that the music therapy needs to be published with more effectiveness for the population.

  3. Machine learning methods for credibility assessment of interviewees based on posturographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalle, Sashi K; Vemulapalli, Spandana; King, Gregory W; Burgoon, Judee K; Derakhshani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using posturographic signals from force plates for non-invasive credibility assessment. The contributions of our work are two fold: first, the proposed method is highly efficient and non invasive. Second, feasibility for creating an autonomous credibility assessment system using machine-learning algorithms is studied. This study employs an interview paradigm that includes subjects responding with truthful and deceptive intent while their center of pressure (COP) signal is being recorded. Classification models utilizing sets of COP features for deceptive responses are derived and best accuracy of 93.5% for test interval is reported.

  4. Excess Claims and Data Trimming in the Context of Credibility Rating Procedures,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Triining in the Context of Credibility Rating Procedures by Hans BShlmann, Alois Gisler, William S. Jewell* 1. Motivation In Ratemaking and in Experience...work on the ETH computer. __.1: " Zen * ’ ’ II / -2- 2. The Basic Model Throughout the paper we work with the most simple model in the credibility...additional structure are summed up by stating that the density -3- f 8 (x) has the following form 1) fe(x) -(1-r)po (x/e) + rape(x) 3. The Basic Problem As

  5. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  6. Source attribution and credibility of health and appearance exercise advertisements: relationship with implicit and explicit attitudes and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Shields, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The relationship of attributed source (commercial or nonprofit) and credibility of exercise advertisements to explicit and implicit exercise-related attitudes and intentions was examined. Male and female participants (N = 227) were randomly assigned to watch health or appearance-related advertisements and then completed an implicit attitudes task and questionnaires. Health advertisements and those attributed to a nonprofit source were rated more credible. Appearance condition participants who attributed the advertisement to a nonprofit source also rated the advertisement as more credible. Participants who rated a commercial advertisement as credible reported higher implicit instrumental attitudes. Implications for exercise promotion are discussed.

  7. THE GORONTALO RELIGIOUS COURT JUDGES RESPONSE TOWARD THEIR ABSOLUTE COMPETENCE IN RESOLVING SHARIAH ECONOMY DISPUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Mardiana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Post the first amendment of Religious Courts Bill that provides wider authority toward Religious Courts in investigate and decide Islamic economics disputes has responses, whether support or pessimistic, especially among Religious Court judges themselves. This paper examines the Gorontalo Religious Courts judges response about their authority in resolve Shariah economy disputes. This paper is a qualitative descriptive research and the data was collected using observation, interviews and document reviews. The finding of this study revealed that the Gorontalo Religious Courts judges response well to trust laws in handling disputes Shariah economy. In other words, in principle, they are ready to handle disputes Islamic economics. Readiness, such as: the handling disputes Shariah economy is Religious Courts judges authorities and it is a professional responsibility as a judge; Religious Courts formed a special judge to handle falling out or cases of Shariah economy, and Religious Courts judges provides knowledge of Shariah economy without trainings or workshops.

  8. Women Judges and Women’s Rights in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Holden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first appointment of women judges in Pakistan dates back to 1974, the massive appointment of “lady judges” in the past decade has caused a jump in female representation in the judiciary to more than one third – a quiet move that sends a message of adherence to the principle of gender equality as per the international treaties to which Pakistan is signatory. By investigating the everyday interactions and preoccupations of women-judges in their daily management of justice, this paper explores the socio-legal reception of the human rights discourse from the perspective of the female judges. The challenge in this scenario lies, on the one hand, in whether this change will be only formal or will also lead to substantial and accountable justice and, on the other hand, how the global agenda impacts local expectations and conceptualizations of rights within and beyond the state. A pesar de que la designación de juezas en Pakistán se remonta a 1974, la significativa designación de "señoras juezas" en la pasada década ha provocado que la representación de las mujeres en la judicatura haya pasado a más de un tercio en juzgados de familia -un cambio silencioso que envía un mensaje de adhesión al principio de igualdad de sexos consagrado por los tratados internacionales de los que Pakistán es firmante. Mediante la investigación de las interacciones y preocupaciones cotidianas de las juezas en su gestión habitual de la justicia, este artículo analiza la recepción sociojurídica del discurso de los derechos humanos desde la perspectiva de las mujeres que ejercen la judicatura. En tal estado de cosas, cabe preguntarse si este cambio se limitará a las formas o si, por el contrario, alcanzará a la justicia sustancial y comprobable. Los hallazgos permiten también elucidar la forma en que la agenda global afecta las expectativas y conceptos locales sobre los derechos, dentro y fuera del estado. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN

  9. Source credibility and evidence format: examining the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS messages for young African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Lesa Hatley; Coleman, Renita

    2012-01-01

    Using experimental methodology, this study tests the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention messages tailored specifically to college-aged African Americans. To test interaction effects, it intersects source role and evidence format. The authors used gain-framed and loss-framed information specific to young African Americans and HIV to test message effectiveness between statistical and emotional evidence formats, and for the first time, a statistical/emotional combination format. It tests which source--physician or minister--that young African Americans believe is more effective when delivering HIV/AIDS messages to young African Americans. By testing the interaction between source credibility and evidence format, this research expands knowledge on creating effective health messages in several major areas. Findings include a significant interaction between the role of physician and the combined statistical/emotional format. This message was rated as the most effective way to deliver HIV/AIDS prevention messages.

  10. Uncertainties and credibility building of safety analyses. Natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laciok, A.

    2001-07-01

    The substance of natural analogues and their studies is defined as a complementary method to laboratory and in-situ experiments and modelling. The role of natural analogues in the processes of development of repositories is defined, mainly in performance assessment of repository system and communication with public. The criteria for identification of natural analogues which should be evaluated in the phase of initiation of new studies are specified. Review part of this report is divided to study of natural analogues and study of anthropogenic and industrial analogues. The main natural analogue studies performed in various countries, in different geological setting, with various aims are characterized. New results acquired in recently finished studies are included: Palmottu (2nd phase of project financed by European Commission), Oklo (results of research financed also by European Commission), Maqarin (3rd phase) and other information obtained from last meetings and workshops of NAWG. In view of the fact that programmes of development of deep repositories in Czech and Slovak Republics are interconnected, the natural analogues studies carried out in the Czech republic are incorporated in separate chapter - study of uranium accumulation in Tertiary clays at Ruprechtov site and study of degradation of natural glasses. In final part the areas of natural analogue studies as an integral part of development of deep geological repository are proposed along with characterization of broader context and aspects of realization of these studies (international cooperation, preparation and evaluation of procedures, communication with public). (author)

  11. Counselor Bilingual Ability, Counselor Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Mexican Americans' Perceived Counselor Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of counselor bilingual ability and counselor ethnicity on client-perceived counselor credibility and cultural competence. Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions created by crossing counselor ethnicity with counselor language. No significant differences were found. Regarding rank ordering of the…

  12. Enacting Effective Climate Policy Advice: Institutional Strategies to Foster Saliency, Credibility and Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anja; Pregernig, Michael; Reinecke, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This article asks how scientific advisory institutions (SAIs) in climate policy strive towards effectiveness. Our analysis is grounded on the assumption that effectiveness is not passively experienced but is deliberately enacted by SAIs. We draw on a widely used set of criteria, namely saliency, credibility and legitimacy (SCL). Based on an…

  13. Persuading Girls to Take Elective Physical Science Courses in High School: Who Are the Credible Communicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies communicators whom eighth-grade girls perceive as credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school. Finds that father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student are ranked highly. Attributes associated with the communicators were classified as prestige, trustworthiness, similarity,…

  14. Interviewing to assess credibility in the Swedish asylum procedure: analyzing question style, type and theme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, T.S.; Horselenberg, R.; Landström, S.; Granhag, P.A.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  15. Civil Society and the Conduct of Free, Fair and Credible Election ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Society and the Conduct of Free, Fair and Credible Election: Lessons from ... of Non Governmental agencies like civil society to prevent the government of the ... fair so as to rid the continent of its notorious record of post election violence.

  16. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to

  17. Practicing What We Teach: Credibility and Alignment in the Business Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Bryan; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate the importance of instructor communication behaviors in a course on business communication, arguing that alignment between instructor behaviors and the precepts of the discipline has a pronounced effect on perceived instructor credibility in this field. Student evaluations were analyzed qualitatively for their comments on…

  18. Freedom and Responsibility in First Amendment Theory: Defamation Law and Media Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the concepts of freedom and responsibility in the context of First Amendment theory through an examination of the interrelationships between defamation law, access to media, and media credibility. Calls for a reassessment of the importance of defamation law in First Amendment theory. (JMF)

  19. The Effects of Teacher Self-Disclosure via "Facebook" on Teacher Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Murphy, Richard E.; Simonds, Cheri J.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that teachers who personalize their teaching through the use of humor, stories, enthusiasm, and self-disclosure are perceived by their students to be effective in explaining course content. This experimental study examined the effects of computer-mediated teacher self-disclosure on perceptions of teacher credibility. Participants…

  20. Ferrocyanide safety program: Credibility of drying out ferrocyanide tank waste by hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.R.; McLaren, J.M.; Borsheim, G.L.; Crippen, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    The single-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site that contain significant quantities of ferrocyanide have been considered a possible hazard, since under certain conditions the ferrocyanide in the waste tanks could undergo an exothermic chemical reaction with the nitrates and nitrites that are also present in the tanks. The purpose of this report is to assess the credibility of local dryout of ferrocyanide due to a hotspot. This report considers the following: What amount of decay heat generation within what volume would be necessary to raise the temperature of the liquid in the sludge to its boiling point? What mechanisms could produce a significant local concentration of heat sources? Is it credible that a waste tank heat concentration could be as large as that required to reach the dryout temperatures? This report also provides a recommendation as to whether infrared scanning of the ferrocyanide tanks is needed. From the analyses presented in this report it is evident that formation of dry, and thus chemically reactive, regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hotspots is not credible. This conclusion is subject to reevaluation if future analyses of tank core samples show much higher 137 Cs or 90 Sr concentrations than expected. Since hotspots of concern are not credible, infrared scanning to detect such hotspots is not required for safe storage of tank waste

  1. Credibility, Replicability, and Reproducibility in Simulation for Biomedicine and Clinical Applications in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Drach, Andrew; Erdemir, Ahmet; Hunt, C. A.; Horner, Marc; Ku, Joy P.; Myers Jr., Jerry G.; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Lytton, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Modeling and simulation in computational neuroscience is currently a research enterprise to better understand neural systems. It is not yet directly applicable to the problems of patients with brain disease. To be used for clinical applications, there must not only be considerable progress in the field but also a concerted effort to use best practices in order to demonstrate model credibility to regulatory bodies, to clinics and hospitals, to doctors, and to patients. In doing this for neuroscience, we can learn lessons from long-standing practices in other areas of simulation (aircraft, computer chips), from software engineering, and from other biomedical disciplines. In this manuscript, we introduce some basic concepts that will be important in the development of credible clinical neuroscience models: reproducibility and replicability; verification and validation; model configuration; and procedures and processes for credible mechanistic multiscale modeling. We also discuss how garnering strong community involvement can promote model credibility. Finally, in addition to direct usage with patients, we note the potential for simulation usage in the area of Simulation-Based Medical Education, an area which to date has been primarily reliant on physical models (mannequins) and scenario-based simulations rather than on numerical simulations. PMID:29713272

  2. Reported credibility techniques in higher education evaluation studies that use qualitative methods: A research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongjing; Hitchcock, John

    2018-06-01

    This synthesis study examined the reported use of credibility techniques in higher education evaluation articles that use qualitative methods. The sample included 118 articles published in six leading higher education evaluation journals from 2003 to 2012. Mixed methods approaches were used to identify key credibility techniques reported across the articles, document the frequency of these techniques, and describe their use and properties. Two broad sets of techniques were of interest: primary design techniques (i.e., basic), such as sampling/participant recruitment strategies, data collection methods, analytic details, and additional qualitative credibility techniques (e.g., member checking, negative case analyses, peer debriefing). The majority of evaluation articles reported use of primary techniques although there was wide variation in the amount of supporting detail; most of the articles did not describe the use of additional credibility techniques. This suggests that editors of evaluation journals should encourage the reporting of qualitative design details and authors should develop strategies yielding fuller methodological description. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between clients' depression etiological beliefs and psychotherapy orientation preferences, expectations, and credibility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K; Rousmaniere, Tony G; Whipple, Jason L

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between clients' etiological beliefs for depression and treatment preferences, credibility beliefs, and outcome expectations for five different depression treatments-behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Adult psychotherapy clients (N = 98) were asked to complete an online survey that included the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire, a brief description of each of the five treatment options, and credibility, expectancy, and preference questions for each option. On average, the participating clients rated pharmacotherapy as significantly less credible, having a lower likelihood of success, and being less preferred than the four types of psychotherapy. In general, interpersonal psychotherapy was also rated more negatively than the other types of psychotherapy. However, these findings depended somewhat on whether the participating client was personally experiencing depression. Credibility beliefs, outcome expectations, and preferences for pharmacotherapy were positively associated with biological beliefs for depression; however, the other hypothesized relationships between etiological beliefs and treatment attitudes were not supported. Although the study is limited based on the specific sample and treatment descriptions that were used, the results may still have implications for psychotherapy research, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward the brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in the recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in the Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, we analysed the data through smart PLS software. The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source impact the consumer attitudes toward the brand. We also found that the intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brands. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role.

  5. Twitter Use and Its Effects on Student Perception of Instructor Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M.; Young, Valerie J.; VanSlette, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates college student perceptions of instructor credibility based on the content of an instructor's Twitterfeed and student beliefs about Twitter as a communication tool. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to explore the effects of three manipulated Twitter feeds (e.g., tweeting social topics, professional topics,…

  6. Persuading girls to take elective physical science courses in high school: Who are the credible communicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Eighth-grade girls (N=257) randomly selected from nine different public junior high schools in central Texas were questioned in order to identify the communicators whom they perceive as highly credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school and the attributes associated with these communicators. Four persons were each identified by better than 10 percent of the sample as the best person to try to convince junior high school girls to take elective physical science courses in high school. In order of perceived credibility, these persons are father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student. Slight variations in the order of perceived credibility were found when the responses from girls of the different ethnic groups represented in the sample (Caucasian, Hispanic, Black, and Asian) were examined separately. Attributes listed by the respondents for father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student were examined and classified into the categories of prestige, trustworthiness, similarity, attractiveness, and power. Prestige and trustworthiness are the attributes associates most frequently with communicators identified as highly credible. Implications of the present study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  7. Credibility, Replicability, and Reproducibility in Simulation for Biomedicine and Clinical Applications in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lealem Mulugeta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulation in computational neuroscience is currently a research enterprise to better understand neural systems. It is not yet directly applicable to the problems of patients with brain disease. To be used for clinical applications, there must not only be considerable progress in the field but also a concerted effort to use best practices in order to demonstrate model credibility to regulatory bodies, to clinics and hospitals, to doctors, and to patients. In doing this for neuroscience, we can learn lessons from long-standing practices in other areas of simulation (aircraft, computer chips, from software engineering, and from other biomedical disciplines. In this manuscript, we introduce some basic concepts that will be important in the development of credible clinical neuroscience models: reproducibility and replicability; verification and validation; model configuration; and procedures and processes for credible mechanistic multiscale modeling. We also discuss how garnering strong community involvement can promote model credibility. Finally, in addition to direct usage with patients, we note the potential for simulation usage in the area of Simulation-Based Medical Education, an area which to date has been primarily reliant on physical models (mannequins and scenario-based simulations rather than on numerical simulations.

  8. Using Initial, Derived, and Terminal Credibility to Help Students Understand How They Are Perceived by Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Public Speaking, Interpersonal Communication, Organizational Communication, Introduction to Communication Studies, Business Communication. Objectives: The goal for this activity is not only to provide students with an understanding of their initial, derived, and terminal credibility when relating a personal, edifying story but also to…

  9. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  10. Lack of Annual Reports Make it Difficult to Analyze Library Strategic Credibility. A Review of: Staines, G. (2009. Towards an assessment of strategic credibility in academic libraries. Library Management, 30(3, 148-162.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Thomson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether libraries achieve strategic credibility by assessing if strategic planning goals match the achievements described in annual reports.Design – Content analysis of annual reports and strategic plans from a sample of Association of Research Libraries (ARL.Setting – Academic libraries in Canada and the United States of America.Subjects – A random sample of 12 Canadian and 16 American academic libraries. All libraries were members of ARL.Methods – The researcher contacted the directors of 28 ARL libraries and asked for copies of their strategic plans and annual reports. She also visited the websites of libraries to obtain the reports. The contents of the strategic plans and annual reports were analyzed, and trends in the Canadian and American strategic plans were identified.Main Results – This study found that only 39% of ARL libraries produce annual reports, making it difficult to assess if libraries have strategic credibility, as their strategic plans cannot be assessed against annual reports. The strategic plans gathered in this study were analyzed and emerging themes were identified. These included physical library space (renovations, expansions or new buildings; offsite storage; assessment (both of the libraries’ services, and of information literacy training; development activities such as fundraising and marketing; and personnel issues. Cultural differences also were found inthe strategic plans, with American libraries being more focused on trends such as digitization and institutional repositories, andCanadian libraries’ plans being more focused on users’ needs. Trends in annual reports were not reported due to the small number ofannual reports in the sample.Conclusion – This study gives a snapshot ofthe trends in strategic plans of ARL members. It shows that many ARL members do not produce an annual report, and that it istherefore difficult to assess if their strategicplans are

  11. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers' attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. Design/methodology/approach – The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed through smart PLS software. Findings –The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source have impact on consumer attitudes toward the brand. It was also found that intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brand. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Data collection tool was questionnaire in this study, and questionnaire has some disadvantages that can affect the results. Additionally, this study was conducted in Bushehr city (Iran. Therefore, we should be cautious in generalizing the findings. Originality/value – In this study, the effect of message appeal and message source credibility on consumer attitude to brand was examined. The risk taking level of consumer and his involvement level were considered

  12. Global Zero and Deterrence Credibility : A Critical Analysis of Obama`s Nuclear Policy and Extended Nuclear Deterrence Credibility on the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Ganss, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a qualitative case study analysis of the whether the nuclear policies of President Obama has weakened the U.S. extended nuclear deterrence credibility on the Korean Peninsula. To answer this, the thesis employs two strategies: First, two variables are discussed; a nuclear capabilities-variable; and a nuclear policy-variable. The purpose is to assess the impact the New START treaty has on U.S. nuclear capabilities, and to assess the implications of Obama`s nuclear policy, expres...

  13. Truth and Credibility in Sincere Policy Analysis: Alternative Approaches for the Production of Policy-Relevant Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Landsbergen, David

    1989-01-01

    Two competing approaches to policy analysis are distinguished: a credibility approach, and a truth approach. According to the credibility approach, the policy analyst's role is to search for plausible argument rather than truth. Each approach has pragmatic tradeoffs in fulfilling the goal of providing usable knowledge to decision makers. (TJH)

  14. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a

  15. Medical information on the internet: a tool for measuring consumer perception of quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowicz, Arthur; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-30

    Most of adult Internet users have searched for health information on the Internet. The Internet has become one of the most important sources for health information and treatment advice. In most cases, the information found is not verified with a medical doctor, but judged by the "online-diagnosers" independently. Facing this situation, public health authorities raise concern over the quality of medical information laypersons can find on the Internet. The objective of the study was aimed at developing a measure to evaluate the credibility of websites that offer medical advice and information. The measure was tested in a quasi-experimental study on two sleeping-disorder websites of different quality. There were 45 survey items for rating the credibility of websites that were tested in a quasi-experimental study with a random assignment of 454 participants to either a high- or a low-quality website exposure. Using principal component analysis, the original items were reduced to 13 and sorted into the factors: trustworthiness, textual deficits of the content, interferences (external links on the Web site), and advertisements. The first two factors focus more on the provided content itself, while the other two describe the embedding of the content into the website. The 45 survey items had been designed previously using exploratory observations and literature research. The final scale showed adequate power and reliability for all factors. The loadings of the principal component analysis ranged satisfactorily (.644 to .854). Significant differences at P<.001 were found between the low- and high-quality groups. Advertisements on the website were rated as disturbing in both experimental conditions, meaning that they do not differentiate between good and bad information. The scale reliably distinguished high- and low-quality of medical advice given on websites.

  16. Effects of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Čorko, Irena; Vranić, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the effect of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product. Female psychology students (N=47) were divided in 3 groups. Experimental task was to make a collage. Groups differed in the level of specificity of the given goal. Collages were judged by 11 judges using the consensual assessment technique. Factor analysis of these judgments confirmed 2 orthogonal factors: creativity and technical goodness. Results show that setting a specific...

  17. Credibility issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoos, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    One doesn't know whom to believe among the many experts on the disposition of radioactive wastes, and hence he is thrown on naive faith, scientists' and engineers' faith, and fatalistic faith in science and technology. Despite the general faith in disposal in salt beds, geologists have reservations regarding this mode of disposal. The tendency of some experts to shift the disposal problem to someone else is pointed out. Need for public participation remains

  18. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the judge (or the Board) will decide the case or make other disposition of it. (10) To make and file... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law judges or to the Board; assignment and powers of settlement judges...

  19. How credible are the study results? Evaluating and applying internal validity tools to literature-based assessments of environmental health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Andrew A.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Lam, Juleen; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.; Kraft, Andrew D.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Schwingl, Pamela; Walker, Teneille D.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lunn, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health hazard assessments are routinely relied upon for public health decision-making. The evidence base used in these assessments is typically developed from a collection of diverse sources of information of varying quality. It is critical that literature-based evaluations consider the credibility of individual studies used to reach conclusions through consistent, transparent and accepted methods. Systematic review procedures address study credibility by assessing internal validity or “risk of bias” — the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure/intervention and outcome. This paper describes the commonalities and differences in risk-of-bias methods developed or used by five groups that conduct or provide methodological input for performing environmental health hazard assessments: the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, the Navigation Guide, the National Toxicology Program’s (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) and Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), and the Integrated Risk Information System of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-IRIS). Each of these groups have been developing and applying rigorous assessment methods for integrating across a heterogeneous collection of human and animal studies to inform conclusions on potential environmental health hazards. There is substantial consistency across the groups in the consideration of risk-of-bias issues or “domains” for assessing observational human studies. There is a similar overlap in terms of domains addressed for animal studies; however, the groups differ in the relative emphasis placed on different aspects of risk of bias. Future directions for the continued harmonization and improvement of these methods are also discussed. PMID:26857180

  20. Questioning History, Nationality and Identity in Timberlake Wertenbaker’s Credible Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursen Gömceli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the Anglo-American playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker’s approach to the issues of history, nationality and identity in her play Credible Witness (2001, and to discuss the significance of these concepts in our modern world through a close analysis of the play. In Credible Witness, the playwright brings together people from diverse countries, such as Sri Lanka, Algeria, Eritrea, Somalia and Macedonia in a detention centre in London, and via the stories of these asylum seekers, and particularly through the dramatic encounter between Petra, a Macedonian woman with strong nationalistic pride, and her son Alexander, a history teacher forced to seek refuge in Britain for political reasons, Wertenbaker tries to demonstrate “what happens to people when they step outside, or are forced outside, their history, their identity” (Aston 2003, 13.

  1. The Emotional Moves of a Rational Actor: Smiles, Scowls, and Other Credible Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ian Reed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars turn to emotions to understand irrational behavior. We do the opposite: we turn to rationality and game theory to understand people’s emotions. We discuss a striking theory of emotions that began with the game theory of credible threats and promises, then was enriched by evolutionary biology and psychology, and now is being tested in psychological experiments. We review some of these experiments which use economic games to set up strategic situations with real payoffs. The experiments test whether a player’s emotional expressions lend credibility to promises, threats, and claims of danger or hardship. The results offer insights into the hidden strategies behind a warm smile, an angry scowl, a look of terror, and eyes of despair.

  2. Evidence for the credibility of health economic models for health policy decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the credibility of health economic models of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms for health policy decision-making has improved since 2005 when a systematic review by Campbell et al. concluded that reporting standards were poor and there was divergence between...... benefited from general advances in health economic modelling and some improvements in reporting were noted. However, the low level of agreement between studies in model structures and assumptions, and difficulty in justifying these (convergent validity), remain a threat to the credibility of health economic...... models. Decision-makers should not accept the results of a modelling study if the methods are not fully transparent and justified. Modellers should, whenever relevant, supplement a primary report of results with a technical report detailing and discussing the methodological choices made....

  3. Disagreement in expectations and the credibility of monetary authorities in the Brazilian inflation targeting regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Vereda Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on market expectations reported by the Central Bank of Brazil for the SELIC interest rate, the IPCA inflation, the exchange rate (BRL/USD and the growth rate of industrial production for four different forecasting horizons, this work analyzes the term structures of disagreement in expectations regarding the future values of these variables. It also investigates the driving factors of disagreement, paying special attention to the influence of monetary authorities’ credibility. An extensive regression analysis shows that the levels of the term structures of disagreement are negatively related to the output gap (although this result is not very robust; and that the levels of the term structures of disagreement in expectations about the IPCA inflation rate and the SELIC interest rate have a strong negative relationship with central bankers’ credibility; this relationship is positive in the case of the growth rate of industrial production.

  4. Dose assessment around TR-2 reactor due to maximum credible accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, M. H.; Adalioglu, U.; Aytekin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The revision of safety analysis report of TR-2 research reactor had been initiated in 1995. The whole accident analysis and accepted scenario for maximum credible accident has been revised according to the new safety concepts and the impact to be given to the environment due to this scenario has been assessed. This paper comprises all results of these calculations. The accepted maximum credible accident scenario is the partial blockage of the whole reactor core which resulted in the release of 25% of the core inventory. The DOSER code which uses very conservative modelling of atmospheric distributions were modified for the assessment calculations. Pasquill conditions based on the local weather observations, topography, and building affects were considered. The thyroid and whole body doses for 16 sectors and up to 10 km of distance around CNAEM were obtained. Release models were puff and a prolonged one of two hours of duration. Release fractions for the active isotopes were chosen from literature which were realistic

  5. Workshop on establishing institutional credibility for SEAB Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board's Task Force on Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the National Research Council sponsored a workshop on Establishing Institutional Credibility. The purpose of the workshop was to (1) identify the range of available knowledge regarding the theoretical and conceptual issues of how institutions establish their credibility and legitimacy with key constituents, and (2) to help explore and clarify fundamental concepts in management theory related to these issues. The examination was to include what is known about how organizations establish, maintain, lose, and regain public trust and confidence. There was to be no attempt to develop consensus on these issues or to suggest particular courses of action. The workshop was held on October 24-25, 1991, in Denver, Colorado

  6. Relationship between green marketing strategies and green marketing credibility among Generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Sandoval, Michelle Haeberli; Manon Padilla, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Since terms like “sustainability” and “consumer consciousness” were introduced, green products began being integrated into consumers’ lifestyles. But due to the greenwashing practices that took place during the 90’s consumers refrain to buy green products because they do not trust the advertising released by marketers. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between green advertising credibility (dependent variable) and price sensitiveness, and the four proposed green market...

  7. The Bank of Canada's Monetary Policy Framework; Have Recent Changes Enhanced Central Bank Credibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito; Brenda Gonzalez-Hermosillo

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the Bank of Canada has made important changes in the way it conducts monetary policy. In particular, the bank has adopted explicit inflation targets and introduced significant changes to its operational framework designed to increase transparency and reduce market uncertainty. This paper examines the key issues associated with the recent changes in the Bank of Canada’s monetary policy framework and analyzes various indicators of central bank credibility.

  8. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECT OF BRAND CREDIBILITY, BRAND COMMITMENT AND LOYALTY INTENTIONS ON BRAND EQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    Veeva Mathew; Sam Thomas; Joseph I Injodey

    2012-01-01

    Brand equity has been and will be an area of interest for marketing managers. All marketing efforts are directed toward the development ofbrand equity. Therefore efforts are taken among the researchers, to understand the concept of brand equity as deep as possible.This paper attempts to understand the interrelationships among key formative indicators of brand equity, using beliefattitude- intention hierarchy of effects. The formative indicators include brand credibility, brand commitment, and...

  9. The Emotional Moves of a Rational Actor: Smiles, Scowls, and Other Credible Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Ian Reed; Peter DeScioli

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars turn to emotions to understand irrational behavior. We do the opposite: we turn to rationality and game theory to understand people’s emotions. We discuss a striking theory of emotions that began with the game theory of credible threats and promises, then was enriched by evolutionary biology and psychology, and now is being tested in psychological experiments. We review some of these experiments which use economic games to set up strategic situations with real payoffs. The exper...

  10. Luka Brajnović – From Fidelity to Oneself towards Credibility of Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Labaš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In certain periods, at certain places and in certain media, the reputation and credibility of the journalistic profession has suff ered for a number of reasons, including ignorance, mediocrity, dishonorable or morally questionable methods of journalists, or scandalous, fabricated or partial news stories. This is the opinion of Luka Brajnović, whose reflections in a comparative analysis with other authors comprise the ”contemplative axis” of this article. The fundamental task and goal of this article is to present and analyze Mr Brajnović’s refl ections on the possibility of saving or restoring the reputation and credibility of the journalistic profession. Journalists and the media will not be able to restore credibility as long as extravagant ideas exist about journalism as a profession that deals with ”public whispering, accusations and dissatisfaction with everything that has been established, or as a neutral profession that is ethically hybrid and indifferent towards good and evil”. Such an understanding of the journalistic profession runs against a positive image and reputation of journalism, a fi eld which is in itself worthy of respect of the entire public. In journalism, just as in other professions, unethical behavior on the part of a small number of journalists and media outlets casts a shadow on the journalistic profession as a whole, causing the reputation of the profession to become dependent upon a positive image and the reputation of those individuals working in it. As results of this article show – which for the fi rst time analytically approaches the scientific arguments and refl ections of Mr Brajnović in the Croatian public sphere – ethical and intellectual health, which can restore credibility to the journalistic profession, are the very elements rooted deep inside of it.

  11. The Influence of Consumers€™ Tie Strength, Homophily and Source Credibility Toward Electronic Word-of-mouth (Ewom) Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Oroh, Winda Lely

    2014-01-01

    Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in the form of online product reviews can influence the sales of a product and/or service, and that informational€based determinants are very important to consumers when evaluating reviews. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of consumers€™ tie strength, homophily, and source credibility toward electronic word-of-mouth behavior (eWOM). This research used quantitative analyze. The method used to analyze the data is the Multiple Regression A...

  12. Preserving professional credibility: grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-02-09

    To develop a conceptual framework of the influences on medical trainees' decisions regarding requests for clinical support from a supervisor. Phase 1: members of teaching teams in internal and emergency medicine were observed during regular clinical activities (216 hours) and subsequently completed brief interviews. Phase 2: 36 in depth interviews were conducted using videotaped vignettes to probe tacit influences on decisions to request support. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory methods. Three teaching hospitals in an urban setting in Canada. 124 members of teaching teams on general internal medicine wards and in the emergency department, comprising 31 attending physicians, 57 junior and senior residents, 28 medical students, and eight nurses. Purposeful sampling to saturation was conducted. Trainees' decisions about whether or not to seek clinical support were influenced by three issues: the clinical question (clinical importance, scope of practice), supervisor factors (availability, approachability), and trainee factors (skill, desire for independence, evaluation). Trainees perceived that requesting frequent/inappropriate support threatened their credibility and used rhetorical strategies to preserve credibility. These strategies included building a case for the importance of requests, saving requests for opportune moments, making a plan before requesting support, and targeting requests to specific team members. Trainees consider not only clinical implications but also professional credibility when requesting support from clinical supervisors. Exposing the complexity of this process provides the opportunity to make changes to training programmes to promote timely supervision and provides a framework for further exploration of the impact of clinical training on quality of care of patients.

  13. INVESTIGATINGTHE SOURCEATTRIBUTES INFLUENCINGCONSUMERS’ CREDIBILITY EVALUATIONS OF AN ATHLETE-CELEBRITY ENDORSED PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bafokeng Bafokeng Mahao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy has been widelyembraced by numerousorganisations. Nonetheless, scholarly wisdom suggests theneed for cumulative research that seeks to identify the unique set of source factorsthat enhance the credibility of advertising communication messages delivered bycelebrities across countries.Inthis vein, the primary purpose of this research wasto apply the dimensions of thesource attributes theory (Ohanian, 1990 tounderstand the underlying factors that influence South African consumers to havepositive perceptions towards purchasingaproductthat hasbeen endorsed by alocal athlete celebrity-endorser. A quantitative research approach was applied,wherein a self-administered survey questionnaire comprising20scale items wasadapted for this research. Data were collected from a consumer sample of 456consumers based in Gauteng, South Africa. Upon applying exploratory factoranalysisand mean score rankings, source likeability, source trust, source authorityand source credibility were established as the underlying factors influencingconsumers’ credibility evaluations, in descending order of importance. Moreover,the inter-factor correlation matrix revealed positive relationships among theidentified factors. Insights gained from this study could assist practitioners todesign effectiveadvertisementstrategies that fosterpositivecredibility evaluationsthrough known product endorsers.

  14. I FEEL CONNECTED: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENT ENGAGEMENT AND LECTURERS’ CREDIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Pillai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is essential. Having the ability to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings is crucial in all environments. The education industry regards communication as a core business to transfer knowledge. This paper focuses on how two different groups of students at Sunway University, Malaysia, perceived Lecturers’ Credibility (LC in a class that enhances the Students’ Engagement (SE. A group of 50 to 60 students from the Faculty of Arts (FoA and School of Business (SoB completed measures of LC and SE using McCroskey and Teven’s (1999 Source Credibility Questionnaire (SCQ and Students Engagement Survey from Indicators of Positive Development Conference, Child Trends. The variables for LC comprise competence, character and caring (CCC, and the variables for SE consist of cognitive, behaviour and emotion (CBE. The study aims to determine if there are any differences in SE between students from FoA and SoB with their perceived LC. Hopefully, the study sheds some light on the research question: “Are there any differences among Faculty of Arts students and School of Business students in the relationship between lecturers’ credibility and students’ engagement?”

  15. Towards Credible City Branding Practices: How Do Iran’s Largest Cities Face Ecological Modernization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Noori

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available City branding is not only increasingly practiced in cities in established economies, but also among municipal governments in countries, until quite recently, rather closed off from the outside world. One country with a strong drive to engage in urban (redevelopment in the post-oil era through enhancing its ‘ecological modernization’ is Iran. Megacities in Iran have all begun to venture into making profiles of what they think they are or would like to be. However, some of the adopted city branding strategies lack sophistication. In this article, the authors examine what indicators can be used for evaluating the credibility of city brands and apply these to Iran’s 15 megacities. After offering brief descriptions of the generic features of each of these cities, they map their use of city brand identities and popular city labels related to ecological modernization and analyze the credibility of their city branding practices. Based on their findings, the authors distinguish five types of cities and explain what makes some types more credible in their use of brands than others. Generally speaking, compared to cities in other nations, Iranian cities pay special attention to historical, natural, cultural, and religious aspects.

  16. Determinants of Judgments of Explanatory Power: Credibility, Generality, and Statistical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo; Bucher, Leandra; Sprenger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence. Collectively, the results of our five experiments support the hypothesis that the prior credibility of a causal explanation plays a central role in explanatory reasoning: first, because of the presence of strong main effects on judgments of explanatory power, and second, because of the gate-keeping role it has for other factors. Highly credible explanations are not susceptible to causal framing effects, but they are sensitive to the effects of normatively relevant factors: the generalizability of an explanation, and its statistical relevance for the evidence. These results advance current literature in the philosophy and psychology of explanation in three ways. First, they yield a more nuanced understanding of the determinants of judgments of explanatory power, and the interaction between these factors. Second, they show the close relationship between prior beliefs and explanatory power. Third, they elucidate the nature of abductive reasoning. PMID:28928679

  17. Mentalizing skills do not differentiate believers from non-believers, but credibility enhancing displays do.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L R Maij

    Full Text Available The ability to mentalize has been marked as an important cognitive mechanism enabling belief in supernatural agents. In five studies we cross-culturally investigated the relationship between mentalizing and belief in supernatural agents with large sample sizes (over 67,000 participants in total and different operationalizations of mentalizing. The relative importance of mentalizing for endorsing supernatural beliefs was directly compared with credibility enhancing displays-the extent to which people observed credible religious acts during their upbringing. We also compared autistic with neurotypical adolescents. The empathy quotient and the autism-spectrum quotient were not predictive of belief in supernatural agents in all countries (i.e., The Netherlands, Switzerland and the United States, although we did observe a curvilinear effect in the United States. We further observed a strong influence of credibility enhancing displays on belief in supernatural agents. These findings highlight the importance of cultural learning for acquiring supernatural beliefs and ask for reconsiderations of the importance of mentalizing.

  18. Exposing therapists to trauma-focused treatment in psychosis: effects on credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. G. van den Berg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite robust empirical support for the efficacy of trauma-focused treatments, the dissemination proves difficult, especially in relation to patients with comorbid psychosis. Many therapists endorse negative beliefs about the credibility, burden, and harm of such treatment. Objective: This feasibility study explores the impact of specialized training on therapists’ beliefs about trauma-focused treatment within a randomized controlled trial. Method: Therapist-rated (n=16 credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies of trauma-focused treatment were assessed at baseline, post-theoretical training, post-technical training, post-supervised practical training, and at 2-year follow-up. Credibility and burden beliefs of therapists concerning the treatment of every specific patient in the trial were also assessed. Results: Over time, therapist-rated credibility of trauma-focused treatment showed a significant increase, whereas therapists’ expected burden and harm expectancies decreased significantly. In treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in patients with psychotic disorders (n=79, pre-treatment symptom severity was not associated with therapist-rated credibility or expected burden of that specific treatment. Treatment outcome had no influence on patient-specific credibility or burden expectancies of therapists. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that specialized training, including practical training with supervision, has long-term positive effects on therapists’ credibility, burden, and harm beliefs concerning trauma-focused treatment.

  19. Self-Perceived Career and Interpersonal Skills Gained from Participation on a Collegiate Livestock Judging Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Sarah; Duncan, Dennis W.; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Flanders, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Collegiate livestock judging is primarily an extracurricular activity that reinforces concepts taught in the classroom. Previous research has determined that participating on a livestock judging team can aid in the development of perceived life skills. Participants of this study indicated that their experience on a collegiate team helped them…

  20. 20 CFR 667.830 - When will the Administrative Law Judge issue a decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will the Administrative Law Judge issue... Adjudication and Judicial Review § 667.830 When will the Administrative Law Judge issue a decision? (a) The ALJ... ARB must be decided within 180 days of acceptance. If not so decided, the decision of the ALJ...

  1. 34 CFR 81.5 - Authority and responsibility of an Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judge. 81.5 Section 81.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GENERAL EDUCATION... Judge. (a) An ALJ assigned to a case conducts a hearing on the record. The ALJ regulates the course of... decides the disqualification matter before proceeding further with the case. (Authority: 5 U.S.C. 556(b...

  2. 20 CFR 405.340 - Deciding a claim without a hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....340 Deciding a claim without a hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision wholly... the decision is based. (b) You do not wish to appear. The administrative law judge may decide a claim... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deciding a claim without a hearing before an...

  3. 40 CFR 164.40 - Qualifications and duties of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. 164.40 Section 164.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Judicial Ethics of the American Bar Association. (d) Power. Subject to review, as provided elsewhere in... Law Judge, the Administrator or the Environmental Appeals Board. [38 FR 19371, July 20, 1973, as...

  4. An e-Learning Collaborative Filtering Approach to Suggest Problems to Solve in Programming Online Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Raciel Yera; Mota, Yailé Caballero

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a recommender system approach to cover online judge's domains. Online judges are e-learning tools that support the automatic evaluation of programming tasks done by individual users, and for this reason they are usually used for training students in programming contest and for supporting basic programming teachings. The…

  5. 78 FR 30864 - Judges Panel of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... performing the non- exclusive duties of the Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for... time. The purpose of this meeting is to discuss and review the role and responsibilities of the Judges... ensure the integrity of the Award selection process. The agenda will include: The Role of the Judges...

  6. 8 CFR 1003.9 - Office of the Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Chief Immigration Judge. 1003.9 Section 1003.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge...

  7. 8 CFR 1246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. 1246.4 Section 1246.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 1246.4 Immigration judge's...

  8. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final... Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker. (a) Scope. This section applies to the following applicants: (1) An applicant who seeks review of a decision by TSA denying a request for a waiver...

  9. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review will cause undue harm to a party or the public. (2) If the motion is granted, the Judge or... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL...

  10. 29 CFR 1980.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... review by the administrative law judge, and a complaint may not be remanded for the completion of an... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision and orders of the administrative law judge. 1980... SECTION 806 OF THE CORPORATE AND CRIMINAL FRAUD ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 2002, TITLE VIII OF THE SARBANES...

  11. 20 CFR 405.301 - Hearing before an administrative law judge-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... law judge. (c) You may examine the evidence used in making the decision or determination under review... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing before an administrative law judge-general. 405.301 Section 405.301 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW...

  12. 31 CFR 501.742 - Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....742 Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges. (a) Scope of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges. 501.742 Section 501.742 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  13. Judicial law-making: Unlocking the creative powers of judges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the creative powers of judges in terms of Section 39(2) of the constitution. ... that judges do indeed have a law-making function in the process of interpretation. ... The article examines the extent to which the judiciary can use this power in a ...

  14. Can optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy be distinguished in patients undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, T.M.; Tilbury, C.; Kamper, S.J.; Tordoir, R.L.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Nelissen, R.G.H.H.; Cuijpers, P.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Dekker, J.; Knol, D.L.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The constructs optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are associated with outcomes of medical treatment. While these constructs are grounded in different theoretical models, they nonetheless show some conceptual overlap. The purpose of this study was to

  15. The Age of Emotionality? – How emotions influence consumers’ perception of credibility and trust in CSR communication

    OpenAIRE

    Reupsch, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Companies around the world are using different strategies for their corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication, but finding an appropriate strategy to enhance trust and credibility on the consumer side remains challenging. The constitutive aspect of emotions in CSR communication has long been overlooked. Therefore, this study investigates the influence emotions in CSR communication have on the credibility and trust consumers have in a firm’s CSR. Quantitative research with group divi...

  16. Factors that optimise the credibility of advertisements whilst promoting feelings of emotional well-being and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Duck, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate that advertisements that challenge the security of consumers can undermine the impact and lasting influence of these messages. Conversely, advertisements could be used to evoke feelings of security and enhance emotional well-being whilst optimising the credibility and impact of messages. Specifically, research demonstrates that advertisements might elicit different motivational styles, referred to as an individual’s regulatory focus. The credibility of...

  17. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  18. The Role of Sharia Judges in Indonesia: Between The Common Law and The Civil Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfitri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the role of Religious Courts’ (Pengadilan Agama or PA Judges in the formation of Islamic law in Indonesia. As part of the civil legal system, PA Judges are bound by legal provisions in handling legal disputes in court. They must apply the applicable legal provisions to decide upon a case. This condition can also be understood from the aspect of appointment of judges in Indonesia, including PA Judges, which is conducted not through professional career path as in the common law system. Thus, they are appointed from a new graduate of law/sharia faculty and then trained, inter alia, to apply and/or interpret applicable laws (legislation; and not to make the law itself. However, on the basis of secondary data analysis, studies on the ijtihad of PA Judges reveal that they are no longer only fixated on the provisions of statutes in deciding cases. They also make laws, cases in point are the Compilation of Islamic Law (KHI and the Compilation of Sharia Economic Law (KHES, do ijtihad on the books of fiqh which became the basis for the drafting of Islamic legislation in Indonesia. Some of them even do direct ijtihad from Sharia sources, namely the Qur'an and Hadith. This condition is arguably more in accordance with the character of judges (qadis in Islamic history which on a certain level similar to the role of judges in common law system.

  19. Establishing credibility in the environmental models used for safety and licensing calculations in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Models that simulate the transport and behaviour of radionuclides in the environment are used extensively in the nuclear industry for safety and licensing purposes. They are needed to calculate derived release limits for new and operating facilities, to estimate consequences following hypothetical accidents and to help manage a real emergency. But predictions generated for these purposes are essentially meaningless unless they are accompanied by a quantitative estimate of the confidence that can be placed in them. For example, in an emergency where there has been an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, decisions based on a validated model with small uncertainties would likely be very different from those based on an untested model, or on one with large uncertainties. This paper begins with a discussion of some general methods for establishing the credibility of model predictions. The focus will be on environmental transport models but the principles apply to models of all kinds. Establishing the credibility of a model is not a trivial task, It involves a number of tasks including face validation, verification, experimental validation and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The remainder of the paper will present quantitative results relating to the credibility of environmental transport models. Model formation, choice of parameter values and the influence of the user will all be discussed as sources of uncertainty in predictions. The magnitude of uncertainties that must be expected in various applications of the models will be presented. The examples used throughout the paper are drawn largely from recent work carried out in BIOMOVS and VAMP. (DM)

  20. Institutions, credibility and crisis: the inconsistencies of Argentine exchange rate policy (1991-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS CHERNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to explain the time inconsistencies of the convertibility regime that led to the 2001 crisis. The argument suggests that the credibility requirements for convertibility induced a dynamic of legal, fiscal, financial and external commitments that increased exit costs and time inconsistencies. The second objective is to explain the tensions of the floating regime that replaced convertibility in 2002. We describe the effects of a floating exchange rate on macroeconomic imbalance and the growing tension between competitiveness and inflation.

  1. Plant identification credibility in ethnobotany: a closer look at Polish ethnographic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an attempt to estimate the percentage of erroneously identified taxa in ethnographic studies concerning the use of plants and to propose a code for recording credibility of identification in historical ethnobotany publications. Methods A sample of Polish-language ethnobotanical literature (45 published sources from 1874-2005 and four collections of voucher specimens (from 1894-1975 were analyzed. Errors were detected in the publications by comparing the data with existing knowledge on the distribution of plant names and species ranges. The voucher specimens were re-examined. A one-letter code was invented for quick identification of the credibility of data published in lists of species compiled from historical or ethnographic sources, according to the source of identification: voucher specimen, Latin binominal, botanical expert, obvious widespread name, folk name, mode of use, range, physical description or photograph. To test the use of the code an up-to-date list of wild food plants used in Poland was made. Results A significant difference between the ratio of mistakes in the voucher specimen collections and the ratio of detectable mistakes in the studies without herbarium documentation was found. At least 2.3% of taxa in the publications were identified erroneously (mean rate was 6.2% per publication, and in half of these mistakes even the genus was not correct. As many as 10.0% of voucher specimens (on average 9.2% per collection were originally erroneously identified, but three quarters of the identification mistakes remained within-genus. The species of the genera Thymus, Rumex and Rubus were most often confused within the genus. Not all of the invented credibility codes were used in the list of wild food plants, but they may be useful for other researchers. The most often used codes were the ones signifying identification by: voucher specimen, botanical expert and by a common name used throughout the

  2. Simulation of the WWER-440/213 maximum credible accident at the EhNITs stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Davydov, M.V.; Sokolin, A.V.; Shchepetil'nikov, Eh.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The calculations of thermohydraulic processes through the ATHLET code for determining optimal conditions for modeling the coolant leakage at the EhNITs stand by the maximum credible accident at the NPP with WWER-440/213 reactor are presented. The diameters of the nozzle at the stand, whereby the local criterion of coincidence with the data on the NPP (by the maximum flow) and integral criterion of coincidence (by the mass and energy of the coolant, effluent during 10 s) are determined in the process of parametric calculations [ru

  3. Plant identification credibility in ethnobotany: a closer look at Polish ethnographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz J

    2010-12-17

    This paper is an attempt to estimate the percentage of erroneously identified taxa in ethnographic studies concerning the use of plants and to propose a code for recording credibility of identification in historical ethnobotany publications. A sample of Polish-language ethnobotanical literature (45 published sources from 1874-2005) and four collections of voucher specimens (from 1894-1975) were analyzed. Errors were detected in the publications by comparing the data with existing knowledge on the distribution of plant names and species ranges. The voucher specimens were re-examined.A one-letter code was invented for quick identification of the credibility of data published in lists of species compiled from historical or ethnographic sources, according to the source of identification: voucher specimen, Latin binominal, botanical expert, obvious widespread name, folk name, mode of use, range, physical description or photograph. To test the use of the code an up-to-date list of wild food plants used in Poland was made. A significant difference between the ratio of mistakes in the voucher specimen collections and the ratio of detectable mistakes in the studies without herbarium documentation was found. At least 2.3% of taxa in the publications were identified erroneously (mean rate was 6.2% per publication), and in half of these mistakes even the genus was not correct. As many as 10.0% of voucher specimens (on average 9.2% per collection) were originally erroneously identified, but three quarters of the identification mistakes remained within-genus.The species of the genera Thymus, Rumex and Rubus were most often confused within the genus.Not all of the invented credibility codes were used in the list of wild food plants, but they may be useful for other researchers. The most often used codes were the ones signifying identification by: voucher specimen, botanical expert and by a common name used throughout the country. The results of this study support the rigorous use

  4. The initiative of the judge in matters of evidence. Aspects of comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ciurea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring a controversial issue in doctrine, jurisprudence and legislation of European countries and Latin America: the role judges should play in the system of evidence in the civil trial. Certain legislations and some theorists argue for a judge to be an "expectant observer", other for an active judge, a guide of the trial. We will try to emphasize the practical advantages and disadvantages of the existing theories (especially the Romanian, French and Spanish ones, in order to decide which solution is the most effective to achieve the purpose of civil trial: social peace.

  5. Assessing Website Quality in Context: Retrieving Information about Genetically Modified Food on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Claire R.; Bird, Nora J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET) is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of…

  6. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  7. Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.

  8. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  9. Shilling attack detection for recommender systems based on credibility of group users and rating time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wen, Junhao; Qu, Qiang; Zeng, Jun; Cheng, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Recommender systems are vulnerable to shilling attacks. Forged user-generated content data, such as user ratings and reviews, are used by attackers to manipulate recommendation rankings. Shilling attack detection in recommender systems is of great significance to maintain the fairness and sustainability of recommender systems. The current studies have problems in terms of the poor universality of algorithms, difficulty in selection of user profile attributes, and lack of an optimization mechanism. In this paper, a shilling behaviour detection structure based on abnormal group user findings and rating time series analysis is proposed. This paper adds to the current understanding in the field by studying the credibility evaluation model in-depth based on the rating prediction model to derive proximity-based predictions. A method for detecting suspicious ratings based on suspicious time windows and target item analysis is proposed. Suspicious rating time segments are determined by constructing a time series, and data streams of the rating items are examined and suspicious rating segments are checked. To analyse features of shilling attacks by a group user's credibility, an abnormal group user discovery method based on time series and time window is proposed. Standard testing datasets are used to verify the effect of the proposed method.

  10. Credible occurrence probabilities for extreme geophysical events: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analysis is made of rare, extreme geophysical events recorded in historical data -- counting the number of events $k$ with sizes that exceed chosen thresholds during specific durations of time $\\tau$. Under transformations that stabilize data and model-parameter variances, the most likely Poisson-event occurrence rate, $k/\\tau$, applies for frequentist inference and, also, for Bayesian inference with a Jeffreys prior that ensures posterior invariance under changes of variables. Frequentist confidence intervals and Bayesian (Jeffreys) credibility intervals are approximately the same and easy to calculate: $(1/\\tau)[(\\sqrt{k} - z/2)^{2},(\\sqrt{k} + z/2)^{2}]$, where $z$ is a parameter that specifies the width, $z=1$ ($z=2$) corresponding to $1\\sigma$, $68.3\\%$ ($2\\sigma$, $95.4\\%$). If only a few events have been observed, as is usually the case for extreme events, then these "error-bar" intervals might be considered to be relatively wide. From historical records, we estimate most likely long-term occurrence rates, 10-yr occurrence probabilities, and intervals of frequentist confidence and Bayesian credibility for large earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, and magnetic storms.

  11. Front-Stage Stars and Backstage Producers: The Role of Judges in Problem-Solving Courts().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Shannon; Rudes, Danielle; Viglione, Jill; Nelson, Matthew; Taxman, Faye

    2013-01-01

    In problem-solving courts judges are no longer neutral arbitrators in adversarial justice processes. Instead, judges directly engage with court participants. The movement towards problem-solving court models emerges from a collaborative therapeutic jurisprudence framework. While most scholars argue judges are the central courtroom actors within problem-solving courts, we find judges are the stars front-stage, but play a more supporting role backstage. We use Goffman's front-stage-backstage framework to analyze 350 hours of ethnographic fieldwork within five problem-solving courts. Problem-solving courts are collaborative organizations with shifting leadership, based on forum. Understanding how the roles of courtroom workgroup actors adapt under the new court model is foundational for effective implementation of these justice processes.

  12. 29 CFR 1955.12 - Administrative law judge; powers and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S.C. 554-557 (hereinafter called the APA). (b) On any procedural question not otherwise regulated by this part, the Act, or the APA, the administrative law judge shall be guided to the extent...

  13. 14 CFR 385.11 - Authority of the Administrative Law Judges, Office of Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.11 Authority of the Administrative Law Judges, Office of...

  14. 20 CFR 655.835 - How will the administrative law judge conduct the proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1B Labor... administrative law judge shall notify all interested parties of the date, time and place of the hearing. All...

  15. 20 CFR 655.655 - Secretary's review of administrative law judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of the... Secretary's review of administrative law judge's decision. (a) The Administrator or any interested party...

  16. 20 CFR 655.445 - Secretary's review of administrative law judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Enforcement of H-1A... interested party desiring review of the decision and order of an administrative law judge shall petition the...

  17. Front-Stage Stars and Backstage Producers: The Role of Judges in Problem-Solving Courts1

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Shannon; Rudes, Danielle; Viglione, Jill; Nelson, Matthew; Taxman, Faye

    2013-01-01

    In problem-solving courts judges are no longer neutral arbitrators in adversarial justice processes. Instead, judges directly engage with court participants. The movement towards problem-solving court models emerges from a collaborative therapeutic jurisprudence framework. While most scholars argue judges are the central courtroom actors within problem-solving courts, we find judges are the stars front-stage, but play a more supporting role backstage. We use Goffman's front-stage-backstage fr...

  18. THE INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AFRICAN JUDGES: A CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunga Siyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Judicial independence is fundamental to democracy. It is in that context that this paper considers whether the existing constitutional and legislative mechanisms provide sufficient judicial independence to South African judges. In so doing, the paper focuses on impartiality, judicial appointments and security of tenure. It also discusses the sensitive matter of complaints and disciplinary proceedings against judges and their removal from office. The issue of the remuneration of judges is also explored. In discussing the challenges facing judicial independence some incidents that have appeared to compromise such independence are highlighted. These include the controversial appointments of Advocate Mpshe as an acting judge in the North West Province in 2010 and Judge Heath as the Head of the Special Investigative Unit (SIU in 2011. The never-ending controversy surrounding the Cape Judge President John Hlophe and his alleged attempts to improperly influence two Constitutional Court judges in a case involving President Jacob Zuma is also highlighted. Another issue that has brought judicial independence into sharp focus is the June 2015 visit to South Africa of Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, who was on a warrant of arrest from the International Criminal Court (ICC for genocide and war crimes in the Darfur region of Sudan. A decision by the North Gauteng High Court on his presence in South Africa and the attacks on the judiciary made by various government officials as a result are discussed. Several conclusions are drawn but in the main, it is generally concluded that the constitutional and legislative framework adopted by South Africa sufficiently insulates judges from improper influence. However, there have been several notable challenges that particularly relate to judicial appointments and how the JSC has handled certain matters. Irresponsible and uninformed political statements by politicians and unwarranted political attacks on the judiciary

  19. The Gorontalo Religious Court Judges Response Toward Their Absolute Competence in Resolving Shariah Economy Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana, Andi; Darwis, Rizal

    2015-01-01

    Post the first amendment of Religious Courts Bill that provides wider authority toward Religious Courts in investigate and decide Islamic economics disputes has responses, whether support or pessimistic, especially among Religious Court judges themselves. This paper examines the Gorontalo Religious Courts judges response about their authority in resolve Shariah economy disputes. This paper is a qualitative descriptive research and the data was collected using observation, interviews and docum...

  20. Robin Hood vs. King John Redistribution: How Do Local Judges Decide Cases In Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Ivan Cesar

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two opposed hypotheses to predict the behavior of judges when they have to decide a claim between parties with asymmetrical eco- nomic and political power. The .rst, which has broad acceptance among policy makers in Brazil, is the jurisdictional uncertainty hypothesis (Arida et al, 2005) that suggests that Brazilian judges tend to favor the weak party in the claim as a form of social justice and redistribution of income in favor of the poor. Glaeser et al (2003) stated ...

  1. The Removal of the Judge as a Guarantee of Fair Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Derishev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the institution of the removal of a judge in criminal trial proceedings, which is regarded as the most important guarantees of fair criminal justice. Based on the definition of the nature and content of the mechanism for the removal of a judge, the Authors offer an analysis of the problems of the application of law that accompany its implementation in modern criminal proceedings

  2. The fan-judges: Clues to a jurisculture of Sherlockian fandom [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Davies

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available American judges sometimes encourage other participants in the legal system to behave like Sherlock Holmes. They are relying on a shared culture that both appreciates a literary figure and recognizes a human capacity to emulate an imaginary creature (here, Sherlock outside the context in which it was created. Consciously or not, the judges are tapping into classic fandom, but do they think of it that way, and should they?

  3. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS PROCEDURE FOR REMOVAL OF LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATION OFFICERS Procedures To Determine... request for information or documentary evidence, or for contumacious conduct; (k) To grant continuances or...

  4. Sensitive Judges – How to Resolve the Tangle of Legal Decision-Making and Emotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriën Hamer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional legal thought, emotions should have no influence on legal decision-making. The general assumption is that emotions interfere with clear rational thinking, and cause decisions to be biased and imbalanced. However, in modern philosophical thought, a different thesis has been put forward. Contrary to being irrational occurrences, emotions are said to actually contain important cognitive content. More precisely, our emotions reflect important evaluative judgments we have about our environment, which usually inform us in making decisions. The question asked in this paper is what the consequences are of accepting such an account of emotions for the legal decision-making process. Does this new understanding of emotions necessitate rethinking the role traditionally assigned to emotions? Focusing on judges, it is argued that emotions are of value to the decision-making process, and that the influence of emotions does not automatically lead to decisions being biased. It is concluded that like distanced rational thought, the emotions involved offer a uniquely important aid to make correct and just decisions.

  5. 29 CFR 102.45 - Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board; contents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Transfer of Case to the Board § 102.45 Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service... administrative law judge's decision and of the order transferring the case to the Board shall be complete upon... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service...

  6. 28 CFR 68.53 - Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.53 Section 68.53 Judicial Administration... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority. In a case arising under...

  7. 28 CFR 68.54 - Administrative review of a final order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.54 Section 68.54 Judicial... BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority of the Chief...

  8. 29 CFR 102.153 - Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board; contents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Expenses § 102.153 Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board... administrative law judge's decision and of the order transferring the case to the Board shall be complete upon... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service...

  9. Domestic Violence Protective Orders: A Qualitative Examination of Judges' Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Brune, Christine; Beth Moracco, Kathryn E; Person, Cara J; Bowling, J Michael

    2015-06-17

    Approximately one in three women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is associated with long-term negative health consequences; therefore, there is a need to examine potential prevention strategies. Evidence suggests that domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), a legal intervention that prevents contact between two parties for up to 12 months, are an effective secondary prevention tool. However, because judges have relative autonomy in granting or denying DVPOs, research is needed to examine the processes they use to guide their decisions. The aim of the study was to investigate how District Court judges decide whether to issue a DVPO. Using in-depth interviews with 20 North Carolina District Court judges, the present study addressed three research questions: (a) what factors influence judges' decisions to grant or deny a DVPO, (b) what heuristics or cognitive shortcuts potentially guide their decisions, and (c) what judges worry about when making decisions. Three themes emerged from the data analyses: (a) violent incidents must reach a certain threshold, (b) the presence of children creates competing concerns, and (c) judges worry about the negative impact their decisions may have on the lives of those involved. Recommendations for improving the DVPO issuance process are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Key features of hip hop dance motions affect evaluation by judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The evaluation of hip hop dancers presently lacks clearly defined criteria and is often dependent on the subjective impressions of judges. Our study objective was to extract hidden motion characteristics that could potentially distinguish the skill levels of hip hop dancers and to examine the relationship between performance kinematics and judging scores. Eleven expert, six nonexpert, and nine novice dancers participated in the study, where each performed the "wave" motion as an experimental task. The movements of their upper extremities were captured by a motion capture system, and several kinematic parameters including the propagation velocity of the wave were calculated. Twelve judges evaluated the performances of the dancers, and we compared the kinematic parameters of the three groups and examined the relationship between the judging scores and the kinematic parameters. We found the coefficient of variation of the propagation velocity to be significantly different among the groups (P < .01) and highly correlated with the judging scores (r = -0.800, P < .01). This revealed that the variation of propagation velocity was the most dominant variable representing the skill level of the dancers and that the smooth propagation of the wave was most closely related to the evaluation by judges.

  11. In the shadow of the judge : The involvement of judicial assistants in Dutch district courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holvast, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    While judicial assistants occupy a central position in all types of court systems, the contribution of these staff members to the process of adjudication remains largely unknown, even though their involvement can have significant effects on the perceived quality and credibility of adjudication. This

  12. Feature saliency in judging the sex and familiarity of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T; Bruce, V

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments are reported on the effect of feature masking on judgements of the sex and familiarity of faces. In experiment 1 the effect of masking the eyes, nose, or mouth of famous and nonfamous, male and female faces on response times in two tasks was investigated. In the first, recognition, task only masking of the eyes had a significant effect on response times. In the second, sex-judgement, task masking of the nose gave rise to a significant and large increase in response times. In experiment 2 it was found that when facial features were presented in isolation in a sex-judgement task, responses to noses were at chance level, unlike those for eyes or mouths. It appears that visual information available from the nose in isolation from the rest of the face is not sufficient for sex judgement, yet masking of the nose may disrupt the extraction of information about the overall topography of the face, information that may be more useful for sex judgement than for identification of a face.

  13. Motivation and treatment credibility predict alliance in cognitive behavioral treatment for youth with anxiety disorders in community clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjermestad, K W; Lerner, M D; McLeod, B D; Wergeland, G J H; Haugland, B S M; Havik, O E; Öst, L-G; Silverman, W K

    2017-11-16

    We examined whether motivation and treatment credibility predicted alliance in a 10-session cognitive behavioral treatment delivered in community clinics for youth anxiety disorders. Ninety-one clinic-referred youths (mean age  = 11.4 years, standard deviation = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 49.5% boys) with anxiety disorders-rated treatment motivation at pretreatment and perceived treatment credibility after session 1. Youths and therapists (YT) rated alliance after session 3 (early) and session 7 (late). Hierarchical linear models were applied to examine whether motivation and treatment credibility predicted YT early alliance, YT alliance change, and YT alliance agreement. Motivation predicted high early YT alliance, but not YT alliance change or alliance agreement. Youth-rated treatment credibility predicted high early youth alliance and high YT positive alliance change, but not early therapist alliance or alliance agreement. Conclusion Efforts to enhance youth motivation and treatment credibility early in treatment could facilitate the formation of a strong YT alliance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Is debt restructuring needed to make the Stability and Growth Pact (more credible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Körner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the so-called PIIGS crisis which in 2009 became acute due to strongly diverging risk premiums, marked the beginning of a new phase for the European Monetary Union. Whilst the run-up to EMU had been characterized by an encouraging convergence of macroeconomic fundamentals of its member countries, it is now facing a serious threat in particular due to excessive levels of public debt. In 1997, the Stability and Growth Pact introduced a mechanism designed to prevent excessive public debt of the type currently observed; the fact of the matter, however, seems to be that levels of public debt has continuously grown from one economic cycle to the next. But the SGP apparently not only failed to fulfil its aim to keep the deficit and the debt level within its limits but also suffered from a severe loss of credibility; unless some profound action is taken it may further diminish, severely hampering the loose structure of the European Monetary Union. In order to regain some credibility, mitigate financial market’s concerns and, hence, lower borrowing cost, a consolidation path is needed to returns to acceptable levels of debt in the foreseeable future. This process has already started and measures have been taken by several eurozone countries to speed up fiscal consolidation. The aim of the paper is to analyze whether or not the group of the PIIGS countries are likely to return to debt levels in accordance with the SGP criteria or if it might be necessary to undergo a process of debt restructuring or default. By analysing different scenarios where nominal interest rates on debt (r and nominal growth rates (n as well as gaps thereof (r-n, herein called the automatic debt dynamics, are varied, this paper comes to the conclusion, that debt restructuring or default is a likely outcome for some of the PIIGS; arithmetics is in particular playing against Greece. As disillusioning and disappointing this outcome might be for some observers, it

  15. CF Procedures and Practices Involving Information Aggregation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandali, F; Bruyn, L; Vokac, R; Keeble, R; Zobarich, R; Berger, N; Rehak, L; Lamoureux, Tabbeus

    2007-01-01

    .... However in a practical setting, especially under time constraints, an individual rarely has access to all relevant information or may find it difficult to judge the reliability of all the information...

  16. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  17. Judges' perception of candidates' organization and communication, in relation to oral certification examination ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Myford, Carol M

    2009-11-01

    To determine (1) whether judges differed in the levels of severity they exercised when rating candidates' performance in an oral certification exam, (2) to what extent candidates' clinical competence ratings were related to their organization/communication ratings, and (3) to what extent clinical competence ratings could predict organization/communication ratings. Six hundred eighty-four physicians participated in a medical specialty board's 2002 oral examination. Ninety-nine senior members of the medical specialty served as judges, rating candidates' performances. Candidates' clinical competence ratings were analyzed using multifaceted Rasch measurement to investigate judge severity. A Pearson correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between ratings of clinical competence and organization/communication. Logistic regression was used to determine to what extent clinical competence ratings predicted organization/communication ratings. There were about three statistically distinct strata of judge severity; judges were not interchangeable. There was a moderately strong relationship between the two sets of candidate ratings. Higher clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of acceptable, whereas lower clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of unacceptable. The judges' clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 61.9% of the acceptable and 88.3% of the unacceptable organization/communication ratings. Overall, the clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 80% of the organization/communication ratings. The close association between the two sets of ratings was possibly due to a "halo" effect. Several explanations for this relationship were explored, and the authors considered the implications for their understanding of how judges carry out this complex rating task.

  18. Nutraceuticals and Their Potential to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Separating the Credible from the Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keryn G. Woodman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely “anecdotal” evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.

  19. Nutraceuticals and Their Potential to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Separating the Credible from the Conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Keryn G; Coles, Chantal A; Lamandé, Shireen R; White, Jason D

    2016-11-09

    In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine has become increasingly popular. This trend has not escaped the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy community with one study showing that 80% of caregivers have provided their Duchenne patients with complementary and alternative medicine in conjunction with their traditional treatments. These statistics are concerning given that many supplements are taken based on purely "anecdotal" evidence. Many nutraceuticals are thought to have anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant effects. Given that dystrophic pathology is exacerbated by inflammation and oxidative stress these nutraceuticals could have some therapeutic benefit for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). This review gathers and evaluates the peer-reviewed scientific studies that have used nutraceuticals in clinical or pre-clinical trials for DMD and thus separates the credible from the conjecture.

  20. Compression evaluation of surgery video recordings retaining diagnostic credibility (compression evaluation of surgery video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, M.; Leszczuk, M. I.; Papir, Z.; Przelaskowski, A.

    2008-12-01

    Wider dissemination of medical digital video libraries is affected by two correlated factors, resource effective content compression that directly influences its diagnostic credibility. It has been proved that it is possible to meet these contradictory requirements halfway for long-lasting and low motion surgery recordings at compression ratios close to 100 (bronchoscopic procedures were a case study investigated). As the main supporting assumption, it has been accepted that the content can be compressed as far as clinicians are not able to sense a loss of video diagnostic fidelity (a visually lossless compression). Different market codecs were inspected by means of the combined subjective and objective tests toward their usability in medical video libraries. Subjective tests involved a panel of clinicians who had to classify compressed bronchoscopic video content according to its quality under the bubble sort algorithm. For objective tests, two metrics (hybrid vector measure and hosaka Plots) were calculated frame by frame and averaged over a whole sequence.